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  • Using eye-tracking to understand relations between visual attention and language in children’s spatial skills
    Cogn. Psychol. (IF 3.746) Pub Date : 2020-01-02
    Hilary E. Miller; Heather L. Kirkorian; Vanessa R. Simmering

    Relations between children’s spatial language and spatial skills raise questions regarding whether the effects are unique to language or reflect non-linguistic processes. Different paradigms provided mixed evidence: experimenter-provided language supports spatial performance more than visual cues; however, children’s non-verbal attention predicts their spatial performance more than their language production. The current study used eye-tracking during spatial recall to compare effects of language versus visual cues. Four- to five-year-old children completed two tasks requiring memory for the location of a toy under one of four cups in an array of cups and landmarks after a 5 s delay and array rotation. Children first completed the baseline task with non-specific cues, followed by the cue-manipulation task with either language, visual, or non-specific cues provided by the experimenter. As in prior studies, language cues were most effective in facilitating recall. Children’s visual attention was directed by both language and visual cues to support their recall. However, visual attention only partially mediated the effects of language: language supported recall above and beyond directing visual attention. These results indicate that visual attention supports spatial recall, but language has additional unique influences. This may result from language providing a more coherent or redundant code to visual information, or due to the pragmatic nature of language cueing relevance in ways visual cues do not. Additionally, differences across conditions may reflect more benefit from endogenous versus exogenous attentional control. Through using eye-tracking, this research provided new insights into processes by which language and visual attention influence children’s spatial cognition.

    更新日期:2020-01-02
  • Do children use language structure to discover the recursive rules of counting?
    Cogn. Psychol. (IF 3.746) Pub Date : 2020-01-02
    Rose M. Schneider; Jessica Sullivan; Franc Marušič; Rok Žaucer; Priyanka Biswas; Petra Mišmaš; Vesna Plesničar; David Barner

    We test the hypothesis that children acquire knowledge of the successor function — a foundational principle stating that every natural number n has a successor n + 1 — by learning the productive linguistic rules that govern verbal counting. Previous studies report that speakers of languages with less complex count list morphology have greater counting and mathematical knowledge at earlier ages in comparison to speakers of more complex languages (e.g., Miller & Stigler, 1987). Here, we tested whether differences in count list transparency affected children’s acquisition of the successor function in three languages with relatively transparent count lists (Cantonese, Slovenian, and English) and two languages with relatively opaque count lists (Hindi and Gujarati). We measured 3.5- to 6.5-year-old children’s mastery of their count list’s recursive structure with two tasks assessing productive counting, which we then related to a measure of successor function knowledge. While the more opaque languages were associated with lower counting proficiency and successor function task performance in comparison to the more transparent languages, a unique within-language analytic approach revealed a robust relationship between measures of productive counting and successor knowledge in almost every language. We conclude that learning productive rules of counting is a critical step in acquiring knowledge of recursive successor function across languages, and that the timeline for this learning varies as a function of counti list transparency.

    更新日期:2020-01-02
  • The Disjunction Effect in two-stage simulated gambles. An experimental study and comparison of a heuristic logistic, Markov and quantum-like model
    Cogn. Psychol. (IF 3.746) Pub Date : 2019-12-20
    J.B. Broekaert; J.R. Busemeyer; E.M. Pothos

    Savage’s rational axiom of decision making under uncertainty, called the ‘Sure Thing’ principle, was purportedly falsified in a two-stage gamble paradigm by Tversky and Shafir (1992). This work revealed that participants would take a second-stage gamble for both possible outcomes of the initial-stage gamble, but would significantly depress this choice when no information was available on the outcome of the initial-stage gamble. Subsequent research has reported difficulty to replicate this Disjunction Effect in the two-stage gamble paradigm. We repeated this simulated two-stage gamble paradigm in an online study (N = 1119) but adapted the range of payoff amounts, and controlled the order of the blocks of two-stage gambles with, respectively without, information on the outcome of the first-stage gamble. The main empirical contributions of this study are that more risk averse participants produced (i) a reliable order effect in relation to the Disjunction Effect and the violation of the Law of Total Probability, and (ii) a novel inflation effect on gambling in the Unknown outcome condition analogous but opposite to the Disjunction Effect when Unknown outcome conditioned two-stage gambles precede the Known outcome conditioned ones. By contrast, we found that less risk averse participants produced neither of these effects. We discuss the underlying choice processes and compare the effectiveness of a logistic model, a Markov model and a quantum-like model. Our main theoretical findings are (i) a standard utility model and a Markov model using heuristic linear utility, contextual influence and carry-over effect cannot accommodate the present empirical results, and (ii) a model based on quantum dynamics, matched in form to the Markov model, can successfully describe all major aspects of our data.

    更新日期:2019-12-20
  • Decision making in numeracy tasks with spatially continuous scales
    Cogn. Psychol. (IF 3.746) Pub Date : 2019-12-12
    Roger Ratcliff; Gail McKoon

    A diffusion model of decision making on continuous response scales is applied to three numeracy tasks. The goal is to explain the distributions of responses on the continuous response scale and the time taken to make decisions. In the model, information from a stimulus is spatially continuously distributed, the response is made by accumulating information to a criterion, which is a 1D line, and the noise in the accumulation process is continuous Gaussian process noise over spatial position. The model is fit to the data from three experiments. In one experiment, a one or two digit number is displayed and the task is to point to its location on a number line ranging from 1 to 100. This task is used extensively in research in education but there has been no model for it that accounts for both decision times and decision choices. In the second task, an array of dots is displayed and the task is to point to the position of the number of dots on an arc ranging from 11 to 90. In a third task, an array of dots is displayed and the task is to speak aloud the number of dots. The model we propose accounts for both accuracy and response time variables, including the full distributions of response times. It also provides estimates of the acuity of decisions (standard deviations in the evidence distributions) and it shows how representations of numeracy information are task-dependent. We discuss how our model relates to research on numeracy and the neuroscience of numeracy, and how it can produce more comprehensive measures of individual differences in numeracy skills in tasks with continuous response scales than have hitherto been available.

    更新日期:2019-12-13
  • Spatial language difficulties reflect the structure of intact spatial representation: Evidence from high-functioning autism
    Cogn. Psychol. (IF 3.746) Pub Date : 2019-11-17
    Agata Bochynska, Mila Vulchanova, Valentin Vulchanov, Barbara Landau

    Previous studies have shown that the basic properties of the visual representation of space are reflected in spatial language. This close relationship between linguistic and non-linguistic spatial systems has been observed both in typical development and in some developmental disorders. Here we provide novel evidence for structural parallels along with a degree of autonomy between these two systems among individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder, a developmental disorder with uneven cognitive and linguistic profiles. In four experiments, we investigated language and memory for locations organized around an axis-based reference system. Crucially, we also recorded participants’ eye movements during the tasks in order to provide new insights into the online processes underlying spatial thinking. Twenty-three intellectually high-functioning individuals with autism (HFA) and 23 typically developing controls (TD), all native speakers of Norwegian matched on chronological age and cognitive abilities, participated in the studies. The results revealed a well-preserved axial reference system in HFA and weakness in the representation of direction within the axis, which was especially evident in spatial language. Performance on the non-linguistic tasks did not differ between HFA and control participants, and we observed clear structural parallels between spatial language and spatial representation in both groups. However, there were some subtle differences in the use of spatial language in HFA compared to TD, suggesting that despite the structural parallels, some aspects of spatial language in HFA deviated from the typical pattern. These findings provide novel insights into the prominence of the axial reference systems in non-linguistic spatial representations and spatial language, as well as the possibility that the two systems are, to some degree, autonomous.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Is Attention Shared Between the Ears?
    Cogn. Psychol. (IF 3.746) Pub Date : 1974-04-01
    Richard M Shiffrin,David B Pisoni,Kicab Castaneda-Mendez

    This study tests the locus of attention during selective listening for speech-like stimuli. Can processing be differentially allocated to the two ears? Two conditions were used. The simultaneous condition involved one of four randomly chosen stop-consonants being presented to one of the ears chosen at random. The sequential condition involved two intervals; in the first S listened to the right ear; in the second S listened to the left ear. One of the four consonants was presented to an attended ear during one of these intervals. Experiment I used no distracting stimuli. Experiment II utilized a distracting consonant not confusable with any of the four target consonants. This distractor was always presented to any ear not containing a target. In both experiments, simultaneous and sequential performance were essentially identical, despite the need for attention sharing between the two ears during the simultaneous condition. We conclude that selective attention does not occur during perceptual processing of speech sounds presented to the two ears. We suggest that attentive effects arise in short-term memory following processing.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Infants' comprehension of toy replicas as symbols for real objects.
    Cogn. Psychol. (IF 3.746) Pub Date : 2004-01-21
    Barbara A Younger,Kathy E Johnson

    Infants' understanding of toy model-real exemplar relations was assessed through preferential looking and habituation tasks. Results from the preferential looking task suggest that 18-month toddlers are just beginning to demonstrate comprehension of symbolic relations between iconic models and their real object counterparts. Performance of 10- and 14-month-old infants in the preferential looking task did not improve when across-domain pairs of videos were used in place of within-domain pairs. Habituation task results indicated that 10-month-olds do not comprehend symbolic relations between miniature toy replicas and their "real" counterparts, but that such understanding begins to emerge by age 14 months. Interactions between symbolic processing and early lexical development are considered, as are methodological implications for the study of infant categorization.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Imaginal perspective switches in remembered environments: transformation versus interference accounts.
    Cogn. Psychol. (IF 3.746) Pub Date : 2004-01-21
    Mark May

    Imaginal perspective switches are often considered to be difficult, because they call for additional cognitive transformations of object coordinates (transformation hypothesis). Recent research suggests that problems can also result from conflicts between incompatible sensorimotor and cognitive object location codes during response specification and selection (interference hypothesis). Three experiments tested contrasting predictions of both accounts. Volunteers had to point to unseen object locations after imagined self-rotations and self-translations. Results revealed larger pointing latencies and errors for rotations as compared to translations, and monotic latency and error increases for both tasks as a function of the disparity of object directions between real and imagined perspective. Provision of advance information about the to-be-imagined perspective left both effects unchanged. These results, together with those from a systematic error analysis, deliver clear support for an interference account of imaginal perspective switches in remembered surroundings.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Learning at a distance I. Statistical learning of non-adjacent dependencies.
    Cogn. Psychol. (IF 3.746) Pub Date : 2004-01-21
    Elissa L Newport,Richard N Aslin

    In earlier work we have shown that adults, young children, and infants are capable of computing transitional probabilities among adjacent syllables in rapidly presented streams of speech, and of using these statistics to group adjacent syllables into word-like units. In the present experiments we ask whether adult learners are also capable of such computations when the only available patterns occur in non-adjacent elements. In the first experiment, we present streams of speech in which precisely the same kinds of syllable regularities occur as in our previous studies, except that the patterned relations among syllables occur between non-adjacent syllables (with an intervening syllable that is unrelated). Under these circumstances we do not obtain our previous results: learners are quite poor at acquiring regular relations among non-adjacent syllables, even when the patterns are objectively quite simple. In subsequent experiments we show that learners are, in contrast, quite capable of acquiring patterned relations among non-adjacent segments-both non-adjacent consonants (with an intervening vocalic segment that is unrelated) and non-adjacent vowels (with an intervening consonantal segment that is unrelated). Finally, we discuss why human learners display these strong differences in learning differing types of non-adjacent regularities, and we conclude by suggesting that these contrasts in learnability may account for why human languages display non-adjacent regularities of one type much more widely than non-adjacent regularities of the other type.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Evidence against a central bottleneck during the attentional blink: multiple channels for configural and featural processing.
    Cogn. Psychol. (IF 3.746) Pub Date : 2003-12-05
    Edward Awh,John Serences,Paul Laurey,Harpreet Dhaliwal,Thomas van der Jagt,Paul Dassonville

    When a visual target is identified, there is a period of several hundred milliseconds when the processing of subsequent targets is impaired, a phenomenon labeled the attentional blink (AB). The emerging consensus is that the identification of a visual target temporarily occupies a limited attentional resource that is essential for all visual perception. The present results challenge this view. With the same digit discrimination task that impaired subsequent letter discrimination for several hundred milliseconds, we found no disruption of subsequent face discrimination. These results suggest that all stimuli do not compete for access to a single resource for visual perception. We propose a multi-channel account of interference in the AB paradigm.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Out of one's mind: a study of involuntary semantic memories.
    Cogn. Psychol. (IF 3.746) Pub Date : 2003-12-05
    Lia Kvavilashvili,George Mandler

    The study of memories that pop into one's mind without any conscious attempt to retrieve them began only recently. While there are some studies on involuntary autobiographical memories (e.g., ) research on involuntary semantic memories or mind-popping is virtually non-existent. The latter is defined as an involuntary conscious occurrence of brief items of one's network of semantic knowledge. The recall of these items (e.g., a word, a name, a tune) is not accompanied by additional contextual information and/or involvement of self-a standard feature of involuntary autobiographical memories. The paper reports several diary and questionnaire studies which looked into the nature and frequency of occurrence of these memories. The data show that people do experience involuntary semantic memories which tend to occur without any apparent cues while being engaged in relatively automatic activities. Possible mechanisms of involuntary semantic memories are discussed (e.g., very long-term priming), and the results of the study provide information on the possible duration of the priming effects in everyday life. Related theoretical and methodological issues and future avenues of research in this neglected area are outlined.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Category specificity in normal episodic learning: applications to object recognition and category-specific agnosia.
    Cogn. Psychol. (IF 3.746) Pub Date : 2003-12-05
    Cindy M Bukach,Daniel N Bub,Michael E J Masson,D Stephen Lindsay

    Studies of patients with category-specific agnosia (CSA) have given rise to multiple theories of object recognition, most of which assume the existence of a stable, abstract semantic memory system. We applied an episodic view of memory to questions raised by CSA in a series of studies examining normal observers' recall of newly learned attributes of familiar objects. Subjects first learned to associate arbitrarily assigned colors or textures to objects in a training phase, and then attempted to report the newly learned attribute of each object in a recall task. Our subjects' pattern of recall errors was similar both quantitatively and qualitatively to the identification deficits among patients with CSA for biological objects. Furthermore, errors tended to reflect conceptually and structurally based confusions. We suggest that object identification involves recruitment and integration of information across distributed episodic memories and that this process is susceptible to interference from objects that are structurally similar and conceptually related.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Developmental continuity in the processes that underlie spatial recall.
    Cogn. Psychol. (IF 3.746) Pub Date : 2003-12-04
    John P Spencer,Alycia M Hund

    This study investigated whether children's spatial recall performance shows three separable characteristics: (1) biases away from symmetry axes (geometric effects); (2) systematic drift over delays; and (3) biases toward the exemplar distribution experienced in the task (experience-dependent effects). In Experiment 1, the location of one target within each geometric category was varied. Children's responses showed biases away from a midline axis that increased over delays. In Experiment 2, multiple targets were placed within each category at the same locations used in Experiment 1. After removing geometric effects, 6-year-olds'--but not 11-year-olds'--responses were biased toward the average remembered location over learning. In Experiment 3, children responded to one target more frequently than the others. Both 6- and 11-year-olds showed biases toward the most frequent target over learning. These results provide a bridge between the performance of younger children and adults, demonstrating continuity in the processes that underlie spatial memory abilities across development.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Spatial updating of environments described in texts.
    Cogn. Psychol. (IF 3.746) Pub Date : 2003-12-04
    Marios N Avraamides

    People update egocentric spatial relations in an effortless and on-line manner when they move in the environment, but not when they only imagine themselves moving. In contrast to previous studies, the present experiments examined egocentric updating with spatial scenes that were encoded linguistically instead of perceived directly. Experiment 1 demonstrated that, regardless of the mode of rotation (physical or imagined), egocentric updating takes place in a deliberate and backward fashion when the locations of objects are anchored in a mental framework. Experiment 2 involved only imagined rotations and showed that results remained unchanged when spatial labels were removed from the scene descriptions. Experiment 3 provided evidence that physical rotations--but not imagined rotations--lead to on-line updating of egocentric relations, provided that the objects of the scene are represented in a sensorimotor framework. The present results suggest that physical movements and sensorimotor encoding are both prerequisites of effortless egocentric updating.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Spontaneous representations of small numbers of objects by rhesus macaques: examinations of content and format.
    Cogn. Psychol. (IF 3.746) Pub Date : 2003-12-04
    Marc D Hauser,Susan Carey

    The project of comparative cognition benefits from common measures across species. We report here on five experiments using the violation of expectancy looking time measure with free-ranging rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta), each designed to build on current knowledge concerning spontaneous representations of number. Each subject, tested in only one experimental condition, watched as eggplants were placed behind a screen one at a time, after which the screen was removed revealing an outcome that either matched or did not match the number placed there. Subjects looked longer at impossible than possible outcomes in 1+1=2 or 3, 1 small+1 small=1 big or 2 small, 2+1=2 or 3, and 2+1=3 or 4 conditions. They failed in 2+1+1=4 or 3 or 5 and in 1+1+1=2 or 3 conditions. This pattern of results closely matches that observed across several previous studies of human infants. The data allow us to test among four different proposals concerning the format and content of the mental representations underlying looking in these experiments. Object file representations are favored over: (i) low-level perceptual representations, (ii) representations of continuous variables such as volume or surface area, and (iii) analog magnitude representations of number. We conclude by considering exactly how the object tracking system revealed in these and other related experiments does and does not represent number, and how it might be one evolutionary precursor of the human specific system of number representations.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Components of visual prior entry.
    Cogn. Psychol. (IF 3.746) Pub Date : 2003-12-04
    Keith A Schneider,Daphne Bavelier

    The prior entry hypothesis contends that attention accelerates sensory processing, shortening the time to perception. Typical observations supporting the hypothesis may be explained equally well by response biases, changes in decision criteria, or sensory facilitation. In a series of experiments conducted to discriminate among the potential mechanisms, observers judged the simultaneity or temporal order of two stimuli, to one of which attention was oriented by exogenous, endogenous, gaze-directed, or multiple exogenous cues. The results suggest that prior entry effects are primarily caused by sensory facilitation and attentional modifications of the decision mechanism, with only a small part possibly due to an attention-dependent sensory acceleration.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Models of causation and the semantics of causal verbs.
    Cogn. Psychol. (IF 3.746) Pub Date : 2003-10-16
    Phillip Wolff,Grace Song

    This research examines the relationship between the concept of CAUSE as it is characterized in psychological models of causation and the meaning of causal verbs, such as the verb cause itself. According to focal set models of causation (; ), the concept of CAUSE should be more similar to the concepts of ENABLE and PREVENT than either is to each other. According to a model based on theory of force dynamics, the force dynamic model, the concepts of CAUSE, ENABLE, and PREVENT should be roughly equally similar to one another. The relationship between these predictions and the meaning of causal verbs was examined by having participants sort causal verbs and rate them with respect to the dimensions specified by the two models. The results from five experiments indicated that the force dynamic model provides a better account of the meaning of causal verbs than do focal set models of causation. Implications for causal inference and induction are discussed.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Use of the mutual exclusivity assumption by young word learners.
    Cogn. Psychol. (IF 3.746) Pub Date : 2003-10-16
    Ellen M Markman,Judith L Wasow,Mikkel B Hansen

    A critical question about early word learning is whether word learning constraints such as mutual exclusivity exist and foster early language acquisition. It is well established that children will map a novel label to a novel rather than a familiar object. Evidence for the role of mutual exclusivity in such indirect word learning has been questioned because: (1) it comes mostly from 2 and 3-year-olds and (2) the findings might be accounted for, not by children avoiding second labels, but by the novel object which creates a lexical gap children are motivated to fill. Three studies addressed these concerns by having only a familiar object visible. Fifteen to seventeen and 18-20-month-olds were selected to straddle the vocabulary spurt. In Study 1, babies saw a familiar object and an opaque bucket as a location to search. Study 2 handed babies the familiar object to play with. Study 3 eliminated an obvious location to search. On the whole, babies at both ages resisted second labels for objects and, with some qualifications, tended to search for a better referent for the novel label. Thus mutual exclusivity is in place before the onset of the naming explosion. The findings demonstrate that lexical constraints enable babies to learn words even under non-optimal conditions--when speakers are not clear and referents are not visible. The results are discussed in relation to an alternative social-pragmatic account.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Perceptual learning in speech.
    Cogn. Psychol. (IF 3.746) Pub Date : 2003-09-02
    Dennis Norris,James M McQueen,Anne Cutler

    This study demonstrates that listeners use lexical knowledge in perceptual learning of speech sounds. Dutch listeners first made lexical decisions on Dutch words and nonwords. The final fricative of 20 critical words had been replaced by an ambiguous sound, between [f] and [s]. One group of listeners heard ambiguous [f]-final words (e.g., [WItlo?], from witlof, chicory) and unambiguous [s]-final words (e.g., naaldbos, pine forest). Another group heard the reverse (e.g., ambiguous [na:ldbo?], unambiguous witlof). Listeners who had heard [?] in [f]-final words were subsequently more likely to categorize ambiguous sounds on an [f]-[s] continuum as [f] than those who heard [?] in [s]-final words. Control conditions ruled out alternative explanations based on selective adaptation and contrast. Lexical information can thus be used to train categorization of speech. This use of lexical information differs from the on-line lexical feedback embodied in interactive models of speech perception. In contrast to on-line feedback, lexical feedback for learning is of benefit to spoken word recognition (e.g., in adapting to a newly encountered dialect).

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The misinterpretation of noncanonical sentences.
    Cogn. Psychol. (IF 3.746) Pub Date : 2003-09-02
    Fernanda Ferreira

    Research on language comprehension has focused on the resolution of syntactic ambiguities, and most studies have employed garden-path sentences to determine the system's preferences and to assess its use of nonsyntactic sources information. A topic that has been neglected is how syntactically challenging but essentially unambiguous sentences are processed, including passives and object-clefts--sentences that require thematic roles to be assigned in an atypical order. The three experiments described here tested the idea that sentences are processed both algorithmically and heuristically. Sentences were presented aurally and the participants' task was to identify the thematic roles in the sentence (e.g., Who was the do-er?). The first experiment demonstrates that passives are frequently and systematically misinterpreted, especially when they express implausible ideas. The second shows that the surface frequency of a syntactic form does not determine ease of processing, as active sentences and subject-clefts were comprehended equally easily despite the rareness of the latter type. The third experiment compares the processing of subject- and object-clefts, and the results show that they are similar to actives and passives, respectively, again despite the infrequent occurrence in English of any type of cleft. The results of the three experiments suggest that a comprehensive theory of language comprehension must assume that simple processing heuristics are used during processing in addition to (and perhaps sometimes instead of) syntactic algorithms. Moreover, the experiments support the idea that language processing is often based on shallow processing, yielding a merely "good enough" rather than a detailed linguistic representation of an utterance's meaning.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Language learning and innateness: some implications of Compounds Research.
    Cogn. Psychol. (IF 3.746) Pub Date : 2003-09-02
    Todd R Haskell,Maryellen C MacDonald,Mark S Seidenberg

    In noun compounds in English, the modifying noun may be singular (mouse-eater) or an irregularly inflected plural (mice-eater), but regularly inflected plurals are dispreferred (*rats-eater). This phenomenon has been taken as strong evidence for dual-mechanism theories of lexical representations, which hold that regular (rule-governed) and irregular (exception) items are generated by qualitatively different and innately specified mechanisms. Using corpus analyses, behavioral studies, and computational modeling, we show that the rule-versus-exceptions approach makes a number of incorrect predictions. We propose a new account in which the acceptability of modifiers is determined by a constraint satisfaction process modulated by semantic, phonological, and other factors. The constraints are acquired by the child via general purpose learning algorithms, based on noun compounds and other constructions in the input. The account obviates the regular/irregular dichotomy while simultaneously providing a superior account of the data.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • On recognizing proper names: the orthographic cue hypothesis.
    Cogn. Psychol. (IF 3.746) Pub Date : 2003-07-11
    Francesca Peressotti,Roberto Cubelli,Remo Job

    Five experiments investigated the recognition of proper names and common nouns using the lexical decision paradigm. In Experiments 1-3 the case of the initial letter of written stimuli was systematically varied. An advantage was consistently found for proper names written with the first letter in capital. Crucially, response times to proper names with the first letter in lowercase and to common nouns irrespective of the case of the first letter did not differ from each other. No difference between proper names and common nouns emerged in Experiment 4 where the stimuli were presented auditorily, and in Experiment 5 where a visual lexical decision task was performed with illegal non-words. The pattern of results shows that the proper name advantage is orthographic in nature and rules out an account in terms of semantic, morphological or other lexical variables. A model is proposed in which information about the case of the first letter is specified in the abstract multidimensional orthographic representation mediating written word recognition.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Representation and perception of scenic layout.
    Cogn. Psychol. (IF 3.746) Pub Date : 2003-07-11
    Thomas Sanocki

    This paper presents a cognitive approach to on-line spatial perception within scenes. A theoretical framework is developed, based on the idea that experience with a scene can activate a complex representation of layout that facilitates subsequent processing of spatial relations within the scene. The representations integrate significant, relevant scenic information and are substantial in amount or extent. The representations are active across short periods of time and across changes in the retinal position of the image. These claims were supported in a series of experiments in which pictures of scenes (primes) facilitated subsequent spatial relations processing within the scenes. The prime-induced representations integrated object identity and layout, were broad in scope, involved both foreground and background information, and were effective across changes in image position.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Visual marking inhibits singleton capture.
    Cogn. Psychol. (IF 3.746) Pub Date : 2003-07-11
    Christian N L Olivers,Glyn W Humphreys

    This paper is concerned with how we prioritize the selection of new objects in visual scenes. We present four experiments investigating the effects of distractor previews on visual search through new objects. Participants viewed a set of to-be-ignored nontargets, with the task being to search for a target in a second set, added to the first after 1000ms. This second set could contain a salient feature singleton, defined in terms of its color, orientation, or both color and orientation. When the singleton was a distractor, search was slowed relative to when there was no singleton. Search was facilitated when the singleton was a target. Interestingly, both the interference and facilitation effects were modulated when the preview shared features with the singleton. Follow-up experiments showed that this reduction of singleton effects was not due to: (i) low-level sensory aspects of the displays, (ii) increased heterogeneity in the search set in the preview condition, or (iii) color-based grouping of old and new items. Instead, we suggest that there is an inhibitory carry-over from the first to the second set of items based on feature similarity. We suggest the suppression stems from a process termed visual marking, which suppresses irrelevant visual objects in anticipation of more relevant new objects (Watson & Humphreys, 1997). The findings argue against alternative explanations such as the automatic capture by abrupt new onsets account.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The transfer of abstract principles governing complex adaptive systems.
    Cogn. Psychol. (IF 3.746) Pub Date : 2003-06-18
    Robert L Goldstone,Yasuaki Sakamoto

    Four experiments explored participants' understanding of the abstract principles governing computer simulations of complex adaptive systems. Experiments 1, 2, and 3 showed better transfer of abstract principles across simulations that were relatively dissimilar, and that this effect was due to participants who performed relatively poorly on the initial simulation. In Experiment 4, participants showed better abstract understanding of a simulation when it was depicted with concrete rather than idealized graphical elements. However, for poor performers, the idealized version of the simulation transferred better to a new simulation governed by the same abstraction. The results are interpreted in terms of competition between abstract and concrete construals of the simulations. Individuals prone toward concrete construals tend to overlook abstractions when concrete properties or superficial similarities are salient.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Task-switching and long-term priming: role of episodic stimulus-task bindings in task-shift costs.
    Cogn. Psychol. (IF 3.746) Pub Date : 2003-06-18
    Florian Waszak,Bernhard Hommel,Alan Allport

    When subjects switch between two tasks, performance is slower after a task switch than after a task repetition. We report five experiments showing that a large part of these "task-shift-costs" cannot be attributed to a control operation, needed to configure the cognitive system for the upcoming task (e.g., ). In all experiments subjects switched between picture-naming and word-reading. We presented different stimuli either in just one of the two tasks, or in both of them. Shift-costs were larger for stimuli presented in both tasks than for those presented in only one task, even after more than 100 intervening trials between prime and probe events. We suggest (as proposed by ) that stimuli acquire associations with the tasks in which they occur. When the current task activation is weak, as on a switch of tasks, stimuli can trigger retrieval of the associated, competing task, provoking larger time costs.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Preparing for perception and action (I): the role of grouping in the response-cuing paradigm.
    Cogn. Psychol. (IF 3.746) Pub Date : 2003-04-16
    Jos J Adam,Bernhard Hommel,Carlo Umiltà

    Human skilled behavior requires preparatory processes that selectively make sensory and motor systems more efficient for perceiving the upcoming stimulus and performing the correct action. We review the literature concerning these preparatory processes as studied by response-cuing paradigm, and propose a model that accounts for the major findings. According to the Grouping Model, advance or precue information directs a dynamic process of subgroup making-that is, a process of stimulus- and response-set reconfiguration-whereby the internal representation of the task is simplified. The Grouping Model assigns a critical role to the unit of selection, with Gestalt factors and interresponse dependencies mediating the formation and strength of stimulus and response subgroups. In a series of five experiments, we manipulated perceptual and motoric grouping factors, and studied their independent and interactive effects on the pattern of precuing benefits. Generally, the results were consistent with the Grouping Model's account of response-cuing effects.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Spatial breakdown in spatial construction: evidence from eye fixations in children with Williams syndrome.
    Cogn. Psychol. (IF 3.746) Pub Date : 2003-04-16
    James E Hoffman,Barbara Landau,Barney Pagani

    We investigated the role of executive and spatial representational processes in impaired performance of block construction tasks by children with Williams syndrome (WS), a rare genetic defect that results in severely impaired spatial cognition. In Experiment 1, we examined performance in two kinds of block construction tasks, Simple Puzzles, in which block faces contained a single color, and Complex, in which some block faces contained an arrangement of two colors. WS and control children were comparable in their ability to solve simple puzzles, and showed similar eye-fixation patterns, suggesting that basic executive processes were intact. However, WS children were severely impaired in their ability to solve complex puzzles. In these puzzles, WS children fixated the complex puzzle models and checked their partial solutions less often than normal children, but they were comparable in their ability to detect errors in their copies and almost exclusively made repairs to copies that were, in fact, incorrect. We conjecture that the abnormal fixation patterns were a consequence of impoverished spatial representations, rather than a cause of it. This conjecture was tested in Experiment 2, where we examined children's capacity to match and place individual blocks without engaging the complex executive processes required to carry out a complete puzzle solution. We found serious deficiency among WS children in both aspects of spatial representation. Moreover, estimates of the errors in representing the identity and location of model blocks derived from Experiment 2 provided a good account of the observed errors in the block construction task of Experiment 1.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Understanding spatial relations: flexible infants, lexical adults.
    Cogn. Psychol. (IF 3.746) Pub Date : 2003-04-16
    Laraine McDonough,Soonja Choi,Jean M Mandler

    Concepts of containment, support, and degree of fit were investigated using nonverbal, preferential-looking tasks with 9- to 14-month-old infants and adults who were fluent in either English or Korean. Two contrasts were tested: tight containment vs. loose support (grammaticized as 'in' and 'on' in English by spatial prepositions and 'kkita' and 'nohta' in Korean by spatial verbs) and tight containment vs. loose containment (both grammaticized as 'in' in English but separately as 'kkita' and 'nehta' in Korean). Infants categorized both contrasts, suggesting conceptual readiness for learning such spatial semantics in either language. English-speaking adults categorized tight containment vs. loose support, but not tight vs. loose containment. However, Korean-speaking adults were successful at this latter contrast, which is lexicalized in their language. The adult data suggest that some spatial relations that are salient during the preverbal stage become less salient if language does not systematically encode them.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Lexical viability constraints on speech segmentation by infants.
    Cogn. Psychol. (IF 3.746) Pub Date : 2003-03-21
    Elizabeth K Johnson,Peter W Jusczyk,Anne Cutler,Dennis Norris

    The Possible Word Constraint limits the number of lexical candidates considered in speech recognition by stipulating that input should be parsed into a string of lexically viable chunks. For instance, an isolated single consonant is not a feasible word candidate. Any segmentation containing such a chunk is disfavored. Five experiments using the head-turn preference procedure investigated whether, like adults, 12-month-olds observe this constraint in word recognition. In Experiments 1 and 2, infants were familiarized with target words (e.g., rush), then tested on lists of nonsense items containing these words in "possible" (e.g., "niprush" [nip+rush]) or "impossible" positions (e.g., "prush" [p+rush]). The infants listened significantly longer to targets in "possible" versus "impossible" contexts when targets occurred at the end of nonsense items (rush in "prush"), but not when they occurred at the beginning (tan in "tance"). In Experiments 3 and 4, 12-month-olds were similarly familiarized with target words, but test items were real words in sentential contexts (win in "wind" versus "window"). The infants listened significantly longer to words in the "possible" condition regardless of target location. Experiment 5 with targets at the beginning of isolated real words (e.g., win in "wind") replicated Experiment 2 in showing no evidence of viability effects in beginning position. Taken together, the findings suggest that, in situations in which 12-month-olds are required to rely on their word segmentation abilities, they give evidence of observing lexical viability constraints in the way that they parse fluent speech.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Motion and edge sensitivity in perception of object unity.
    Cogn. Psychol. (IF 3.746) Pub Date : 2003-03-21
    W Carter Smith,Scott P Johnson,Elizabeth S Spelke

    Although much evidence indicates that young infants perceive unitary objects by analyzing patterns of motion, infants' abilities to perceive object unity by analyzing Gestalt properties and by integrating distinct views of an object over time are in dispute. To address these controversies, four experiments investigated adults' and infants' perception of the unity of a center-occluded, moving rod with misaligned visible edges. Both alignment information and depth information affected adults' and infants' perception of object unity in similar ways, and infants perceived object unity by integrating information about object features over time. However, infants perceived a moving, misaligned, three-dimensional object as indeterminate in its connectedness, whereas adults perceived it as connected behind the occluder. These findings indicate that the effectiveness of common motion in specifying unified surfaces across an occluder is reduced by misalignment of edges. Alignment information enhances perception of object unity either by serving directly as information for unity or by optimizing the detectability of motion-carried information for unity. In addition, young infants are able to retain information about edge orientation over short intervals in determining connectedness via a process of spatiotemporal integration.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Learning about life and death in early childhood.
    Cogn. Psychol. (IF 3.746) Pub Date : 2003-03-21
    Virginia Slaughter,Michelle Lyons

    have argued that young children initially understand biological phenomena in terms of vitalism, a mode of construal in which "life" or "life-force" is the central causal-explanatory concept. This study investigated the development of vitalistic reasoning in young children's concepts of life, the human body and death. Sixty preschool children between the ages of 3 years, 7 months and 5 years, 11 months participated. All children were initially given structured interviews to assess their knowledge of (1) human body function and (2) death. From this sample 40 children in the Training group were taught about the human body and how it functions to maintain life. The Control group (n=20) received no training. All 60 children were subsequently reassessed on their knowledge of human body function and death. Results from the initial interviews indicated that young children who spontaneously appealed to vitalistic concepts in reasoning about human body functioning were also more sophisticated in their understanding of death. Results from the posttraining interviews showed that children readily learned to adopt a vitalistic approach to human body functioning, and that this learning coincided with significant development in their understanding of human body function, and of death. The overall pattern of results supports the claim that the acquisition of a vitalistic causal-explanatory framework serves to structure children's concepts and facilitates learning in the domain of biology.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Developing a new quantitative account of backward masking.
    Cogn. Psychol. (IF 3.746) Pub Date : 2003-03-20
    Gregory Francis

    A new general explanation for u-shaped backward masking is analyzed and found to predict shifts in the interstimulus interval (ISI) that produces strongest masking. This predicted shift is then compared to six sets of masking data. The resulting comparisons force the general explanation to make certain assumptions to account for the data. In this way, the experimental data promote the development of a new theory of backward masking. The new theory suggests interpretations of the data that are sometimes novel, often more precise, and sometimes contrary to interpretations that are prevalent in the literature.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • An evidential support accumulation model of subjective probability.
    Cogn. Psychol. (IF 3.746) Pub Date : 2003-03-20
    Derek J Koehler,Chris M White,Ray Grondin

    A model of cue-based probability judgment is developed within the framework of support theory. Cue diagnosticity is evaluated from experience as represented by error-free frequency counts. When presented with a pattern of cues, the diagnostic implications of each cue are assessed independently and then summed to arrive at an assessment of the support for a hypothesis, with greater weight placed on present than on absent cues. The model can also accommodate adjustment of support in light of the baserate or prior probability of a hypothesis. Support for alternatives packed together in a "residual" hypothesis is discounted; fewer cues are consulted in assessing support for alternatives as support for the focal hypothesis increases. Results of fitting this and several alternative models to data from four new multiple-cue probability learning experiments are reported.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Simple reaction time and statistical facilitation: a parallel grains model.
    Cogn. Psychol. (IF 3.746) Pub Date : 2003-03-20
    Jeff Miller,Rolf Ulrich

    A race-like model is developed to account for various phenomena arising in simple reaction time (RT) tasks. Within the model, each stimulus is represented by a number of grains of information or activation processed in parallel. The stimulus is detected when a criterion number of activated grains reaches a decision center. Using the concept of statistical facilitation, the model accounts for many classical effects on mean simple RT, including those of stimulus area, stimulus intensity, stimulus duration, criterion manipulations, redundant stimuli, and the dissociation between intensity effects on simple RTs and temporal order judgments. The model is also consistent with distributional properties of simple RTs.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Developments in young infants' reasoning about occluded objects.
    Cogn. Psychol. (IF 3.746) Pub Date : 2003-01-17
    Andréa Aguiar,Renée Baillargeon

    Eight experiments were conducted to examine 3- and 3.5-month-old infants' responses to occlusion events. The results revealed two developments, one in infants' knowledge of when objects should and should not be occluded and the other in infants' ability to posit additional objects to make sense of events that would otherwise violate their occlusion knowledge. The first development is that, beginning at about 3 months of age, infants expect an object to become temporarily visible when passing behind an occluder with an opening extending from its lower edge. The second development is that, beginning at about 3.5 months of age, infants generate a two-object explanation when shown a violation in which an object fails to become visible when passing behind an occluder with an opening in its lower edge. Unless given information contradicting such an explanation, infants infer that two identical objects are involved in the event, one traveling to the left and one to the right of the opening. These and related findings provide the basis for a model of young infants' responses to occlusion events; alternative models are also discussed.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Representation and competition in the perception of spoken words.
    Cogn. Psychol. (IF 3.746) Pub Date : 2003-01-17
    M Gareth Gaskell,William D Marslen-Wilson

    We present data from four experiments using cross-modal priming to examine the effects of competitor environment on lexical activation during the time course of the perception of a spoken word. The research is conducted from the perspective of a distributed model of speech perception and lexical representation, which focuses on activation at the level of lexical content. In this model, the strength of competition between simultaneously active lexical items depends on the degree of coherence between their distributed semantic and phonological representations. Consistent with this model, interference effects are more complete when the purely semantic aspects of these coactive representations are probed (using semantic priming) than when phonological aspects are probed as well (using repetition priming).

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • A cognitive complexity metric applied to cognitive development.
    Cogn. Psychol. (IF 3.746) Pub Date : 2003-01-17
    Glenda Andrews,Graeme S Halford

    Two experiments tested predictions from a theory in which processing load depends on relational complexity (RC), the number of variables related in a single decision. Tasks from six domains (transitivity, hierarchical classification, class inclusion, cardinality, relative-clause sentence comprehension, and hypothesis testing) were administered to children aged 3-8 years. Complexity analyses indicated that the domains entailed ternary relations (three variables). Simpler binary-relation (two variables) items were included for each domain. Thus RC was manipulated with other factors tightly controlled. Results indicated that (i) ternary-relation items were more difficult than comparable binary-relation items, (ii) the RC manipulation was sensitive to age-related changes, (iii) ternary relations were processed at a median age of 5 years, (iv) cross-task correlations were positive, with all tasks loading on a single factor (RC), (v) RC factor scores accounted for 80% (88%) of age-related variance in fluid intelligence (compositionality of sets), (vi) binary- and ternary-relation items formed separate complexity classes, and (vii) the RC approach to defining cognitive complexity is applicable to different content domains.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Challenging the widespread assumption that connectionism and distributed representations go hand-in-hand.
    Cogn. Psychol. (IF 3.746) Pub Date : 2002-12-14
    Jeffrey S Bowers

    One of the central claims associated with the parallel distributed processing approach popularized by D.E. Rumelhart, J.L. McClelland and the PDP Research Group is that knowledge is coded in a distributed fashion. Localist representations within this perspective are widely rejected. It is important to note, however, that connectionist networks can learn localist representations and many connectionist models depend on localist coding for their functioning. Accordingly, a commitment to distributed representations should be considered a specific theoretical claim regarding the structure of knowledge rather than a core principle, as often assumed. In this paper, it is argued that there are fundamental computational and empirical challenges that have not yet been addressed by distributed connectionist theories that are readily accommodated within localist approaches. This is highlighted in the context of modeling word and nonword naming, the domain in which some of the strongest claims have been made. It is shown that current PDP models provide a poor account of naming monosyllable items, and that distributed representations make it difficult for these models to scale up to more complex language phenomena. At the same time, models that learn localist representations are shown to hold promise in supporting many of the core reading and language functions on which PDP models fail. It is concluded that the common rejection of localist coding schemes within connectionist architectures is premature.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Is there a natural order for expressing semantic relations?
    Cogn. Psychol. (IF 3.746) Pub Date : 2002-12-14
    Lisa Gershkoff-Stowe,Susan Goldin-Medow

    All languages rely to some extent on word order to signal relational information. Why? We address this question by exploring communicative and cognitive factors that could lead to a reliance on word order. In Study 1, adults were asked to describe scenes to another using their hands and not their mouths. The question was whether this home-made "language" would contain gesture sentences with consistent order. In addition, we asked whether reliance on order would be influenced by three communicative factors (whether the communication partner is permitted to give feedback; whether the information to be communicated is present in the context that recipient and gesturer share; whether the gesturer assumes the role of gesture receiver as well as gesture producer). We found that, not only was consistent ordering of semantic elements robust across the range of communication situations, but the same non-English order appeared in all contexts. Study 2 explored whether this non-English order is found only when a person attempts to share information with another. Adults were asked to reconstruct scenes in a non-communicative context using pictures drawn on transparencies. The adults picked up the pictures for their reconstructions in a consistent order, and that order was the same non-English order found in Study 1. Finding consistent ordering patterns in a non-communicative context suggests that word order is not driven solely by the demands of communicating information to another, but may reflect a more general property of human thought.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Language input and child syntax.
    Cogn. Psychol. (IF 3.746) Pub Date : 2002-12-14
    Janellen Huttenlocher,Marina Vasilyeva,Elina Cymerman,Susan Levine

    Existing work on the acquisition of syntax has been concerned mainly with the early stages of syntactic development. In the present study we examine later syntactic development in children. Also, existing work has focused on commonalities in the emergence of syntax. Here we explore individual differences among children and their relation to variations in language input. In Study 1 we find substantial individual differences in children's mastery of multiclause sentences and a significant relation between those differences and the proportion of multiclause sentences in parent speech. We also find individual differences in the number of noun phrases in children's utterances and a significant relation between those differences and the number of noun phrases in parent speech. In Study 2 we find greater syntactic growth over a year of preschool in classes where teachers' speech is more syntactically complex. The implications of our findings for the understanding of the sources of syntactic development are discussed.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Are there representational shifts during category learning?
    Cogn. Psychol. (IF 3.746) Pub Date : 2002-12-14
    Mark K Johansen,Thomas J Palmeri

    Early theories of categorization assumed that either rules, or prototypes, or exemplars were exclusively used to mentally represent categories of objects. More recently, hybrid theories of categorization have been proposed that variously combine these different forms of category representation. Our research addressed the question of whether there are representational shifts during category learning. We report a series of experiments that tracked how individual subjects generalized their acquired category knowledge to classifying new critical transfer items as a function of learning. Individual differences were observed in the generalization patterns exhibited by subjects, and those generalizations changed systematically with experience. Early in learning, subjects generalized on the basis of single diagnostic dimensions, consistent with the use of simple categorization rules. Later in learning, subjects generalized in a manner consistent with the use of similarity-based exemplar retrieval, attending to multiple stimulus dimensions. Theoretical modeling was used to formally corroborate these empirical observations by comparing fits of rule, prototype, and exemplar models to the observed categorization data. Although we provide strong evidence for shifts in the kind of information used to classify objects as a function of categorization experience, interpreting these results in terms of shifts in representational systems underlying perceptual categorization is a far thornier issue. We provide a discussion of the challenges of making claims about category representation, making reference to a wide body of literature suggesting different kinds of representational systems in perceptual categorization and related domains of human cognition.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Eye movements and spoken language comprehension: effects of visual context on syntactic ambiguity resolution.
    Cogn. Psychol. (IF 3.746) Pub Date : 2002-12-14
    Michael J Spivey,Michael K Tanenhaus,Kathleen M Eberhard,Julie C Sedivy

    When participants follow spoken instructions to pick up and move objects in a visual workspace, their eye movements to the objects are closely time-locked to referential expressions in the instructions. Two experiments used this methodology to investigate the processing of the temporary ambiguities that arise because spoken language unfolds over time. Experiment 1 examined the processing of sentences with a temporarily ambiguous prepositional phrase (e.g., "Put the apple on the towel in the box") using visual contexts that supported either the normally preferred initial interpretation (the apple should be put on the towel) or the less-preferred interpretation (the apple is already on the towel and should be put in the box). Eye movement patterns clearly established that the initial interpretation of the ambiguous phrase was the one consistent with the context. Experiment 2 replicated these results using prerecorded digitized speech to eliminate any possibility of prosodic differences across conditions or experimenter demand. Overall, the findings are consistent with a broad theoretical framework in which real-time language comprehension immediately takes into account a rich array of relevant nonlinguistic context.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Forgetting curves: implications for connectionist models.
    Cogn. Psychol. (IF 3.746) Pub Date : 2002-07-20
    Sverker Sikström

    Forgetting in long-term memory, as measured in a recall or a recognition test, is faster for items encoded more recently than for items encoded earlier. Data on forgetting curves fit a power function well. In contrast, many connectionist models predict either exponential decay or completely flat forgetting curves. This paper suggests a connectionist model to account for power-function forgetting curves by using bounded weights and by generating the learning rates from a monotonically decreasing function. The bounded weights introduce exponential forgetting in each weight and a power-function forgetting results when weights with different learning rates are averaged. It is argued that these assumptions are biologically reasonable. Therefore power-function forgetting curves are a property that may be expected from biological networks. The model has an analytic solution, which is a good approximation of a power function displaced one lag in time. This function fits better than any of the 105 suggested two-parameter forgetting-curve functions when tested on the most precise recognition memory data set collected by. Unlike the power-function normally used, the suggested function is defined at lag zero. Several functions for generating learning rates with a finite integral yield power-function forgetting curves; however, the type of function influences the rate of forgetting. It is shown that power-function forgetting curves cannot be accounted for by variability in performance between subjects because it requires a distribution of performance that is not found in empirical data. An extension of the model accounts for intersecting forgetting curves found in massed and spaced repetitions. The model can also be extended to account for a faster forgetting rate in item recognition (IR) compared to associative recognition in short but not long retention intervals.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The role of meaning in inflection: why the past tense does not require a rule.
    Cogn. Psychol. (IF 3.746) Pub Date : 2002-07-20
    Michael Ramscar

    How do we produce the past tenses of verbs? For the last 20 years this question has been the focal domain for conflicting theories of language, knowledge representation, and cognitive processing. On one side of the debate have been similarity-based or single-route approaches that propose that all past tenses are formed simply through phonological analogies to existing past tenses stored in memory. On the other side of the debate are rule-based or dual-route approaches which agree that phonological analogy is important for producing irregular past tenses (e.g., think-->thought), but argue that regular past tenses (e.g., walk-->walked) are generated via a +ed rule and that a principled account of regular inflection can only be given by recourse to explicit rules. This debate has become a crucial battleground for arguments concerning the necessity and importance of abstract mental rules, embracing not only language processing, but also the of nature cognition itself. However, in centering on the roles of phonological similarity and rules, the past tense debate has largely ignored the possible role of semantics in determining inflection. This paper presents five studies that demonstrate a striking and decisive role of semantic similarity in inflection. In fact, semantic factors appear to be more important in inflection than the grammatical considerations put forward by the dual-route account. Further, these new findings provide a new way of discriminating between the claims of single-route (similarity-based) and dual-route (rule-based) approaches. It appears that inflection is carried out through analogical reminding based on semantic and phonological similarity and that a rule-based route is not necessary to account for past tense inflection.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Event templates in the lexical representations of verbs.
    Cogn. Psychol. (IF 3.746) Pub Date : 2002-07-20
    Gail McKoon,Talke Macfarland

    Four experiments support the hypothesis that syntactically relevant information about verbs is encoded in the lexicon in semantic event templates. A verb's event template represents the participants in an event described by the verb and the relations among the participants. The experiments show that lexical decision times are longer for verbs with more complex templates than verbs with less complex templates and that, for both transitive and intransitive sentences, sentences containing verbs with more complex templates take longer to process. In contrast, sentence processing times did not depend on the probabilities with which the verbs appear in transitive versus intransitive constructions in a large corpus of naturally produced sentences.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Opportunistic Planning: Being Reminded of Pending Goals
    Cogn. Psychol. (IF 3.746) Pub Date : 1997-10-01
    Patalano,Seifert

    Pending goals are intentions that are postponed by a planner because they do not fit into the current, ongoing activity. Recognizing later opportunities to achieve pending goals is an important cognitive ability because it allows one to defer work on a goal until one is in a better position to achieve it. This research focuses on when and how pending goals are recognized in everyday planning situations and offers a predictive encoding model of goal representation. Experiment 1 provides evidence that pending goals are stored as long-term memory elements that become associated, at the time of encoding, with features of the environment representing opportunities to achieve the goals, consistent with the predictive encoding model. Experiment 2 shows that these predictive inferences tend to be concrete (e.g., "use Vaseline to remove a stuck ring"), rather than more abstract (e.g., "use any lubricant"), which is nonoptimal for recognizing novel opportunities. However, as shown in Experiment 3, instructions to encode a potential plan with only abstract constraints can lead to recognition of a wider range of opportunities. These findings provide evidence for the predictive encoding model and suggest ways to facilitate the later recognition of opportunities for satisfying pending goals. Copyright 1997Academic Press

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Decision and Response in Dual-Task Interference
    Cogn. Psychol. (IF 3.746) Pub Date : 1997-08-01
    Van Selst M,Jolicoeur

    Experiments with two stimuli (S1 and S2) and two responses suggest the existence of a stage of processing that cannot be shared between two concurrent tasks. Widespread support has been found for the hypothesis that response selection for Task2 is postponed when the S1 to S2 stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) is short (Pashler, 1994a). At short SOAs, manipulations which impact Task2 processing prior to response selection (e.g., degradation of stimulus quality) have little effect on Task2 response times (RTs). On the other hand, manipulations which are thought to impact response selection or execution (e.g., Stroop interference) always impact Task2 RTs. There is, however, one particularly compelling demonstration that appears to be inconsistent with the response selection bottleneck hypothesis: Karlin and Kestenbaum (1968) report that the RT difference between detection (i.e., 1-choice) and 2-choice discrimination dramatically decreases with decreasing SOA. Given that the primary difference between detection and discrimination is believed to be at response selection, their result may indicate a processing bottleneck at response execution (Keele, 1973). We fail to replicate the Karlin and Kestenbaum result in two substantive replications of Karlin and Kestenbaum's tasks and procedures. In the single experiment in which Karlin and Kestenbaum's result is replicated, a simple response execution bottleneck account is ruled out by the stability of the difference between 2-choice and 3-choice discrimination times across SOA. Two additional experiments demonstrate that response preparation and task strategy do not substantially contribute to the attenuation of response selection-level effects with decreasing SOA.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Transfer and Complexity in Artificial Grammar Learning
    Cogn. Psychol. (IF 3.746) Pub Date : 1997-07-01
    Gomez

    Implicit and explicit learning are sensitive to various degrees of complexity and abstractness, ranging from knowledge of first-order dependencies and specific surface structure to second-order dependencies and transfer. Three experiments addressed whether implicit learning is sensitive to this entire range of information or whether explicit knowledge becomes an important factor in cases of more complex learning. Experiment 1 used recognition and prediction to assess deliberate access to knowledge of letter patterns in an artificial grammar learning paradigm. Experiment 2 manipulated stimulus presentation and response in a sequence-based grammar learning paradigm. Learning can occur without awareness in cases of lesser complexity (such as learning first-order dependencies). However, more complex learning, such as that involved in learning second-order dependencies or in transfer to stimuli with the same underlying syntax but new surface features is linked to explicit knowledge. In contrast to Experiments 1 and 2 which assessed deliberate access to knowledge of the acquisition stimuli, Experiment 3 assessed deliberate access to knowledge of the transfer stimuli. Knowledge of initial trigrams in the transfer stimuli appears to play an important role in transfer. These findings are evaluated in terms of postulated implicit learning mechanisms.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Bootstrapping Word Boundaries: A Bottom-up Corpus-Based Approach to Speech Segmentation
    Cogn. Psychol. (IF 3.746) Pub Date : 1997-07-01
    Cairns,Shillcock,Chater,Levy

    Speech is continuous, and isolating meaningful chunks for lexical access is a nontrivial problem. In this paper we use neural network models and more conventional statistics to study the use of sequential phonological probabilities in the segmentation of an idealized phonological transcription of the London-Lund Corpus; these speech data are representative of genuine conversational English. We demonstrate, first, that the distribution of phonetic segments in English is an important cue to segmentation, and, second, that the distributional information is such that it might allow the infant, beginning with only a sensitivity to the statistics of subsegmental primitives, to bootstrap into a series of increasingly sophisticated segmentation competences, ending with an adult competence. We discuss the relation between the behavior of the models and existing psycholinguistic studies of speech segmentation. In particular, we confirm the utility of the Metrical Segmentation Strategy (Cutler & Norris, 1988) and demonstrate a route by which this utility might be recognized by the infant, without requiring the prior specification of categories like "syllable" or "strong syllable."

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The Role of Information Reduction in Skill Acquisition
    Cogn. Psychol. (IF 3.746) Pub Date : 1996-06-01
    Haider,Frensch

    Theories of skill acquisition assume that the effects of practice on task performance are due to either qualitative changes in the task structure, an increased efficiency of performing individual task components, an increased efficiency of performing sequences of task components, or some combination of these mechanisms. We propose an extension to the existing theories by arguing that for many tasks, practice affects which information is processed. More specifically, we argue that people learn, over the course of practice, to separate task-relevant from task-redundant information, and to limit their processing to relevant aspects of the task. In three experiments, subjects verified alphabetic strings, such as M [4] R S T. Strings were correct if they followed the alphabet when the number of letters, given by the digit in parentheses, was skipped. Strings were constructed such that errors occurred only within the initial "letter-digit-letter" triplet. Analyses of subjects' RTs for strings of varying lengths demonstrated that: (a) subjects were able to distinguish relevant from redundant task information, and to limit their processing to the relevant information, (b) the ability to reduce the amount of information that is processed takes time and develops gradually over the course of practice, and (c) the mechanism underlying this ability appears to be largely stimulus-independent in the sense that structural components of a task are ignored, rather than specific task information. The findings and their implications for general theories of skill acquisition are discussed.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Analog Imagery in Mental Model Reasoning: Depictive Models
    Cogn. Psychol. (IF 3.746) Pub Date : 1996-04-01
    Schwartz,Black

    We investigated whether people can use analog imagery to model the behavior of a simple mechanical interaction. Subjects saw a static computer display of two touching gears that had different diameters. Their task was to determine whether marks on each gear would meet if the gears rotated inward. This task added a problem of coordination to the typical analog rotation task in that the gears had a physical interdependency; the angular velocity of one gear depended on the angular velocity of the other gear. In the first experiment, we found the linear relationship between response time and angular disparity that indicates analog imagery. In the second experiment, we found that people can also solve the problem through a non-analog, visual comparison. We also found that people of varying spatial ability could switch between analog and non-analog solutions if instructed to do so. In the third experiment, we examined whether the elicitation of physical knowledge would influence solution strategies. To do so, we manipulated the visual realism of the gear display. Subjects who saw the most realistic gears coordinated their transformations by using the surfaces of the gears, as though they were relying on the friction connecting the surfaces. Subjects who saw more schematic displays relied on analytic strategies, such as comparing the ratios made by the angles and/or diameters of the two gears. To explain the relationship between spatial and physical knowledge found in the experiments, we constructed a computer simulation of what we call depictive modeling. In a depictive model, general spatial knowledge and context-sensitive physical knowledge have the same ontology. This is different from prior simulations in which a non-analog representation would be needed to coordinate the analog behaviors of physical objects. In our simulation, the inference that coordinates the gear motions emerges from the analog rotations themselves. We suggest that mental depictions create a bridge between imagery and mental model research by positing the referent as the primary conceptual entity.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The Slow Time-Course of Visual Attention
    Cogn. Psychol. (IF 3.746) Pub Date : 1996-02-01
    Ward,Duncan,Shapiro

    Visual attention is often conceived as a high-speed serial system moving rapidly from one object to another at rates of a few dozen milliseconds per item. We present four experiments demonstrating that this high-speed model is incorrect. Subjects identify two objects, presented at separate times. We measure how long the first object continues to interfere with accuracy on the second, and hence the time-course of the first object's attentional demand. We find interference for a half-second or more-roughly 10 times longer than might be predicted from conventional visual search paradigms. In further experiments, we show that the time-course of interference depends upon the number of attended objects, not the number or complexity of responses. Even objects which require no response, such as nontargets in visual search, can still produce long lasting interference on subsequent identification. We suggest that visual attention is not a high-speed switching mechanism, but instead a sustained state during which representations of relevant objects become available to guide behavior.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Acknowledgment
    Cogn. Psychol. (IF 3.746) Pub Date : 1996-02-01

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Constructing and Validating Motive Bridging Inferences
    Cogn. Psychol. (IF 3.746) Pub Date : 1996-02-01
    Singer,Halldorson

    Understanding Jane left early for the birthday party, She spent an hour shopping at the mall requires detecting that the first statement motivates the second. The validation model states that before accepting this bridging inference, the reader validates it with reference to relevant knowledge. In particular, a mediating idea is first derived from the text outcome and its candidate motive. If the mediating idea is supported by general knowledge, then the inference has been validated. In tests of this anaylsis, experimental subjects read motive or control sequences and then answered questions probing the knowledge hypothesized to validate the motive inferences, such as Do birthday parties involve presents? Five experiments confirmed that understanding motive sequences facilitates validating knowledge. A control procedure also refuted a priming counterexplanation of these effects (Experiment 1). Validation processing obtained for motive-outcome statements separated by two to four sentences in coherent sequences (Experiments 2 to 4). Inferred and explicit validating knowledge had a similar representational status (Experiment 3). Whereas proofreading abolished the validation effect, a reading strategy promoting causal processing did not enhance it (Experiment 4). A delayed priming procedure indicated that validating knowledge is integrated with the text representation (Experiment 5). The implications of these findings for the constructionist and minimal inference analyses were explored. The validation effects were simulated using construction-integration model.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Gesture-speech mismatch and mechanisms of learning: what the hands reveal about a child's state of mind.
    Cogn. Psychol. (IF 3.746) Pub Date : 1993-10-01
    M W Alibali,S Goldin-Meadow

    Previous work has shown that, when asked to explain a concept they are acquiring, children often convey one procedure in speech and a different procedure in gesture. Such children, whom we label "discordant," have been shown to be in a transitional state in the sense that they are particularly receptive to instruction--indeed more receptive to instruction than "concordant" children, who convey the same procedure in speech and gesture. This study asks whether the discordant state is transitional, not only in the sense that it predicts receptivity to instruction, but also in the sense that it is both preceded and followed by a concordant state. To address this question, children were asked to solve and explain a series of problems instantiating the concept of mathematical equivalence. The relationship between gesture and speech in each explanation was monitored over the series. We found that the majority of children who learned to correctly solve equivalence problems did so by adhering to the hypothesized path: They first produced a single, incorrect procedure. They then entered a discordant state in which they produced different procedures--one in speech and another in gesture. Finally, they again produced a single procedure, but this time a correct one. These data support the notion that the transitional state is characterized by the concurrent activation of more than one procedure, and provide further evidence that gesture can be a powerful source of insight into the processes involved in cognitive development.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Time-accuracy functions for determining process and person differences: an application to cognitive aging.
    Cogn. Psychol. (IF 3.746) Pub Date : 1994-04-01
    R Kliegl,U Mayr,R T Krampe

    A paradigm for the determination of time-accuracy functions (TAFs) for individual participants is introduced for two pairs of tasks differing in cognitive complexity, that is, word scanning vs cued recognition and figural scanning vs figural reasoning. TAFs can be used to test dissociations of cognitive processes beyond scale-related ambiguities of ordinal interactions. The approach is applied to examine the cognitive-aging hypothesis that a single slowing factor can account for interactions between adult age and cognitive task complexity. Twenty young and 20 old adults participated in 17 sessions. Presentation times required for 75, 87.5, and 100% accuracies were determined for each task with a variant of the psychophysical method of limits. Accuracy was fit by negatively accelerated functions of presentation time. State-trace analyses showed that different slowing factors are required for high- and low-complexity tasks. Relations to speed-accuracy and performance-resource functions are discussed.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Beyond visible persistence: an alternative account of temporal integration and segregation in visual processing.
    Cogn. Psychol. (IF 3.746) Pub Date : 1994-02-01
    P Dixon,V Di Lollo

    When processing sequences of rapidly varying stimuli, the visual system must satisfy two conflicting requirements. To maintain perceptual continuity, sequential stimuli must be integrated into a single, unified percept. On the other hand, to detect rapid changes, sequential stimuli must be segregated from each other. We propose that these conflicting demands are reconciled by a process that codes the temporal relationship between contiguous stimuli: Stimuli that are coded as co-extensive are integrated and those that are coded as disjoint are segregated. This approach represents a conceptual departure from the more traditional "intrinsic persistence" view of temporal integration. The approach provides a parsimonious account of the results of two temporal-integration tasks in which the durations of the leading and trailing displays were varied over a broad range. The data were accurately fit by a quantitative model in which temporal codes were determined by the correlation in time between the visual responses to the leading and trailing displays.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Nouns and verbs in a self-styled gesture system: what's in a name?
    Cogn. Psychol. (IF 3.746) Pub Date : 1994-12-01
    S Goldin-Meadow,C Butcher,C Mylander,M Dodge

    A distinction between nouns and verbs is not only universal to all natural languages but it also appears to be central to the structure and function of language. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a deaf child who was not exposed to a usable model of a conventional language would nevertheless incorporate into his self-styled communication system this apparently essential distinction. We found that the child initially maintained a distinction between nouns and verbs by using one set of gestures as nouns and a separate set as verbs. At age 3:3, the child began to use some of his gestures in both grammatical roles; however, he distinguished the two uses by altering the form of the gesture (akin to morphological marking) and its position in a gesture sentence (akin to syntactic marking). Such systematic marking was not found in the spontaneous gestures produced by the child's hearing mother who used gesture as an adjunct to speech rather than as a primary communication system. A distinction between nouns and verbs thus appears to be sufficiently fundamental to human language that it can be reinvented by a child who does not have access to a culturally shared linguistic system.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • 更新日期:2019-11-01
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