当前期刊: Biological Psychology Go to current issue    加入关注   
显示样式:        排序: 导出
  • Sighs can become learned behaviors via operant learning
    Biol. Psychol. (IF 2.627) Pub Date : 2020-01-22
    Elke Vlemincx; Olivier Luminet

    Sighs have important physiological and psychological regulatory functions. These rewarding effects of a sigh potentially reinforce sighing in situations that require physiological and/or psychological regulation. The present study aimed to investigate whether sighs can become learned behaviors via operant learning. In two studies, we manipulated the effect of spontaneous sighs in response to dyspnea relief, by either punishing a sigh by the onset of dyspnea, or not punishing a sigh by continued dyspnea relief. Results show that sigh rates in response to cues predicting the punishment of sighs are 1.20-1.28 times lower than sigh rates in response to cues predicting no punishment of sighs. These findings suggest that sighs can become learned behaviors via operant learning, contributing to both maladaptive sighing, potentially leading to respiratory dysregulation and respiratory complaints, and to adaptive sighing. Furthermore, these findings suggest new clinical practices to increase and decrease sigh rates during breathing training.

  • Electroencephalographic Evidence for a Reinforcement Learning Advantage: During Motor Skill Acquisition
    Biol. Psychol. (IF 2.627) Pub Date : 2020-01-22
    Francisco L. Colino; Matthew Heath; Cameron D. Hassall; Olave E. Krigolson

    The feedback that we receive shapes how we learn. Previous research has demonstrated that quantitative feedback results in better performance than qualitative feedback. However, the data supporting a quantitative feedback advantage are not conclusive and further little work has been done to examine the mechanistic neural differences that underlie the relative benefits of quantitative and qualitative feedback. To address these issues, participants learned a simple motor task in quantitative and qualitative feedback conditions while electroencephalographic (EEG) data were recorded. We found that participants were more accurate and had a larger neural response – the feedback related negativity - when qualitative feedback was provided. Our data suggest that qualitative feedback is more advantageous than quantitative feedback during the early stages of skill acquisition. Additionally, our findings support previous work suggesting that a reinforcement learning system within the human medial-frontal cortex plays a key role in motor skill acquisition.

  • Estimation of frequency difference at which stream segregation precedes temporal integration as reflected by omission mismatch negativity
    Biol. Psychol. (IF 2.627) Pub Date : 2020-01-22
    Masayuki Hikita; Tetsuya Shiga; Yusuke Osakabe; Yuhei Mori; Hirotoshi Hotsumi; Michinari Nozaki; Hiroshi Hoshino; Kazuko Kanno; Shuntaro Itagaki; Takashi Matsuoka; Hirooki Yabe

    Both stream segregation and temporal integration are considered important for auditory scene analysis in the brain. Several previous studies have indicated that stream segregation may precede temporal integration when both processes are required. In the present study, we utilized mismatch negativity (MMN)—which reflects automatic change detection—to systematically estimate the threshold of the frequency difference at which stream segregation occurs prior to temporal integration when these functions occur together during a state of inattention. Electroencephalography (EEG) data were recorded from 22 healthy Japanese men presented with six blocks of alternating high pure tones (high tones) and low pure tones (low tones). Only high tones were omitted with 5% probability in all blocks. Our results indicated that stream segregation should cancel temporal integration of close sounds, as indicated by omission-MMN elicitation, when the frequency difference is 1000 Hz or larger.

  • Novel rewards occlude the reward positivity, and what to do about it
    Biol. Psychol. (IF 2.627) Pub Date : 2020-01-21
    Darin R. Brown; James F. Cavanagh

    Both the Reward Positivity (RewP) and the novelty N2 component appear within the same spatio-temporal window. This signal overlap impedes the assessment of the RewP evoked by complex novel rewards like affective or motivational imagery. Here we conducted a series of experiments which successfully isolated signals of reward and novelty through spectral decomposition as well as with experimental manipulations that systematically removed the influence of novelty on the reward-evoking image. Together, these findings help explain the nature of this component overlap and provide methodological and analytic techniques for isolating reward- and novelty-specific computations to complex stimuli.

  • Autonomic influences on heart rate during marital conflict: Associations with high frequency heart rate variability and cardiac pre-ejection period
    Biol. Psychol. (IF 2.627) Pub Date : 2020-01-18
    Matthew R. Cribbet; Timothy W. Smith; Bert N. Uchino; Brian R.W. Baucom; Jill B. Nealey-Moore

    Psychosocial factors predict the development and course of cardiovascular disease, perhaps through sympathetic and parasympathetic mechanisms. At rest, heart rate (HR) is under parasympathetic control, often measured as high-frequency heart rate variability (HF-HRV). During stress, HR is influenced jointly by parasympathetic and sympathetic processes, the latter often quantified as pre-ejection period (PEP). In studies of cardiovascular risk factors that involve social interaction (e.g. marital conflict), HF-HRV might be altered by speech artifacts, weakening its validity as a measure of parasympathetic activity. To evaluate this possibility, we tested associations of HF-HRV and PEP with HR at rest and across periods of marital conflict interaction that varied in experimentally-manipulated degrees of speech in 104 couples. At rest, only HF-HRV was independently related to HR, for both husbands and wives. During speaking, listening, and recovery periods, husbands’ and wives’ HF-HRV and PEP change independently predicted HR change. These findings support interpretation of HF-HRV as a parasympathetic index during stressful social interactions that may confer risk for cardiovascular disease.

  • Becoming sexy: Contrapposto pose increases attractiveness ratings and modulates observers’ brain activity
    Biol. Psychol. (IF 2.627) Pub Date : 2020-01-17
    Farid Pazhoohi; Joana Arantes; Alan Kingstone; Diego Pinal

    Previous neurophysiological studies have revealed the neural correlates of human body form perception, as well as those related to the perception of attractive body sizes. In the current study we aimed to extend the neurophysiological studies regarding body perception by investigating the perception of human body posture to provide insights into the cognitive mechanisms responsive to bodily form, and the processing of its attractiveness. To achieve these aims, we used the contrapposto posture which creates an exaggeration of low waist to hip ratio (WHR), an indicator of women's attractiveness. Electroencephalogram (EEG) signals were recorded while participants completed both (i) an oddball task presenting female body forms differing in pose (contrapposto vs. standing) and viewing angle (anterior vs. posterior), and (ii) a subsequent active attractiveness judgement task. Behavioral results showed that a contrapposto pose is considered more attractive than a neutral standing pose. Result at the neural level showed that body posture modulates the visual information processing in early ERP components, indicating attentional variations depending on human body posture; as well as in late components, indicating further differences in attention and attractiveness judgement of stimuli varying in body pose. Furthermore, the LORETA results identified the middle temporal gyrus as well as angular gyrus as the key brain regions activated in association with the perception and attractiveness judgment of females’ bodies with different body poses. Overall, the current paper suggests the evolutionary adaptive preference for lower WHRs as in the contrapposto pose activating brain regions associated with visual perception and attractiveness judgement.

  • Sex Differences in Emotional Concordance
    Biol. Psychol. (IF 2.627) Pub Date : 2020-01-17
    Julina A. Rattel; Iris B. Mauss; Michael Liedlgruber; Frank. H. Wilhelm

    Emotions involve response synchronization across experiential, physiological, and behavioral systems, referred to as concordance or coherence. Women are thought to be more emotionally aware and expressive than men and may therefore display stronger response concordance; however, research on this topic is scant. Using a random-order film-average design, we assessed concordance among experiential (arousal, valence), autonomic (electrodermal activity, heart rate, preejection-period, respiratory-sinus-arrhythmia), respiratory (respiratory-rate), and behavioral (corrugator and zygomatic electromyography) responses to 15 two-minute films varying in valence and arousal. We then calculated for each participant and pair of measures a within-subject correlation index using averages from the 15 films. Pronounced individual concordance of up to 0.9 was observed. Arousal-physiology and valence-behavior concordances were particularly pronounced. Women displayed higher concordance than men for almost all measures. Findings indicate stronger psychophysiological response coupling in women than men and provide novel insights into affective differences between the sexes.

  • Sympathetic Contributions to Habituation and Recovery of the Cardiac Defense Response
    Biol. Psychol. (IF 2.627) Pub Date : 2020-01-17
    Alba Garrido; Stefan Duschek; Javier Rodríguez Árbol; Isis González Usera; Jaime Vila; José Luis Mata

    The cardiac defense response (CDR) to intense auditory stimulation is characterized by two acceleration-deceleration heart rate (HR) components. This study investigated contributions of sympathetic cardiac control to habituation and recovery of the CDR. Fifty-six healthy subjects were presented with noise stimuli eliciting the CDR. Three stimuli were presented with short and long (2.5 min and 12.5 min) inter-trial intervals (ITIs). The pre-ejection period was recorded as an index of sympathetic cardiac control, in addition to HR. Repeated stimulation at short ITI was associated with marked habituation of the HR and sympathetic responses; both responses exhibited a degree of recovery with long ITI. Regarding the time course, the first acceleration-deceleration was accompanied by a decline and subsequent increase in sympathetic cardiac control. During the second acceleration-deceleration, the parameters exhibited parallel courses. These results suggest that the sympathetic contribution to the habituation and recovery is limited to the second HR component.

  • Chinese College Students’ Parental Attachment, Peer Attachment, and Prosocial Behaviors: The Moderating Role of Respiratory Sinus Arrhythmia
    Biol. Psychol. (IF 2.627) Pub Date : 2020-01-15
    Yuewen Zhang; Xiaohui Yang; Zhenhong Wang; Danni Liu

    The goal of this study was to examine whether the links between Chinese college students’ parental attachment, peer attachment, and prosocial behaviors were moderated by a physiological factor—baseline respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA). The simplified version of the Inventory of Parental and Peer Attachment (IPPA-R) and the Chinese version of the Prosocial Tendencies Measure (PTM-R) were administered to one hundred forty-four undergraduate students (M = 18.96 years, SD = 1.06 years; 30% men) to assess parental and peer attachment and prosocial behaviors. Baseline RSA was calculated by electrocardiogram (ECG) data collected during a resting period in the laboratory. The results showed that both parental and peer attachment were positively associated with college students’ global prosocial behaviors. Moreover, peer attachment interacted with baseline RSA to predict college students’ global prosocial behaviors. Specifically, peer attachment was positively related to global prosocial behaviors among college students with low baseline RSA, while peer attachment was not related to global prosocial behaviors among college students with high baseline RSA. In addition, the examination with submeasures of prosocial behaviors revealed that parental and peer attachment and their interaction with baseline RSA have different effects on these different types of prosocial behaviors. The current findings highlight the importance of the consideration of psychosocial factors in conjunction with physiological factors to predict college students’ prosocial behaviors.

  • Placebos can change affective contexts: an event-related potential study
    Biol. Psychol. (IF 2.627) Pub Date : 2020-01-13
    Anne Schienle; Andreas Gremsl; Daniela Schwab

    An unpleasant context (bitter aftertaste) is able to reduce the late positive potential (LPP) elicited by affective pictures. This study attempted to influence this context with a placebo. Sixty-eight women were randomly assigned to three groups: Water, Bitter/No-Placebo, Bitter/Placebo. Participants in the ‘bitter groups’ first rinsed their mouth with wormwood tea that caused a bitter aftertaste. Subsequently, the placebo group received sham light therapy on the tongue to ‘reduce the sensitivity of the taste buds’. All groups viewed disgusting and non-disgusting pictures while their electroencephalogram was recorded. The Bitter/Placebo group reported reduced bitterness and disgust for the aftertaste after the sham treatment. The LPP reduction (300-600 ms after picture onset) associated with the bitter aftertaste (as shown by the Bitter/No-Placebo group) was attenuated due to the placebo treatment. This is the first EEG study to demonstrate that a context-targeting placebo is able to change automatic attention allocation.

  • Exposure to Violence and Neglect Images Differentially Influences Fear Learning and Extinction
    Biol. Psychol. (IF 2.627) Pub Date : 2020-01-02
    Kathryn L. Modecki; Laura K. Murphy; Allison M. Waters

    The mechanisms by which exposure to adversity contributes to psychopathology development are poorly understood. Recent models link experiences of threat of harm and deprivation to psychopathology via disruptions in learning mechanisms underlying fear acquisition and extinction. We empirically tested dimensional elements of this model, by examining whether exposure to images of community violence or neglect differentially influenced fear learning and extinction relative to exposure to neutral images. Participants were randomly allocated to one of three exposure conditions: viewing images depicting neglect (n = 25), violence (n = 25) or control images (n = 24). All participants then completed a fear conditioning and extinction task in which the CS + was paired with an aversive tone, and the CS- was presented alone during conditioning. Both CSs were presented alone during extinction and extinction retest. Skin conductance responses (SCR) and subjective ratings were assessed. Relative to control images, viewing scenes of neglect attenuated SCRs to the CSs during conditioning, extinction and extinction retest. Exposure to images of community violence accentuated SCRs during US anticipation on CS + trials and impaired the retention of safety learning (larger SCRs to the CS + compared to the CS- at retest and the CS + at the end of extinction). No significant group differences emerged in subjective ratings. Findings lend preliminary support for suggestions that adverse experiences may be linked to impairments in fear and safety learning and provide key evidence suggesting that the expression of these impairments may differ as a function of the type of adversity.

  • Effects of working memory training on EEG, cognitive performance, and self-report indices potentially relevant for social anxiety
    Biol. Psychol. (IF 2.627) Pub Date : 2020-01-02
    Xin Zhao; Chen Dang; Joseph H.R. Maes

    Social anxiety (SA) is quite common and associated with multiple comorbidities. Here, we examined the effects of working memory (WM) training on various indices potentially related to SA. Pre-selected university students with elevated self-reported SA symptoms were assigned to a WM training (n = 21) or an active control treatment condition (n = 21). Pre- and post-treatment assessments were made using questionnaires related to (social) anxiety and depression, and tasks measuring WM, interference control, and attentional biases towards, and event-related potentials (ERPs) elicited by, angry faces. The training enhanced WM transfer task performance, reduced SA symptoms, and changed the amplitude of the P1, N170, P2, and N2 ERP components. However, the latter changes did not mediate the effect of WM training on SA symptoms. These data provide preliminary evidence of the usefulness of WM trainings to reduce potential indices of SA, but further research is necessary to unravel the causal relation among these indices.

  • Accuracy of reproduction of physical training load is not associated with resting heartbeat perception in healthy individuals
    Biol. Psychol. (IF 2.627) Pub Date : 2019-12-17
    Ferenc Köteles; Ivett Éliás; Zsuzsanna Szabolcs; János Körmendi; Eszter Ferentzi; Renáta Szemerszky

    Previous research demonstrated that individuals are able to reliably reproduce their heart rate under physical load, however, they are prone to underestimate it. It was also assumed that the ability to perceive heartbeats under resting conditions might play a role in the regulation of physical activity. In an experimental setting, 47 young individuals were asked to complete the Schandry task and reproduce three different exercise intensities with respect to heart rate on a treadmill. Resting heartbeat counting was moderately related to replication performance under slight physical load, but not under more intense conditions. In all exercise conditions, participants were prone to underestimate their actual heart rate. No significant gender difference was revealed. Actual and perceived performance were moderately associated at rest, but not under physical load. In conclusion, perception of heartbeats at rest is related to replication of heart rate during physical activity only at very weak physical load.

  • Individual differences in ERPs during deception: Observing vs. demonstrating behavior leading to a small social conflict
    Biol. Psychol. (IF 2.627) Pub Date : 2019-12-03
    Vera Scheuble, André Beauducel

    The present study investigated individual differences modulating P300 and MFN amplitudes in a concealed information test (CIT). Some participants were offered candy and either denied (n = 41) or ate it (n = 31), while others witnessed an examiner eating it (informed condition; n = 34). Afterwards it was suggested that the candy was not meant for them. During the CIT, participants saw the candy (probe) and similar unknown items (irrelevants) and indicated that they did not know them. P300 and MFN amplitudes differed for probe and irrelevant items, revealing that known items were more salient and deception was accompanied by response conflicts. Larger differences between P300 s for probe versus irrelevant items occurred for women. Furthermore, especially for women, response conflicts diminished when being in the informed condition. Different patterns of MFN amplitudes appeared for informed women depending on the Machiavellianism score, suggesting that gender and Machiavellianism could be related to different cognitive processing during deception.

  • An Inverted U-shaped Relationship between Heart Rate Deceleration and Empathic Emotions
    Biol. Psychol. (IF 2.627) Pub Date : 2019-11-29
    Toshiyuki Himichi, Yousuke Ohtsubo

    Previous studies have shown that the high frequency component of heart rate variability is associated with empathic emotions (empathic concern and personal distress) negatively and quadratically—there is an inverted U-shaped relationship between tonic parasympathetic nervous system (PNS) activity and empathy. However, it is unclear whether the inverted U-shape also applies to the relationship between phasic PNS activity and empathic emotions. Therefore, the present study addressed this issue. Participants were asked to empathize with others’ negative states (and neutral states as the control condition), followed by evaluating their own emotions. We measured the participants’ cardiac activity during this task by electrocardiogram. Results revealed an inverted U-shaped relationship between heart rate deceleration, which reflects phasic PNS activity, and subjective personal distress and empathic concern. These results suggest that moderate levels of phasic PNS activity are more strongly associated with personal distress and empathic concern than low or high levels of PNS activity.

  • Neurophysiological evidence for distinct biases in emotional face processing associated with internalizing and externalizing symptoms in children
    Biol. Psychol. (IF 2.627) Pub Date : 2019-11-29
    Cynthia J. Willner, Michelle K. Jetha, Sidney J. Segalowitz, Lisa M. Gatzke-Kopp

    Attentional bias to threat has been implicated in both internalizing and externalizing disorders. This study utilizes event-related potentials to examine early stages of perceptual attention to threatening (angry or fearful) versus neutral faces among a sample of 200 children ages 6-8 years from a low-income, urban community. Although both internalizing and externalizing symptoms were associated with processing biases, the nature of the bias differed between these two symptom domains. Internalizing symptoms were associated with heightened early attentional selection (P1) and later perceptual processing (P2) of fearful faces. In contrast, externalizing symptoms were associated with reduced early attentional selection (P1) of fearful faces and enhanced perceptual processing (P2) of neutral faces, possibly indicative of a hostile interpretation bias for ambiguous social cues. These results provide insight into the distinct cognitive-affective processes that may contribute to the etiology and maintenance of internalizing and externalizing psychopathology.

  • Human voice attractiveness processing: Electrophysiological evidence
    Biol. Psychol. (IF 2.627) Pub Date : 2019-11-19
    Hang Zhang, Meng Liu, Weijun Li, Werner Sommer

    Voice attractiveness plays a significant role in social interaction and mate choice. However, how listeners perceive attractive voices and whether this process is mandatory, is poorly understood. The current study explores this question using event-related brain potentials. Participants listened to syllables spoken by male and female voices with high or low attractiveness while completing an implicit (voice un-related) tone detection task or explicitly judging voice attractiveness. In both tasks, attractive male voices elicited a larger N1 than unattractive voices. However, an effect of voice attractiveness on the late positive complex (LPC) was only seen in the explicit task but it was present to both same- and opposite-sex voices. Taken together, voice attractiveness processing during early stages appears to be rapid and mandatory and related to mate selection, whereas during later elaborated processing, voice attractiveness is strategic and aesthetics-based, requiring attentional resources.

  • Biological embedding of maternal postpartum depressive symptoms: The potential role of cortisol and telomere length
    Biol. Psychol. (IF 2.627) Pub Date : 2019-11-14
    Roseriet Beijers, Daria Daehn, Idan Shalev, Jay Belsky, Carolina de Weerth

    Although maternal postpartum depressive symptoms (PDS) are associated with child behavior problems, the underlying biological mechanisms are poorly understood. Thus, the current study focused on 193 healthy mother-child dyads and investigated child cortisol and telomere length as potential mediating factors. At 3 and 6 months postpartum, mothers reported on PDS. At age 6, children provided saliva and buccal swab samples. At age 10, mothers and children reported on child behavior problems. Structural equation modelling revealed (a) no association between PDS and child behavior problems and thus no possibility of mediation, but that (b) lower cortisol forecast more child-reported internalizing problems, and (c) shorter telomere length predicted more child-reported internalizing and externalizing problems. These findings raise mediational questions about the determinants of these biomarkers.

  • Emotional responses to illness imagery in young adults: Effects of attention to somatic sensations and levels of illness anxiety
    Biol. Psychol. (IF 2.627) Pub Date : 2019-11-10
    Chrysanthi Leonidou, Olga Pollatos, Georgia Panayiotou

    This study investigated the effect of interoceptive attention on emotional responses during illness imagery, and the moderating role of illness anxiety. 101 students (81 female; 18-35 years old) with low, moderate and high levels of illness anxiety had to imagine personally relevant illness scenarios and standardized fearful, joyful and neutral scenarios, after undergoing an attention manipulation to direct their attention towards interoceptive or exteroceptive stimuli. Emotional responses assessed included self-reports of arousal, valence and somatic sensations, and psychophysiological measures of heart rate reactivity and variability, skin conductance level, and facial electromyography. Findings showed increased reports of emotional arousal, negative affect and somatic symptoms, accompanied by negative emotion expressions, but a hypo-arousal physiological response pattern (i.e. low heart rate reactivity) during illness imagery after interoceptive attention, irrespective of illness anxiety levels. Under directed attention, the observed emotional response to illness imagery may increase the risk for developing and perpetuating illness anxiety.

  • Physiological and emotional responses to evaluative stress in socially inhibited young adults
    Biol. Psychol. (IF 2.627) Pub Date : 2019-11-08
    Stefanie Duijndam, Annemiek Karreman, Johan Denollet, Nina Kupper

    Background There are large individual differences in dealing with everyday social stress. Therefore, we investigated the association of social inhibition (and its facets) with the emotional and physiological responses to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST). Methods Undergraduate students (N = 312) completed the 15-item Social Inhibition Questionnaire (SIQ15) and participated in the TSST, while emotional and cardiovascular stress responses were recorded. We examined the effect of social inhibition across time with repeated-measures ANCOVAs. Findings During social stress (and recovery), social inhibition was associated with increased negative mood reactivity (especially the behavioral inhibition facet) and heightened sympathetic activation (especially the social withdrawal and interpersonal sensitivity). Physiological stress reactivity seems to be mostly α-adrenergic in women, and also β-adrenergic in men. Conclusions Emotional and physiological stress responses are associated with individual differences in social inhibition. This warrants more research on mechanisms that underlie the relations between social inhibition, stress and health.

  • Child depressive symptoms: Associations with salivary cortisol and alpha amylase in two distinct challenges
    Biol. Psychol. (IF 2.627) Pub Date : 2019-11-07
    Jennifer E. Khoury, Brittany Jamieson, Andrea Gonzalez, Leslie Atkinson

    Child depression has been inconsistency linked to cortisol and salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) reactivity. This study assessed three factors that contribute to inconsistencies: 1) the differential effectiveness of laboratory challenges to elicit cortisol and sAA; 2) the impact of cortisol-sAA coordination; and 3) variation in parent versus child ratings of depression. A community sample of 52 children participated in the Trier Social Stress Test-Child Version (TSST-C) and a competition challenge. Saliva was collected and assayed for cortisol and sAA. Analyses were conducted using multilevel modeling. Child-reported depressive symptoms were associated with a declining cortisol trajectory in the TSST-C. Mother-reported depressive symptoms were associated with higher baseline sAA in the TSST-C and the competition challenge. Further, child-reported depressive symptoms were associated with cortisol-sAA coordination in the competition challenge. Findings underscore the nature of the challenge and the behavioral informant as impacting associations between child depressive symptoms and cortisol and sAA secretion.

  • Distinct brain activation in response to negative feedback at different stages in a variant of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test
    Biol. Psychol. (IF 2.627) Pub Date : 2019-11-06
    Mengqi Zhu, Bingxin Zhuo, Bihua Cao, Fuhong Li

    Positive or negative feedback is usually used to maintain or shift a sorting rule in the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST). Previous studies have demonstrated that negative feedback evokes a larger P3 than positive feedback. However, it is unclear whether the neural response is different for negative feedback appearing at different stages of the WCST. We compared ERPs evoked by the negative feedback appearing at the rule-switching stage (switch-NF) with those appearing at the rule-learning stage (learn-NF) in a modified WCST. Results indicated that: 1) switch-NF evoked a longer N1 latency than learn-NF, 2) switch-NF evoked a delayed and larger N2 component than learn-NF, particularly at the frontal and central electrodes, 3) P3 latency was shorter and the P3 amplitude was larger in learn-NF than in switch-NF. These findings suggest that in the different stages of the WCST, negative feedback implied different involvement of attention, inhibition control, and context updating.

  • Event-related potentials to task-irrelevant sad faces as a state marker of depression
    Biol. Psychol. (IF 2.627) Pub Date : 2019-11-05
    Elisa M. Ruohonen, Veera Alhainen, Piia Astikainen

    Negative bias in face processing has been demonstrated in depression, but there are no longitudinal investigations of negative bias in symptom reduction. We recorded event-related potentials (P1 and N170) to task-irrelevant facial expressions in depressed participants who were later provided with a psychological intervention and in never depressed control participants. Follow-up measurements were conducted for the depressed group two and 39 months later. Negative bias was found specifically in the depression group, and was demonstrated as enlarged P1 amplitude to sad faces, which normalized in the follow-up measurements when the participants had fewer symptoms. Because the P1 amplitude recorded at the baseline did not differ between the depression group that recovered and the group that did not recover after the intervention, this brain response did not show potential as a biomarker for treatment response. It could have potential, however, to serve as a state-marker of depression.

  • ERP correlates of cognitive control and food-related processing in normal weight and severely obese candidates for bariatric surgery: Data gathered using a newly designed Simon task
    Biol. Psychol. (IF 2.627) Pub Date : 2019-11-05
    Giulia Testa, Federica Buongiorno, Maria Luisa Rusconi, Daniela Mapelli, Roberto Vettor, Paolo Angeli, Piero Amodio, Sami Schiff

    Although there have been suggestions that altered cognitive control and food reward sensitivity contribute to overeating in obese individuals, neurophysiological correlates of these mechanisms have been poorly investigated. The current study investigated event-related potentials (ERP) in 24 severely obese and 26 normal weight individuals in fasting condition, using a novel Simon task with food and object distractors. The study showed that conflict in the Simon task for the food distractor increased with hunger in both groups but was larger with respect to a neutral condition only in the obese individuals. ERP showed higher N1amplitudes in both groups for food distractor, reflecting early food processing. The P2 latency was delayed and the effect of distractors on N2 amplitude was smaller in the obese subjects, reflecting altered neural mechanisms associated with selective attention and cognitive control, all contributing hypothetically to delay response selection of these individuals faced with food distractor.

  • Increased subcortical neural responses to repeating auditory stimulation in children with autism spectrum disorder
    Biol. Psychol. (IF 2.627) Pub Date : 2019-11-03
    Marta Font-Alaminos, Miriam Cornella, Jordi Costa-Faidella, Amaia Hervás, Sumie Leung, Isabel Rueda, Carles Escera

    Recent research has highlighted atypical reactivity to sensory stimulation as a core symptom in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, little is known about the dysfunctional neurological mechanisms underlying these aberrant sensitivities. Here we tested the hypothesis that the ability to filter out auditory repeated information is deficient in children with ASD already from subcortical levels, yielding to auditory sensitivities. We recorded the frequency-following response (FFR), a non-invasive measure of the neural tracking of the periodic characteristics of a sound in the subcortical auditory system, to compare repetition-related effects in children with ASD and typically developing children. Results revealed an increase of the FFR with stimulus repetition in children with ASD compared to their peers. Moreover, such defective early sensory encoding of stimulus redundancy was associated with sensory overload. These results highlight that auditory sensitivities in ASD emerge already at the level of the subcortical auditory system.

  • Multiple phases of cross-sensory interactions associated with the audiovisual bounce-inducing effect
    Biol. Psychol. (IF 2.627) Pub Date : 2019-11-02
    Song Zhao, Yajie Wang, Chengzhi Feng, Wenfeng Feng

    Using event-related potential (ERP) recordings, the present study investigated the cross-modal neural activities underlying the audiovisual bounce-inducing effect (ABE) via a novel experimental design wherein the audiovisual bouncing trials were induced solely by the ABE. The within-subject (percept-based) analysis showed that early cross-modal interactions within 100–200 ms after sound onset over fronto-central and occipital regions were associated with the occurrence of the ABE, but the cross-modal interaction at a later latency (ND250, 220–280 ms) over fronto-central region did not differ between ABE trials and non-ABE trials. The between-subject analysis indicated that the cross-modal interaction revealed by ND250 was larger for subjects who perceived the ABE more frequently. These findings suggest that the ABE is generated as a consequence of the rapid interplay between the variations of early cross-modal interactions and the general multisensory binding predisposition at an individual level.

  • Factoring in the spatial effects of symbolic number representation.
    Biol. Psychol. (IF 2.627) Pub Date : 2019-10-17
    Andrey R Nikolaev,Ann-Kathrin Beck,Steffen Theobald,Thomas Lachmann,Cees van Leeuwen

    Spatial constituents of adult symbolic number representation produce effects of size-value congruity, Spatial Numerical Association of Response Codes (SNARC), and numerical distance. According to behavioral experiments, these effects belong to distinct processing stages. Yet, these effects evoke overlapping responses in both early and late Event Related Potentials (ERPs). To probe whether these overlaps indicate sharing of resources, all relevant stimulus and response conditions were factorially combined in a numerical value comparison task. To secure ERP validity, same numbers were compared against variable reference values. This design resulted in previously unobserved interactions in behavior but inhibited late ERP effects. All effects arose early in the P1 component (around 100 ms) and most showed hemispheric specificity. Independency of congruity and SNARC effects was observed, whereas SNARC and numerical distance were closely intertwined. Differences in hemispheric specificity, rather than stage-wise separation, were key to independence.

  • An EEG investigation of the mechanisms involved in the perception of time when expecting emotional stimuli.
    Biol. Psychol. (IF 2.627) Pub Date : 2019-09-29
    William Vallet,Vincent Laflamme,Simon Grondin

    The main goal of the current study was to identify the electrophysiological signatures of the mechanisms involved in the perception of time when expecting positive, neutral or negative stimuli that have equal arousal levels. Participants were asked to compare the duration of time intervals with a 2-sec reference interval. The color of circles marking a given comparison interval signaled the valence of the upcoming stimulus to be presented, each stimulus being drawn from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS). The behavioral data suggest that time distortion can be induced by the expectation of stimuli with different valences and that expecting a negative stimulus leads to an overestimation of time. The electrophysiological data, more specifically the N150, N200, LPP and CNV components, provide evidence of the implication of attentional mechanisms and possibly strategic adjustments of cognitive control for time perception.

  • The biopsychology of autism spectrum disorder: Theory, methods, and evidence.
    Biol. Psychol. (IF 2.627) Pub Date : 2019-09-17
    Bruce H Friedman,Angela Scarpa,Michelle A Patriquin

  • 更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The conditioning and extinction of fear in youths: what's sex got to do with it?
    Biol. Psychol. (IF 2.627) Pub Date : 2014-06-15
    Mélissa Chauret,Valérie La Buissonnière-Ariza,Vickie Lamoureux Tremblay,Sabrina Suffren,Alice Servonnet,Daniel S Pine,Françoise S Maheu

    Adult work shows differences in emotional processing influenced by sexes of both the viewer and expresser of facial expressions. We investigated this in 120 healthy youths (57 boys; 10-17 years old) randomly assigned to fear conditioning and extinction tasks using either neutral male or female faces as the conditioned threat and safety cues, and a fearful face paired with a shrieking scream as the unconditioned stimulus. Fear ratings and skin conductance responses (SCRs) were assessed. Male faces triggered increased fear ratings in all participants during conditioning and extinction. Greater differential SCRs were observed in boys viewing male faces and in girls viewing female faces during conditioning. During extinction, differential SCR findings remained significant in boys viewing male faces. Our findings demonstrate how sex of participant and sex of target interact to shape fear responses in youths, and how the type of measure may lead to distinct profiles of fear responses.

  • Fear conditioning and extinction across development: evidence from human studies and animal models.
    Biol. Psychol. (IF 2.627) Pub Date : 2014-04-22
    Tomer Shechner,Melanie Hong,Jennifer C Britton,Daniel S Pine,Nathan A Fox

    The ability to differentiate danger and safety through associative processes emerges early in life. Understanding the mechanisms underlying associative learning of threat and safety can clarify the processes that shape development of normative fears and pathological anxiety. Considerable research has used fear conditioning and extinction paradigms to delineate underlying mechanisms in animals and human adults; however, little is known about these mechanisms in children and adolescents. The current paper summarizes the empirical data on the development of fear conditioning and extinction. It reviews methodological considerations and future directions for research on fear conditioning and extinction in pediatric populations.

  • The neural correlates of emotion-based cognitive control in adults with early childhood behavioral inhibition.
    Biol. Psychol. (IF 2.627) Pub Date : 2012-10-11
    Johanna M Jarcho,Nathan A Fox,Daniel S Pine,Amit Etkin,Ellen Leibenluft,Tomer Shechner,Monique Ernst

    The present study is the first to assess whether the neural correlates of cognitive control processes differ in adults with and without a behaviorally inhibited temperament during early childhood. Adults with and without childhood behavioral inhibition completed an emotional conflict task while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging scanning. While no group differences in behavior were observed, adults with childhood behavioral inhibition, relative to adults without childhood behavioral inhibition, exhibited greater dorsomedial prefrontal cortex activity during conflict detection and greater putamen activity during conflict adaptation. Lifetime psychopathology predicted behavioral, but not brain-related, differences in conflict adaptation. These data suggest that the brain regions underlying cognitive control processes are differentially influenced by childhood behavioral inhibition, and may be differently related to psychopathology.

  • Neurobiology of cognitive aging: insights from imaging genetics.
    Biol. Psychol. (IF 2.627) Pub Date : 2008-05-31
    Venkata S Mattay,Terry E Goldberg,Fabio Sambataro,Daniel R Weinberger

    Over the last several years, neuroscientists have been increasingly using neuroimaging techniques to unravel the neurobiology underlying cognitive aging, and in more recent years to explore the role of genes on the variability of the aging process. One of the primary goals of this research is to identify proteins involved in cognitive aging with the hope that this would facilitate the development of novel treatments to combat cognitive impairment. Further, it is likely with early identification of susceptible individuals, early intervention through life-style changes and other methods could increase an individual's resilience to the effects of aging.

  • Change of editorship
    Biol. Psychol. (IF 2.627) Pub Date : 2000-12-02

  • Personality and the serotonin transporter gene: Associations in a longitudinal population-based study.
    Biol. Psychol. (IF 2.627) Pub Date : 2009-05-14
    Jaanus Harro,Liis Merenäkk,Niklas Nordquist,Kenn Konstabel,Erika Comasco,Lars Oreland

    Associations between the promoter polymorphism of the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR) and anxiety-related personality traits in healthy adult subjects have been inconsistent. We assessed personality in participants of the Estonian Children Personality Behaviour and Health Study, using parental reports and self-reports. In the younger cohort, according to parental assessments at ages 9 and 15, children homozygous for the S allele had significantly higher scores of Neuroticism and lower scores of Openness, Agreeableness and Conscientiousness. Parental assessment of the older cohort at ages 15 and 18 did not yield any genotype effect on personality; however, interaction of cohort and genotype was not significant. According to self-reports, SS homozygotes had higher Neuroticism at age 15 but not at age 18. Thus, homozygocity for the S allele of the 5-HTTLPR is related to anxiety-related personality traits in general population, but this is easier to detect before adolescence.

  • Electrophysiological evidence of an early effect of sentence context in reading.
    Biol. Psychol. (IF 2.627) Pub Date : 2004-02-06
    Manuel Martín-Loeches,José A Hinojosa,Pilar Casado,Francisco Muñoz,Carlos Fernández-Frías

    Recognition Potential is an electrophysiological response of the brain that is sensitive to semantic aspects of stimuli. According to its peak values (about 250ms), Recognition Potential appears as a good candidate to reflect lexical selection processes. Consequently, Recognition Potential might be sensitive to contextual information during reading a sentence. In present study, the standard procedures to improve the visibility of Recognition Potential (Rapid Stream Stimulation paradigm) were used in a task in which sentence context was crucial. A parieto-occipital Recognition Potential was observed to peak about 264ms after stimulus onset, followed by a centro-parietal N400 peaking at about 450ms. Recognition Potential was affected by contextual information though, contrary to N400, presenting larger amplitude to contextually congruous words. These results support the assumption that Recognition Potential may reflect lexical selection processes, representing also evidence of context effects on ERP around 250ms after stimulus onset during sentence reading.

  • Performance and sleepiness during a 24 h wake in constant conditions are affected by diet.
    Biol. Psychol. (IF 2.627) Pub Date : 2004-02-06
    Arne Lowden,Ulf Holmbäck,Torbjörn Akerstedt,Jeanette Forslund,Maria Lennernäs,Anders Forslund

    This study investigated the effects of high-carbohydrate (HC) and high-fat (HF) diet on cognitive performance, and subjective and objective sleepiness. Seven male participants were kept awake for 24 h in a metabolic ward. Meals were given every 4h and cognitive performance and sleepiness ratings were assessed hourly. The Karolinska Drowsiness Test (KDT, EEG derived) was performed twice after meal. Performance in simple reaction time showed a significant interaction of diet and the post-prandial period, a slower reaction time was observed for the HC-diet 3.5 h after meal intake. Diet did not affect EEG measures but a general post-prandial increase of objective sleepiness was observed 3.5h after meal servings. The HC-diet was significantly associated with an increase of subjective sleepiness. The study demonstrated that the HC-diet caused larger oscillation in performance and increased sleepiness as compared to HF-diet throughout day and night.

  • Increases in lipids and immune cells in response to exercise and mental stress in patients with suspected coronary artery disease: effects of adjustment for shifts in plasma volume.
    Biol. Psychol. (IF 2.627) Pub Date : 2004-02-06
    Simon L Bacon,Christopher Ring,Gregory Y H Lip,Douglas Carroll

    This study examined the role of shifts in plasma volume on lipid and immune reactions to stress. Lipid, immune, rheological, and cardiovascular reactions to exercise and mental stress in 51 patients with suspected coronary artery disease were determined. Blood pressure and heart rate were measured during and blood samples taken at the end of each rest and task. Lipids (total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL, LDL) and immune cells (lymphocytes, monocytes, granulocytes) increased with exercise, whereas cholesterol, LDL, and lymphocytes increased with mental stress. Plasma volume decreased by 1 and 5% following mental and exercise stress, respectively. The task-induced increases in lipids were no longer statistically significant following adjustment for changes in plasma volume, whereas the increases in immune cell numbers survived such correction. This study provides evidence that, in coronary artery disease patients, exercise and mental stress-induced increases in lipids but not immune cells can be largely accounted for by shifts in plasma volume.

  • Neuropsychological performance in obsessive-compulsive disorder: a critical review.
    Biol. Psychol. (IF 2.627) Pub Date : 2004-02-06
    Anne Katrin Kuelz,Fritz Hohagen,Ulrich Voderholzer

    There is growing evidence for neuropsychological dysfunction in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) related to an underlying frontal lobe and/or basal ganglia dysfunction. The following paper is a systematical review of the existing literature on cognitive impairment in OCD patients. Fifty studies were surveyed with regard to methodological aspects and cognitive impairments found in OCD patients. In addition, the impact of confounding variables such as psychotropic medication, co-morbidity or severity of symptoms on neuropsychological functioning as well as effects of treatment are discussed. OCD is often related to memory dysfunction that seems to be associated with impaired organization of information at the stage of encoding. Several other executive functions are also commonly disturbed, though results are inconsistent. The results of our study suggest that some cognitive deficits seem to be common in OCD, but future studies should focus more on possible confounding variables such as co-morbidity or psychotropic medication.

  • Effects of a small talking facial image on autonomic activity: the moderating influence of dispositional BIS and BAS sensitivities and emotions.
    Biol. Psychol. (IF 2.627) Pub Date : 2004-01-07
    Niklas Ravaja

    We examined the moderating influence of dispositional behavioral inhibition system and behavioral activation system (BAS) sensitivities, Negative Affect, and Positive Affect on the relationship between a small moving vs. static facial image and autonomic responses when viewing/listening to news messages read by a newscaster among 36 young adults. Autonomic parameters measured were respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), low-frequency (LF) component of heart rate variability (HRV), electrodermal activity, and pulse transit time (PTT). The results showed that dispositional BAS sensitivity, particularly BAS Fun Seeking, and Negative Affect interacted with facial image motion in predicting autonomic nervous system activity. A moving facial image was related to lower RSA and LF component of HRV and shorter PTTs as compared to a static facial image among high BAS individuals. Even a small talking facial image may contribute to sustained attentional engagement among high BAS individuals, given that the BAS directs attention toward the positive cue and a moving social stimulus may act as a positive incentive for high BAS individuals.

  • Phasic heart rate responses to performance feedback in a time production task: effects of information versus valence.
    Biol. Psychol. (IF 2.627) Pub Date : 2004-01-07
    Frederik M van der Veen,Maurits W van der Molen,Eveline A Crone,J Richard Jennings

    This study examined the cardiac concomitants of feedback processing in a time production task derived from [Mittner et al., J. Cogn. Neurosci. 9 (1997) 788]. Participants performed the time production task (i.e. 1-s intervals) under two conditions. In the experimental condition, feedback informed them that the produced interval was within or outside the acceptable range (too long or too short). In the other, yoked-control, condition feedback was unrelated to the actual estimate. The performance findings indicated that in the experimental condition, participants tended to adjust the new interval in the direction indicated by the feedback. In the control condition, however, the adjustments were largely unrelated to the information provided by the feedback. Heart rate slowed to feedback stimuli indicating that the estimate was outside the acceptable range. Surprisingly, cardiac slowing did not discriminate between experimental and control conditions. This finding seems to suggest that heart rate is sensitive to the valence rather than the information provided by the feedback. This finding is discussed vis-à-vis current neuroimaging and psychophysiological studies of performance monitoring.

  • Lack of effect of tryptophan depletion on the loudness dependency of auditory event related potentials in healthy volunteers.
    Biol. Psychol. (IF 2.627) Pub Date : 2004-01-07
    A E Massey,V R Marsh,R H McAllister-Williams

    It has previously been suggested that auditory event related potentials (AEPs) are a potential marker of central serotonergic (5-HT) activity in man, with the slope of the AEP amplitude stimulus intensity function (ASF-slope) inversely correlating with 5-HT activity. However, two recent studies investigating this hypothesis in healthy subjects by rapidly lowering central 5-HT concentrations using the acute tryptophan depletion paradigm have found no effect on ASF-slope [Biological Psychology, 59 (2002) 121; Psychopharmacology (Berl), 146 (1999) 101]. These studies employed a 50g tryptophan depletion drink, which has been argued may not lower central 5-HT concentrations sufficiently. We here report the effect of tryptophan depletion on the AEP ASF-slope using 100g amino acid drinks with and without tryptophan in 14 healthy male subjects, employing a within subject, double blind, random, balanced order, cross-over design. No significant effect of tryptophan depletion was found on ASF-slope. These negative findings cast further doubt on the hypothesis that the ASF-slope is an indicator of central 5-HT function.

  • Vital exhaustion, temperament, and cardiac reactivity in task-induced stress.
    Biol. Psychol. (IF 2.627) Pub Date : 2004-01-07
    Liisa Keltikangas-Järvinen,Tarja Heponiemi

    The associations between vital exhaustion (long-term stress), temperament, and cardiac reactivity were studied during an experimentally induced stress in a sample of 76 healthy subjects. Vital exhaustion was assessed with the Maastricht Questionnaire(MQ), and temperament with Cloninger's Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI). Cardiac reactivity was measured in terms of heart rate, respiratory sinus arrhythmia, and pre-ejection period. They were continuously measured during three stressors, i.e. mental arithmetic, reaction time, and giving speech. Results showed that vital exhaustion (long-term stress) was first of all associated with parasympathetic withdrawal. In addition, among exhausted persons the initial parasympathetic tone had no effect on task-induced parasympathetic reactivity, whereas in non-exhausted subjects parasympathetic reactivity was greatest when initial parasympathetic tone was high. Vital exhaustion interacted with temperament and gender: exhausted, persistent women expressed the highest level of physiological stress reactivity. Findings suggest that background stress may diminish one's capacity to cope with acute stress.

  • Reactivity of immune, endocrine and cardiovascular parameters to active and passive acute stress.
    Biol. Psychol. (IF 2.627) Pub Date : 2004-01-07
    Tokiko Isowa,Hideki Ohira,Seikou Murashima

    This study clarified associations among immune, autonomic, and endocrine activities during mental arithmetic and cold pressor stress tasks in 26 women in the follicular phase. Both tasks decreased CD3+ T cells, CD4+ T cells, and CD19+ B cells, whereas they increased lymphocytes, granulocytes, NK cells, and NK cell activity (NKCA). The mental arithmetic task had a greater impact than the cold pressor task on changes in CD3+ T cells and in NK cells. Cardiovascular reactivity to active stress was associated with increased NK cells and decreased CD3+ T cells. Reduced cortisol levels during passive stress were associated with decreased CD19+ B cells and with increased NK cells. The merits of this study are that it controlled the following factors. Perceived stress during the two tasks was matched; both tasks lasted long enough to elicit high-magnitude responses; and the length of the intervening rest period minimized probable carryover effects between tasks.

  • Ethnicity, social class and hostility: effects on in vivo beta-adrenergic receptor responsiveness.
    Biol. Psychol. (IF 2.627) Pub Date : 2004-01-07
    Shamini Jain,Joel E Dimsdale,Scott C Roesch,Paul J Mills

    Little is known about the potential influences of social and psychosocial variables in accounting for ethnic differences in the beta-adrenergic receptor. We examined the effects of ethnicity, social class, and other variables on an in vivo marker of beta-adrenergic receptor responsiveness (Chronotropic 25 Dose, CD(25)) for 224 African-Americans and Caucasian-Americans. Social class was determined using the clinician-rated Hollingshead two-factor index. The Cook-Medley hostility and Buss-Durkee assaultiveness subscales were administered to a subset of subjects. Results indicated that African-Americans had decreased beta-receptor responsiveness compared to Caucasian-Americans after controlling for social class, age, and smoking (P=0.001). Secondary analysis for a subset of subjects revealed significant hostility x ethnicity interactions, such that hostility predicted decreased beta-receptor responsiveness for Caucasian-Americans (P=0.004), but not for African-Americans. Thus, decreased beta-adrenergic receptor responsiveness in African-Americans does not appear to be due to differences in current social class, age, or smoking status, nor to higher reports of hostility.

  • Application of the somatic marker hypothesis to individual differences in decision making.
    Biol. Psychol. (IF 2.627) Pub Date : 2003-11-26
    Atsunobu Suzuki,Akihisa Hirota,Noriyoshi Takasawa,Kazuo Shigemasu

    The somatic marker hypothesis (Damasio, Tranel, & Damasio, 1991) is a controversial theory asserting that somatic activities implicitly bias human behavior. In this study, we examined the relationship between choice behaviors in the Iowa Gambling Task and patterns of skin conductance responses (SCRs) within a healthy population. Results showed that low SCRs for appraising the monetary outcome of risky decisions were related to persistence in risky choices. Such adherence to risky decisions was not related to poor explicit knowledge about the task. On the other hand, anticipatory SCRs and the effect of them on performance were not confirmed. Our findings suggest that a variation in covert physiological appraisal underlies individual differences in decision making.

  • Facilitation of heartbeat self-perception in a discrimination task with individual adjustment of the S+ delay values.
    Biol. Psychol. (IF 2.627) Pub Date : 2003-11-26
    Alberto Acosta Mesas,Joaquín Pegalajar Chica

    Thirty-two subjects (16 women, 16 men) performed two tasks that were the result of adapting the heartbeat perception tasks produced by Whitehead et al. [Biofeedback Self-Regul. 2 (1977) 371] and Katkin et al. [Psychophysiology 19 (1982) 568], respectively. In the Whitehead task, the delay values were the standard 128 ms for the S+ stimulus and 384 ms for the S- stimulus after the R-wave in one case; in the other case, the delay values were individually adjusted according to the median of the distribution of interval choices in an adaptation of the Brener and Kluvitse [Psychophysiology 25 (1988a) 554; Psychophysiology 25 (1988b) 436] task carried out previously. In the Katkin procedure, in one case S+ always occurred at a fixed interval (100 ms), whereas S- occurred at uniformly increasing intervals in relation to the R-wave. In the other case, the S+ and S- intervals were also individually modified according to the performance in the Brener and Kluvitse task. The results indicate that when the S+ values are individually adjusted, the sensitivity of subjects, as reflected in the 2(arcsin(p(A)(1/2))) values, significantly improves in the Whitehead task. Additionally, it was seen that the performance deteriorated from the first to the last 50 trials, especially when the S+ values were adjusted.

  • Signal characteristics of spontaneous facial expressions: automatic movement in solitary and social smiles.
    Biol. Psychol. (IF 2.627) Pub Date : 2003-11-26
    Karen L Schmidt,Jeffrey F Cohn,Yingli Tian

    The assumption that the smile is an evolved facial display suggests that there may be universal features of smiling in addition to the basic facial configuration. We show that smiles include not only a stable configuration of features, but also temporally consistent movement patterns. In spontaneous smiles from two social contexts, duration of lip corner movement during the onset phase was independent of social context and the presence of other facial movements, including dampening. These additional movements produced variation in both peak and offset duration. Both onsets and offsets had dynamic properties similar to automatically controlled movements, with a consistent relation between maximum velocity and amplitude of lip corner movement in smiles from two distinct contexts. Despite the effects of individual and social factors on facial expression timing overall, consistency in onset and offset phases suggests that portions of the smile display are relatively stereotyped and may be automatically produced.

  • Moderation of physiological stress responses by personality traits and daily hassles: less flexibility of immune system responses.
    Biol. Psychol. (IF 2.627) Pub Date : 2003-11-26
    Madelon L Peters,Guido L R Godaert,Rudy E Ballieux,Coby J Heijnen

    Previously we demonstrated that stressors varying on the dimension of mental effort and controllability have distinctive effects on cardiovascular, endocrine and immune system responses. The purpose of the present study was to relate individual differences in physiological stress responsivity to task appraisal and stress-induced mood changes (issue 1), trait characteristics (issue 2) and daily hassles (issue 3). Appraisal and mood changes did not mediate the differential effects of the stressors. The trait characteristics, aggression and external locus of control and daily hassles moderated the effect of the stressor on physiological parameters, especially immune parameters. Moreover, the moderation effect was different in the high versus the low effort stress task. High aggression, high external locus of control and more daily hassles were associated with increased reactivity in the low effort condition and decreased reactivity in the high effort condition, which is suggested to reflect less differentiated responding to changing task demands and hence, less flexibility in the immune system.

  • Interpreting abnormality: an EEG and MEG study of P50 and the auditory paired-stimulus paradigm.
    Biol. Psychol. (IF 2.627) Pub Date : 2003-11-26
    J C Edgar,M X Huang,M P Weisend,A Sherwood,G A Miller,L E Adler,J M Cañive

    Interpretation of neurophysiological differences between control and patient groups on the basis of scalp-recorded event-related brain potentials (ERPs), although common and promising, is often complicated in the absence of information on the distinct neural generators contributing to the ERP, particularly information regarding individual differences in the generators. For example, while sensory gating differences frequently observed in patients with schizophrenia in the P50 paired-click gating paradigm are typically interpreted as reflecting group differences in generator source strength, differences in the latency and/or orientation of P50 generators may also account for observed group differences. The present study examined how variability in source strength, amplitude, or orientation affects the P50 component of the scalp-recorded ERP. In Experiment 1, simulations examined the effect of changes in source strength, orientation, or latency in superior temporal gyrus (STG) dipoles on P50 recorded at Cz. In Experiment 2, within- and between-subject variability in left and right M50 STG dipole source strength, latency, and orientation was examined in 19 subjects. Given the frequently reported differences in left and right STG anatomy and function, substantial inter-subject and inter-hemispheric variability in these parameters were expected, with important consequences for how P50 at Cz reflects brain activity from relevant generators. In Experiment 1, simulated P50 responses were computed from hypothetical left- and right-hemisphere STG generators, with latency, amplitude, and orientation of the generators varied systematically. In Experiment 2, electroencephalographic (EEG) and magnetoencephalographic (MEG) data were collected from 19 subjects. Generators were modeled from the MEG data to assess and illustrate the generator variability evaluated parametrically in Experiment 1. In Experiment 1, realistic amounts of variability in generator latency, amplitude, and orientation produced ERPs in which P50 scoring was compromised and interpretation complicated. In Experiment 2, significant within and between subject variability was observed in the left and right hemisphere STG M50 sources. Given the variability in M50 source strength, orientation, and amplitude observed here in nonpatient subjects, future studies should examine whether group differences in P50 gating ratios typically observed for patient vs. control groups are specific to a particular hemisphere, as well as whether the group differences are due to differences in dipole source strength, latency, orientation, or a combination of these parameters. Present analyses focused on P50/M50 merely as an example of the broader need to evaluate scalp phenomena in light of underlying generators. The development and widespread use of EEG/MEG source localization methods will greatly enhance the interpretation and value of EEG/MEG data.

  • Selective and nonselective attention effects on prepulse inhibition of startle: a comparison of task and no-task protocols.
    Biol. Psychol. (IF 2.627) Pub Date : 2003-11-25
    Diane L Filion,Albert B Poje

    The effects of selective and nonselective attentional processes on prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the acoustic startle response were examined by assessing PPI under intermixed task and no-task conditions. Results for the task condition revealed that greater PPI was produced by an attended than an ignored prepulse at a lead interval of 120 ms (marginally significant in the early trial block and significant in the late trial block), indicating an effect of selective attention at this lead interval. Comparisons between the task and no-task conditions revealed significantly greater PPI in the task than no-task condition at a 60-ms lead interval, during early and late trial blocks, indicating a nonselective attention effect at this lead interval. Overall, these results suggest that PPI is sensitive to selective and nonselective attentional influences and indicate that task and no-task PPI protocols reveal unique aspects of sensorimotor gating ability.

  • Error negativity on correct trials: a reexamination of available data.
    Biol. Psychol. (IF 2.627) Pub Date : 2003-11-25
    F Vidal,B Burle,M Bonnet,J Grapperon,T Hasbroucq

    The error negativity, an EEG wave observed when subjects commit an error in a choice reaction time (RT) task, is often considered as a sign of error detection. Recently, reports of Ne-like waves on correct responses did challenge this interpretation. It has been proposed, however, that these Ne-like waves result either from an artifactual contamination of response-locked activities by stimulus-locked ones, or from an implicit monitoring of the time elapsing during the RT. Our aim was to reprocess published data: (1) to compare the shape and amplitude of EMG-locked and stimulus-locked ERPs on correct trials, and (2) to compare the size of the EMG-locked Ne-like waves obtained on fast and slow trials. The results neither support the artifact hypothesis nor the RT monitoring one. Therefore, it seems that the Ne-like waves observed on correct trials do correspond to a Ne, which suggests that the Ne has a broader significance than just error detection.

  • Prefrontal activation through task requirements of emotional induction measured with NIRS.
    Biol. Psychol. (IF 2.627) Pub Date : 2003-11-25
    M J Herrmann,A-C Ehlis,A J Fallgatter

    The medial prefrontal cortex is believed to be involved in emotional experiences, but also in situations in which attention and self-monitoring is required. Therefore, it might be that the medial prefrontal cortex is not only activated by the emotional state per se, but rather through the task requirements that were used to induce emotions in the laboratory. The present study investigated the change of oxygenation in the left and right prefrontal cortex measured with near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) from 14 subjects during two kinds of emotional induction, which differed in the self-monitoring requirements. The task with the higher self-monitoring requirements resulted in an increased concentration of oxygenated hemoglobin (O(2)HB). This activation pattern was not observed during the emotional induction with the fewer self-monitoring requirements, although the subjective ratings indicated that both tasks induced comparable emotional states. The results indicate that task requirements should be taken into account when investigating the neural substrate of emotions.

  • The deceptive response: effects of response conflict and strategic monitoring on the late positive component and episodic memory-related brain activity.
    Biol. Psychol. (IF 2.627) Pub Date : 2003-11-25
    Ray Johnson,Jack Barnhardt,John Zhu

    The cognitive processes and neural mechanisms underlying deceptive responses were studied using behavioral responses (RT) and event-related brain potentials (ERPs) while participants made truthful and deceptive responses about perceived and remembered stimuli. Memorized words were presented in a recognition paradigm under three instructional conditions: Consistent Truthful, Consistent Deceptive, Random Deceptive. Responses that conflicted with the truth about both perceived and remembered items produced the same pattern of slower RTs and decreased LPC amplitudes. When long-term response patterns were monitored, RTs became much slower and LPC amplitudes decreased greatly. The different behavioral and ERP changes in the two deception conditions suggested that two dissociable executive control processes, each requiring additional processing resources, can contribute to deceptive responses. The parietal episodic memory (EM) effect, thought to reflect recollection, was unaffected by whether participants responded truthfully or deceptively suggesting that it provides a measure of guilty knowledge.

  • 更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Effects of alcohol consumption and alcohol susceptibility on cognition: a psychophysiological examination.
    Biol. Psychol. (IF 2.627) Pub Date : 2003-11-07
    Bruce D Bartholow,Melanie Pearson,Kenneth J Sher,Leighann C Wieman,Monica Fabiani,Gabriele Gratton

    The present study sought to examine acute effects of alcohol on cognitive processing and performance within the context of two prominent theories of alcohol's effects; namely, that alcohol restricts the focus of attention (e.g. Steele and Josephs, 1990. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 97, 196-205) and that alcohol impairs response inhibition (e.g. Fillmore and Vogel-Sprott, 1999. Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology, 7, 49-55; Fillmore and Vogel-Sprott, 2000. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 61, 239-246). Forty-five participants were randomly assigned to receive either a placebo level of alcohol (0.04 g/kg), a moderate dose (0.40 g/kg), or a higher dose (0.80 g/kg). Brain electrical activity (ERPs) and behavioral responses (reaction time and accuracy) were measured while participants performed a modified flanker task, in which a target letter was flanked by response-compatible or response-incompatible letters. Analyses of behavioral data showed that alcohol increased response competition in accuracy but not response times, suggesting that alcohol influences response selection more than attentional processes per se. This finding is in-line with predictions derived from the response inhibition model. ERP latency data provided mixed support for both models. ERP amplitude data showed that the high dose of alcohol primarily influenced a mostly frontal negativity in the ERP, present on both correct and incorrect response trials. Differences in self-reported susceptibility to alcohol were most evident in the amplitude of the P3 component. Findings are discussed in terms of the differential effects of acute dose and susceptibility on information processing.

  • Independent control of processing strategies for different locations in the visual field.
    Biol. Psychol. (IF 2.627) Pub Date : 2003-11-07
    Paul M Corballis,Gabriele Gratton

    We investigated how the selection of information-processing strategies is organized. We contrasted three alternative ways in which strategies may be controlled: a centralized mechanism, a hemisphere-specific mechanism or a local mechanism. We built on the previous observation that the size of the noise-compatibility effect (flanker effect) is influenced by observers' expectancies for compatible or incompatible arrays. In three experiments, we varied the probabilities of compatible or incompatible noise in different locations of the visual field. We found that observers can adapt their processing strategies, as indicated by changes in the size of the noise-compatibility effect, independently in the left and right hemifields. However, processing of midline stimuli is determined by the expectancies existing in the lateral locations. These data support the notion of a hemisphere- or location-specific selection of processing strategies and suggest that the strategy selection process is not unitary.

  • Implementation of error-processing in the human anterior cingulate cortex: a source analysis of the magnetic equivalent of the error-related negativity.
    Biol. Psychol. (IF 2.627) Pub Date : 2003-11-07
    Wolfgang H R Miltner,Ulrike Lemke,Thomas Weiss,Clay Holroyd,Marten K Scheffers,Michael G H Coles

    Recent research has described a component of human electrical brain activity (the ERN or NE) that is associated with error-processing. In the present experiment, we used magneto-encephalographic recordings to provide converging evidence both for the existence of this component and for its putative source in the brain. Six human subjects performed a Go-NoGo task while both magnetoencephalographic and electroencephalographic brain activity were recorded. We found evidence for a magnetic equivalent of the ERN and dipole source analysis suggested that this activity was generated in the anterior cingulate cortex. These data converge with those from electrical recordings in implicating this brain structure in error-processing.

  • Cardiac concomitants of feedback processing.
    Biol. Psychol. (IF 2.627) Pub Date : 2003-11-07
    Eveline A Crone,Frederik M van der Veen,Maurits W van der Molen,Riek J M Somsen,Bert van Beek,J Richard Jennings

    This study examined the heart rate changes associated with positive and negative performance feedback in a probabilistic learning task derived from Holroyd and Coles (Psychological Review, 109 (2002) 679). In this task, subjects were presented with six stimuli and asked to respond by pressing a left versus right key. Responses were followed by positive or negative feedback. Subjects had to infer the S-R mapping rule on the basis of feedback provided to them. Two stimuli were consistently mapped onto the left versus right key (100% mapping). Two other stimuli were randomly mapped onto the keys (50% mapping) and responses to the two remaining stimuli received always positive or negative feedback (always condition). Negative feedback was associated with heart rate slowing in the 100% condition. Heart rate slowed following both positive and negative feedback in the 50% condition, but only when the previous encounter with the stimulus was followed by alternate feedback. Heart rate did not differentiate between positive and negative feedback in the always condition. The results were interpreted in support of the hypothesis assuming that heart rate slowing is elicited when performance-based expectations are violated.

Contents have been reproduced by permission of the publishers.
上海纽约大学William Glover