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  • Testing the magnocellular-pathway advantage in facial expressions processing for consistency over time
    Neuropsychologia (IF 2.872) Pub Date : 2020-01-17
    Maor Zeev-Wolf; Yuri Rassovsky

    The ability to identify facial expressions rapidly and accurately is central to human evolution. Previous studies have demonstrated that this ability relies to a large extent on the magnocellular, rather than parvocellular, visual pathway, which is biased toward processing low spatial frequencies. Despite the generally consistent finding, no study to date has investigated the reliability of this effect over time. In the present study, 40 participants completed a facial emotion identification task (fearful, happy, or neutral faces) using facial images presented at three different spatial frequencies (low, high, or broad spatial frequency), at two time points separated by one year. Bayesian statistics revealed an advantage for the magnocellular pathway in processing facial expressions; however, no effect for time was found. Furthermore, participants’ RT patterns of results were highly stable over time. Our replication, together with the consistency of our measurements within subjects, underscores the robustness of this effect. This capacity, therefore, may be considered in a trait-like manner, suggesting that individuals may possess various ability levels for processing facial expressions that can be captured in behavioral measurements.

    更新日期:2020-01-17
  • Resting-state EEG reveals global network deficiency in dyslexic children
    Neuropsychologia (IF 2.872) Pub Date : 2020-01-14
    Huidong Xue; Zhiguo Wang; Yufei Tan; Hang Yang; Wanlu Fu; Licheng Xue; Jing Zhao

    Developmental dyslexia is known to involve dysfunctions in multiple brain regions; however, a clear understanding of the brain networks behind this disorder is still lacking. The present study examined the functional network connectivity in Chinese dyslexic children with resting-state electroencephalography (EEG) recordings. EEG data were recorded from 27 dyslexic children and 40 age-matched controls, and a minimum spanning tree (MST) analysis was performed to examine the network connectivity in the delta, theta, alpha, and beta frequency bands. The results show that, compared to age-matched controls, Chinese dyslexic children had global network deficiencies in the beta band, and the network topology was more path-like. Moderate correlations are observed between MST degree metric and rapid automatized naming and morphological awareness tests. These observations, together with the findings in alphabetic languages, show that brain network deficiency is a common neural underpinning of dyslexia across writing systems.

    更新日期:2020-01-15
  • Precision, binding, and the hippocampus: Precisely what are we talking about?
    Neuropsychologia (IF 2.872) Pub Date : 2020-01-13
    Arne D. Ekstrom; Andrew P. Yonelinas

    Endel Tulving's proposal that episodic memory is distinct from other memory systems like semantic memory remains an extremely influential idea in cognitive neuroscience research. As originally suggested by Tulving, episodic memory involves three key components that differentiate it from all other memory systems: spatiotemporal binding, mental time travel, and autonoetic consciousness. Here, we focus on the idea of spatiotemporal binding in episodic memory and, in particular, how consideration of the precision of spatiotemporal context helps expand our understanding of episodic memory. Precision also helps shed light on another key issue in cognitive neuroscience, the role of the hippocampus outside of episodic memory in perception, attention, and working memory. By considering precision alongside item-context bindings, we attempt to shed new light on both the nature of how we represent context and what roles the hippocampus plays in episodic memory and beyond.

    更新日期:2020-01-13
  • Object parsing in the left lateral occipitotemporal cortex: Whole shape, part shape, and graspability
    Neuropsychologia (IF 2.872) Pub Date : 2020-01-11
    Wei Wu; Xiaoying Wang; Tao Wei; Chenxi He; Yanchao Bi

    Small and manipulable objects (tools) preferentially evoke a network of brain regions relative to other objects, including the lateral occipitotemporal cortex (LOTC), which is assumed to process tool shape information. Given the correlation between various object properties, the exact type of information being represented in the LOTC remains debated. In three fMRI experiments, we examined the effects of multiple levels of shape (whole vs. object parts) and motor-related (grasping; manipulation) information. Combining representational similarity analysis and commonality analysis allowed us to partition the unique and shared effects of correlated dimensions. We found that grasping manner (for pickup), not the overall object shape or manner of manipulation, uniquely explained the LOTC neural activity pattern (Experiments 1 and 2). Experiment 3 tested tools composed of two parts to understand better how grasping manner was computed from object visual inputs. Support vector machine analysis revealed that the LOTC activity could decode different shapes of the tools' handle parts but not the tools' head parts. Together, these results suggest that the LOTC parses tool shapes by how it maps onto grasping programs; such parsing is not fully based on the whole-object shape but rather an interaction between the whole (where to grasp) and its parts (distinguishing the shape for the grasping part for specific grasping manners).

    更新日期:2020-01-13
  • Familiarity impairments after anterior temporal-lobe resection with hippocampal sparing: Lessons learned from case NB
    Neuropsychologia (IF 2.872) Pub Date : 2020-01-10
    Stefan Köhler; Chris B. Martin

    We review evidence from an extensive single case study in an individual (NB) who underwent a rare left-sided anterior temporal-lobe resection with sparing of the hippocampus. Our study aimed to determine whether memory functions of perirhinal cortex, which was largely removed in the resection, can be impaired against a background of preserved hippocampus-dependent memory processing. This research was guided by the proposal that item-based familiarity assessment relies on contributions of perirhinal cortex, and that the hippocampus plays a unique role in the relational binding of items to episodic contexts, which is critical for recollection. Seven sets of findings have emerged from this research in NB and from follow-up work in other patients: (i) Familiarity impairments can be selective and be revealed with multiple methods; (ii) selective familiarity and selective recollection impairments can be double dissociated; (iii) selective familiarity impairments show material specificity; (iv) selective familiarity impairments extend to assessment of cumulative lifetime experience; (v) selective familiarity impairments are sensitive to degree of feature overlap between object concepts; (vi) selective familiarity impairments are associated with preserved task-related fMRI signals in the hippocampus; (vii) selective familiarity impairments can be observed in other lesion cases. Despite our main focus on the dual-process framework, we also discuss implications for the functional organization of the medial temporal lobes in broader terms. We argue that our findings shed light on this organization even if the functional specialization of different medial temporal structures is ultimately not fully captured with reference to the cognitive distinction between familiarity and recollection.

    更新日期:2020-01-11
  • The impact of Focused Attention on subsequent emotional recollection: A functional MRI investigation
    Neuropsychologia (IF 2.872) Pub Date : 2020-01-08
    Florin Dolcos; Yuta Katsumi; Paul Bogdan; Chen Shen; Suhnyoung Jun; Simona Buetti; Alejandro Lleras; Kelly Freeman Bost; Mathias Weymar; Sanda Dolcos

    In his seminal works, Endel Tulving argued that functionally distinct memory systems give rise to subjective experiences of remembering and knowing (i.e., recollection-vs. familiarity-based memory, respectively). Evidence shows that emotion specifically enhances recollection, and this effect is subserved by a synergistic mechanism involving the amygdala (AMY) and hippocampus (HC). In extreme circumstances, however, uncontrolled recollection of highly distressing memories may lead to symptoms of affective disorders. Therefore, it is important to understand the factors that can diminish such detrimental effects. Here, we investigated the effects of Focused Attention (FA) on emotional recollection. FA is an emotion regulation strategy that has been proven quite effective in reducing the impact of emotional responses associated with the recollection of distressing autobiographical memories, but its impact during emotional memory encoding is not known. Functional MRI and eye-tracking data were recorded while participants viewed a series of composite negative and neutral images with distinguishable foreground (FG) and background (BG) areas. Participants were instructed to focus either on the FG or BG content of the images and to rate their emotional responses. About 4 days later, participants’ memory was assessed using the R/K procedure, to indicate whether they Recollected specific contextual details about the encoded images or the images were just familiar to them – i.e., participants only Knew that they saw the pictures without being able to remember specific contextual details. First, results revealed that FA was successful in decreasing memory for emotional pictures viewed in BG Focus condition, and this effect was driven by recollection-based retrieval. Second, the BG Focus condition was associated with decreased activity in the AMY, HC, and anterior parahippocampal gyrus for subsequently recollected emotional items. Moreover, correlation analyses also showed that reduced activity in these regions predicted greater reduction in emotional recollection following FA. These results demonstrate the effectiveness of FA in mitigating emotional experiences and emotional recollection associated with unpleasant emotional events.

    更新日期:2020-01-09
  • Age-related effect on language control and executive control in bilingual and monolingual speakers: Behavioral and electrophysiological evidence
    Neuropsychologia (IF 2.872) Pub Date : 2020-01-08
    Emilie Massa; Barbara Köpke; Radouane El Yagoubi

    Research suggests that bilingual language control and executive control (EC) have similar mechanisms and share common brain networks. Managing two languages presumably reinforces these networks and enhances the level of general executive functioning in bilinguals. Despite a huge amount of research, there is not yet any consensus on the nature of the potential bilingual advantage. The overall purpose of the present research was thus to gain insights into the influence of bilingualism on executive functions, by exploring aging-related changes. The domain-general tasks approach consisted in comparing young and older bilinguals with their monolingual peers on tasks that were deliberately chosen to assess different aspects of inhibition (Stroop, Antisaccade, and Stop Signal tasks) and cognitive flexibility (Berg Card Sorting Test, Trail Making Test and verbal fluency). Our goal was to ascertain whether bilinguals outperform monolinguals, and whether this advantage is greater for older bilinguals. Results provided some evidence of a bilingual advantage in verbal tasks involving language processing, such as verbal fluency and the Stroop test, but did not support the hypothesis of a general executive advantage, as bilinguals and monolinguals did not differ on nonlinguistic executive tasks. The language switch task approach consisted in studying the performance of young and older bilinguals on picture naming while switching between their dominant and nondominant languages, and comparing their performance with monolingual speakers in an equivalent switching paradigm. The effects of aging on mixing and switch costs were investigating by analyzing behavioral and event-related potential (ERP) data. Results of these tasks did not reveal any effect of aging on mixing cost in bilinguals. Furthermore, ERP data pointed to a degree of flexibility in older bilinguals, who were able to allocate resources according to task difficulty. Taken together, our results suggest that a bilingual advantage is only observed in language-based tasks.

    更新日期:2020-01-08
  • The neural basis of nonword repetition in children with developmental speech or language disorder: An fMRI study
    Neuropsychologia (IF 2.872) Pub Date : 2020-01-07
    Lauren Pigdon; Catherine Willmott; Sheena Reilly; Gina Conti-Ramsden; Frederique Liegeois; Alan Connelly; Angela T. Morgan

    Developmental language disorder (DLD) and developmental speech disorder (DSD) are highly prevalent childhood conditions. An impaired ability to repeat nonsense words (“nonword repetition”), is claimed to be a robust behavioural marker for these conditions. Yet how brain function is altered during this task remains poorly understood. Previous research suggests that DLD or DSD may be associated with reduced brain activation in the inferior frontal and posterior temporal regions when compared to controls. However, this research is limited by within and between group variability in age, speech/language phenotype, and comorbidities. Here, we used functional MRI to examine brain activation during nonword repetition. As anticipated, behavioural findings confirmed that the DLD and DSD groups had poorer nonword repetition performance compared to typical controls. In contrast, fMRI revealed no statistically significant differences in brain activation, despite the groups appearing to engage slightly different regions when compared at identical thresholds. Therefore, whilst nonword repetition is a sensitive clinical marker for DLD and DSD, the findings from this study suggest that this task is not a sensitive brain MRI marker for children with these disorders, unlike for individuals with single gene mutations like FOXP2 mutations.

    更新日期:2020-01-07
  • Disownership of body parts as revealed by a visual scale evaluation. An observational study
    Neuropsychologia (IF 2.872) Pub Date : 2020-01-07
    Roberta Ronchi; Michela Bassolino; Dragana Viceic; Anne Bellmann; Philippe Vuadens; Olaf Blanke; Giuseppe Vallar

    The disownership of body parts, that most frequently occurs on the left side of the body, contralateral to right-hemispheric lesions, is an infrequent disorder, as usually assessed by interviews asking for dichotomic “yes/no” responses. This observational study in right-brain-damaged stroke patients investigated the efficacy of a continuous Visual Analog Scale (VAS) to detect body disownership after right brain damage, compared to dichotomic questions. Thirty-two right-handed right-brain-damaged stroke patients were given a Standardized Interview (SI), asking “Whose hand/arm/leg is this?”, followed by a VAS (asking patients to mark on a vertical line their agreement with the statement that a body part belonged to them). The neural correlates of this disorder and measures of extra-personal and personal spatial neglect were also assessed. Control data were recorded from 18 neurologically unimpaired right-handed participants. During the interview, no patient showed disownership of body parts. Conversely, on the VAS eight out of 32 (25%) patients' scores, but none of the controls’ scores, indicated a judgement of disownership for left body parts, with a left-right difference larger than that of control participants. VAS-detected disownership was not systematically associated with extra-personal and personal unilateral spatial neglect. Lesion sites associated with disownership of left body parts included the caudate nucleus and the anterior part of the internal capsule. To conclude, the VAS task, compared to the interview, is a novel tool to detect disownership of left body parts in right brain-damaged patients. A revised classification of body-ownership disorders is proposed. The present variant, assessed and detected by the VAS task, is termed Covert disownership and distinguished from the Overt disownership assessed by a SI.

    更新日期:2020-01-07
  • A leopard cannot change its spots: A novel pragmatic account of concretism in schizophrenia
    Neuropsychologia (IF 2.872) Pub Date : 2020-01-07
    Valentina Bambini; Giorgio Arcara; Francesca Bosinelli; Mariachiara Buonocore; Margherita Bechi; Roberto Cavallaro; Marta Bosia

    Concretism is a well-known feature of schizophrenia, tracing back to the early descriptions of the disease and commonly associated with the literal interpretation of figurative expressions such as proverbs, metaphors, and idioms. However, figurative expressions are not all alike in terms of linguistic and pragmatic processes. Determining if some figurative types are more impaired than others and if the type of task affects the performance constitutes an open issue with implications for the description of the clinical profile and for treatment. We run a fine-grained assessment of figurative language comprehension by comparing 47 patients with schizophrenia and 39 controls in three figurative types (idioms, metaphors, proverbs) presented in two response formats (multiple-choice, verbal-explanation), considering also the role of cognitive and clinical variables and the impact on quality of life. Mixed-effects models analysis revealed that: i) patients performed worse than controls across figurative types and response formats, indicating a diffuse impairment; ii) there is an interplay of figurative type and response format, which makes verbal-explanation of proverbs especially challenging; iii) in patients, problems in figurative language are largely connected with formal thought disorder and global IQ. Moreover, multiple-choice of metaphors was associated with patients’ quality of life. This study offers a novel account of concretism, framed in pragmatics and figurative language processing. Adopting this perspective allowed us to describe the nuances of concretism, which areas in the figurative domain are especially challenging for patients and which ones capture differences in functioning, in order to guide intervention programs and integration in society.

    更新日期:2020-01-07
  • Explicit memory and cognition in monkeys
    Neuropsychologia (IF 2.872) Pub Date : 2020-01-07
    Robert R. Hampton; Jonathan W.M. Engelberg; Ryan J. Brady

    Taxonomies of human memory, influenced heavily by Endel Tulving, make a fundamental distinction between explicit and implicit memory. Humans are aware of explicit memories, whereas implicit memories control behavior even though we are not aware of them. Efforts to understand the evolution of memory, and to use nonhuman animals to model human memory, will be facilitated by better understanding the extent to which this critical distinction exists in nonhuman animals. Work with metacognition paradigms in the past 20 years has produced a strong case for the existence of explicit memory in nonhuman primates and possibly other nonhuman animals. Clear dissociations of explicit and implicit memory by metacognition have yet to be demonstrated in nonhumans, although dissociations between memory systems by other behavioral techniques, and by brain manipulations, suggest that the explicit-implicit distinction applies to nonhumans. Neurobehavioral studies of metamemory are beginning to identify neural substrates for memory monitoring in the frontal cortex of monkeys. We have strong evidence that at least some memory systems are explicit in rhesus monkeys, but we need to learn more about the distribution of explicit processes across cognitive systems within monkeys, and across species.

    更新日期:2020-01-07
  • Age-related differences in brain activation during working memory updating: An fMRI study
    Neuropsychologia (IF 2.872) Pub Date : 2020-01-07
    Shuo Qin; Chandramallika Basak

    Recent neuroimaging studies have reported an age-related reduction in brain activations in response to working memory load in task-sensitive brain regions. The current fMRI study investigated the age-related differences in brain activations of the updating mechanism in working memory, which was not investigated in previous studies. With a hybrid block/event-related design, this study was able to examine changes in BOLD signals (i.e., neuromodulation) to increase in updating, a type of cognitive control that is understudied. Older adults were separated into young-old and old-old cohorts to examine whether, within healthy aging, the neuromodulation to cognitive control decreases with age. Our results show that younger adults activate left precentral gyrus and right cerebellum more during trials that require updating than trials that do not require updating. Although older adults showed reduced neuromodulation in these two regions, the old-old cohort failed to show any significant neuromodulation in response to updating. Moreover, older adults not only showed reduced suppressions of the default mode network (DMN) regions during the task, they also overactivated some of the DMN regions, esp. the old-old, when compared to the younger adults. Older adults also showed overactivations in a region (right precentral gyrus) that is contralateral to a task-sensitive region that was activated in the younger adults during updating. Brain-behavior correlations suggest that age-related overactivations of these DMN regions and the right precentral gyrus are maladaptive to their performance. Our results suggest that not only the neuromodulation in response to updating demands is diminished in healthy aging, older adults also show maladaptive increases in activations of task-irrelevant regions and reduced hemispheric specificity during updating. These effects are most pronounced in old-old cohort, compared to young-old, suggesting that age-related declines in neuromodulation during cognitive control is more pronounced in older cohorts within healthy aging.

    更新日期:2020-01-07
  • Prioritized attentional processing: Acute stress, memory and stimulus emotionality facilitate attentional disengagement
    Neuropsychologia (IF 2.872) Pub Date : 2020-01-07
    Lisa Wirz; Lars Schwabe

    Rapid attentional orienting toward relevant stimuli and efficient disengagement from irrelevant stimuli are critical for survival. Here, we examined the roles of memory processes, emotional arousal and acute stress in attentional disengagement. To this end, 64 healthy participants encoded negative and neutral facial expressions and, after being exposed to a stress or control manipulation, performed an attention task in which they had to disengage from these previously encoded as well as novel face stimuli. During the attention task, electroencephalography (EEG) and pupillometry data were recorded. Our results showed overall faster reaction times after acute stress and when participants had to disengage from emotionally negative or old facial expressions. Further, pupil dilations were larger in response to neutral faces. During disengagement, our EEG data revealed a reduced N2pc amplitude when participants disengaged from neutral compared to negative facial expressions when these were not presented before, as well as earlier onset latencies for the N400f (for disengagement from negative and old faces), the N2pc, and the LPP (for disengagement from negative faces). In addition, early visual processing of negative faces, as reflected in the P1 amplitude, was enhanced specifically in stressed participants. Our findings indicate that attentional disengagement is improved for negative and familiar stimuli and that stress facilitates not only attentional disengagement but also emotional processing in general. Together, these processes may represent important mechanisms enabling efficient performance and rapid threat detection.

    更新日期:2020-01-07
  • The validity and reliability of quantifying hemispheric specialisation using fMRI: Evidence from left and right handers on three different cerebral asymmetries
    Neuropsychologia (IF 2.872) Pub Date : 2020-01-07
    Leah T. Johnstone; Emma M. Karlsson; David P. Carey

    Neuroimaging has tremendous potential for quantifying hemispheric specializations. However, the possibilities remain under-utilized, in part, given some of the complexities in quantifying any differences in a reliable, transparent fashion. A second issue with hemispheric asymmetries is that they are extremely one-sided in most people. This skew limits the generalisability of any findings to those participants with rarer forms of cerebral asymmetry. Here, we demonstrate usefulness of an approach developed by Wilke and Lidzba, (J Neurosci Meth, 163, 2007), which allows for threshold-independent estimates of cerebral asymmetry to be calculated in individual participants. We compared these estimates from two separate runs for three different cerebral asymmetries in the same participants. We circumvented the skewed nature of this type of data in two ways; first, we scanned a large number of non-right handed participants, and second, we included asymmetries that favour the right hemisphere in right handers, which we had reason to believe were less skewed than those related to speech and language. Verbal fluency and two visuoperceptual asymmetries were localised in a sample of 33 right handed and 60 non-right handed participants. Laterality indices (LIs), which quantify the direction and strength of an asymmetry, were calculated for BOLD activity relating to language, face perception, and body perception in each run separately. Run 1 - run 2 correlations were all statistically significant and surprisingly sizeable (r = 0.89 to r = 0.62), considering the relatively short amount of time on task within our particular localizers. This noteworthy success validates a number of useful ways that functional neuroimaging can be used to advance understanding of cerebral asymmetries.

    更新日期:2020-01-07
  • Different neural representations for detection of symmetry in dot-patterns and in faces: A state-dependent TMS study
    Neuropsychologia (IF 2.872) Pub Date : 2020-01-07
    Zaira Cattaneo; Silvia Bona; Juha Silvanto

    The occipital face area (OFA) has been shown to code the presence of symmetry in faces and in vertically symmetric dot patterns. However, it is not clear whether symmetry processing of face and non-face stimuli involve overlapping neural mechanisms in OFA. This was assessed using state-dependent TMS by employing a priming paradigm. Specifically, we examined whether prior presentation of low-level symmetry affects the impact of TMS on discrimination of symmetry in subsequently presented faces – indicating that the same neural mechanisms encode symmetry in both face and non-face stimuli. Participants performed a symmetry discrimination task on a series of faces, each of which was preceded by either a vertically symmetric, a horizontally symmetric or a non-symmetric dot configuration (prime) while receiving stimulation over either the right OFA, the right Lateral Occipital Cortex (rLO) or over a control site (Vertex). Vertically symmetric dot patterns primed symmetry discrimination in faces. The key finding was that the priming effect was not affected by TMS applied over OFA; stimulation of this site (but not of rLO) impaired the discrimination of facial symmetry regardless of prime type. Overall, these results suggest that distinct neural representations in OFA are involved in symmetry detection in face and non-face stimuli.

    更新日期:2020-01-07
  • Multimodal semantic revision during inferential processing: The role of inhibitory control in text and picture comprehension
    Neuropsychologia (IF 2.872) Pub Date : 2020-01-03
    A. Pérez; E. Schmidt; Z. Kourtzi; I. Tsimpli

    Although language comprehension usually requires multimodal information, no study to date has investigated how comprehenders deal with the revision of a text's interpretation when different modalities are involved. Twenty-four young adults listened to a story prompting an inference (e.g., polar bear), and then saw a picture that was either consistent (polar bear) or inconsistent but still plausible (penguin). Larger negativity (N400) in the inconsistent picture indicated successful inferential monitoring. Subsequently, a sentence carried the disambiguating word which was either expected (“bear”) or unexpected (“penguin”) in relation to the auditory-verbal information. Larger negativity in the unexpected word coming from the consistent picture suggested that comprehenders had difficulties selecting the unexpected concept when previous information was contradictory. More importantly, this effect was modulated by inhibitory control, where a higher resistance to distractor interference (flanker task) was associated with a better ability to suppress pictorial information, therefore preventing semantic competition. Similarly, accuracy measured in a final comprehension question demonstrated that higher inhibitory control was related to a more efficient ability to revise the situation model across modalities. Our findings speak to a relationship between story comprehension and mental flexibility during multimodal processing.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Longitudinal evidence that reduced hemispheric encoding/retrieval asymmetry predicts episodic-memory impairment in aging
    Neuropsychologia (IF 2.872) Pub Date : 2019-12-27
    Jarkko Johansson; Alireza Salami; Anders Lundquist; Anders Wåhlin; Micael Andersson; Lars Nyberg

    The HERA (Hemispheric Encoding/Retrieval Asymmetry) model captures hemispheric lateralization of prefrontal cortex (PFC) brain activity during memory encoding and retrieval. Reduced HERA has been observed in cross-sectional aging studies, but there is no longitudinal evidence, to our knowledge, on age-related changes in HERA and whether maintained or reduced HERA relates to well-preserved memory functioning. In the present study we set out to explore HERA in a longitudinal neuroimaging sample from the Betula study [3 Waves over 10 years; Wave-1: n = 363, W2: n = 227, W3: n = 101]. We used fMRI data from a face-name paired-associates task to derive a HERA index. In support of the HERA model, the mean HERA index was positive across the three imaging waves. The longitudinal age–HERA relationship was highly significant (p < 10−11), with a HERA decline occurring after age 60. The age-related HERA decline was associated with episodic memory decline (p < 0.05). Taken together, the findings provide large-scale support for the HERA model, and suggest that reduced HERA in the PFC reflects pathological memory aging possibly related to impaired ability to bias mnemonic processing according to the appropriate encoding or retrieval state.

    更新日期:2019-12-27
  • Dynamic internal states shape memory retrieval
    Neuropsychologia (IF 2.872) Pub Date : 2019-12-27
    Hannah Tarder-Stoll; Manasi Jayakumar; Halle R. Dimsdale-Zucker; Eren Günseli; Mariam Aly

    Why do we sometimes easily retrieve memories, but other times appear to forget them? We often look to our external environment for retrieval cues, but another way to optimize memory retrieval is to be in a mental state, or mode, that prioritizes access to our internal representation of the world. Such a ‘retrieval mode’ was proposed by Endel Tulving (1983), who considered it a neurocognitive state in which one keeps the goal of memory retrieval in mind. Building on Tulving's proposal, we review converging evidence from multiple lines of research that emphasize the importance of internal states in the instantiation of retrieval modes that optimize successful remembering. We identify three key factors that contribute to a retrieval mode by modulating either the likelihood or the content of retrieval: (1) an intention to remember or forget (either in the present or the future), (2) attentional selection of goal-relevant memories and suppression of distractors, and (3) fluctuating levels of acetylcholine in the hippocampus. We discuss empirical evidence that these internal states individually influence memory retrieval and propose how they may interact synergistically. Characterizing these dynamic internal factors is an important key for unlocking our understanding of the organization and accessibility of our memories.

    更新日期:2019-12-27
  • Altered proactive control in adults with ADHD: Evidence from event-related potentials during cued task switching
    Neuropsychologia (IF 2.872) Pub Date : 2019-12-27
    Justina Sidlauskaite; Monica Dhar; Edmund Sonuga-Barke; Jan R. Wiersema

    Cognitive control has two distinct modes – proactive and reactive (Braver, T. S. (2012). The variable nature of cognitive control: a dual mechanisms framework. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 16(2), 105–112). ADHD has been associated with cognitive control impairments. However, studies have mainly focused on reactive control and not proactive control. Here we investigated neural correlates of proactive and reactive cognitive control in a group of adults with ADHD versus healthy controls by employing a cued switching task while cue informativeness was manipulated and EEG recorded. On the performance level, only a trend to generally slower responding was found in the ADHD group. Cue-locked analyses revealed an attenuated informative-positivity – a differential component appearing when contrasting informative with non-informative alerting cues – and potentially altered lateralisation of the switch-positivity – evident in the contrast between switch and repeat trials for informative cues – in ADHD. No difference in target-locked activity was found. Our results indicate altered proactive rather than reactive control in adults with ADHD, evidenced by less use of cued advance information and abnormal preparatory processes for upcoming tasks.

    更新日期:2019-12-27
  • Scene construction impairments in frontotemporal dementia: Evidence for a primary hippocampal contribution
    Neuropsychologia (IF 2.872) Pub Date : 2019-12-27
    Nikki-Anne Wilson; Siddharth Ramanan; Daniel Roquet; Zoë-Lee Goldberg; John R. Hodges; Olivier Piguet; Muireann Irish

    The capacity to generate naturalistic three-dimensional and spatially coherent representations of the world, i.e., scene construction, is posited to lie at the heart of a wide range of complex cognitive endeavours. Clinical populations with selective damage to key nodes of a putative scene construction network of the brain have provided important insights regarding the contribution of medial temporal and prefrontal regions in this regard. Here, we explored the capacity for atemporal scene construction, and its associated neural substrates, in the behavioural-variant of frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD); a neurodegenerative brain disorder in which atrophy systematically erodes medial and lateral prefrontal cortices with variable medial temporal lobe involvement. Nineteen bvFTD patients were compared to 18 typical Alzheimer's Disease (AD), and 25 healthy older Control participants on a scene construction task. Relative to Controls, both patient groups displayed marked impairments in generating contextually detailed and spatially coherent scenes, with bvFTD indistinguishable from AD patients across the majority of task metrics. Voxel-based morphometry, based on structural brain MRI, revealed divergent neural substrates of scene construction performance in each patient group. Despite widespread medial and lateral prefrontal atrophy, the capacity to generate richly detailed and spatially coherent scenes in bvFTD was found to rely predominantly upon the integrity of right medial temporal structures, including the hippocampus and parahippocampal gyrus. Scene construction impairments in AD, by contrast, hinged upon the integrity of posterior parietal brain regions. Our findings in bvFTD resonate with a large body of work implicating the right hippocampus in the construction of spatially integrated scene imagery. How these impairments relate to changes in autobiographical memory and prospection in bvFTD will be an important question for future studies to address.

    更新日期:2019-12-27
  • fMRI reveals language-specific predictive coding during naturalistic sentence comprehension
    Neuropsychologia (IF 2.872) Pub Date : 2019-12-24
    Cory Shain; Idan Asher Blank; Marten van Schijndel; William Schuler; Evelina Fedorenko

    Much research in cognitive neuroscience supports prediction as a canonical computation of cognition across domains. Is such predictive coding implemented by feedback from higher-order domain-general circuits, or is it locally implemented in domain-specific circuits? What information sources are used to generate these predictions? This study addresses these two questions in the context of language processing. We present fMRI evidence from a naturalistic comprehension paradigm (1) that predictive coding in the brain's response to language is domain-specific, and (2) that these predictions are sensitive both to local word co-occurrence patterns and to hierarchical structure. Using a recently developed continuous-time deconvolutional regression technique that supports data-driven hemodynamic response function discovery from continuous BOLD signal fluctuations in response to naturalistic stimuli, we found effects of prediction measures in the language network but not in the domain-general multiple-demand network, which supports executive control processes and has been previously implicated in language comprehension. Moreover, within the language network, surface-level and structural prediction effects were separable. The predictability effects in the language network were substantial, with the model capturing over 37% of explainable variance on held-out data. These findings indicate that human sentence processing mechanisms generate predictions about upcoming words using cognitive processes that are sensitive to hierarchical structure and specialized for language processing, rather than via feedback from high-level executive control mechanisms.

    更新日期:2019-12-25
  • No evidence for any effect of multiple sessions of frontal transcranial direct stimulation on mood in healthy older adults
    Neuropsychologia (IF 2.872) Pub Date : 2019-12-24
    Malin Freidle; Jonna Nilsson; Alexander V. Lebedev; Martin Lövdén

    The dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) is part of a network important for emotional regulation and the possibility of modulating activity in this region with transcranial direct current stimulation (TDCS) to change mood has gained great interest, particularly for application in clinical populations. Whilst results in major depressive disorder have been promising, less is known about the effects of TDCS on mood in non-clinical populations. We hypothesized that multiple sessions of anodal TDCS applied over the left DLPFC would enhance mood, primarily as measured by the Profile of Mood States questionnaire, in healthy older adults. In addition, in an exploratory analysis, we examined the potentially moderating role of working memory training. Working memory, just like emotional regulation, taxes the DLPFC, which suggests that engaging in a working memory task whilst receiving TDCS may have a different effect on activity in this region and consequently mood. A total of 123 participants between 65 and 75 years of age were randomly assigned to receive either 20 sessions of TDCS, with or without working memory training, or 20 sessions sham stimulation, with or without working memory training. We found no support for enhancement of mood due to TDCS in healthy older adults, with or without cognitive training and conclude that the TDCS protocol used is unlikely to improve mood in non-depressed older individuals.

    更新日期:2019-12-25
  • Regular rhythmic primes boost P600 in grammatical error processing in dyslexic adults and matched controls
    Neuropsychologia (IF 2.872) Pub Date : 2019-12-23
    Laure-Hélène Canette; Anna Fiveash; Jennifer Krzonowski; Alexandra Corneyllie; Philippe Lalitte; Dave Thompson; Laurel Trainor; Nathalie Bedoin; Barbara Tillmann

    Regular musical rhythms orient attention over time and facilitate processing. Previous research has shown that regular rhythmic stimulation benefits subsequent syntax processing in children with dyslexia and specific language impairment. The present EEG study examined the influence of a rhythmic musical prime on the P600 late evoked-potential, associated with grammatical error detection for dyslexic adults and matched controls. Participants listened to regular or irregular rhythmic prime sequences followed by grammatically correct and incorrect sentences. They were required to perform grammaticality judgments for each auditorily presented sentence while EEG was recorded. In addition, tasks on syntax violation detection as well as rhythm perception and production were administered. For both participant groups, ungrammatical sentences evoked a P600 in comparison to grammatical sentences and its mean amplitude was larger after regular than irregular primes. Peak analyses of the P600 difference wave confirmed larger peak amplitudes after regular primes for both groups. They also revealed overall a later peak for dyslexic participants, particularly at posterior sites, compared to controls. Results extend rhythmic priming effects on language processing to underlying electrophysiological correlates of morpho-syntactic violation detection in dyslexic adults and matched controls. These findings are interpreted in the theoretical framework of the Dynamic Attending Theory (Jones, 1976, 2019) and the Temporal Sampling Framework for developmental disorders (Goswami, 2011).

    更新日期:2019-12-23
  • Eye dominance modulates visuospatial attention
    Neuropsychologia (IF 2.872) Pub Date : 2019-12-21
    S. Schintu; R. Chaumillon; A. Guillaume; R. Salemme; K.T. Reilly; L. Pisella; A. Farnè

    Visuospatial attention has an inherent asymmetry: the leftward bias called pseudoneglect. In typical line bisection tasks, healthy individuals tend to judge the center of a line leftward of the true center, an effect attributed to the right hemisphere dominance in visuospatial attention. Since it has been shown that information perceived by the dominant eye strongly activates the ipsilateral visual cortex, we hypothesized that eye dominance may modulate visuospatial attention bias. Because activation of the left hemisphere induced by left eye dominance should mitigate the right hemisphere dominance in attention, we predicted that right-handed individuals with left dominant eye would show smaller amount of pseudoneglect than right-handed individuals with right dominant eye. We compared the performance at both the perceptual (Landmark) and manual line bisection task of forty right-handed healthy individuals, half of whom had a right dominant eye and the other half a left dominant eye. As predicted, the left eyed dominant group showed smaller, actually not significant pseudoneglect, which was thus greater in the right eye dominant group. The influence of eye dominance on visuospatial attention was present in the Landmark but not the manual line bisection task, in which the amount of visuospatial bias correlated with participants’ degree of (right) handedness. This is the first report of the effect of eye dominance on visuospatial attention within a right-handed population. This finding, by showing the influence of eye dominance on visuospatial cognition, not only helps in better defining intact visuospatial cognition mechanism but also encourages further research to pinpoint the neural basis of such interaction.

    更新日期:2019-12-21
  • Fluency and rule breaking behaviour in the frontal cortex
    Neuropsychologia (IF 2.872) Pub Date : 2019-12-20
    Lisa Cipolotti; Pascal Molenberghs; Juan Dominguez; Nicola Smith; Daniela Smirni; Tianbo Xu; Tim Shallice; Edgar Chan

    Design (DF) and phonemic fluency tests (FAS; D-KEFS, 2001) are; commonly used to investigate voluntary generation. Despite this, several; important issues remain poorly investigated. In a sizeable sample of; patients with focal left or right frontal lesion we established that; voluntary generation performance cannot be accounted for by fluid; intelligence. For DF we found patients performed significantly worse than; healthy controls (HC) only on the switch condition. However, no significant difference between left and right frontal patients was found. In contrast, left frontal patients were significantly impaired when compared with HC and right frontal patients on FAS. These lateralization findings were complemented, for the first time, by three neuroimaging; investigations. A traditional frontal subgrouping method found; significant differences on FAS between patients with or without Left Inferior Frontal Gyrus lesions involving BA 44 and/or 45. Parcel Based Lesion Symptom Mapping (PLSM) found lower scores on FAS were significantly associated with damage to posterior Left Middle Frontal Gyrus. An increase in rule break errors, so far only anecdotally reported, was associated with damage to the left dorsal anterior cingulate and left body of the corpus callosum, supporting the idea that conflict resolution and monitoring impairments may play a role. Tractwise statistical analysis (TSA) revealed that patients with disconnection; in the left anterior thalamic projections, frontal aslant tract, frontal; orbitopolar tract, pons, superior longitudinal fasciculus I and II performed significantly worse than patients without disconnection in these tracts on FAS. In contrast, PLSM and TSA analyses did not reveal any significant relationship between lesion location and performance on the DF switch condition. Overall, these findings suggest DF may have limited utility as a tool in detecting lateralized frontal executive dysfunction, whereas FAS and rule break behavior appears to be linked to a set of well localized left frontal grey matter regions and white matter tracts.

    更新日期:2019-12-20
  • Setting the midpoint of sentences: The role of the left hemisphere
    Neuropsychologia (IF 2.872) Pub Date : 2019-12-19
    Laura Veronelli; Lisa S. Arduino; Verena Biscaro; Massimo Corbo; Giuseppe Vallar

    The human brain has a remarkable capacity to focus processing resources based on the features and the relevance of the task at hand. The two cerebral hemispheres contribute differentially to this capacity, with the left hemisphere linguistic and right hemisphere visuo-spatial abilities each offering unique contributions. For example, previous research has established that healthy participants set the subjective mid-point of written sentences more leftwards of center, compared to unpronounceable letter strings or simple lines. Remarkably, patients with right hemisphere damage exhibiting unilateral spatial neglect also show this pattern, even though, as well known in the literature, they tend toward a rightward bias for non-linguistic stimuli. This evidence suggests that the leftward bias for sentential material is due to linguistic, mainly left-hemisphere mediated processes, which are largely unimpaired in right brain-damaged patients, and intact in heathy participants. To test this hypothesis, we compared sentence bisection performance to that of letter strings and simple lines in left brain-damaged patients (with and without aphasia). If the larger leftward bias in the bisection of sentential material is based on linguistic processes, then the left brain-damaged patients should show a reduction or absence of a leftward bias in sentence bisection. We tested twenty-four left brain-damaged patients (12 with aphasia and 12 without aphasia), and 24 age-matched elderly participants (patients and controls were all right-handed). Participants were asked to bisect 240 stimuli, comprising: (i) affirmative and interrogative clauses, (ii) sentences with lexical and syntactic violations, (iii) letter strings and (iv) simple lines. As predicted, neurologically intact participants showed larger leftward biases in bisecting written readable sentences compared to strings of letters. In contrast, the left hemisphere damaged patients (both with and without aphasia) showed no differences in bisecting sentences and letter strings or lines. These findings indicate that the larger leftward bias exhibited by healthy participants in the bisection of sentences is likely due to ortho-phonological coding taking place implicitly during the bisection task. This ortho-phonological coding is impaired with left brain damage – also in absence of apparent aphasia – leading to the left-hemisphere damaged patients showing a reduced leftward bias in sentence bisection. These findings support the hypothesis that the leftward bias in the bisection of written sentences is the result of ortho-phonological influences rather than visual-spatial biases.

    更新日期:2019-12-19
  • Decomposing the effort paradox in reward processing: Time matters
    Neuropsychologia (IF 2.872) Pub Date : 2019-12-17
    Wei Yi; Shuting Mei; Mang Zhang; Ya Zheng

    Effort expenditure not only discounts reward value prospectively but also accrues reward value retrospectively. To decompose the effort paradox in reward processing, the current event-related potential study investigated the neural dynamics underlying effects of effort expenditure on subsequent reward processing. Participants exerted one of two levels of effort to obtain an opportunity of winning a high or low amount of monetary reward, and we focused on electrophysiological activity during the anticipatory and consummatory phases of reward processing. During the anticipatory phase, the stimulus-preceding negativity was enhanced when potential high rewards were anticipated, but this reward effect disappeared following high-effort expenditure. During the consummatory phase, feedback-related ERPs were increased for high relative to low rewards, and this reward effect was enlarged following effort expenditure during the early stage (200–300 ms) as indexed by the reward positivity but not the late stage (400–600 ms) as indexed by the P3. Our findings provide a strong support for the psychological contrast theory and indicate that time matters in decomposing the effort paradox for reward processing such that effort expenditure reduces reward sensitivity during the anticipatory phase but enhances reward sensitivity during the consummatory phase.

    更新日期:2019-12-18
  • Lexical access versus lexical decision processes for auditory, visual, and audiovisual items: Insights from behavioral and neural measures
    Neuropsychologia (IF 2.872) Pub Date : 2019-12-13
    Rocío A. López Zunini; Martijn Baart; Arthur G. Samuel; Blair C. Armstrong

    In two experiments, we investigated the relationship between lexical access processes, and processes that are specifically related to making lexical decisions. In Experiment 1, participants performed a standard lexical decision task in which they had to respond as quickly and as accurately as possible to visual (written), auditory (spoken) and audiovisual (written + spoken) items. In Experiment 2, a different group of participants performed the same task but were required to make responses after a delay. Linear mixed effect models on reaction times and single trial Event-Related Potentials (ERPs) revealed that ERP lexicality effects started earlier in the visual than auditory modality, and that effects were driven by the written input in the audiovisual modality. More negative ERP amplitudes predicted slower reaction times in all modalities in both experiments. However, these predictive amplitudes were mainly observed within the window of the lexicality effect in Experiment 1 (the speeded task), and shifted to post-response-probe time windows in Experiment 2 (the delayed task). The lexicality effects lasted longer in Experiment 1 than in Experiment 2, and in the delayed task, we additionally observed a “re-instantiation” of the lexicality effect related to the delayed response. Delaying the response in an otherwise identical lexical decision task thus allowed us to separate lexical access processes from processes specific to lexical decision.

    更新日期:2019-12-17
  • Prominence marking in parkinsonian speech and its correlation with motor performance and cognitive abilities
    Neuropsychologia (IF 2.872) Pub Date : 2019-12-16
    Tabea Thies; Doris Mücke; Anja Lowit; Elke Kalbe; Julia Steffen; Michael T. Barbe

    Objectives Research suggests that people with Parkinson's disease (PwPD) do not only suffer from motor but also non-motor impairment. This interdisciplinary study investigated how prominence marking is influenced by problems on the motoric and cognitive level. Materials and methods We collected speech production data from 38 native German speakers: 19 PwPD (under medication) with a mild to moderate motor impairment, 13 males and 6 females (mean 66.2 years old, SD = 7.7), and 19 healthy age- and gender-matched control participants (mean 65.4 years old, SD = 9.3). Target words were produced in an accented and unaccented condition within a speech production task. The data were analyzed for intensity, syllable duration, F0 and vowel production. Furthermore, we assessed motor impairment and cognitive functions, i.e. working memory, task-switching, attention control and speed of information processing. Results Both groups were able to mark prominence by increasing pitch, syllable duration and intensity and by adjusting their vowel production. Comparisons between PwPD and control participants revealed that the vowel space was smaller in PwPD even in mildly impaired speakers. Further, task-switching as an executive function, which was tested with the trail making test, was correlated with modulation of F0 and intensity in PwPD: the worse the task-switching performance, the stronger intensity and F0 were modulated (target overshoot). Moreover, motor impairment within the PwPD group was related to a decrease in the acoustic vowel space (target undershoot), which further resulted in a decrease in speech intelligibility and naturalness. This behaviour of target over- and undershoot indicates an inefficient way of prominence marking in PwPD with mildly affected speech. Conclusion PwPD with signs of mild dysarthria did not differ from the control speakers with respect to their strategies of prominence marking. However, only the PwPD overused F0 and intensity in prominent positions. Overmodulation of F0 and intensity was correlated with the patient's task-switching ability and reflected abnormalities in the regulatory mechanism for expressing prosodic prominence. This is the first study to report a link between cognitive skills and speech production at the phonetic level in PwPD.

    更新日期:2019-12-17
  • Quick reorganization of memory traces for morphologically complex words in young children
    Neuropsychologia (IF 2.872) Pub Date : 2019-12-16
    Miika Leminen; Alina Leminen; Sini Smolander; Eva Arkkila; Yury Shtyrov; Marja Laasonen; Teija Kujala
    更新日期:2019-12-17
  • Hyperconnectivity of social brain networks in autism during action-intention judgment
    Neuropsychologia (IF 2.872) Pub Date : 2019-12-16
    Victoria C. Seghatol-Eslami; Jose O. Maximo; Carla J. Ammons; Lauren E. Libero; Rajesh K. Kana

    Deficits in social communication in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have been documented using neuroimaging techniques such as functional MRI over the past decade. More recently, functional connectivity MRI has revealed altered connectivity in face processing, mentalizing, and mirroring brain networks, networks involved in the social brain in ASD. However, to our knowledge, previous studies have not examined these three networks concurrently. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the functional connectivity of the face processing, mentalizing, and mirroring networks (within each network and across networks) in ASD during an action-intention task in which participants were asked to determine the means and intention of a model's actions. We examined: a) within-network connectivity of each network using an ROI-to-ROI analysis; b) connectivity of each network hub to the rest of the brain using a seed-to-voxel analysis; c) the between-network connectivity of each network hub using ROI-to-ROI analysis; and d) brain-behavior relationships by correlating autism symptoms with brain connectivity. Task-fMRI data were used from 21 participants with ASD and 20 typically developing participants. The ASD group consistently showed significantly greater connectivity between networks and between hub regions to the rest of the brain. Hyperconnectivity in ASD may entail more and widespread resource utilization for accomplishing action-intention judgment.

    更新日期:2019-12-17
  • Altered connectivity of the visual word form area in the low-vision population: A resting-state fMRI study
    Neuropsychologia (IF 2.872) Pub Date : 2019-12-16
    Wei Zhou; Wenbin Pang; Linjun Zhang; Hongkai Xu; Ping Li; Hua Shu

    The present study investigated the resting state functional connectivity (FC) of the visual word form area (VWFA) in low-vision people. Participants were 25 sighted and 37 low-vision individuals. During the experiment, participants underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) scans. FC maps of the VWFA for sighted and low-vision participants were calculated separately and were contrasted with each other. Our results revealed a stronger FC between the VWFA and the inferior occipital cortex (IOC) but a weaker FC between the VWFA and the posterior central gyrus (PostCG) in the sighted people compared to the people with low vision. The region-of-interest-based analyses showed that the FC between the VWFA and PostCG in low-vision individuals who learned Braille was stronger relative to those who did not learn Braille, and that the FC between the VWFA and IOC was correlated with the onset age of Braille learning. These results suggest that the VWFA in people with low vision has a functional reorganization between visual and tactile processing, which was modulated by the experience of Braille reading.

    更新日期:2019-12-17
  • Can processing of face trustworthiness bypass early visual cortex? A transcranial magnetic stimulation masking study
    Neuropsychologia (IF 2.872) Pub Date : 2019-12-12
    Shanice E.W. Janssens; Alexander T. Sack; Sarah Jessen; Tom A. de Graaf

    As a highly social species, we constantly evaluate human faces to decide whether we can trust someone. Previous studies suggest that face trustworthiness can be processed unconsciously, but the underlying neural pathways remain unclear. Specifically, the question remains whether processing of face trustworthiness relies on early visual cortex (EVC), required for conscious perception. If processing of trustworthiness can bypass EVC, then disrupting EVC should impair subjective (conscious) trustworthiness perception while leaving objective (forced-choice) trustworthiness judgment intact. We applied double-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to right EVC, at different stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs) from presentation of a face in either the left or right hemifield. Faces were slightly rotated clockwise or counterclockwise, and were either trustworthy or untrustworthy. On each trial, participants discriminated 1) trustworthiness, 2) stimulus rotation, and 3) reported subjective visibility of trustworthiness. At early SOAs and specifically in the left hemifield, performance on the rotation task was impaired by TMS. Crucially, though TMS also impaired subjective visibility of trustworthiness, no effects on trustworthiness discrimination were obtained. Thus, conscious perception of face trustworthiness (captured by subjective visibility ratings) relies on intact EVC, while objective forced-choice trustworthiness judgments may not. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that objective trustworthiness processing can bypass EVC. For basic visual features, extrastriate pathways are well-established; but face trustworthiness depends on a complex configuration of features. Its potential processing without EVC is therefore of particular interest, further highlighting its ecological relevance.

    更新日期:2019-12-13
  • A role for familiarity in supporting the testing effect over time
    Neuropsychologia (IF 2.872) Pub Date : 2019-12-12
    Ruth A. Shaffer; Kathleen B. McDermott

    EndelTulving (1985) drew a distinction between Remembering and Knowing, spurring a great deal of research on the memorial experiences of recollection and familiarity and their contribution to various phenomena in memory. More recently, studies have used this distinction to situate our understanding of the processes that contribute to the testing effect—or, the benefit of retrieval practice to later memory (see also Tulving, 1967). Using retention intervals of approximately 15 min or less between initial and final testing, several studies have found that initial testing magnifies estimates of recollection but not familiarity, regardless of whether a testing effect is revealed in overall recognition performance (Chan and McDermott, 2007). However, the efficacy of prior testing in enhancing memory has been shown to change over time, as have estimates of recollection and familiarity. Thus, the mechanisms that underlie the quintessential testing effect—one that occurs in overall recognition or recall over longer delays—are still uncertain. To investigate this issue, in two experiments, subjects studied word lists, took 3-letter stem cued-recall tests on half of the studied words, and completed a final recognition test in which estimates of recollection and familiarity were obtained via confidence (Experiment 1) or Remember-Know-New (Experiment 2) judgments. Critically, final recognition tests occurred either immediately, 1 day (Experiment 1 only), or 4 days after initial learning. At all retention intervals and in both methods of estimating recollection and familiarity on the final test (i.e. receiver-operating characteristic and remember-know analyses), initial testing magnified estimates of both recollection and familiarity. These findings suggest that the testing effect can result from changes in both processes and pose issues for theories of the testing effect that consider an exclusive role for recollection.

    更新日期:2019-12-13
  • Gaze-contingent stimulus removal leads to subsequent changes in overt attentional allocation
    Neuropsychologia (IF 2.872) Pub Date : 2019-12-10
    Karin Ludwig, Doris Schmid, Thomas Schenk

    Spatial neglect is a debilitating neurological disorder marked by reduced exploration of contralesional space. We developed an intervention in which eye movements to and within one half of a search display were reduced over the course of several hundred trials. The aim of this study was to determine whether this intervention had an effect on the deployment of attention of healthy participants as a first step towards application in patients. The participants carried out a visual search task during which the stimuli in one half of the search display were removed whenever the participants made eye movements towards it. The stimuli in the other half were unaffected by eye movements. Indeed, this led to a steady relative decrease in fixations within the affected half over the course of the intervention. In five experiments, the performance in different spatial attention paradigms was measured before and after this intervention. In two visual search paradigms (feature and conjunction search), exploration of the affected half decreased compared to the unaffected half. In a Posner task with exogenous cues, a partial effect of the intervention was found. However, an attempt at replicating this effect was not successful. The fifth experiment showed that performance in a line bisection paradigm was not significantly influenced by the intervention. To conclude, the intervention showed the potential to influence the behavior of healthy participants in overt attentional exploration tasks.

    更新日期:2019-12-11
  • The hippocampus contributes to temporal duration memory in the context of event sequences: A cross-species perspective
    Neuropsychologia (IF 2.872) Pub Date : 2019-12-10
    Andy C.H. Lee, Sathesan Thavabalasingam, Denada Alushaj, Bilgehan Cavdaroglu, Rutsuko Ito

    Although a large body of research has implicated the hippocampus in the processing of memory for temporal duration, there is an exigent degree of inconsistency across studies that obfuscates the precise contributions of this structure. To shed light on this issue, the present review article surveys both historical and recent cross-species evidence emanating from a wide variety of experimental paradigms, identifying areas of convergence and divergence. We suggest that while factors such as time-scale (e.g. the length of durations involved) and the nature of memory processing (e.g. prospective vs. retrospective memory) are very helpful in the interpretation of existing data, an additional important consideration is the context in which the duration information is experienced and processed, with the hippocampus being preferentially involved in memory for durations that are embedded within a sequence of events. We consider the mechanisms that may underpin temporal duration memory and how the same mechanisms may contribute to memory for other aspects of event sequences such as temporal order.

    更新日期:2019-12-11
  • Interaction of top-down category-level expectation and bottom-up sensory input in early stages of visual-orthographic processing
    Neuropsychologia (IF 2.872) Pub Date : 2019-12-09
    Fang Wang, Urs Maurer

    How and when top-down information modulates visual-orthographic processing is an essential question in reading research. In a previous study, we showed that task modulation of print-tuning started at around 170 ms after stimulus presentation in the N1 offset of the ERP, while the N1 onset was yet unaffected. Here we test how prior category-level expectation affects visual-orthographic processing. Familiar, left/right-structured Chinese characters and stroke number matched, unfamiliar Korean characters were presented, while expectation about the upcoming stimuli was manipulated with green and blue colored frames (high Chinese vs. high Korean expectation). EEG data of 18 native Chinese speakers were recorded while participants performed an expectation judgment task. Results from occipito-temporal and whole map analyses revealed that effects of prior expectation changed throughout the N1. Accordingly in the N1 onset, a print tuning main effect was found, with a stronger N1 to Chinese characters than Korean characters, irrespective of expectation. In the N1 offset, an expectation-by-character interaction was observed at the whole map level, with a more negative N1 to Korean characters than Chinese characters when expecting a Chinese character, but no such difference when expecting a Korean character. Moreover, the expectation-by-character interaction continued to the N250, with similar responses to Chinese and Korean characters under the Chinese expectation condition, while less negative N250 to Korean than Chinese under the Korean expectation condition. Taken together, the current study provides evidence that prior category-level expectation starts to take effect at an early stage even within 200 ms by facilitating the processing of expected stimuli, suggesting that category-level expectation can influence early visual-orthographic processing during word recognition.

    更新日期:2019-12-09
  • Functional laterality of the anterior and posterior occipitotemporal cortex is affected by language experience and processing strategy, respectively
    Neuropsychologia (IF 2.872) Pub Date : 2019-12-09
    Xiaoyu Liu, Qiulan Wu, Kangli Ying, Aqian Li, Yue Sun, Leilei Mei

    Both language experience and processing strategy have been found to affect functional lateralization of the ventral occipitotemporal cortex (vOT). In this study, we adopted a factorial design to investigate the effects of language experience and processing strategy on functional lateralization of different vOT subregions in the processing of familiar (Chinese characters) and unfamiliar characters (Korean Hangul characters) in logographic writings. The processing strategy was manipulated by using part- and whole-based judgement tasks to induce part- and whole-based processing, respectively. The results showed that language experience enhanced neural responses in the anterior and middle vOT subregions, whereas part-based processing enhanced neural activations in the middle and posterior vOT subregions. More importantly, increased neural activations in the left hemisphere induced by language experience and part-based processing resulted in left laterality of the anterior and posterior vOT subregions, respectively, in the processing of logographic characters. These results suggested that functional lateralization of the anterior and posterior vOT subregions were respectively affected by language experience and processing strategy.

    更新日期:2019-12-09
  • Semantic constraint, reading control, and the granularity of form-based expectations during semantic processing: Evidence from ERPs
    Neuropsychologia (IF 2.872) Pub Date : 2019-12-07
    Nyssa Z. Bulkes, Kiel Christianson, Darren Tanner

    We investigated the role that semantic constraint and participant control over stimulus presentation have on early stages of visual word recognition. Namely, we tested how the presence of a highly constraining sentential context influences the expectations that readers have during incremental sentence processing. Further, we tested whether allowing participants to self-pace the experiment affected early sensory perceptions of written stimuli. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded in three experiments. Participants read sentences containing a target word from one of four conditions: 1) the target, spelled as expected; 2) the target with two internal characters transposed; 3) a nonword one vowel different from a target; or 4) an illegal consonant string. In Experiment 1, sentences were minimally constraining up to the target word (average cloze at target word: 0.01); in Experiments 2 and 3, sentences were highly constraining (average cloze at target word: 0.93). In both Experiments 1 and 2, sentences were presented using rapid-serial-visual presentation (RSVP). In Experiment 3, participants saw the same sentences used in Experiment 2 but were allowed to self-pace the presentation of each word in every trial. In Experiments 1 and 2, results showed early neural sensitivity to nonsensical consonant strings only, and only when they appeared within high constraint. In Experiment 3, results showed graded N170 effects to all target words containing unexpected visual information. P600 modulations were observed in all three experiments, indexing the difficulty of processing unexpected orthography, particularly in downstream, integrative processing. Results support a nuanced view of early visual processing, namely one arguing that visual processing is more fine-grained the more control participants have over how they read.

    更新日期:2019-12-07
  • Gradual learning and inflexible strategy use in amnesia: Evidence from case H.C.
    Neuropsychologia (IF 2.872) Pub Date : 2019-12-06
    Jennifer D. Ryan, Maria C. D’Angelo, Arber Kacollja, Sandra Gardner, R. Shayna Rosenbaum

    The value of case studies in informing our understanding of dissociations and interactions in memory was recognized early on by Endel Tulving, whose comprehensive work with the amnesic case K.C. helped to confirm distinctions between episodic and semantic memory. Following in this tradition, we examined memory and the use of cognitive strategies in the developmental amnesic case H.C., a young woman with structural abnormalities in the extended hippocampal system (Rosenbaum et al., 2014). H.C. was tested on two tasks, transitivity and transverse patterning, that each required learning the relations among items, and for the former, also examined the ability to make inferences across sets of relations. H.C. was tested across multiple sessions and demonstrated two seemingly contradictory patterns of performance: evidence of gradual learning, yet an inability to flexibly switch to a cognitive strategy that may otherwise benefit performance. Specifically, on the transitivity task, H.C. showed gradual learning of novel relations that led to successful inferential performance. On transverse patterning, H.C. showed some gradual learning of the relations among the objects across sessions, and expressed knowledge that the task followed ‘rock-paper-scissors’ rules. However, H.C. did not benefit from a unitization strategy, which had shown previous success with other amnesic cases (D’Angelo et al., 2015; Ryan, Moses, Barense, & Rosenbaum, 2013). H.C.’s over-reliance on ‘rock-paper-scissors’ rules, even in the face of alternate strategies, is suggestive of an inability to enact cognitive flexibility. Poor performance thus may have resulted from interference from the experimentally presented strategy on her self-imposed strategy. The present findings echo work reported by Tulving in case K.C. (Tulving, Hayman, & Macdonald, 1991). Whereas neurologically intact individuals may rely on the functions of the hippocampal system to rapidly learn new information and resolve interference, some individuals with hippocampal amnesia may learn information gradually, but such learning is particularly prone to interference, resulting in an inability to flexibly adapt to changes in the learning conditions in order to optimize performance.

    更新日期:2019-12-06
  • Impaired emotional biases in visual attention after bilateral amygdala lesion
    Neuropsychologia (IF 2.872) Pub Date : 2019-12-04
    J. Domínguez-Borràs, M. Moyne, A. Saj, R. Guex, P. Vuilleumier

    It is debated whether the amygdala is critical for the emotional modulation of attention. While some studies show reduced attentional benefits for emotional stimuli in amygdala-damaged patients, others report preserved emotional effects. Various factors may account for these discrepant findings, including the temporal onset of the lesion, the completeness and severity of tissue damage, or the extent of neural plasticity and compensatory mechanisms, among others. Here, we investigated a rare patient with focal acute destruction of bilateral amygdala and adjacent hippocampal structures after late-onset herpetic encephalitis in adulthood. We compared her performance in two classic visual attention paradigms with that of healthy controls. First, we tested for any emotional advantage during an attentional blink task. Whereas controls showed better report of fearful and happy than neutral faces on trials with short lags between targets, the patient showed no emotional advantage, but also globally reduced report rates for all faces. Second, to ensure that memory disturbance due to hippocampal damage would not interfere with report performance, we also used a visual search task with either emotionally or visually salient face targets. Although the patient still exhibited efficient guided search for visually salient, non-emotional faces, her search slopes for emotional versus neutral faces showed no comparable benefit. In both tasks, however, changes in the patient predominated for happy more than fear stimuli, despite her normal explicit recognition of happy expressions. Our results provide new support for a causal role of the amygdala in emotional facilitation of visual attention, especially under conditions of increasing task-demands, and not limited to negative information. In addition, our data suggest that such deficits may not be amenable to plasticity and compensation, perhaps due to sudden and late-onset damage occurring in adulthood.

    更新日期:2019-12-04
  • Varieties of recollective experience
    Neuropsychologia (IF 2.872) Pub Date : 2019-12-04
    John F. Kihlstrom

    Four variants on Tulving's “Remember/Know” paradigm supported a tripartite classification of recollective experience in recognition memory into Remembering (as in conscious recollection of a past episode), Knowing (similar to retrieval from semantic memory), and Feeling (a priming-based judgment of familiarity). Recognition-by-knowing and recognition-by-feeling are differentiated by level of processing at the time of encoding (Experiments 1–3), shifts in the criterion for item recognition (Experiment 2), response latencies (Experiments 1–3), and changes in the response window (Experiment 3). False recognition is often accompanied by “feeling”, but rarely by “knowing”; d’ is higher for knowing than for feeling (Experiments 1–4). Recognition-by-knowing increases with additional study trials, while recognition-by-feeling falls to zero (Experiment 4). In these ways, recognition-by-knowing is distinguished from recognition-by-feeling in much the same way as, in the traditional Remember/Know paradigm, recognition-by-remembering can be distinguished from recognition-without-remembering. Implications are discussed for dual-process theories of memory, and the search for the neural substrates of memory retrieval.

    更新日期:2019-12-04
  • Learning from errors is attributable to episodic recollection rather than semantic mediation
    Neuropsychologia (IF 2.872) Pub Date : 2019-12-04
    Janet Metcalfe, Barbie J. Huelser

    Many recent studies have shown that memory for correct answers is enhanced when an error is committed and then corrected, as compared to when the correct answer is provided without intervening error commission. The fact that the kind of errors that produced such a benefit, in past research, were those that were semantically related to the correct answer suggested that the effect may occur because the error provides a semantic stepping stone to the correct answer: the Semantic Mediation hypothesis. This hypothesis seems at odds with the finding that amnesics, including those studied by Tulving and his colleagues–who purportedly have spared semantic/implicit memory–experience enormous difficulties when they commit errors. Accordingly, the present experiments investigated whether the error-generation benefit seen in typicals was attributable Semantic Mediation or to Episodic Recollection. In Experiment 1, we used polysemous materials to create Congruent (e.g., wrist-palm) and Incongruent (e.g., tree-palm) cues for target words (e.g., HAND). In the Congruent condition, participants generated errors that were semantically related to the target (e.g., finger), and which could have provided a semantic mediator. In the Incongruent condition they generated errors that were unrelated to the target (e.g., coconut), and which, therefore, should not have provided a semantic mediator. The Congruent and Incongruent conditions both produced an error-generation benefit–contradicting the Semantic Mediation hypothesis. Experiment 2 showed that the error-generation benefit only occurred when the original error was also recollected on the final memory test. Indeed, in the Incongruent condition, when the error was not, itself, recalled, error generation resulted in a deficit in memory for the correct response. These results point to episodic/explicit, rather than semantic/implicit memory, as the locus of the ‘learning from errors’ benefits.

    更新日期:2019-12-04
  • Plasticity in brain activity dynamics after task-shifting training in older adults
    Neuropsychologia (IF 2.872) Pub Date : 2019-12-04
    Sandra Dörrenbächer, Carolyn Wu, Hubert Zimmer, Jutta Kray

    Cognitive control is supported by a dynamic interplay of transient brain activation across fronto-parietal networks and sustained activation across fronto-striatal networks. Older adults show disturbances in this dynamic functional recruitment. There is evidence suggesting that cognitive-control training may enable older adults to redistribute their brain activation across cortical and subcortical networks, which in turn can limit behavioral impairments. However, previous studies have only focused on spatial rather than on temporal aspects of changes in brain activation. In the present study, we examined training-related functional plasticity in old age by applying a hybrid fMRI design that sensitively tracks the spatio-temporal interactions underlying brain-activation changes. Fifty healthy seniors were assigned to a task-shifting training or an active-control group and their pretest/posttest activation-change maps were compared against 25 untrained younger adults. After training, older adults showed the same performance as untrained young adults. Compared to the control group, task-shifting training promoted proactive changes in transient mechanisms supporting the maintenance and biasing of task-set representations in a specific prefrontal circuitry; reactive changes in transient mechanisms supporting response-selection processes in dissociable fronto-parietal networks; overall reductions of sustained activation in striatal circuits. Results highlight the importance of spatio-temporal interactions in training-induced neural changes in age.

    更新日期:2019-12-04
  • The association of grey matter volume and cortical complexity with individual differences in children's arithmetic fluency
    Neuropsychologia (IF 2.872) Pub Date : 2019-12-03
    Brecht Polspoel, Maaike Vandermosten, Bert De Smedt

    Only a small amount of studies have looked at the structural neural correlates of children's arithmetic. Furthermore, these studies mainly implemented voxel-based morphometry, which only takes the volume of regions into account, without looking at other structural properties. The current study aimed to contribute knowledge on which brain regions are important for children's arithmetic on a structural level, by not only implementing voxel-based morphometry, but also cortical complexity analyses, based on the fractal dimension index. This complexity measure describes a characteristic of surface shape. Data of 43 typically developing 9-10 year-olds were analyzed. All children were asked to take part in two test sessions: behavioral data collection and MRI data acquisition. For data analysis, mean values for volume and cortical complexity were estimated within regions of interest (ROIs) and extracted for further analysis. The selected ROIs were based on regions found to be related to children's mathematical abilities in previous research. Results point towards associations between arithmetic fluency and the volume of the right fusiform gyrus, as well as the cortical complexity of the left postcentral gyrus, right insular sulcus, and left lateral orbital sulcus. Remarkably, no significant associations were observed between the children's arithmetic fluency and the volume or cortical complexity of typically arithmetic-associated parietal regions, such as the superior parietal lobe, intraparietal sulcus, or angular gyrus. Accordingly, the current study highlights the importance of structural characteristics of brain regions other than these typically arithmetic-associated parietal regions for children's arithmetic fluency.

    更新日期:2019-12-04
  • Prediction of phonological and gender information: An event-related potential study in Italian
    Neuropsychologia (IF 2.872) Pub Date : 2019-12-02
    Aine Ito, Chiara Gambi, Martin J. Pickering, Kim Fuellenbach, E. Matthew Husband

    Do people predict different aspects of a predictable word to the same extent? We tested prediction of phonological and gender information by creating phonological and gender mismatches between an article and a predictable noun in Italian. Native Italian speakers read predictive sentence contexts followed by the expected noun (e.g., un incidente: ‘accident’) or another plausible, but unexpected noun, either beginning with a different phonological class (consonant vs. vowel, e.g., uno scontro: ‘collision’; phonological mismatch) or belonging to a different gender class (e.g., un'inondazione: ‘flooding’; gender mismatch). Phonological mismatch articles elicited greater negativity than expected articles at posterior channels around 450–800 ms post-stimulus. In contrast, gender mismatch articles elicited greater negativity than expected articles at left posterior channels around 250–800 ms. Unexpected nouns showed an N400 effect followed by frontal positivity relative to expected nouns. The earlier effect for the gender mismatch articles suggests that people are quicker or more likely to pre-activate gender information vs. phonological information of a predictable word. We interpret the results with respect to production-based prediction accounts.

    更新日期:2019-12-02
  • The behavioral and neural basis of foreign language effect on risk-taking
    Neuropsychologia (IF 2.872) Pub Date : 2019-11-30
    Liling Zheng, Dean Mobbs, Rongjun Yu

    Recent studies show that people exhibit a reduced decision bias in a foreign language relative to their native language. However, the underlying mechanism remains unknown. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) combined with an even-probability gambling task in which gambling feedback was presented in either a native language or a foreign language after each decision, we assessed the neural correlates of language modulated behavioral changes in decision making. In both foreign and native language contexts, participants showed a behavioral pattern resembles the Gambler's fallacy that losing a gamble leads to more betting than winning a gamble. While there was no language difference in gambling, bilateral caudate and amygdala gain signals were exaggerated by foreign language in relative to native language, suggesting that foreign language enhanced neural responses to rewards. Moreover, the individual difference in foreign language-induced Gambler's fallacy-like decision bias was associated with activation in the right amygdala and ventromedial prefrontal cortex, as well as functional connectivity between right amygdala and right putamen/right posterior insula. Our results confirm that outcome processing in emotion-related regions may underlie individual differences in foreign language effects in judgment and decision making.

    更新日期:2019-12-02
  • Linking personality types to depressive symptoms: A prospective typology based on neuroticism, extraversion and conscientiousness
    Neuropsychologia (IF 2.872) Pub Date : 2019-11-30
    Yu Li, Li He, Kaixiang Zhuang, Xinran Wu, Jiangzhou Sun, Dongtao Wei, Jiang Qiu

    From a traditional variable-centered perspective, the personality traits specifically linked to depressive symptoms are neuroticism, extraversion, and conscientiousness (NEC). Few studies have considered the interactive effects of personality traits within individuals from the taxonomic perspective. We explored novel NEC personality subtypes in general and subthreshold depressive subjects by using graph-based classification algorithms and multiple external validators. Personality and depressive symptoms were assessed in 1055 healthy subjects (150 with subthreshold depression) using the NEO-PI-R and BDI at baseline. NEC personality data were used to identify subtypes in healthy and subthreshold depressive samples, and external validators, including current and longitudinal depressive symptoms and seven subcortical gray matter volumes, were examined. Four novel NEC personality types in the general sample showed superior current and longitudinal behavioral validation of depressive symptoms as well as some discrimination in biological indicators (putamen, nucleus accumbens, and amygdala). Four profiles defined in subthreshold depression selectively exhibited meaningful differences in longitudinal depressive symptoms. In both samples, some types adhere to the principles previously described NEC three-way interaction. The resulting typology, especially the four types in the general population, linked depressive symptoms provided a superior description of within-person organization of neuroticism, extraversion, and conscientiousness.

    更新日期:2019-11-30
  • Meningioma can lead to pre-operative cognitive alterations even if localized in sensorimotor areas: A multimodal MRI-neuropsychological study in a series of 46 patients
    Neuropsychologia (IF 2.872) Pub Date : 2019-11-30
    Ilaria Guarracino, Tamara Ius, Miran Skrap, Barbara Tomasino

    Brain tumors are generally associated with cognitive changes. Little is known about cognition in patients with meningioma – a lesion that usually shifts and compresses the brain parenchyma with a low probability of infiltrate it. We investigated the cognitive functioning in a consecutive series of 46 patients with a meningioma in the sensorimotor area in the left (LH, N = 27) or in the right (RH, N = 19) hemisphere. All the patients underwent a pre-operative neuropsychological assessment and structural MRI. Clinical symptoms varied between LH and RH meningioma patients. Impaired performance was seen in naming (19.23% noun and 35% verb naming), short-term (18.18%) and working (14.24%) memory in the LH group, and in visuo-spatial tasks (25% neglect, 21.42% visuospatial planning) in the RH group. Both groups were impaired on a sensorimotor mental imagery task (LH, 66.66% of the LH 70% of the RH meningioma patients), while only the RH meningioma group was impaired on the visuo-spatial mental imagery task. The lesion MRI maximum overlap occurred in the postcentral and paracentral lobules. Edema was maximally localized on the left superior longitudinal fasciculus and the superior part of the right superior corona radiata. We found that only the meningioma mass, and not the edema, is a predictive variable in determining patients’ performance. Patients with meningioma could present with cognitive alterations at pre-surgical evaluation even if the meningioma occurs in sensorimotor areas. In the present series, a large meningioma vs. a large edema is more relevant for cognitive performance.

    更新日期:2019-11-30
  • Domain-general and domain-preferential neural correlates underlying empathy towards physical pain, emotional situation and emotional faces: An ALE meta-analysis
    Neuropsychologia (IF 2.872) Pub Date : 2019-11-28
    Rui Ding, Jie Ren, Shuaixia Li, Xiaowen Zhu, Keye Zhang, Wenbo Luo

    Empathy is essential for social interactions and individual development. Through the empathy field, the domain could be divided into three subgroups according to the stimulus materials adopted in tasks: empathy towards physical pain (PhyE), empathy towards emotional situations (ESuE) and towards emotional faces (ExpE). By far, no empirical studies directly compared the neural correlates underlying three sub-domains. The current study, therefore, utilized ALE meta-analysis to identify the general and distinct neural correlates underlying three sub-domains of empathy. The results revealed the conjunction in bilateral supplementary motor areas which were generally activated across three sub-domains. Preferential correlates for PhyE were found in bilateral IPL, left middle cingulate cortex and left anterior insula, which were associated with pain, action and somatosensory functions. Left middle temporal gyrus was found to be preferentially engaged for ESuE. And the preferential activations for ExpE were identified in right amygdala and right dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex, the regions of which were statistically associated with functional Neurosynth terms “facial expression”, “face”, “emotion” and “social”. Through the current meta-analyses, we firstly indicated that the domain-general and domain-preferential neural correlates potentially exist to underlie the processing of empathy evoked by different types of stimuli.

    更新日期:2019-11-29
  • No intermodal interference effects of threatening information during concurrent audiovisual stimulation
    Neuropsychologia (IF 2.872) Pub Date : 2019-11-27
    Kierstin M. Riels, Harold A. Rocha, Andreas Keil

    Changes in attention can result in sensory processing trade-off effects, in which sensory cortical responses to attended stimuli are heightened and responses to competing distractors are attenuated. However, it is unclear if competition or facilitation effects will be observed at the level of sensory cortex when attending to competing stimuli in two modalities. The present study used electroencephalogram (EEG) and frequency-tagging to quantitatively assess auditory-visual interactions during sustained multimodal sensory stimulation. The emotional content of a 6.66 Hz rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) was manipulated to elicit well-established emotional attention effects, while a constant 63 dB tone with a 40.8 Hz modulation served as a concurrent auditory stimulus in two experiments. As a directed attention manipulation, participants were instructed to detect transient sound level events in the auditory stream in Experiment 1. To manipulate attention through threat anticipation, participants were instructed to expect an aversive noise burst after a higher 40.8 Hz modulated tone in Experiment 2. Each stimulus evoked reliable steady-state sensory cortical responses in all participants (n = 30) in both experiments. The visual cortical responses were modulated by the auditory detection task, but not by threat anticipation: Visual responses were smaller during auditory streams with a transient target as compared to uninterrupted auditory streams. Conversely, visual stimulus condition had no significant effects on auditory sensory cortical responses in either experiment. These results indicate that there is neither a competition nor facilitation effect of visual content on concurrent auditory sensory cortical processing. They further indicate that competition effects of auditory stream content on sustained visuocortical responses are limited to auditory target processing.

    更新日期:2019-11-27
  • Forgotten but not gone: FMRI evidence of implicit memory for negative stimuli 24 hours after the initial study episode
    Neuropsychologia (IF 2.872) Pub Date : 2019-11-26
    Sarah M. Kark, Scott D. Slotnick, Elizabeth A. Kensinger
    更新日期:2019-11-27
  • Shared neural resources of rhythm and syntax: An ALE meta-analysis
    Neuropsychologia (IF 2.872) Pub Date : 2019-11-26
    Matthew Heard, Yune S. Lee

    A growing body of evidence has highlighted behavioral connections between musical rhythm and linguistic syntax, suggesting that these may be mediated by common neural resources. Here, we performed a quantitative meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies using activation likelihood estimate (ALE) to localize the shared neural structures engaged in a representative set of musical rhythm (rhythm, beat, and meter) and linguistic syntax (merge movement, and reanalysis). Rhythm engaged a bilateral sensorimotor network throughout the brain consisting of the inferior frontal gyri, supplementary motor area, superior temporal gyri/temporoparietal junction, insula, the intraparietal lobule, and putamen. By contrast, syntax mostly recruited the left sensorimotor network including the inferior frontal gyrus, posterior superior temporal gyrus, premotor cortex, and supplementary motor area. Intersections between rhythm and syntax maps yielded overlapping regions in the left inferior frontal gyrus, left supplementary motor area, and bilateral insula—neural substrates involved in temporal hierarchy processing and predictive coding. Together, this is the first neuroimaging meta-analysis providing detailed anatomical overlap of sensorimotor regions recruited for musical rhythm and linguistic syntax.

    更新日期:2019-11-27
  • Pointing fingers at others: The neural correlates of actor-observer asymmetry in blame attribution
    Neuropsychologia (IF 2.872) Pub Date : 2019-11-23
    Chenyi Chen, Róger Marcelo Martínez, Yijhen Chen, Yawei Cheng

    People tend to describe others' immoral behaviors as intentional and dispositional, and their own as unintentional events. The actor-observer asymmetry might reflect at least true attitudes potentially free from intentional faking. Implicit attitudes — i.e., automatic evaluation of the rightness or wrongness of actions — play a central role in guiding moral decision-making. Yet, little research has investigated how value computations are associated with actor-observer asymmetry of moral decision-making. In this fMRI study, we developed the morally-laden implicit association test (mIAT) to examine the extent to which implicit attitudes are predictive of online neural response when participants mentally simulate or passively observe morally-laden behaviors such as helping or harming others. Results showed that the scores on the mIAT were predictive of actor-observer asymmetry when attributing blame for immoral behavior, associated with neural responses in the orbitofrontal cortex and temporal pole. The asymmetry between first-hand experiencing and passive viewing moral behavior recruited the activity in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and right temporoparietal junction. These findings indicate that implicit moral attitudes can predict moral evaluation and neural responses to asymmetry between experiencing and observing injustice. They provide important knowledge regarding the individual differences involved in the computational mechanisms underlying how implicit attitudes guide moral decision-making.

    更新日期:2019-11-26
  • Imageability effect on the functional brain activity during a naming to definition task
    Neuropsychologia (IF 2.872) Pub Date : 2019-11-23
    Francesca Garbarini, Fabrizio Calzavarini, Matteo Diano, Monica Biggio, Carola Barbero, Daniele P. Radicioni, Giuliano Geminiani, Katiuscia Sacco, Diego Marconi

    Lexical competence includes both the ability to relate words to the external world as accessed through (mainly) visual perception (referential competence) and the ability to relate words to other words (inferential competence). We investigated the role of visual imagery in lexical inferential competence by using an auditory version of an inferential naming-to-definition task, in which visual imageability of both definitions and target words was manipulated. A visual imageability-related brain activity (bilateral posterior-parietal lobe and ventrotemporal cortex, including fusiform gyrus) was found during a “pure” inferential performance. The definition effect in high vs. low imageability contrast suggests that a visual-imagery strategy is spontaneously activated during the retrieval of a word from a high imageable definition; such an effect appears to be independent of whether the target word is high or low imageable. This contributes to the understanding of the neural correlates of semantic processing and the differential role of spontaneous visual imagery, depending on the semantic properties of the processed stimuli.

    更新日期:2019-11-26
  • Adaptive phonemic coding in the listening and speaking brain
    Neuropsychologia (IF 2.872) Pub Date : 2019-11-23
    Krystyna Grabski, Marc Sato

    In order to determine the neural substrates of phonemic coding during both listening and speaking, we used a repetition suppression (RS) paradigm in which vowels were repeatedly perceived or produced while measuring BOLD activity with sparse sampling functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). RS refers to the phenomenon that repeated stimuli or actions lead to decreased activity in specific neural populations associated with enhanced neural selectivity and information coding efficiency. Common suppressed BOLD responses during repeated vowel perception and production were observed in the inferior frontal gyri, the posterior part of the left middle temporal gyrus and superior temporal sulcus, the left intraprietal sulcus, as well as in the cingulate gyrus and presupplementary motor area. By providing evidence for common adaptive neural changes in premotor and associative auditory and somatosensory brain areas, the observed RS effects suggest that phonemic coding is partly driven by shared sensorimotor regions in the listening and speaking brain.

    更新日期:2019-11-26
  • Beauty in mind: Aesthetic appreciation correlates with perceptual facilitation and attentional amplification
    Neuropsychologia (IF 2.872) Pub Date : 2019-11-23
    P. Sarasso, I. Ronga, P. Kobau, T. Bosso, I. Artusio, R. Ricci, M. Neppi-Modona

    Neuroaesthetic research suggests that aesthetic appreciation results from the interaction between the object perceptual features and the perceiver's sensory processing dynamics. In the present study, we investigated the relationship between aesthetic appreciation and attentional modulation at a behavioural and psychophysiological level. In a first experiment, fifty-eight healthy participants performed a visual search task with abstract stimuli containing more or less natural spatial frequencies and subsequently were asked to give an aesthetic evaluation of the images. The results evidenced that response times were faster for more appreciated stimuli. In a second experiment, we recorded visual evoked potentials (VEPs) during exposure to the same stimuli. The results showed, only for more appreciated images, an enhancement in C1 and N1, P3 and N4 VEP components. Moreover, we found increased attention-related occipital alpha desynchronization for more appreciated images. We interpret these data as indicative of the existence of a correlation between aesthetic appreciation and perceptual processing enhancement, both at a behavioural and at a neurophysiological level.

    更新日期:2019-11-26
  • Emotional faces modulate eye movement control on an antisaccade task
    Neuropsychologia (IF 2.872) Pub Date : 2019-11-22
    Luis A. Llamas-Alonso, Armando Q. Angulo-Chavira, Andrés A. González-Garrido, Julieta Ramos-Loyo

    The ability to modulate automatic responses, in order to favor voluntary actions is crucial for cognition and behavior, and this is particularly difficult when dealing with highly salient stimuli as emotional faces. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of angry faces on cortical activity during preparation of saccadic inhibition and voluntary reorientation of attention. Behavioral performance, eye movements and presaccadic event-related potentials were evaluated as 30 participants performed an antisaccadic task with neutral and angry faces presented in the peripheral visual field. Two components of the presaccadic activity were measured: positive presaccadic slope and spike potential. Results showed lower accuracy in the presence of angry faces than neutral ones. Saccade onset latency was longer for angry faces than for neutral ones on the prosaccadic trials, but the opposite result occurred on the antisaccadic trials. Finally, higher spike potential amplitudes were observed for the angry faces than the neutral ones. These results suggest that potentially threatening stimuli like angry facial expressions require greater effort to achieve inhibitory control and voluntary reorientation of attention.

    更新日期:2019-11-22
  • Neuronavigated TMS of early visual cortex eliminates unconscious processing of chromatic stimuli
    Neuropsychologia (IF 2.872) Pub Date : 2019-11-21
    Mikko Hurme, Mika Koivisto, Linda Henriksson, Henry Railo

    Some neurological patients with primary visual cortex (V1) lesions can guide their behavior based on stimuli presented to their blind visual field. One example of this phenomenon is the ability to discriminate colors in the absence of awareness. These so-called patients with blindsight must have a neural pathway that bypasses V1, explaining their ability to unconsciously process stimuli. The pathways that have been most often hypothesized to be the cause of blindsight connect lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) or superior colliculus (SC) to extrastriate cortex, most likely V5, and parietal areas. To test if similar pathways function in neurologically healthy individuals or if unconscious processing depends on early visual cortex, we disturbed the visibility of a chromatic stimulus with metacontrast masking (Experiment 1) or neuronavigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of early visual cortex, exact target being retinotopically mapped V1 (Experiment 2). We measured unconscious processing using the redundant target effect (RTE), which is the speeding up of reaction times in response to dual stimuli compared with one stimulus, when the task is to respond to any number of stimuli. An unconscious chromatic RTE was found when the visibility of the redundant chromatic stimulus was suppressed with a visual mask. When TMS was targeted to the correct retinotopic location of V1, and conscious perception of the redundant chromatic stimulus suppressed, the RTE was eliminated. Whether the elimination of unconscious RTE during TMS was exclusively due to disruption of V1 activity, or whether it was due to the possible interference with processing in V2 or even V3, is discussed. Based on our results and converging evidence from previous studies, we conclude that unconscious processing of chromatic information depends on the early visual cortex, in neurologically healthy participants.

    更新日期:2019-11-21
  • The core episodic simulation network dissociates as a function of subjective experience and objective content
    Neuropsychologia (IF 2.872) Pub Date : 2019-11-16
    Preston P. Thakral, Kevin P. Madore, Daniel L. Schacter

    Episodic simulation – the mental construction of a possible future event – has been consistently associated with enhanced activity in a set of neural regions referred to as the core network. In the current functional neuroimaging study, we assessed whether members of the core network are differentially associated with the subjective experience of future events (i.e., vividness) versus the objective content comprising those events (i.e., the amount of episodic details). During scanning, participants imagined future events in response to object cues. On each trial, participants rated the subjective vividness associated with each future event. Participants completed a post-scan interview where they viewed each object cue from the scanner and verbally reported whatever they had thought about. For imagined events, we quantified the number of episodic or internal details in accordance with the Autobiographical Interview (i.e., who, what, when, and where details of each central event). To test whether core network regions are differentially associated with subjective experience or objective episodic content, imagined future events were sorted as a function of their rated vividness or the amount of episodic detail. Univariate analyses revealed that some regions of the core network were uniquely sensitive to the vividness of imagined future events, including the hippocampus (i.e., high > low vividness), whereas other regions, such as the lateral parietal cortex, were sensitive to the amount of episodic detail in the event (i.e., high > low episodic details). The present results indicate that members of the core network support distinct episodic simulation-related processes.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
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