当前期刊: Personality and Social Psychology Review Go to current issue    加入关注   
显示样式:        排序: 导出
我的关注
我的收藏
您暂时未登录!
登录
  • Ecologizing Social Psychology: The Physical Environment as a Necessary Constituent of Social Processes
    Pers. Soc. Psychol. Rev. (IF 9.903) Pub Date : 2019-05-30
    Benjamin R. Meagher

    In 1976, a special issue of Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin was published dedicated to a discussion of how social psychology and environmental psychology relate to and can learn from one another. At the time, the fortunes of the two disciplines were quite different. Social psychologists were in the midst of a crisis (Nederhof & Zwier, 1983), brought on by internal and external criticisms of their laboratory-based, experimental methodology (Miller, 1972; Rosenthal & Rosnow, 1969) and positivist theoretical framework (Gergen, 1973, 1976; Meehl, 1978). Environmental psychology, on the contrary, was an emerging discipline generating a great deal of excitement, thanks in large part to its focus on very real public concerns regarding pollution, population density, and energy conservation (Borden, 1977) and its potential applications linking researchers to practitioners in design and engineering (Altman, 1976a). Highlighting the contrasting status of the two disciplines, Proshansky (1976), in this same special issue, concluded that he was “pessimistic as to whether social psychology can make any serious contributions to environmental psychology” (p. 359). In truth, very few researchers made any attempt. Despite the inherently social nature of many of the topics broached by these early environmental psychologists (e.g., crowding, privacy, territoriality; Altman, 1976a; Y. M. Epstein, 1976), such environmentally relevant constructs have remained largely on the fringes of social psychology into the present day.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • The Stability and Change of Loneliness Across the Life Span: A Meta-Analysis of Longitudinal Studies
    Pers. Soc. Psychol. Rev. (IF 9.903) Pub Date : 2019-06-10
    Marcus Mund; Maren M. Freuding; Kathrin Möbius; Nicole Horn; Franz J. Neyer

    During their phylogenetic history, humans have evolved into social animals sharing a need to belong and to be socially included (Axelrod & Hamilton, 1981; Baumeister & Leary, 1995; Cacioppo, Cacioppo, Cole, et al., 2015). Social relationships are part and parcel of an individual’s environment and constitute a resource of support. Both the sheer availability and diversity of social relationships are, therefore, of utmost importance for health and well-being (Cohen, 2004; Fiori, Antonucci, & Cortina, 2006; House, Landis, & Umberson, 1988; Sarason, Sarason, & Gurung, 1997). Given this fundamental importance, it comes as no surprise that social isolation—defined as the objective lack of a broader social network (de Jong Gierveld, van Tilburg, & Dykstra, 2006)—has been shown to have detrimental effects on a wide variety of health-related, hormonal, and neuroanatomical outcomes in humans (Caspi, Harrington, Moffitt, Milne, & Poulton, 2006; Holt-Lunstad, Smith, Baker, Harris, & Stephenson, 2015; House et al., 1988; Shankar, McMunn, Banks, & Steptoe, 2011; Shankar, McMunn, Demakakos, Hamer, & Steptoe, 2017) and animals (Cacioppo, Capitanio, & Cacioppo, 2014; Capitanio, Hawkley, Cole, & Cacioppo, 2014; Hawkley, Cole, Capitanio, Norman, & Cacioppo, 2012).

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • The Relationship Problem Solving (RePS) Model: How Partners Influence One Another to Resolve Relationship Problems
    Pers. Soc. Psychol. Rev. (IF 9.903) Pub Date : 2019-10-29
    Levi R. Baker; James K. McNulty

    Some of the most important relationships people form and maintain are with romantic partners. People typically spend considerable time (Gerstel & Sarkisian, 2006) and create meaningful memories with romantic partners (Philippe, Koestner, & Lekes, 2013), and such relationships ultimately change the way people view themselves (Aron & Aron, 1997) and others (Murray, Holmes, Dolderman, & Griffin, 2000). Moreover, romantic partners are critical for meeting many of life’s challenges. Not only are romantic partners often essential for meeting survival and reproductive goals, but people increasingly depend on romantic partners for assistance, advice, companionship, and emotional support (Feeney & Collins, 2014; Finkel, Hui, Carswell, & Larson, 2014; Fitzsimons, Finkel, & vanDellen, 2015). The benefits of romantic relationships are so far-reaching, in fact, that people tend to be healthier, happier, and report greater meaning in their lives to the extent that they are in satisfying and stable romantic relationships (Proulx, Helms, & Buehler, 2007; Robles, Slatcher, Trombello, & McGinn, 2014).

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Social Psychological Theory as History: Outlining the Critical-Historical Approach to Theory
    Pers. Soc. Psychol. Rev. (IF 9.903) Pub Date : 2019-10-23
    Daniel Sullivan

    Theory is the net man weaves to catch the world of observation—to explain, predict, and influence it . . . Data from the world of observation must be enmeshed in a web of ideas if there is to be a significant scientific yield.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Intragroup Emotion Convergence: Beyond Contagion and Social Appraisal
    Pers. Soc. Psychol. Rev. (IF 9.903) Pub Date : 2019-10-23
    Brian Parkinson

    Mimicry-based emotion contagion and social appraisal currently provide the most popular explanations for interpersonal emotional convergence. However, neither process fully accounts for intragroup effects involving dynamic calibration of people’s orientations during communal activities. When group members are engaged in shared tasks, they simultaneously attend to the same unfolding events and arrive at mutually entrained movement patterns that facilitate emotional coordination. Entrainment may be further cultivated by interaction rituals involving rhythmic music that sets the pace for collective singing, dancing, or marching. These rituals also provide an emotionally meaningful focus for group activities and sometimes specifically encourage the experience of intense embodied states. Intragroup emotion convergence thus depends on interlocking processes of reciprocated and context-attuned orientational calibration and group-based social appraisal.

    更新日期:2019-10-24
  • Is Man the Measure of All Things? A Social Cognitive Account of Androcentrism
    Pers. Soc. Psychol. Rev. (IF 9.903) Pub Date : 2018-07-17
    April H. Bailey; Marianne LaFrance; John F. Dovidio

    Androcentrism refers to the propensity to center society around men and men’s needs, priorities, and values and to relegate women to the periphery. Androcentrism also positions men as the gender-neutral standard while marking women as gender-specific. Examples of androcentrism include the use of male terms (e.g., he), images, and research participants to represent everyone. Androcentrism has been shown to have serious consequences. For example, women’s health has been adversely affected by over-generalized medical research based solely on male participants. Nonetheless, relatively little is known about androcentrism’s proximate psychological causes. In the present review, we propose a social cognitive perspective arguing that both social power and categorization processes are integral to understanding androcentrism. We present and evaluate three possible pathways to androcentrism deriving from (a) men being more frequently instantiated than women, (b) masculinity being more “ideal” than femininity, and/or (c) masculinity being more common than femininity.

    更新日期:2019-10-12
  • The Psychology of Morality: A Review and Analysis of Empirical Studies Published From 1940 Through 2017
    Pers. Soc. Psychol. Rev. (IF 9.903) Pub Date : 2019-01-18
    Naomi Ellemers; Jojanneke van der Toorn; Yavor Paunov; Thed van Leeuwen

    This review aims to examine the “psychology of morality” by considering the research questions and empirical approaches of 1,278 empirical studies published from 1940 through 2017. We subjected these studies to expert content analysis and standardized bibliometric analysis to characterize relevant trends in this body of research. We first identify key features that characterize theoretical approaches to human morality, extract five distinct classes of research questions from the studies conducted, and visualize how these aim to address the psychological antecedents and implications of moral behavior. We then compare this theoretical analysis with the empirical approaches and research paradigms that are typically used to address questions within each of these themes. We identify emerging trends and seminal publications, specify conclusions that can be drawn from studies conducted within each research theme, and outline areas in need of further investigation.

    更新日期:2019-10-12
  • Perfectionism and the Five-Factor Model of Personality: A Meta-Analytic Review
    Pers. Soc. Psychol. Rev. (IF 9.903) Pub Date : 2019-01-06
    Martin M. Smith; Simon B. Sherry; Vanja Vidovic; Donald H. Saklofske; Joachim Stoeber; Aryn Benoit

    Over 25 years of research suggests an important link between perfectionism and personality traits included in the five-factor model (FFM). However, inconsistent findings, underpowered studies, and a plethora of perfectionism scales have obscured understanding of how perfectionism fits within the FFM. We addressed these limitations by conducting the first meta-analytic review of the relationships between perfectionism dimensions and FFM traits (k = 77, N = 24,789). Meta-analysis with random effects revealed perfectionistic concerns (socially prescribed perfectionism, concern over mistakes, doubts about actions, and discrepancy) were characterized by neuroticism (rc+ = .50), low agreeableness (rc+ = −.26), and low extraversion (rc+ = −.24); perfectionistic strivings (self-oriented perfectionism, personal standards, and high standards) were characterized by conscientiousness (rc+ = .44). Additionally, several perfectionism–FFM relationships were moderated by gender, age, and the perfectionism subscale used. Findings complement theory suggesting that perfectionism has neurotic and non-neurotic dimensions. Results also underscore that the (mal)adaptiveness of perfectionistic strivings hinges on instrumentation.

    更新日期:2019-10-12
  • Implications for Reward Processing in Differential Responses to Loss: Impacts on Attachment Hierarchy Reorganization
    Pers. Soc. Psychol. Rev. (IF 9.903) Pub Date : 2019-06-14
    Angie S. LeRoy; C. Raymond Knee; Jaye L. Derrick; Christopher P. Fagundes

    When an attachment relationship is severed, so is homeostatic maintenance, leading to dysregulation of multiple physiological systems. Expanding upon Sbarra and Hazan’s original model, we suggest that the degree to which an individual’s physiological systems remain dysregulated depends on the state of one’s attachment hierarchy—namely, whether an individual continues to seek a lost partner for support as their primary attachment figure. To recover from the loss of a romantic partner, an individual’s attachment hierarchy must be reorganized. Our model proposes that an individual will go through a series of physiological changes before their attachment hierarchy is reorganized, which can either help or hinder their recovery. We consider the role of reward processing, including endogenous opioids, in this recovery process. Along the way, we identify mechanisms for continued dysregulation of biological systems among those who take longer to recover from a loss.

    更新日期:2019-10-12
  • The Relationships of Intergroup Ideologies to Ethnic Prejudice: A Meta-Analysis
    Pers. Soc. Psychol. Rev. (IF 9.903) Pub Date : 2018-04-04
    Bernard E. Whitley, Jr.; Gregory D. Webster

    This meta-analysis summarizes the results of research on the relationships of majority group members’ endorsement of assimilation, colorblindness, multiculturalism, and the relative relationships of colorblindness and multiculturalism to ethnic prejudice. Random effects analyses found that assimilation was positively related to explicit prejudice (g. = 0.80), multiculturalism was negatively related to both explicit (g. = −0.26) and implicit prejudice (g. = −0.19), and colorblindness was negatively related to explicit prejudice (g. = −0.07). Multiculturalism was more closely associated with low prejudice than colorblindness (g. = 0.15). Effect sizes varied as a function of methodology (experimental vs. correlational), country in which research was conducted (United States vs. other countries), and, in experimental studies of multiculturalism, type of prime used (abstract vs. concrete). Discussion points include methodological issues, groups used as targets of prejudice, national diversity norms, additional issues raised in the studies reviewed, and directions for future research.

    更新日期:2019-07-07
  • Toward a Research Agenda for the Study of Situation Perceptions: A Variance Componential Framework
    Pers. Soc. Psychol. Rev. (IF 9.903) Pub Date : 2018-04-22
    John Rauthmann; Ryne Sherman

    Situation perception represents the fulcrum of a “psychology of situations” because situation ratings are ubiquitous. However, no systematic research program exists so far, particularly because two competing traditions have not been integrated: Objectivist views stress situations’ consensually shared meanings (social reality), and subjectivist views idiosyncratic meanings (personal reality). A componential framework can disentangle social from personal reality in situation perceptions: When multiple perceivers (P) rate multiple situations (S) on multiple situation characteristics (C), variance in those ratings can be decomposed according to S × C, P × S, and P × C breakdowns. Six grand questions of situation perception research are spawned from these decompositions: complexity, similarity, assimilation, consensus, uniqueness, and accuracy. Analyses of real data are provided to exemplify our ideas, along with customizable R codes for all methods. A componential framework allows novel and unique insights into different questions surrounding situation perceptions and provides a coherent research agenda.

    更新日期:2019-07-07
  • How Do Actions Influence Attitudes? An Inferential Account of the Impact of Action Performance on Stimulus Evaluation
    Pers. Soc. Psychol. Rev. (IF 9.903) Pub Date : 2018-09-19
    Pieter Van Dessel; Sean Hughes; Jan De Houwer

    Over the past decade, an increasing number of studies have shown that the performance of specific actions (e.g., approach and avoidance) in response to a stimulus can lead to changes in how that stimulus is evaluated. In contrast to the reigning idea that these effects are mediated by the automatic formation and activation of associations in memory, we describe an inferential account that specifies the inferences underlying the effects and how these inferences are formed. We draw on predictive processing theories to explain the basic processes underlying inferential reasoning and their main characteristics. Our inferential account accommodates past findings, is supported by new findings, and leads to novel predictions as well as concrete recommendations for how action performance can be used to influence real-world behavior.

    更新日期:2019-07-07
  • Reconceptualizing Self-Affirmation With the Trigger and Channel Framework: Lessons From the Health Domain
    Pers. Soc. Psychol. Rev. (IF 9.903) Pub Date : 2018-10-07
    Rebecca A. Ferrer; Geoffrey L. Cohen

    Self-affirmation—a theory-based technique to affirm the adaptive adequacy of the self—can promote positive behavior change and adaptive outcomes, although effects are variable. We extend a novel framework (Trigger and Channel), proposing three conditions that facilitate self-affirmation-induced behavior change: (a) presence of psychological threat, (b) presence of resources to foster change, and (c) timeliness of the self-affirmation with respect to threat and resources. Using health behavior as a focus, we present meta-analytic evidence demonstrating that when these conditions are met, self-affirmation acts as a psychological trigger into a positive channel of resources that facilitate behavior change. The presence of a timely threat and the availability of timely resources independently predicted larger self-affirmation effects on behavior change, and the two interacted synergistically to predict still larger effects. The results illustrate the conditionality of self-affirmation effects and offer guidelines for when, where, and for whom self-affirmation will be most effective.

    更新日期:2019-07-07
  • Expression of Concern
    Pers. Soc. Psychol. Rev. (IF 9.903) Pub Date : 2017-11-15

    The Journal Editors hereby issue this note of an expression of concern for the following publication: Benjamin, A. J., Jr., Kepes, S., & Bushman, B. J. (2017). Effects of weapons on aggressive thoughts, angry feelings, hostile appraisals, and aggressive behavior: A meta-analytic review of the weapons effect literature. Personality and Social Psychology Review. Advance online publication. doi:10.1177/1088868317725419 The authors of this manuscript contacted the editors indicating they had discovered some errors in the computation of effect sizes in their meta-analysis. Initial reanalysis suggested that at least one of the substantive conclusions of the manuscript was affected by the error; the authors now urge greater caution in interpreting the effect size of weapons on aggressive behavioral outcomes. The authors will undertake a thorough reanalysis and will modify the results and interpretations accordingly, and this notice will be updated upon their completion of the modifications. The editorial staff appreciates the proactive efforts of the authors in this matter. The Editors and SAGE strive to uphold the very highest standards of publication ethics and are committed to supporting the high standards of integrity of Personality and Social Psychology Review. Authors, reviewers, editors, and interested readers should consult the ethics section of SAGE and the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) website for guidelines on publication ethics.

    更新日期:2019-07-05
  • Are Collectivistic Cultures More Prone to Rapid Transformation? Computational Models of Cross-Cultural Differences, Social Network Structure, Dynamic Social Influence, and Cultural Change
    Pers. Soc. Psychol. Rev. (IF 9.903) Pub Date : 2019-06-28
    Michael Muthukrishna; Mark Schaller

    Societies differ in susceptibility to social influence and in the social network structure through which individuals influence each other. What implications might these cultural differences have for changes in cultural norms over time? Using parameters informed by empirical evidence, we computationally modeled these cross-cultural differences to predict two forms of cultural change: consolidation of opinion majorities into stronger majorities, and the spread of initially unpopular beliefs. Results obtained from more than 300,000 computer simulations showed that in populations characterized by greater susceptibility to social influence, there was more rapid consolidation of majority opinion and also more successful spread of initially unpopular beliefs. Initially unpopular beliefs also spread more readily in populations characterized by less densely connected social networks. These computational outputs highlight the value of computational modeling methods as a means to specify hypotheses about specific ways in which cross-cultural differences may have long-term consequences for cultural stability and cultural change.

    更新日期:2019-07-01
  • Is Ego Depletion Real? An Analysis of Arguments
    Pers. Soc. Psychol. Rev. (IF 9.903) Pub Date : 2018-03-29
    Malte Friese; David D. Loschelder; Karolin Gieseler; Julius Frankenbach; Michael Inzlicht

    An influential line of research suggests that initial bouts of self-control increase the susceptibility to self-control failure (ego depletion effect). Despite seemingly abundant evidence, some researchers have suggested that evidence for ego depletion was the sole result of publication bias and p-hacking, with the true effect being indistinguishable from zero. Here, we examine (a) whether the evidence brought forward against ego depletion will convince a proponent that ego depletion does not exist and (b) whether arguments that could be brought forward in defense of ego depletion will convince a skeptic that ego depletion does exist. We conclude that despite several hundred published studies, the available evidence is inconclusive. Both additional empirical and theoretical works are needed to make a compelling case for either side of the debate. We discuss necessary steps for future work toward this aim.

    更新日期:2019-05-16
  • The Extended Contact Hypothesis: A Meta-Analysis on 20 Years of Research
    Pers. Soc. Psychol. Rev. (IF 9.903) Pub Date : 2018-04-19
    Shelly Zhou; Elizabeth Page-Gould; Arthur Aron; Anne Moyer; Miles Hewstone

    According to the extended contact hypothesis, knowing that in-group members have cross-group friends improves attitudes toward this out-group. This meta-analysis covers the 20 years of research that currently exists on the extended contact hypothesis, and consists of 248 effect sizes from 115 studies. The aggregate relationship between extended contact and intergroup attitudes was r = .25, 95% confidence interval (CI) = [.22, .27], which reduced to r = .17, 95% CI = [.14, .19] after removing direct friendship’s contribution; these results suggest that extended contact’s hypothesized relationship to intergroup attitudes is small-to-medium and exists independently of direct friendship. This relationship was larger when extended contact was perceived versus actual, highlighting the importance of perception in extended contact. Current results on extended contact mostly resembled their direct friendship counterparts, suggesting similarity between these contact types. These unique insights about extended contact and its relationship with direct friendship should enrich and spur growth within this literature.

    更新日期:2019-05-16
  • Associative Attitude Learning: A Closer Look at Evidence and How It Relates to Attitude Models
    Pers. Soc. Psychol. Rev. (IF 9.903) Pub Date : 2018-03-24
    Olivier Corneille; Christoph Stahl

    Associative attitude learning is typically viewed as a low-level process that automatically registers mere co-occurrences between stimuli, independent of their validity and relational meaning. This view invites to critically examine how attitude formation conforms to four operating conditions (i.e., unawareness, efficiency, goal independence, and uncontrollability) and two operating principles (i.e., unqualified registration of mere co-occurrences between stimuli and formation of direct stimulus–response links), which is the main purpose of the present contribution. The general discussion examines how contemporary attitude models endorse these conditions and principles. Overall, this contribution calls for (a) a nuanced understanding of the nature and scope of associative attitude learning, (b) a fine-grained understanding of how contemporary attitude models endorse conditions and principles reviewed here and find them relevant to their theorization of attitude formation, (c) a clarification of how direct and indirect evaluative measures relate to these conditions and principles, and (d) enhanced efforts in specifying contemporary attitude formation models.

    更新日期:2019-05-16
  • Using Machine Learning to Advance Personality Assessment and Theory
    Pers. Soc. Psychol. Rev. (IF 9.903) Pub Date : 2018-05-23
    Wiebke Bleidorn; Christopher James Hopwood

    Machine learning has led to important advances in society. One of the most exciting applications of machine learning in psychological science has been the development of assessment tools that can powerfully predict human behavior and personality traits. Thus far, machine learning approaches to personality assessment have focused on the associations between social media and other digital records with established personality measures. The goal of this article is to expand the potential of machine learning approaches to personality assessment by embedding it in a more comprehensive construct validation framework. We review recent applications of machine learning to personality assessment, place machine learning research in the broader context of fundamental principles of construct validation, and provide recommendations for how to use machine learning to advance our understanding of personality.

    更新日期:2019-05-16
  • Bad Is Stronger Than Good for Stigmatized, but Not Admired Outgroups: Meta-Analytical Tests of Intergroup Valence Asymmetry in Individual-to-Group Generalization Experiments
    Pers. Soc. Psychol. Rev. (IF 9.903) Pub Date : 2018-02-23
    Stefania Paolini; Kylie McIntyre

    Theories of risk aversion, epistemic defense, and ingroup enhancement converge in predicting greater impact of negative (vs. positive) experiences with outgroup members on generalized evaluations of stigmatized outgroups. However, they diverge in predictions for admired outgroups. Past tests have focused on negative outgroups using correlational designs without a control group. Consequently, they have not distinguished between alternative explanations or ascertained the direction of causality/generalization, and they have suffered from self-selection biases. These limitations were redressed by a meta-analysis of experimental research on individual-to-group generalization with positive and negative outgroups (59 tests; 3,012 participants). Controlling for modest confounds, the meta-analysis found a generalization advantage of negative experiences for stigmatized outgroups and a generalization advantage of positive experiences for admired outgroups. These results highlight the centrality of valenced expectations about outgroups, consistent with epistemic defense and ingroup enhancement and inconsistent with risk aversion. Implications for positive changes in intergroup dynamics are discussed.

    更新日期:2019-01-14
  • Self-Enhancement and Psychological Adjustment: A Meta-Analytic Review
    Pers. Soc. Psychol. Rev. (IF 9.903) Pub Date : 2018-03-13
    Michael Dufner; Jochen E. Gebauer; Constantine Sedikides; Jaap J. A. Denissen

    This article advances the debate about costs and benefits of self-enhancement (the tendency to maintain unrealistically positive self-views) with a comprehensive meta-analytic review (299 samples, N = 126,916). The review considers relations between self-enhancement and personal adjustment (life satisfaction, positive affect, negative affect, depression), and between self-enhancement and interpersonal adjustment (informant reports of domain-general social valuation, agency, communion). Self-enhancement was positively related to personal adjustment, and this relation was robust across sex, age, cohort, and culture. Important from a causal perspective, self-enhancement had a positive longitudinal effect on personal adjustment. The relation between self-enhancement and interpersonal adjustment was nuanced. Self-enhancement was positively related to domain-general social valuation at 0, but not long, acquaintance. Communal self-enhancement was positively linked to informant judgments of communion, whereas agentic self-enhancement was linked positively to agency but negatively to communion. Overall, the results suggest that self-enhancement is beneficial for personal adjustment but a mixed blessing for interpersonal adjustment.

    更新日期:2019-01-14
  • Does Self-Esteem Have an Interpersonal Imprint Beyond Self-Reports? A Meta-Analysis of Self-Esteem and Objective Interpersonal Indicators
    Pers. Soc. Psychol. Rev. (IF 9.903) Pub Date : 2018-02-26
    Jessica J. Cameron; Steve Granger

    Self-esteem promises to serve as the nexus of social experiences ranging from social acceptance, interpersonal traits, interpersonal behavior, relationship quality, and relationship stability. Yet previous researchers have questioned the utility of self-esteem for understanding relational outcomes. To examine the importance of self-esteem for understanding interpersonal experiences, we conducted systematic meta-analyses on the association between trait self-esteem and five types of interpersonal indicators. To ensure our results were not due to self-esteem biases in perception, we focused our meta-analyses to 196 samples totaling 121,300 participants wherein researchers assessed interpersonal indicators via outsider reports. Results revealed that the association between self-esteem and the majority of objective interpersonal indicators was small to moderate, lowest for specific and distal outcomes, and moderated by social risk. Importantly, a subset of longitudinal studies suggests that self-esteem predicts later interpersonal experience. Our results should encourage researchers to further explore the link between self-esteem and one’s interpersonal world.

    更新日期:2019-01-14
  • The Role of Close Relationships in Terror Management: A Systematic Review and Research Agenda
    Pers. Soc. Psychol. Rev. (IF 9.903) Pub Date : 2018-02-15
    Nicholas Plusnin; Christopher A. Pepping; Emiko S. Kashima

    Terror management theory outlines how humans seek self-esteem and worldview validation to manage death-related anxiety. Accumulating evidence reveals that close relationships serve a similar role. However, to date, there has been no synthesis of the literature that delineates when close relationships buffer mortality concerns, under what conditions, on which specific outcomes, and for whom. This systematic review presents over two decades of research to address these questions. Findings from 73 reviewed studies revealed that close relationships serve an important role in buffering death-related anxiety. A range of dispositional and situational moderating factors influence either the activation or inhibition of relational strivings to manage heightened death awareness, the most influential being attachment, gender, and relationship-contingent self-esteem. These findings were integrated into an overarching model that highlights some of the conditions under which mortality salience (MS) influences relational outcomes. We conclude by highlighting a range of theoretical and methodological concerns to be addressed by future research.

    更新日期:2018-10-08
  • Effects of Weapons on Aggressive Thoughts, Angry Feelings, Hostile Appraisals, and Aggressive Behavior: A Meta-Analytic Review of the Weapons Effect Literature
    Pers. Soc. Psychol. Rev. (IF 9.903) Pub Date : 2017-09-17
    Arlin J. Benjamin, Jr.; Sven Kepes; Brad J. Bushman

    A landmark 1967 study showed that simply seeing a gun can increase aggression—called the “weapons effect.” Since 1967, many other studies have attempted to replicate and explain the weapons effect. This meta-analysis integrates the findings of weapons effect studies conducted from 1967 to 2017 and uses the General Aggression Model (GAM) to explain the weapons effect. It includes 151 effect-size estimates from 78 independent studies involving 7,668 participants. As predicted by the GAM, our naïve meta-analytic results indicate that the mere presence of weapons increased aggressive thoughts, hostile appraisals, and aggression, suggesting a cognitive route from weapons to aggression. Weapons did not significantly increase angry feelings. Yet, a comprehensive sensitivity analysis indicated that not all naïve mean estimates were robust to the presence of publication bias. In general, these results suggest that the published literature tends to overestimate the weapons effect for some outcomes and moderators.

    更新日期:2018-10-08
  • Toward an Integrative Framework for Studying Human Evaluation: Attitudes Toward Objects and Attributes
    Pers. Soc. Psychol. Rev. (IF 9.903) Pub Date : 2018-08-29
    Alison Ledgerwood; Paul W. Eastwick; Leigh K. Smith

    Evaluation is central to human experience, and multiple literatures have studied it. This article pulls from research on attitudes, human and nonhuman mating preferences, consumer behavior, and beyond to build a more comprehensive framework for studying evaluation. First, we distinguish between evaluations of objects (persons, places, things) and evaluations of attributes (dimensions, traits, characteristics). Then, we further distinguish between summarized attribute preferences (a valenced response to a direction on a dimension, such as liking sweetness in desserts) and functional attribute preferences (a valenced response to increasing levels of a dimension in a set of targets, such as the extent to which sweetness predicts liking for desserts). We situate these constructs with respect to existing distinctions in the attitude literature (e.g., specific/general, indirect/direct). Finally, new models address how people translate functional into summarized preferences, as well as how attribute preferences affect (a) subsequent evaluations of objects and (b) situation selection.

    更新日期:2018-10-08
  • Corrigendum
    Pers. Soc. Psychol. Rev. (IF 9.903) Pub Date : 2018-08-12

    Benjamin, A. J., Jr., Kepes, S., & Bushman, B. J. (2017). Effects of weapons on aggressive thoughts, angry feelings, hostile appraisals, and aggressive behavior: A meta-analytic review of the weapons effect literature. Personality and Social Psychology Review. (Original DOI: 10.1177/1088868317725419)

    更新日期:2018-08-13
  • Sequential Stereotype Priming: A Meta-Analysis
    Pers. Soc. Psychol. Rev. (IF 9.903) Pub Date : 2017-08-24
    Ciara K. Kidder; Katherine R. White; Michelle R. Hinojos; Mayra Sandoval; Stephen L. Crites, Jr.

    Psychological interest in stereotype measurement has spanned nearly a century, with researchers adopting implicit measures in the 1980s to complement explicit measures. One of the most frequently used implicit measures of stereotypes is the sequential priming paradigm. The current meta-analysis examines stereotype priming, focusing specifically on this paradigm. To contribute to ongoing discussions regarding methodological rigor in social psychology, one primary goal was to identify methodological moderators of the stereotype priming effect—whether priming is due to a relation between the prime and target stimuli, the prime and target response, participant task, stereotype dimension, stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA), and stimuli type. Data from 39 studies yielded 87 individual effect sizes from 5,497 participants. Analyses revealed that stereotype priming is significantly moderated by the presence of prime–response relations, participant task, stereotype dimension, target stimulus type, SOA, and prime repetition. These results carry both practical and theoretical implications for future research on stereotype priming.

    更新日期:2018-07-08
  • State Authenticity as Fit to Environment: The Implications of Social Identity for Fit, Authenticity, and Self-Segregation
    Pers. Soc. Psychol. Rev. (IF 9.903) Pub Date : 2017-10-04
    Toni Schmader; Constantine Sedikides

    People seek out situations that “fit,” but the concept of fit is not well understood. We introduce State Authenticity as Fit to the Environment (SAFE), a conceptual framework for understanding how social identities motivate the situations that people approach or avoid. Drawing from but expanding the authenticity literature, we first outline three types of person–environment fit: self-concept fit, goal fit, and social fit. Each type of fit, we argue, facilitates cognitive fluency, motivational fluency, and social fluency that promote state authenticity and drive approach or avoidance behaviors. Using this model, we assert that contexts subtly signal social identities in ways that implicate each type of fit, eliciting state authenticity for advantaged groups but state inauthenticity for disadvantaged groups. Given that people strive to be authentic, these processes cascade down to self-segregation among social groups, reinforcing social inequalities. We conclude by mapping out directions for research on relevant mechanisms and boundary conditions.

    更新日期:2018-07-08
  • The Psychology of Rituals: An Integrative Review and Process-Based Framework
    Pers. Soc. Psychol. Rev. (IF 9.903) Pub Date : 2017-11-13
    Nicholas M. Hobson; Juliana Schroeder; Jane L. Risen; Dimitris Xygalatas; Michael Inzlicht

    Traditionally, ritual has been studied from broad sociocultural perspectives, with little consideration of the psychological processes at play. Recently, however, psychologists have begun turning their attention to the study of ritual, uncovering the causal mechanisms driving this universal aspect of human behavior. With growing interest in the psychology of ritual, this article provides an organizing framework to understand recent empirical work from social psychology, cognitive science, anthropology, behavioral economics, and neuroscience. Our framework focuses on three primary regulatory functions of rituals: regulation of (a) emotions, (b) performance goal states, and (c) social connection. We examine the possible mechanisms underlying each function by considering the bottom-up processes that emerge from the physical features of rituals and top-down processes that emerge from the psychological meaning of rituals. Our framework, by appreciating the value of psychological theory, generates novel predictions and enriches our understanding of ritual and human behavior more broadly.

    更新日期:2018-07-08
  • Exploring the East-West Divide in Prevalence of Affective Disorder: A Case for Cultural Differences in Coping With Negative Emotion
    Pers. Soc. Psychol. Rev. (IF 9.903) Pub Date : 2017-10-16
    June De Vaus; Matthew J. Hornsey; Peter Kuppens; Brock Bastian

    Lifetime rates of clinical depression and anxiety in the West tend to be approximately 4 to 10 times greater than rates in Asia. In this review, we explore one possible reason for this cross-cultural difference, that Asian cultures think differently about emotion than do Western cultures and that these different systems of thought help explain why negative affect does not escalate into clinical disorder at the same rate. We review research from multiple disciplines—including cross-cultural psychology, social cognition, clinical psychology, and psychiatry—to make the case that the Eastern holistic principles of contradiction (each experience is associated with its opposite), change (the world exists in a state of constant flux), and context (the interconnectedness of all things) fundamentally shape people’s experience of emotions in different cultures. We then review evidence for how these cultural differences influence how successfully people use common emotion regulation strategies such as rumination and suppression.

    更新日期:2018-07-08
  • The Fragile Spell of Desire: A Functional Perspective on Changes in Sexual Desire Across Relationship Development
    Pers. Soc. Psychol. Rev. (IF 9.903) Pub Date : 2017-06-23
    Gurit E. Birnbaum

    The sexual behavioral system evolved to motivate reproductive acts by arousing sexual desire. Building on the idea that this system has also been “exploited” by evolutionary processes to promote enduring bonds between romantic partners, the present article introduces an integrative model that delineates the functional significance of sexual desire in relationship formation and maintenance. This model explains why individuals’ sexual reaction to their partner is context-dependent, clarifying how changes in the nature of interdependence over the course of relationships alter the ways in which specific predictors of sexual desire tend to promote (or inhibit) desire and thereby affect relationship depth and stability. The model postulates that although desire influences the development of attachment bonds, the contribution that it makes varies over the course of relationships. The model also provides new insight regarding fundamental but unresolved issues in human sexuality, such as the vulnerability of sexual desire and the desire-intimacy paradox.

    更新日期:2018-04-05
  • The Happy Culture: A Theoretical, Meta-Analytic, and Empirical Review of the Relationship Between Culture and Wealth and Subjective Well-Being
    Pers. Soc. Psychol. Rev. (IF 9.903) Pub Date : 2017-08-03
    Piers Steel; Vasyl Taras; Krista Uggerslev; Frank Bosco

    Do cultural values enhance financial and subjective well-being (SWB)? Taking a multidisciplinary approach, we meta-analytically reviewed the field, found it thinly covered, and focused on individualism. In counter, we collected a broad array of individual-level data, specifically an Internet sample of 8,438 adult respondents. Individual SWB was most strongly associated with cultural values that foster relationships and social capital, which typically accounted for more unique variance in life satisfaction than an individual’s salary. At a national level, we used mean-based meta-analysis to construct a comprehensive cultural and SWB database. Results show some reversals from the individual level, particularly masculinity’s facet of achievement orientation. In all, the happy nation has low power distance and low uncertainty avoidance, but is high in femininity and individualism, and these effects are interrelated but still partially independent from political and economic institutions. In short, culture matters for individual and national well-being.

    更新日期:2018-04-05
  • Communal Coping and Adjustment to Chronic Illness: Theory Update and Evidence
    Pers. Soc. Psychol. Rev. (IF 9.903) Pub Date : 2017-10-20
    Vicki S. Helgeson; Brittany Jakubiak; Meredith Van Vleet; Melissa Zajdel

    We present a theory of communal coping that describes an optimal pathway to patient adjustment among couples in which one person faces a chronic illness. Communal coping consists of a shared illness appraisal (i.e., person perceives illness as a joint rather than individual problem) and collaboration with a partner to manage the illness. We present a model of the communal coping process that links patient and partner shared illness appraisals to collaboration and a set of supportive interactions that might be reframed as collaboration in the presence of shared illness appraisals. We then outline a model that identifies potential antecedents of communal coping and mechanisms that link communal coping to patient illness adjustment (i.e., enhanced psychological well-being, improved health behaviors, better physical health) and partner psychological well-being. We review the empirical evidence for this model and conclude by identifying several moderator variables, noting potential limitations, and outlining future research directions.

    更新日期:2018-04-05
  • The Narcissism Spectrum Model: A Synthetic View of Narcissistic Personality
    Pers. Soc. Psychol. Rev. (IF 9.903) Pub Date : 2017-01-27
    Zlatan Krizan; Anne D. Herlache

    The narcissism spectrum model synthesizes extensive personality, social–psychological, and clinical evidence, building on existing knowledge about narcissistic grandiosity and vulnerability to reveal a view of narcissism that respects its clinical origins, embraces the diversity and complexity of its expression, and reflects extensive scientific evidence about the continuity between normal and abnormal personality expression. Critically, the proposed model addresses three key, inter-related problems that have plagued narcissism scholarship for more than a century. These problems can be summarized as follows: (a) What are the key features of narcissism? (b) How are they organized and related to each other? and (c) Why are they organized that way, that is, what accounts for their relationships? By conceptualizing narcissistic traits as manifested in transactional processes between individuals and their social environments, the model enables integration of existing theories of narcissism and thus provides a compelling perspective for future examination of narcissism and its developmental pathways.

    更新日期:2018-02-04
  • The Theory of Dyadic Morality: Reinventing Moral Judgment by Redefining Harm
    Pers. Soc. Psychol. Rev. (IF 9.903) Pub Date : 2017-05-14
    Chelsea Schein; Kurt Gray

    The nature of harm—and therefore moral judgment—may be misunderstood. Rather than an objective matter of reason, we argue that harm should be redefined as an intuitively perceived continuum. This redefinition provides a new understanding of moral content and mechanism—the constructionist Theory of Dyadic Morality (TDM). TDM suggests that acts are condemned proportional to three elements: norm violations, negative affect, and—importantly—perceived harm. This harm is dyadic, involving an intentional agent causing damage to a vulnerable patient (A→P). TDM predicts causal links both from harm to immorality (dyadic comparison) and from immorality to harm (dyadic completion). Together, these two processes make the “dyadic loop,” explaining moral acquisition and polarization. TDM argues against intuitive harmless wrongs and modular “foundations,” but embraces moral pluralism through varieties of values and the flexibility of perceived harm. Dyadic morality impacts understandings of moral character, moral emotion, and political/cultural differences, and provides research guidelines for moral psychology.

    更新日期:2018-02-04
  • Revising Working Models Across Time: Relationship Situations That Enhance Attachment Security
    Pers. Soc. Psychol. Rev. (IF 9.903) Pub Date : 2017-06-02
    Ximena B. Arriaga; Madoka Kumashiro; Jeffry A. Simpson; Nickola C. Overall

    We propose the Attachment Security Enhancement Model (ASEM) to suggest how romantic relationships can promote chronic attachment security. One part of the ASEM examines partner responses that protect relationships from the erosive effects of immediate insecurity, but such responses may not necessarily address underlying insecurities in a person’s mental models. Therefore, a second part of the ASEM examines relationship situations that foster more secure mental models. Both parts may work in tandem. We posit that attachment anxiety should decline most in situations that foster greater personal confidence and more secure mental models of the self. In contrast, attachment avoidance should decline most in situations that involve positive dependence and foster more secure models of close others. The ASEM integrates research and theory, suggests novel directions for future research, and has practical implications, all of which center on the idea that adult attachment orientations are an emergent property of close relationships.

    更新日期:2018-02-04
  • Editorial
    Pers. Soc. Psychol. Rev. (IF 9.903) Pub Date : 2018-01-23
    David K. Sherman; Heejung S. Kim

    During the 21 years of Personality and Social Psychology Review (PSPR), the journal has established itself as one of the most important outlets for theoretical innovation in psychological science. PSPR was created to be a forum within social and personality psychology where authors could advance new ideas that enrich, intrigue, and alter the field. The data suggest that PSPR is achieving this mission. It is the journal with the highest impact factor in social and personality psychology (2016 impact factor = 9.361, #1 out of 62 in Psychology, Social; Clarivate Analytics, 2017). Not only well cited, PSPR is also well decorated. Four PSPR articles (Bastian, Jetten, Hornsey, & Leknes, 2014; Cushman, 2013; Gawronski & Cesario, 2013; Strack & Deutsch, 2004) have won the Wegner Theoretical Innovation Prize, which places it, along with Psychological Review, as the journal with the highest number of the recipients for that award.

    更新日期:2018-01-23
  • The Narcissism Spectrum Model: A Synthetic View of Narcissistic Personality
    Pers. Soc. Psychol. Rev. (IF 9.903) Pub Date : 

    The narcissism spectrum model synthesizes extensive personality, social–psychological, and clinical evidence, building on existing knowledge about narcissistic grandiosity and vulnerability to reveal a view of narcissism that respects its clinical origins, embraces the diversity and complexity of its expression, and reflects extensive scientific evidence about the continuity between normal and abnormal personality expression. Critically, the proposed model addresses three key, inter-related problems that have plagued narcissism scholarship for more than a century. These problems can be summarized as follows: (a) What are the key features of narcissism? (b) How are they organized and related to each other? and (c) Why are they organized that way, that is, what accounts for their relationships? By conceptualizing narcissistic traits as manifested in transactional processes between individuals and their social environments, the model enables integration of existing theories of narcissism and thus provides a compelling perspective for future examination of narcissism and its developmental pathways.

    更新日期:2018-01-13
  • The Theory of Dyadic Morality: Reinventing Moral Judgment by Redefining Harm
    Pers. Soc. Psychol. Rev. (IF 9.903) Pub Date : 

    The nature of harm—and therefore moral judgment—may be misunderstood. Rather than an objective matter of reason, we argue that harm should be redefined as an intuitively perceived continuum. This redefinition provides a new understanding of moral content and mechanism—the constructionist Theory of Dyadic Morality (TDM). TDM suggests that acts are condemned proportional to three elements: norm violations, negative affect, and—importantly—perceived harm. This harm is dyadic, involving an intentional agent causing damage to a vulnerable patient (A→P). TDM predicts causal links both from harm to immorality (dyadic comparison) and from immorality to harm (dyadic completion). Together, these two processes make the “dyadic loop,” explaining moral acquisition and polarization. TDM argues against intuitive harmless wrongs and modular “foundations,” but embraces moral pluralism through varieties of values and the flexibility of perceived harm. Dyadic morality impacts understandings of moral character, moral emotion, and political/cultural differences, and provides research guidelines for moral psychology.

    更新日期:2018-01-13
  • Revising Working Models Across Time: Relationship Situations That Enhance Attachment Security
    Pers. Soc. Psychol. Rev. (IF 9.903) Pub Date : 

    We propose the Attachment Security Enhancement Model (ASEM) to suggest how romantic relationships can promote chronic attachment security. One part of the ASEM examines partner responses that protect relationships from the erosive effects of immediate insecurity, but such responses may not necessarily address underlying insecurities in a person’s mental models. Therefore, a second part of the ASEM examines relationship situations that foster more secure mental models. Both parts may work in tandem. We posit that attachment anxiety should decline most in situations that foster greater personal confidence and more secure mental models of the self. In contrast, attachment avoidance should decline most in situations that involve positive dependence and foster more secure models of close others. The ASEM integrates research and theory, suggests novel directions for future research, and has practical implications, all of which center on the idea that adult attachment orientations are an emergent property of close relationships.

    更新日期:2018-01-13
Contents have been reproduced by permission of the publishers.
导出
全部期刊列表>>
2020新春特辑
限时免费阅读临床医学内容
ACS材料视界
科学报告最新纳米科学与技术研究
清华大学化学系段昊泓
自然科研论文编辑服务
中国科学院大学楚甲祥
上海纽约大学William Glover
中国科学院化学研究所
课题组网站
X-MOL
北京大学分子工程苏南研究院
华东师范大学分子机器及功能材料
中山大学化学工程与技术学院
试剂库存
天合科研
down
wechat
bug