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  • Causal Inference in Generalizable Environments: Systematic Representative Design
    Psychol. Inq. (IF 10.273) Pub Date : 2020-01-04
    Lynn C. Miller; Sonia Jawaid Shaikh; David C. Jeong; Liyuan Wang; Traci K. Gillig; Carlos G. Godoy; Paul R. Appleby; Charisse L. Corsbie-Massay; Stacy Marsella; John L. Christensen; Stephen J. Read

    Causal inference and generalizability both matter. Historically, systematic designs emphasize causal inference, while representative designs focus on generalizability. Here, we suggest a transformative synthesis – Systematic Representative Design (SRD) – concurrently enhancing both causal inference and “built-in” generalizability by leveraging today’s intelligent agent, virtual environments, and other technologies. In SRD, a “default control group” (DCG) can be created in a virtual environment by representatively sampling from real-world situations. Experimental groups can be built with systematic manipulations onto the DCG base. Applying systematic design features (e.g., random assignment to DCG versus experimental groups) in SRD affords valid causal inferences. After explicating the proposed SRD synthesis, we delineate how the approach concurrently advances generalizability and robustness, cause-effect inference and precision science, a computationally-enabled cumulative psychological science supporting both “bigger theory” and concrete implementations grappling with tough questions (e.g., what is context?) and affording rapidly-scalable interventions for real-world problems.

    更新日期:2020-01-06
  • Reducing the Noise of Reality
    Psychol. Inq. (IF 10.273) Pub Date : 2020-01-04
    Abele Michela; Marieke M. J. W. van Rooij; Floris Klumpers; Jacobien M. van Peer; Karin Roelofs; Isabela Granic

    (2019). Reducing the Noise of Reality. Psychological Inquiry: Vol. 30, No. 4, pp. 203-210.

    更新日期:2020-01-06
  • Reflections on a Proposal Designed to Enhance the Internal and Internal Validity of Research in Psychology
    Psychol. Inq. (IF 10.273) Pub Date : 2020-01-04
    William D. Crano

    (2019). Reflections on a Proposal Designed to Enhance the Internal and Internal Validity of Research in Psychology. Psychological Inquiry: Vol. 30, No. 4, pp. 211-215.

    更新日期:2020-01-06
  • Systematic Representative Design: Panacea? Not really. Useful? Probably.
    Psychol. Inq. (IF 10.273) Pub Date : 2020-01-04
    John B. Nezlek

    (2019). Systematic Representative Design: Panacea? Not really. Useful? Probably. Psychological Inquiry: Vol. 30, No. 4, pp. 216-219.

    更新日期:2020-01-06
  • Establishing Generalizable Mechanisms
    Psychol. Inq. (IF 10.273) Pub Date : 2020-01-04
    Lawrence W. Barsalou

    (2019). Establishing Generalizable Mechanisms. Psychological Inquiry: Vol. 30, No. 4, pp. 220-230.

    更新日期:2020-01-06
  • Systematic Representative Design and Clinical Virtual Reality
    Psychol. Inq. (IF 10.273) Pub Date : 2020-01-04
    Sharon Mozgai; Arno Hartholt; Albert “Skip” Rizzo

    (2019). Systematic Representative Design and Clinical Virtual Reality. Psychological Inquiry: Vol. 30, No. 4, pp. 231-245.

    更新日期:2020-01-06
  • Cause for Optimism?
    Psychol. Inq. (IF 10.273) Pub Date : 2020-01-04
    Robin R. Vallacher; Andrzej Nowak

    (2019). Cause for Optimism? Psychological Inquiry: Vol. 30, No. 4, pp. 246-249.

    更新日期:2020-01-06
  • Systematic Representative Design: A Reply to Commentaries
    Psychol. Inq. (IF 10.273) Pub Date : 2020-01-04
    Lynn C. Miller; David C. Jeong; Liyuan Wang; Sonia Jawaid Shaikh; Traci K. Gillig; Carlos G. Godoy; Paul R. Appleby; Charisse L. Corsbie-Massay; Stacy Marsella; John L. Christensen; Stephen J. Read

    Systematic Representative Design (SRD), enabled by today’s technologies leverages many of the strengths of past designs into a new synthesis affording the capacity for both causal inference and generalizability to everyday life (GEL). In doing so, it could help better integrate past and ongoing empirical research findings in psychology. Generally, the commentaries were positive and thought-provoking. Delightfully, they gave us new opportunities to both clarify misunderstandings as well as further address the feasibility of this approach.

    更新日期:2020-01-06
  • Toward open behavioral science.
    Psychol. Inq. (IF 10.273) Pub Date : 2012-09-18
    Karen E Adolph,Rick O Gilmore,Clinton Freeman,Penelope Sanderson,David Millman

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Parental Socialization of Emotion.
    Psychol. Inq. (IF 10.273) Pub Date : 2006-07-26
    Nancy Eisenberg,Amanda Cumberland,Tracy L Spinrad

    Recently, there has been a resurgence of research on emotion, including the socialization of emotion. In this article, a heuristic model of factors contributing to the socialization of emotion is presented. Then literature relevant to the socialization of children's emotion and emotion-related behavior by parents is reviewed, including (a) parental reactions to children's emotions, (b) socializers' discussion of emotion, and (c) socializers' expression of emotion. The relevant literature is not conclusive and most of the research is correlational. However, the existing body of data provides initial support for the view that parental socialization practices have effects on children's emotional and social competence and that the socialization process is bidirectional. In particular, parental negative emotionality and negative reactions to children's expression of emotion are associated with children's negative emotionality and low social competence. In addition, possible moderators of effects such as level of emotional arousal are discussed.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Control Theory, Goal Attainment, and Psychopathology.
    Psychol. Inq. (IF 10.273) Pub Date : 2018-01-01
    Charles S Carver

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The identity-value model of self-regulation: Integration, extension, and open questions.
    Psychol. Inq. (IF 10.273) Pub Date : 2017-01-01
    Elliot T Berkman,Jordan L Livingston,Lauren E Kahn

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Mindfulness Broadens Awareness and Builds Eudaimonic Meaning: A Process Model of Mindful Positive Emotion Regulation.
    Psychol. Inq. (IF 10.273) Pub Date : 2016-04-19
    Eric L Garland,Norman A Farb,Philippe Goldin,Barbara L Fredrickson

    Contemporary scholarship on mindfulness casts it as a form of purely non-evaluative engagement with experience. Yet, traditionally mindfulness was not intended to operate in a vacuum of dispassionate observation, but was seen as facilitative of eudaimonic mental states. In spite of this historical context, modern psychological research has neglected to ask the question of how the practice of mindfulness affects downstream emotion regulatory processes to impact the sense of meaning in life. To fill this lacuna, here we describe the Mindfulness-to-Meaning Theory, from which we derive a novel process model of mindful positive emotion regulation informed by affective science, in which mindfulness is proposed to introduce flexibility in the generation of cognitive appraisals by enhancing interoceptive attention, thereby expanding the scope of cognition to facilitate reappraisal of adversity and savoring of positive experience. This process is proposed to culminate in a deepened capacity for meaning-making and greater engagement with life.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • THE ART OF SMART SCIENCE: WEAVING THEORY AND RISKY STUDY DESIGN INTO PSYCHOPATHOLOGY RESEARCH AND RDOC.
    Psychol. Inq. (IF 10.273) Pub Date : 2015-01-01
    Uma Vaidyanathan,Scott I Vrieze,William G Iacono

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Moving Psychopathology Forward.
    Psychol. Inq. (IF 10.273) Pub Date : 2016-02-10
    Gregory A Miller,Cindy M Yee

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • 更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Cultural Neuroscience: Progress and Promise.
    Psychol. Inq. (IF 10.273) Pub Date : 2013-08-06
    Joan Y Chiao,Bobby K Cheon,Narun Pornpattanangkul,Alissa J Mrazek,Katherine D Blizinsky

    The nature and origin of human diversity has been a source of intellectual curiosity since the beginning of human history. Contemporary advances in cultural and biological sciences provide unique opportunities for the emerging field of cultural neuroscience. Research in cultural neuroscience examines how cultural and genetic diversity shape the human mind, brain and behavior across multiple time scales: situation, ontogeny and phylogeny. Recent progress in cultural neuroscience provides novel theoretical frameworks for understanding the complex interaction of environmental, cultural and genetic factors in the production of adaptive human behavior. Here, we provide a brief history of cultural neuroscience, theoretical and methodological advances, as well as empirical evidence of the promise of and progress in the field. Implications of this research for population health disparities and public policy are discussed.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Constraints, Catalysts and Coevolution in Cultural Neuroscience: Reply to Commentaries.
    Psychol. Inq. (IF 10.273) Pub Date : 2013-05-28
    Bobby K Cheon,Alissa J Mrazek,Narun Pornpattananangkul,Katherine D Blizinsky,Joan Y Chiao

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Do Subtle Cues About Belongingness Constrain Women's Career Choices?
    Psychol. Inq. (IF 10.273) Pub Date : 2011-01-01
    Stephen J Ceci,Wendy M Williams,Rachel A Sumner,William C Defraine

    Nilanjana Dasgupta's (this issue) stereotype inoculation model (SIM) helps explain why what feels like a free choice to pursue one life path over another "is often constrained by subtle cues in achievement environments that signal who naturally belongs there and is most likely to succeed and who else is a dubious fit" (p. 231). She posits that seeing others like themselves in successful roles inoculates women against negative stereotypes that impede their success and persistence in specific achievement contexts.As is true of classic theoretical positions (see Nagel, 1961), Dasgupta presents postulates from which she deduces a specific set of hypotheses, and she reviews the relevant empirical/observational data in support of them. It is precisely what this area of research has long needed-moving beyond demonstrations of identity threats to a theory about their underlying causes, conditions, and interventions. This proposal leads her to four broad predictions, the first of which is the primary focus of our comment.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The Moral Dyad: A Fundamental Template Unifying Moral Judgment.
    Psychol. Inq. (IF 10.273) Pub Date : 2012-07-21
    Kurt Gray,Adam Waytz,Liane Young

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Mind Perception Is the Essence of Morality.
    Psychol. Inq. (IF 10.273) Pub Date : 2012-07-04
    Kurt Gray,Liane Young,Adam Waytz

    Mind perception entails ascribing mental capacities to other entities, whereas moral judgment entails labeling entities as good or bad or actions as right or wrong. We suggest that mind perception is the essence of moral judgment. In particular, we suggest that moral judgment is rooted in a cognitive template of two perceived minds-a moral dyad of an intentional agent and a suffering moral patient. Diverse lines of research support dyadic morality. First, perceptions of mind are linked to moral judgments: dimensions of mind perception (agency and experience) map onto moral types (agents and patients), and deficits of mind perception correspond to difficulties with moral judgment. Second, not only are moral judgments sensitive to perceived agency and experience, but all moral transgressions are fundamentally understood as agency plus experienced suffering-that is, interpersonal harm-even ostensibly harmless acts such as purity violations. Third, dyadic morality uniquely accounts for the phenomena of dyadic completion (seeing agents in response to patients, and vice versa), and moral typecasting (characterizing others as either moral agents or moral patients). Discussion also explores how mind perception can unify morality across explanatory levels, how a dyadic template of morality may be developmentally acquired, and future directions.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • What's outside the black box?: The status of behavioral outcomes in neuroscience research.
    Psychol. Inq. (IF 10.273) Pub Date : 2011-10-11
    Elliot T Berkman,Matthew D Lieberman

    Kievit et al.'s target paper exemplifies a trend in recent years in psychology and neuroscience to focus on internal mental and neural processes without integrating actual behavior. We discuss the theoretical status of behavior in the context of their model, and present an extension of the model that explicitly includes behavior. Several theoretical and methodological issues relevant to integrating behavior into the model are considered, particularly the distinction between behavior as measured in the laboratory along with neural and psychological processes (proximal behavior) and behavior as measured in situ as part of ongoing daily experience (distal behavior). We conclude by describing several studies that integrate neural, psychological, and behavioral indicators and discuss how these kinds of studies can facilitate a better understanding of behavior and contribute to theory development.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • 更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Active Inference and Cognitive Consistency.
    Psychol. Inq. (IF 10.273) Pub Date : 2018-10-30
    Karl J Friston

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Categories and Their Role in the Science of Emotion.
    Psychol. Inq. (IF 10.273) Pub Date : 2017-12-26
    Lisa Feldman Barrett

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • 更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Process Overlap Theory and First Principles of Intelligence Testing.
    Psychol. Inq. (IF 10.273) Pub Date : 2017-02-22
    Nelson Cowan

    The purpose of this comment is to put the Process Overlap Theory of Kovacs and Conway in the broadest possible context. I will briefly discuss the nature of intelligence testing and then relate it to the theory under consideration before making a few concluding comments.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • 更新日期:2019-11-01
  • 更新日期:2019-11-01
  • 更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Attachment Fertility Theory: Complex Systems of Mechanisms Simplify Sex, Mating, and Sexual Risks.
    Psychol. Inq. (IF 10.273) Pub Date : 2013-07-01
    Lynn Carol Miller,John L Christensen,William C Pedersen,Anila Putcha-Bhagavatula,Paul Robert Appleby

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • 更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Expanding the Science of Resilience: Conserving Resources in the Aid of Adaptation.
    Psychol. Inq. (IF 10.273) Pub Date : 2015-01-01
    Stevan E Hobfoll,Natalie R Stevens,Alyson K Zalta

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The Power of Theory, Research Design, and Transdisciplinary Integration in Moving Psychopathology Forward.
    Psychol. Inq. (IF 10.273) Pub Date : 2015-01-01
    Uma Vaidyanathan,Scott I Vrieze,William G Iacono

    While the past few decades have seen much work in psychopathology research that has yielded provocative insights, relatively little progress has been made in understanding the etiology of mental disorders. We contend that this is due to an overreliance on statistics and technology with insufficient attention to adequacy of experimental design, a lack of integration of data across various domains of research, and testing of theoretical models using relatively weak study designs. We provide a conceptual discussion of these issues and follow with a concrete demonstration of our proposed solution. Using two different disorders - depression and substance use - as examples, we illustrate how we can evaluate competing theories regarding their etiology by integrating information from various domains including latent variable models, neurobiology, and quasi-experimental data such as twin and adoption studies, rather than relying on any single methodology alone. More broadly, we discuss the extent to which such integrative thinking allows for inferences about the etiology of mental disorders, rather than focusing on descriptive correlates alone. Greater scientific insight will require stringent tests of competing theories and a deeper conceptual understanding of the advantages and pitfalls of methodologies and criteria we use in our studies.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • 更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Should We Approach Approach and Avoid Avoidance? An Inquiry from Different Levels
    Psychol. Inq. (IF 10.273) Pub Date : 2019-09-24
    Abigail A. Scholer, James F. M. Cornwell, E. Tory Higgins

    Approach motivation (striving for desired end-states, eagerly focusing on where one wants to be) is often held up as the best type of motivation: It feels good and is associated with many positive outcomes. Indeed, a common perception is that regulation in terms of approach motivation is almost always better than regulation in terms of avoidance motivation. However, as we discuss, this conclusion is worthy of a deeper look. We consider how approach and avoidance motivation manifest at different levels in a self-regulatory hierarchy and how this can help us understand the upsides and downsides of both approach and avoidance motivation. In other words, approach motivation is not always beneficial and avoidance motivation is not always problematic. Understanding these trade-offs involves a consideration of which level in the hierarchy approach or avoidance is manifested, what types of outcomes are being examined (the experience of regulation vs. performance), and how the approach or avoidance regulation fits or does not fit with an individual’s broad concerns or specific situational demands. Furthermore, a hierarchical approach helps make sense of behaviors that reflect simultaneous approach and avoidance tendencies, such as tactical approach to remove (avoid) a threat, providing a dynamic and nuanced view of motivation.

    更新日期:2019-10-25
  • When to Approach and When to Avoid? Functional Flexibility Is the Key
    Psychol. Inq. (IF 10.273) Pub Date : 2019-09-24
    Cecilia Cheng, Chor-lam Chau

    (2019). When to Approach and When to Avoid? Functional Flexibility Is the Key. Psychological Inquiry: Vol. 30, No. 3, pp. 125-129.

    更新日期:2019-10-25
  • Functions and Hierarchical Combinations of Approach and Avoidance Motivation
    Psychol. Inq. (IF 10.273) Pub Date : 2019-09-24
    Andrew J. Elliot, Shelly L. Gable

    (2019). Functions and Hierarchical Combinations of Approach and Avoidance Motivation. Psychological Inquiry: Vol. 30, No. 3, pp. 130-131.

    更新日期:2019-10-25
  • A Broad Consideration of Motivation, with a Focus on Approach Motivation
    Psychol. Inq. (IF 10.273) Pub Date : 2019-09-24
    Cindy Harmon-Jones, Eddie Harmon-Jones

    (2019). A Broad Consideration of Motivation, with a Focus on Approach Motivation. Psychological Inquiry: Vol. 30, No. 3, pp. 132-135.

    更新日期:2019-10-25
  • Clarifying Conundrums: How Goal Hierarchies Resolve Seeming Contradictions in Motivated Responding
    Psychol. Inq. (IF 10.273) Pub Date : 2019-09-24
    Emily Balcetis, Shana Cole

    (2019). Clarifying Conundrums: How Goal Hierarchies Resolve Seeming Contradictions in Motivated Responding. Psychological Inquiry: Vol. 30, No. 3, pp. 136-139.

    更新日期:2019-10-25
  • Adaptive Indulgence in Self-Control: A Multilevel Cost–Benefit Analysis
    Psychol. Inq. (IF 10.273) Pub Date : 2019-09-24
    Lile Jia, Edward R. Hirt, Michal Nowak

    (2019). Adaptive Indulgence in Self-Control: A Multilevel Cost–Benefit Analysis. Psychological Inquiry: Vol. 30, No. 3, pp. 140-146.

    更新日期:2019-10-25
  • Takin’ It to the Streets: Approach/Avoidance Motivation in the Lives of At-Risk Youth
    Psychol. Inq. (IF 10.273) Pub Date : 2019-09-24
    Ann B. Brewster, Wilkie A. Wilson, Timothy J. Strauman

    (2019). Takin’ It to the Streets: Approach/Avoidance Motivation in the Lives of At-Risk Youth. Psychological Inquiry: Vol. 30, No. 3, pp. 147-150.

    更新日期:2019-10-25
  • A Stroll through the Garden of “Goodness” and “Badness”: The Goal Systemic View on the Value of Actions and Outcomes
    Psychol. Inq. (IF 10.273) Pub Date : 2019-09-24
    Ewa Szumowska, Arie W. Kruglanski

    (2019). A Stroll through the Garden of “Goodness” and “Badness”: The Goal Systemic View on the Value of Actions and Outcomes. Psychological Inquiry: Vol. 30, No. 3, pp. 151-154.

    更新日期:2019-10-25
  • Avoiding Regulatory Rigidity and Approaching Regulatory Flexibility
    Psychol. Inq. (IF 10.273) Pub Date : 2019-09-24
    Katharine H. Greenaway, Kathleen D. Vohs

    (2019). Avoiding Regulatory Rigidity and Approaching Regulatory Flexibility. Psychological Inquiry: Vol. 30, No. 3, pp. 155-157.

    更新日期:2019-10-25
  • Hierarchical Levels of Control: The State-Trait Distinction
    Psychol. Inq. (IF 10.273) Pub Date : 2019-09-24
    Neil McNaughton, Philip J. Corr

    (2019). Hierarchical Levels of Control: The State-Trait Distinction. Psychological Inquiry: Vol. 30, No. 3, pp. 158-164.

    更新日期:2019-10-25
  • Approach and Avoidance Dynamics: How Expanding the Scope Informs Motivation Science
    Psychol. Inq. (IF 10.273) Pub Date : 2019-09-24
    James F. M. Cornwell, Abigail A. Scholer, E. Tory Higgins

    We have argued for a balanced perspective on the relative benefits and costs of approach and avoidance motivation, and that thinking hierarchically about these motives contributes to a better understanding of goal pursuit. Having received several scholarly commentaries on these primary claims, in this reply, we further clarify the roles of regulatory fit and intelligibility in goal pursuit, examine surviving and thriving at different levels of the motivational hierarchy, and demonstrate that thinking hierarchically about approach and avoidance motivation provides a wealth of opportunities for additional research into the dynamics of motivation.

    更新日期:2019-10-25
  • Archetypes Reconsidered as Emergent Outcomes of Cognitive Complexity and Evolved Motivational Systems
    Psychol. Inq. (IF 10.273) Pub Date : 2019-06-27
    David Vaughn Becker, Steven L. Neuberg

    Advances in contemporary cognitive science suggest that our internal representational systems are powerfully shaped by interacting evolutionary, developmental, and neuro-computational processes. Although Jung’s archetypes of the collective unconscious are largely dismissed by modern psychological science, something very much like them emerges from the intersection of these perspectives. Functional analysis suggests that a variety of conserved systems—basic biological ones, like self-protection and mating, as well as more complex social ones, like cheater-detection—need to make use of more general representational systems (like face perception) to simulate and predict adaptive responses to recurring environmental problems. Furthermore, analogous to the capacity to develop language, these systems depend on specific input at critical developmental stages. Archetypes reflect the interaction of domain-specific challenges and domain-general simulations. They are dynamic patterns of perception, memory, and action, resonating with ancient motivational and emotional systems. They shed light on how the symbolic emerges from the subsymbolic. Archetypes are thus the natural consequence of our fundamental social goals playing out in three nested dynamics: the online representation of reality by mental simulation systems, the history of personal experiences that build a particular instantiation of these systems, and the evolutionary dynamics that selected the web of cognitive and affective capacities that all normally developing humans share. This modern elaboration of the idea of archetypes fuses disparate conceptual perspectives, provokes methodological reorientations, generates novel hypotheses, and will likely open whole new lines of integrative inquiry.

    更新日期:2019-06-29
  • Pushing Archetypal Representational Systems Further
    Psychol. Inq. (IF 10.273) Pub Date : 2019-06-27
    David Vaughn Becker, Steven L. Neuberg

    We revived Jung’s Archetypes to characterize what we see as an emerging confluence of evolutionary, embodied, and ecological responses to traditional cognitive models of mental representation. We propose that all humans possess archetypal representational systems that are (a) computationally grounded in perception and action, (b) shaped by learning and culture, and (c) biologically prepared by our ancestral past. Because these functionally modular systems arose in tandem with—and in response to—our increasingly complex social world, one implication is that even the most abstract issues studied in cognitive science may be, at least in part, scaffolded on more ancient social and emotional calculi.

    更新日期:2019-06-29
  • Relationship Trajectories: A Meta-Theoretical Framework and Theoretical Applications
    Psychol. Inq. (IF 10.273) Pub Date : 2019-05-23
    Paul W. Eastwick, Eli J. Finkel, Jeffry A. Simpson

    This article introduces a metatheoretical framework—the Relationship Trajectories Framework—that conceptualizes how human mating relationships develop across their complete time span, from the moment two people meet until the relationship ends. The framework depicts relationships as arc-shaped evaluative trajectories that vary on five dimensions: shape (which includes ascent, peak, and descent), fluctuation, threshold, composition, and density. The framework can depict single trajectories in isolation or two partners’ trajectories with respect to each other (dyadic trajectories). Two theoretical models demonstrate the generative power of the framework—the relationship coordination and strategic timing (ReCAST) model and the sociosexuality trajectory model—both of which integrate close relationships and evolutionary psychological perspectives on mating. Finally, additional examples illustrate how the framework can generate new research questions about core relationships topics.

    更新日期:2019-05-24
  • The Attitudinal Entropy (AE) Framework as a General Theory of Individual Attitudes
    Psychol. Inq. (IF 10.273) Pub Date : 2019-01-16
    Jonas Dalege, Denny Borsboom, Frenk van Harreveld, Han L. J. van der Maas

    This article introduces the Attitudinal Entropy (AE) framework, which builds on the Causal Attitude Network model that conceptualizes attitudes as Ising networks. The AE framework rests on three propositions. First, attitude inconsistency and instability are two related indications of attitudinal entropy, a measure of randomness derived from thermodynamics. Second, energy of attitude configurations serves as a local processing strategy to reduce the global entropy of attitude networks. Third, directing attention to and thinking about attitude objects reduces attitudinal entropy. We first discuss several determinants of attitudinal entropy reduction and show that several findings in the attitude literature, such as the mere thought effect on attitude polarization and the effects of heuristic versus systematic processing of arguments, follow from the AE framework. Second, we discuss the AE framework’s implications for ambivalence and cognitive dissonance.

    更新日期:2019-05-16
  • The Attitudinal Entropy (AE) Framework as a General Theory of Individual Attitudes
    Psychol. Inq. (IF 10.273) Pub Date : 2019-01-16
    Jonas Dalege, Denny Borsboom, Frenk van Harreveld, Han L. J. van der Maas

    This article introduces the Attitudinal Entropy (AE) framework, which builds on the Causal Attitude Network model that conceptualizes attitudes as Ising networks. The AE framework rests on three propositions. First, attitude inconsistency and instability are two related indications of attitudinal entropy, a measure of randomness derived from thermodynamics. Second, energy of attitude configurations serves as a local processing strategy to reduce the global entropy of attitude networks. Third, directing attention to and thinking about attitude objects reduces attitudinal entropy. We first discuss several determinants of attitudinal entropy reduction and show that several findings in the attitude literature, such as the mere thought effect on attitude polarization and the effects of heuristic versus systematic processing of arguments, follow from the AE framework. Second, we discuss the AE framework’s implications for ambivalence and cognitive dissonance.

    更新日期:2019-01-17
  • A Cybernetic Theory of Psychopathology
    Psychol. Inq. (IF 10.273) Pub Date : 2018-12-24
    Colin G. DeYoung, Robert F. Krueger

    Cybernetics, the study of principles governing goal-directed, self-regulating systems, offers a useful approach to understanding psychopathology or psychological dysfunction, overcoming limitations of other naturalistic approaches. Whereas influential theories of psychopathology have relied on definitions of dysfunction rooted in evolution and fitness, we define psychopathology in terms of cybernetic dysfunction, failure to make progress toward important goals. Cybernetic function in organisms is not identical to evolutionary function, despite their causal phylogenetic relationship. We define psychopathology as persistent failure to move toward one’s goals, due to failure to generate effective new goals, interpretations, or strategies when existing ones prove unsuccessful. This definition allows a thorough integration of dimensional approaches to psychopathology and personality and provides a new perspective on the nosology of mental disorder. We review evidence that the major dimensions of psychopathology correspond to major trait dimensions of personality, but we assert that extremity on these dimensions is neither necessary nor sufficient for psychopathology, which requires cybernetic dysfunction. Drawing from psychological and neurobiological research on personality and psychopathology, we present a theory of the mechanisms underlying the five major dimensions of psychopathology, some of their subdimensions, and the general risk factor for psychopathology. We conclude by discussing implications of our theory for research, diagnosis, and mental health interventions.

    更新日期:2019-01-01
  • Cognitive Consistency Theory in Social Psychology: A Paradigm Reconsidered
    Psychol. Inq. (IF 10.273) Pub Date : 2018-10-10
    Arie W. Kruglanski, Katarzyna Jasko, Maxim Milyavsky, Marina Chernikova, David Webber, Antonio Pierro, Daniela di Santo

    From the 1950s onward, psychologists have generally assumed that people possess a general need for cognitive consistency, whose frustration by an inconsistency elicits negative affect. We offer a novel perspective on this issue by introducing the distinction between epistemic and motivational impact of consistent and inconsistent cognitions. The epistemic aspect is represented by the updated expectancy of the outcome addressed in such cognitions. The motivational aspect stems from value (desirability) of that outcome. We show that neither the outcome’s value nor its updated expectancy is systematically related to cognitive consistency or inconsistency. Consequently, we question consistency’s role in the driving of affective responses and the related presumption of a universal human need for cognitive consistency.

    更新日期:2018-10-11
  • On the Prioritized Processing of Threat in a Dual Implicit Process Model of Evaluation
    Psychol. Inq. (IF 10.273) Pub Date : 2018-03-21
    David S. March, Lowell Gaertner, Michael A. Olson

    Dual-process models of attitudes distinguish between implicit and explicit processes in which the valence (i.e., positivity or negativity) of a stimulus influences judgments and behavior toward the stimulus. Developing parallel to the dual-process literature has been a threat detection literature suggesting that the mind is preferentially attuned to threats to immediate bodily harm. That literature reveals early privileged responses (e.g., shorter latency of detection, stronger reflexive reactions, and faster and stronger physiological responses) to threatening stimuli relative to negative, neutral, and positive stimuli. By integrating those literatures, we develop the dual implicit process model that postulates two functionally distinct and serially linked automatic processes in which an implicit threat process precedes (and potentially influences) an implicit valence process (positive vs. negative), which precedes (and potentially influences) explicit processes. In addition to explicating the nature of the model, we examine insights it offers various research areas, and conclude by identifying open questions regarding the model.

    更新日期:2018-06-03
  • The Bias of Crowds: How Implicit Bias Bridges Personal and Systemic Prejudice
    Psychol. Inq. (IF 10.273) Pub Date : 2017-11-30
    B. Keith Payne, Heidi A. Vuletich, Kristjen B. Lundberg

    As public awareness of implicit bias has grown in recent years, studies have raised important new questions about the nature of implicit bias effects. First, implicit biases are widespread and robust on average, yet are unstable across a few weeks. Second, young children display implicit biases indistinguishable from those of adults, which suggests to many that implicit biases are learned early. Yet, if implicit biases are unstable over weeks, how can they be stable for decades? Third, meta-analyses suggest that individual differences in implicit bias are associated weakly, although significantly, with individual differences in behavioral outcomes. Yet, studies of aggregate levels of implicit bias (i.e., countries, states, counties) are strongly associated with aggregate levels of disparities and discrimination. These puzzles are difficult to reconcile with traditional views, which treat implicit bias as an early-learned attitude that drives discrimination among individuals who are high in bias. We propose an alternative view of implicit bias, rooted in concept accessibility. Concept accessibility can, in principle, vary both chronically and situationally. The empirical evidence, however, suggests that most of the systematic variance in implicit bias is situational. Akin to the “wisdom of crowds” effect, implicit bias may emerge as the aggregate effect of individual fluctuations in concept accessibility that are ephemeral and context-dependent. This bias of crowds theory treats implicit bias tests as measures of situations more than persons. We show how the theory can resolve the puzzles posed and generate new insights into how and why implicit bias propagates inequalities.

    更新日期:2017-12-01
  • Finding The “Self” in Self-Regulation: The Identity-Value Model
    Psychol. Inq. (IF 10.273) Pub Date : 2017-08-18
    Elliot T. Berkman, Jordan L. Livingston, Lauren E. Kahn

    Many psychological theories suggest a link between self-regulation and identity, but, until now, a mechanistic account that suggests ways to improve self-regulation has not been put forth. The identity-value model (IVM) connects the idea from social psychology that aspects of identity such as core values and group affiliations hold positive subjective value to the process-focused account from decision making and behavioral economics that self-regulation is driven by a dynamic value integration across a range of choice attributes. Together, these ideas imply that goal-directed behaviors that are identity relevant are more likely to be enacted because they have greater subjective value than identity-irrelevant behaviors. A central hypothesis, therefore, is that interventions that increase the degree to which a target behavior is perceived as self-relevant will improve self-regulation. In addition, identity-based changes in self-regulation are expected to be mediated by changes in subjective value and its underlying neural systems. In this article we define the key constructs relevant to the IVM, explicate the model and delineate its boundary conditions, and describe how it fits with related theories. We also review disparate results in the research literature that might share identity-related value as a common underlying mechanism of action. We close by discussing questions about the model, the answers to which could advance the study of self-regulation.

    更新日期:2017-08-24
  • How to Do Things with Emotional Expressions: The Theory of Affective Pragmatics
    Psychol. Inq. (IF 10.273) Pub Date : 2017-08-18
    Andrea Scarantino

    It is widely accepted that emotional expressions can be rich communicative devices. We can learn much from the tears of a grieving friend, the smiles of an affable stranger, or the slamming of a door by a disgruntled lover. So far, a systematic analysis of what can be communicated by emotional expressions of different kinds and of exactly how such communication takes place has been missing. The aim of this article is to introduce a new framework for the study of emotional expressions that I call the theory of affective pragmatics (TAP). As linguistic pragmatics focuses on what utterances mean in a context, affective pragmatics focuses on what emotional expressions mean in a context. TAP develops and connects two principal insights. The first is the insight that emotional expressions do much more than simply expressing emotions. As proponents of the Behavioral Ecology View of facial movements have long emphasized, bodily displays are sophisticated social tools that can communicate the signaler's intentions and requests. Proponents of the Basic Emotion View of emotional expressions have acknowledged this fact, but they have failed to emphasize its importance, in part because they have been in the grip of a mistaken theory of emotional expressions as involuntary readouts of emotions. The second insight that TAP aims to articulate and apply to emotional expressions is that it is possible to engage in analogs of speech acts without using language at all. I argue that there are important and so far largely unexplored similarities between what we can “do” with words and what we can “do” with emotional expressions. In particular, the core tenet of TAP is that emotional expressions are a means not only of expressing what's inside but also of directing other people's behavior, of representing what the world is like and of committing to future courses of action. Because these are some of the main things we can do with language, the take home message of my analysis is that, from a communicative point of view, much of what we can do with language we can also do with non-verbal emotional expressions. I conclude by exploring some reasons why, despite the analogies I have highlighted, emotional expressions are much less powerful communicative tools than speech acts.

    更新日期:2017-08-24
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