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  • Interview with Shelley E. Taylor
    Annu. Rev. Psychol. (IF 19.755) Pub Date : 2019-01-04
    Shelley E. Taylor, Susan T. Fiske

    Shelley Taylor's autobiographical interview (conducted by Annual Review of Psychology Editor and long-time collaborator Susan Fiske) touches on some of her favorite ideas. For example, positive illusions: “The traditional textbook definition of mental health included the stipulation that people see the world accurately, and what we were suggesting is that actually, a lot of times, people don't see the world accurately. They see it with a positive spin on it.” She also discusses how to found fields (social cognition, health psychology, and social neuroscience) and the challenges of boundary crossing (from social to biological). Her practical comments describe the joy of teaching methods, running a lab, and being a solo female. The interview ends with her advice to follow your instincts about the next big idea: “Trusting your own ideas is a very important way of coming up with a research program that is novel and exciting, and that ultimately wins people over.”

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • The Neurocognitive Bases of Human Volition
    Annu. Rev. Psychol. (IF 19.755) Pub Date : 2019-01-04
    Patrick Haggard

    Volition refers to a capacity for endogenous action, particularly goal-directed endogenous action, shared by humans and some other animals. It has long been controversial whether a specific set of cognitive processes for volition exist in the human brain, and much scientific thinking on the topic continues to revolve around traditional metaphysical debates about free will. At its origins, scientific psychology had a strong engagement with volition. This was followed by a period of disenchantment, or even outright hostility, during the second half of the twentieth century. In this review, I aim to reinvigorate the scientific approach to volition by, first, proposing a range of different features that constitute a new, neurocognitively realistic working definition of volition. I then focus on three core features of human volition: its generativity (the capacity to trigger actions), its subjectivity (the conscious experiences associated with initiating voluntary actions), and its teleology (the goal-directed quality of some voluntary actions). I conclude that volition is a neurocognitive process of enormous societal importance and susceptible to scientific investigation.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • A Mechanistic Framework for Explaining Audience Design in Language Production
    Annu. Rev. Psychol. (IF 19.755) Pub Date : 2019-01-04
    Victor S. Ferreira

    Audience design refers to the situation in which speakers fashion their utterances so as to cater to the needs of their addressees. In this article, a range of audience design effects are reviewed, organized by a novel cognitive framework for understanding audience design effects. Within this framework, feedforward (or one-shot) production is responsible for feedforward audience design effects, or effects based on already known properties of the addressee (e.g., child versus adult status) or the message (e.g., that it includes meanings that might be confusable). Then, a forward modeling approach is described, whereby speakers independently generate communicatively relevant features to predict potential communicative effects. This can explain recurrent processing audience design effects, or effects based on features of the produced utterance itself or on idiosyncratic features of the addressee or communicative situation. Predictions from the framework are delineated.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • An Integrated Model of Action Selection: Distinct Modes of Cortical Control of Striatal Decision Making
    Annu. Rev. Psychol. (IF 19.755) Pub Date : 2019-01-04
    Melissa J. Sharpe, Thomas Stalnaker, Nicolas W. Schuck, Simon Killcross, Geoffrey Schoenbaum, Yael Niv

    Making decisions in environments with few choice options is easy. We select the action that results in the most valued outcome. Making decisions in more complex environments, where the same action can produce different outcomes in different conditions, is much harder. In such circumstances, we propose that accurate action selection relies on top-down control from the prelimbic and orbitofrontal cortices over striatal activity through distinct thalamostriatal circuits. We suggest that the prelimbic cortex exerts direct influence over medium spiny neurons in the dorsomedial striatum to represent the state space relevant to the current environment. Conversely, the orbitofrontal cortex is argued to track a subject's position within that state space, likely through modulation of cholinergic interneurons.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Mate Preferences and Their Behavioral Manifestations
    Annu. Rev. Psychol. (IF 19.755) Pub Date : 2019-01-04
    David M. Buss, David P. Schmitt

    Evolved mate preferences comprise a central causal process in Darwin's theory of sexual selection. Their powerful influences have been documented in all sexually reproducing species, including in sexual strategies in humans. This article reviews the science of human mate preferences and their myriad behavioral manifestations. We discuss sex differences and sex similarities in human sexual psychology, which vary according to short-term and long-term mating contexts. We review context-specific shifts in mating strategy depending on individual, social, and ecological qualities such as mate value, life history strategy, sex ratio, gender economic inequality, and cultural norms. We review the empirical evidence for the impact of mate preferences on actual mating decisions. Mate preferences also dramatically influence tactics of mate attraction, tactics of mate retention, patterns of deception, causes of sexual regret, attraction to cues to sexual exploitability, attraction to cues to fertility, attraction to cues to resources and protection, derogation of competitors, causes of breakups, and patterns of remarriage. We conclude by articulating unresolved issues and offer a future agenda for the science of human mating, including how humans invent novel cultural technologies to better implement ancient sexual strategies and how cultural evolution may be dramatically influencing our evolved mating psychology.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Developmental Adaptation to Stress: An Evolutionary Perspective
    Annu. Rev. Psychol. (IF 19.755) Pub Date : 2019-01-04
    Bruce J. Ellis, Marco Del Giudice

    The assumption that early stress leads to dysregulation and impairment is widespread in developmental science and informs prevailing models (e.g., toxic stress). An alternative evolutionary–developmental approach, which complements the standard emphasis on dysregulation, proposes that early stress may prompt the development of costly but adaptive strategies that promote survival and reproduction under adverse conditions. In this review, we survey this growing theoretical and empirical literature, highlighting recent developments and outstanding questions. We review concepts of adaptive plasticity and conditional adaptation, introduce the life history framework and the adaptive calibration model, and consider how physiological stress response systems and related neuroendocrine processes may function as plasticity mechanisms. We then address the evolution of individual differences in susceptibility to the environment, which engenders systematic person–environment interactions in the effects of stress on development. Finally, we discuss stress-mediated regulation of pubertal development as a case study of how an evolutionary–developmental approach can foster theoretical integration.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Motor Development: Embodied, Embedded, Enculturated, and Enabling
    Annu. Rev. Psychol. (IF 19.755) Pub Date : 2019-01-04
    Karen E. Adolph, Justine E. Hoch

    Motor development and psychological development are fundamentally related, but researchers typically consider them separately. In this review, we present four key features of infant motor development and show that motor skill acquisition both requires and reflects basic psychological functions. (a) Motor development is embodied: Opportunities for action depend on the current status of the body. (b) Motor development is embedded: Variations in the environment create and constrain possibilities for action. (c) Motor development is enculturated: Social and cultural influences shape motor behaviors. (d) Motor development is enabling: New motor skills create new opportunities for exploration and learning that instigate cascades of development across diverse psychological domains. For each of these key features, we show that changes in infants’ bodies, environments, and experiences entail behavioral flexibility and are thus essential to psychology. Moreover, we suggest that motor development is an ideal model system for the study of psychological development.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Face Processing in Infancy and Beyond: The Case of Social Categories
    Annu. Rev. Psychol. (IF 19.755) Pub Date : 2019-01-04
    Paul C. Quinn, Kang Lee, Olivier Pascalis

    Prior reviews of infant face processing have emphasized how infants respond to faces in general. This review highlights how infants come to respond differentially to social categories of faces based on differential experience, with a focus on race and gender. We examine six different behaviors: preference, recognition, scanning, category formation, association with emotion, and selective learning. Although some aspects of infant responding to face race and gender may be accounted for by traditional models of perceptual development, other aspects suggest the need for a broader model that links perceptual development with social and emotional development. We also consider how responding to face race and gender in infancy may presage responding to these categories beyond infancy and discuss how social biases favoring own-race and female faces are formed.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Agency and Motivation in Adulthood and Old Age
    Annu. Rev. Psychol. (IF 19.755) Pub Date : 2019-01-04
    Jutta Heckhausen, Carsten Wrosch, Richard Schulz

    This review addresses conceptual and empirical research about how individual agency and motivation influences development during adulthood and old age. The major life-span approaches to individual agency and developmental regulation are discussed, with a focus on the motivational theory of life-span development. Developmental agency unfolds through action cycles of pursuing long-term goals for optimal development. Individuals differ in their capacity to regulate their goal engagements effectively within the age-graded structure of opportunities and constraints in their life courses. We discuss a set of research examples about specific developmental challenges, such as transition to adulthood, biological aging, illness, and societal transformation, and show how individuals, as agents in their own development, navigate change for better or worse. We conclude with suggestions for future research.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Successful Memory Aging
    Annu. Rev. Psychol. (IF 19.755) Pub Date : 2019-01-04
    Lars Nyberg, Sara Pudas

    For more than 50 years, psychologists, gerontologists, and, more recently, neuroscientists have considered the possibility of successful aging. How to define successful aging remains debated, but well-preserved age-sensitive cognitive functions, like episodic memory, is an often-suggested criterion. Evidence for successful memory aging comes from cross-sectional and longitudinal studies showing that some older individuals display high and stable levels of performance. Successful memory aging may be accomplished via multiple paths. One path is through brain maintenance, or relative lack of age-related brain pathology. Through another path, successful memory aging can be accomplished despite brain pathology by means of efficient compensatory and strategic processes. Genetic, epigenetic, and lifestyle factors influence memory aging via both paths. Some of these factors can be promoted throughout the life course, which, at the individual as well as the societal level, can positively impact successful memory aging.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Sexual Harassment in Academia: Ethical Climates and Bounded Ethicality
    Annu. Rev. Psychol. (IF 19.755) Pub Date : 2019-01-04
    Ann E. Tenbrunsel, McKenzie R. Rees, Kristina A. Diekmann

    This article reviews research on sexual harassment, particularly that pertaining to academia, to understand its underlying causes. Arguing that sexual harassment is an ethical issue, we draw on the field of behavioral ethics to structure our review. We first review ethical climate antecedents at the individual, leader, organizational, and environmental levels and examine their effects on both the occurrence of and responses to sexually harassing behaviors. This discussion is followed by an exploration of research that speaks to the cognitive processes of bounded ethicality—including ethical fading, motivated blindness, and the slippery slope—and their role in facilitating and perpetuating sexual harassment. We conclude by highlighting the value to be gained from integrating research on sexual harassment with research on behavioral ethics and identifying several practical steps that can be taken to curb sexual harassment in academia.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Nonverbal Communication
    Annu. Rev. Psychol. (IF 19.755) Pub Date : 2019-01-04
    Judith A. Hall, Terrence G. Horgan, Nora A. Murphy

    The field of nonverbal communication (NVC) has a long history involving many cue modalities, including face, voice, body, touch, and interpersonal space; different levels of analysis, including normative, group, and individual differences; and many substantive themes that cross from psychology into other disciplines. In this review, we focus on NVC as it pertains to individuals and social interaction. We concentrate specifically on (a) the meanings and correlates of cues that are enacted (sent) by encoders and (b) the perception of nonverbal cues and the accuracy of such perception. Frameworks are presented for conceptualizing and understanding the process of sending and receiving nonverbal cues. Measurement issues are discussed, and theoretical issues and new developments are covered briefly. Although our review is primarily oriented within social and personality psychology, the interdisciplinary nature of NVC is evident in the growing body of research on NVC across many areas of scientific inquiry.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Reading Lies: Nonverbal Communication and Deception
    Annu. Rev. Psychol. (IF 19.755) Pub Date : 2019-01-04
    Aldert Vrij, Maria Hartwig, Pär Anders Granhag

    The relationship between nonverbal communication and deception continues to attract much interest, but there are many misconceptions about it. In this review, we present a scientific view on this relationship. We describe theories explaining why liars would behave differently from truth tellers, followed by research on how liars actually behave and individuals’ ability to detect lies. We show that the nonverbal cues to deceit discovered to date are faint and unreliable and that people are mediocre lie catchers when they pay attention to behavior. We also discuss why individuals hold misbeliefs about the relationship between nonverbal behavior and deception—beliefs that appear very hard to debunk. We further discuss the ways in which researchers could improve the state of affairs by examining nonverbal behaviors in different ways and in different settings than they currently do.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Revenge: A Multilevel Review and Synthesis
    Annu. Rev. Psychol. (IF 19.755) Pub Date : 2019-01-04
    Joshua Conrad Jackson, Virginia K. Choi, Michele J. Gelfand

    Why do people take revenge? This question can be difficult to answer. Vengeance seems interpersonally destructive and antithetical to many of the most basic human instincts. However, an emerging body of social scientific research has begun to illustrate a logic to revenge, demonstrating why revenge evolved in humans and when and how people take revenge. We review this evidence and suggest that future studies on revenge would benefit from a multilevel perspective in which individual acts of revenge exist within higher-level cultural systems, with the potential to instigate change in these systems over time. With this framework, we can better understand the interplay between revenge's psychological properties and its role in cultural evolution.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • The Caring Continuum: Evolved Hormonal and Proximal Mechanisms Explain Prosocial and Antisocial Extremes
    Annu. Rev. Psychol. (IF 19.755) Pub Date : 2019-01-04
    Abigail A. Marsh

    Implicit in the long-standing disagreements about whether humans’ fundamental nature is predominantly caring or callous is an assumption of uniformity. This article reviews evidence that instead supports inherent variation in caring motivation and behavior. The continuum between prosocial and antisocial extremes reflects variation in the structure and function of neurohormonal systems originally adapted to motivate parental care and since repurposed to support generalized forms of care. Extreme social behaviors such as extraordinary acts of altruism and aggression can often be best understood as reflecting variation in the neural systems that support care. A review of comparative, developmental, and neurobiological research finds consistent evidence that variations in caring motivations and behavior reflect individual differences in sensitivity to cues that signal vulnerability and distress and in the tendency to generalize care outward from socially close to distant others. The often complex relationships between caring motivation and various forms of altruism and aggression are discussed.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Self-Control and Academic Achievement
    Annu. Rev. Psychol. (IF 19.755) Pub Date : 2019-01-04
    Angela L. Duckworth, Jamie L. Taxer, Lauren Eskreis-Winkler, Brian M. Galla, James J. Gross

    Self-control refers to the alignment of thoughts, feelings, and actions with enduringly valued goals in the face of momentarily more alluring alternatives. In this review, we examine the role of self-control in academic achievement. We begin by defining self-control and distinguishing it from related constructs. Next, we summarize evidence that nearly all students experience conflict between academic goals that they value in the long run and nonacademic goals that they find more gratifying in the moment. We then turn to longitudinal evidence relating self-control to academic attainment, course grades, and performance on standardized achievement tests. We use the process model of self-control to illustrate how impulses are generated and regulated, emphasizing opportunities for students to deliberately strengthen impulses that are congruent with, and dampen impulses that are incongruent with, academic goals. Finally, we conclude with future directions for both science and practice.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Attachment in Adulthood: Recent Developments, Emerging Debates, and Future Directions
    Annu. Rev. Psychol. (IF 19.755) Pub Date : 2019-01-04
    R. Chris Fraley

    Some of the most emotionally powerful experiences result from the development, maintenance, and disruption of attachment relationships. In this article, I review several emerging themes and unresolved debates in the social-psychological study of adult attachment, including debates about the ways in which attachment-related functions shift over the course of development, what makes some people secure or insecure in their close relationships, consensual nonmonogamy, the evolutionary function of insecure attachment, and models of thriving through relationships.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Personality Across the Life Span
    Annu. Rev. Psychol. (IF 19.755) Pub Date : 2019-01-04
    Paul T. Costa, Jr., Robert R. McCrae, Corinna E. Löckenhoff

    Trait stability and maturation are fundamental principles of contemporary personality psychology and have been shown to hold across many cultures. However, it has proven difficult to move beyond these general findings to a detailed account of trait development. There are pervasive and unexplained inconsistencies across studies that may be due to (a) insufficient attention to measurement error, (b) subtle but age-sensitive differences in alternative measures of the same trait, or (c) different perspectives reflected in self-reports and observer ratings. Multiscale, multimethod—and ideally multinational—studies are needed. Several hypotheses have been proposed to account for trait stability and change, but supporting evidence is currently weak or indirect; trait development is a fertile if sometimes frustrating field for theory and research. Beyond traits, there are approaches to personality development that are of interest to students of adult development, and these may be fruitfully addressed from a trait perspective.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Projected Behavioral Impacts of Global Climate Change
    Annu. Rev. Psychol. (IF 19.755) Pub Date : 2019-01-04
    Gary W. Evans

    The projected behavioral impacts of global climate change emanate from environmental changes including temperature elevation, extreme weather events, and rising air pollution. Negative affect, interpersonal and intergroup conflict, and possibly psychological distress increase with rising temperature. Droughts, floods, and severe storms diminish quality of life, elevate stress, produce psychological distress, and may elevate interpersonal and intergroup conflict. Recreational opportunities are compromised by extreme weather, and children may suffer delayed cognitive development. Elevated pollutants concern citizens and may accentuate psychological distress. Outdoor recreational activity is curtailed by ambient pollutants. Limitations and issues in need of further investigation include the following: lack of data on direct experience with climate change rather than indirect assessments related to projected changes; poor spatial resolution in environmental exposures and behavioral assessments; few rigorous quasi-experimental studies; overreliance on self-reports of behavioral outcomes; little consideration of moderator effects; and scant investigation of underlying psychosocial processes to explain projected behavioral impacts.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Meanings and Functions of Money in Different Cultural Milieus
    Annu. Rev. Psychol. (IF 19.755) Pub Date : 2019-01-04
    Dov Cohen, Faith Shin, Xi Liu

    We explore the psychological meanings of money that parallel its economic functions. We explore money's ability to ascribe value, give autonomy, and provide security for the future, and we show how each of these functions may play out differently in different cultural milieus. In particular, we explore the meanings and uses of money across ethnic groups and at different positions on the socioeconomic ladder, highlighting changes over the last 50 years. We examine the dynamics of redistribution between the individual, the family, and the state in different cultures, and we analyze the gendering of money in the world of high finance and in contexts of economic need. The field of behavioral economics has illustrated how human psychology complicates the process of moving from normative to descriptive models of human behavior; such complexity increases as we incorporate the great diversity within human psychology.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • The Psychology of Cultural Dynamics: What Is It, What Do We Know, and What Is Yet to Be Known?
    Annu. Rev. Psychol. (IF 19.755) Pub Date : 2019-01-04
    Yoshihisa Kashima, Paul G. Bain, Amy Perfors

    The psychology of cultural dynamics is the psychological investigation of the formation, maintenance, and transformation of culture over time. This article maps out the terrain, reviews the existing literature, and points out potential future directions of this research. It is divided into three parts. The first part focuses on micro-cultural dynamics, which refers to the social and psychological processes that contribute to the dissemination and retention of cultural information. The second part, on micro–macro dynamics, investigates how micro-level processes give rise to macro-cultural dynamics. The third part focuses on macro-cultural dynamics, referring to the distribution and long-term trends involving cultural information in a population, which in turn enable and constrain the micro-level processes. We conclude the review with a consideration of future directions, suggesting behavior change research as translational research on cultural dynamics.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Computer Games in Education
    Annu. Rev. Psychol. (IF 19.755) Pub Date : 2019-01-04
    Richard E. Mayer

    Visionaries offer strong claims for the educational benefits of computer games, but there is a need to test those claims with rigorous scientific research and ground them in evidence-based theories of how people learn. Three genres of game research are (a) value-added research, which compares the learning outcomes of groups that learn academic material from playing a base version of a game to the outcomes of those playing the same game with one feature added; (b) cognitive consequences research, which compares improvements in cognitive skills of groups that play an off-the-shelf game to the skill improvements of those who engage in a control activity; and (c) media comparison research, which compares the learning outcomes of groups that learn academic material in a game to the outcomes of those who learn with conventional media. Value-added research suggests five promising features to include in educational computer games: modality, personalization, pretraining, coaching, and self-explanation. Cognitive consequences research suggests two promising approaches to cognitive training with computer games: using first-person shooter games to train perceptual attention skills and using spatial puzzle games to train two-dimensional mental rotation skills. Media comparison research suggests three promising areas where games may be more effective than conventional media: science, mathematics, and second-language learning. Future research is needed to pinpoint the cognitive, motivational, affective, and social processes that underlie learning with educational computer games.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Gifted Students
    Annu. Rev. Psychol. (IF 19.755) Pub Date : 2019-01-04
    Frank C. Worrell, Rena F. Subotnik, Paula Olszewski-Kubilius, Dante D. Dixson

    Gifted students are individuals who are recognized for performance that is superior to that of their peers. Although giftedness is typically associated with schooling, gifted individuals exist across academic and nonacademic domains. In this review, we begin by acknowledging some of the larger debates in the field of gifted education and provide brief summaries of major conceptual frameworks applied to gifted education, dividing them into three categories: frameworks focused on ability, frameworks focused on talent development, and integrative frameworks. We then discuss common practices used to identify gifted students, giving specific attention to the identification of those in underrepresented groups, followed by brief overviews of the numbers of students who are classified as gifted, programming options for gifted students, and social and emotional issues associated with being gifted. We conclude with a discussion of several unresolved issues in the field.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Ten Surprising Facts About Stressful Life Events and Disease Risk
    Annu. Rev. Psychol. (IF 19.755) Pub Date : 2019-01-04
    Sheldon Cohen, Michael L.M. Murphy, Aric A. Prather

    After over 70 years of research on the association between stressful life events and health, it is generally accepted that we have a good understanding of the role of stressors in disease risk. In this review, we highlight that knowledge but also emphasize misunderstandings and weaknesses in this literature with the hope of triggering further theoretical and empirical development. We organize this review in a somewhat provocative manner, with each section focusing on an important issue in the literature where we feel that there has been some misunderstanding of the evidence and its implications. Issues that we address include the definition of a stressful event, characteristics of diseases that are impacted by events, differences in the effects of chronic and acute events, the cumulative effects of events, differences in events across the life course, differences in events for men and women, resilience to events, and methodological challenges in the literature.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Psychobiological Mechanisms of Placebo and Nocebo Effects: Pathways to Improve Treatments and Reduce Side Effects
    Annu. Rev. Psychol. (IF 19.755) Pub Date : 2019-01-04
    Keith J. Petrie, Winfried Rief

    Placebo effects constitute a major part of treatment success in medical interventions. The nocebo effect also has a major impact, as it accounts for a significant proportion of the reported side effects for many treatments. Historically, clinical trials have aimed to reduce placebo effects; however, currently, there is interest in optimizing placebo effects to improve existing treatments and in examining ways to minimize nocebo effects to improve clinical outcome. To achieve these aims, a better understanding of the psychological and neurobiological mechanisms of the placebo and nocebo response is required. This review discusses the impact of the placebo and nocebo response in health care. We also examine the mechanisms involved in the placebo and nocebo effects, including the central mechanism of expectations. Finally, we examine ways to enhance placebo effects and reduce the impact of the nocebo response in clinical practice and suggest areas for future research.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Positive Affect and Health: What Do We Know and Where Next Should We Go?
    Annu. Rev. Psychol. (IF 19.755) Pub Date : 2019-01-04
    Sarah D. Pressman, Brooke N. Jenkins, Judith T. Moskowitz

    Positive affect (PA) is associated with better health across a wide range of physical health outcomes. This review reflects on why the study of PA is an essential component of our understanding of physical health and expands on pathways that connect these two variables. To encourage forward movement in this burgeoning research area, measurement and design issues in the study of PA and health are discussed, as are the connections between PA and a range of different health outcomes. Plausible biological, social, and behavioral pathways that allow for positive feelings to get under the skin and influence physical wellness are detailed and framed in the context of several theoretical models. Finally, new directions for the field and important methodological and interpretative considerations that are essential to moving this important research area forward are explored.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Personality and Coping: Individual Differences in Responses to Emotion
    Annu. Rev. Psychol. (IF 19.755) Pub Date : 2019-01-04
    Suzanne C. Segerstrom, Gregory T. Smith

    Abundant evidence links personality with emotion via coping. Alternatively, personality can be viewed as an emergent property of responses to the experience of emotion. Dispositions to control, approach, escape, and avoid one's emotional experience underlie diverse traits, including positive and negative urgency, trait emotional approach and avoidance, alexithymia, and emotional expressiveness. In this review, we consider the neurobiological underpinnings of these dispositions and the nature (e.g., stability) and adaptiveness of the associated traits. Important future directions for research in this area include the roles of development, intraindividual variability and flexibility, and the intensity and structure of emotional experience.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • A New Era of HIV Risk: It's Not What You Know, It's Who You Know (and How Infectious)
    Annu. Rev. Psychol. (IF 19.755) Pub Date : 2019-01-04
    Andrew C. Cortopassi, Redd Driver, Lisa A. Eaton, Seth C. Kalichman

    HIV is transmitted in social and sexual relationships, and HIV transmission risks, as well as protective actions, are evolving as HIV epidemics unfold. The current focus of HIV prevention is centered on antiretroviral medications used to reduce HIV infectiousness in persons already infected with HIV [treatment as prevention (TasP)]. The same medications used to treat infected persons can also be used by uninfected persons as pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) to reduce the infectivity of HIV. Both PrEP and TasP are effective when adherence is high and individuals do not have co-occurring sexually transmitted infections. HIV prevention is most effective and efficient when delivered within sexual networks with high HIV prevalence. Specific network characteristics are recognized as important facilitators of HIV transmission; these characteristics include the degree of similarity among network members (homophily), gender role norms, and belief systems. Since 2011, HIV risk has been redefined based on infectiousness and infectivity, ushering in a new era of HIV prevention with the potential to end HIV epidemics.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Stress and Obesity
    Annu. Rev. Psychol. (IF 19.755) Pub Date : 2019-01-04
    A. Janet Tomiyama

    Many pathways connect stress and obesity, two highly prevalent problems facing society today. First, stress interferes with cognitive processes such as executive function and self-regulation. Second, stress can affect behavior by inducing overeating and consumption of foods that are high in calories, fat, or sugar; by decreasing physical activity; and by shortening sleep. Third, stress triggers physiological changes in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, reward processing in the brain, and possibly the gut microbiome. Finally, stress can stimulate production of biochemical hormones and peptides such as leptin, ghrelin, and neuropeptide Y. Obesity itself can be a stressful state due to the high prevalence of weight stigma. This article therefore traces the contribution of weight stigma to stress and obesogenic processes, ultimately describing a vicious cycle of stress to obesity to stigma to stress. Current obesity prevention efforts focus solely on eating and exercise; the evidence reviewed in this article points to stress as an important but currently overlooked public policy target.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • The Emotion Process: Event Appraisal and Component Differentiation
    Annu. Rev. Psychol. (IF 19.755) Pub Date : 2019-01-04
    Klaus R. Scherer, Agnes Moors

    Much emotion research has focused on the end result of the emotion process, categorical emotions, as reported by the protagonist or diagnosed by the researcher, with the aim of differentiating these discrete states. In contrast, this review concentrates on the emotion process itself by examining how (a) elicitation, or the appraisal of events, leads to (b) differentiation, in particular, action tendencies accompanied by physiological responses and manifested in facial, vocal, and gestural expressions, before (c) conscious representation or experience of these changes (feeling) and (d) categorizing and labeling these changes according to the semantic profiles of emotion words. The review focuses on empirical, particularly experimental, studies from emotion research and neighboring domains that contribute to a better understanding of the unfolding emotion process and the underlying mechanisms, including the interactions among emotion components.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • How to Do a Systematic Review: A Best Practice Guide for Conducting and Reporting Narrative Reviews, Meta-Analyses, and Meta-Syntheses
    Annu. Rev. Psychol. (IF 19.755) Pub Date : 2019-01-04
    Andy P. Siddaway, Alex M. Wood, Larry V. Hedges

    Systematic reviews are characterized by a methodical and replicable methodology and presentation. They involve a comprehensive search to locate all relevant published and unpublished work on a subject; a systematic integration of search results; and a critique of the extent, nature, and quality of evidence in relation to a particular research question. The best reviews synthesize studies to draw broad theoretical conclusions about what a literature means, linking theory to evidence and evidence to theory. This guide describes how to plan, conduct, organize, and present a systematic review of quantitative (meta-analysis) or qualitative (narrative review, meta-synthesis) information. We outline core standards and principles and describe commonly encountered problems. Although this guide targets psychological scientists, its high level of abstraction makes it potentially relevant to any subject area or discipline. We argue that systematic reviews are a key methodology for clarifying whether and how research findings replicate and for explaining possible inconsistencies, and we call for researchers to conduct systematic reviews to help elucidate whether there is a replication crisis.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Reproduction.
    Annu. Rev. Psychol. (IF 19.755) Pub Date : 1960-01-01
    T R FORBES

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Implicit Social Cognition.
    Annu. Rev. Psychol. (IF 19.755) Pub Date : null
    Anthony G Greenwald,Calvin K Lai

    In the last 20 years, research on implicit social cognition has established that social judgments and behavior are guided by attitudes and stereotypes of which the actor may lack awareness. Research using the methods of implicit social cognition has produced the concept of implicit bias, which has generated wide attention not only in social, clinical, and developmental psychology, but also in disciplines outside of psychology, including business, law, criminal justice, medicine, education, and political science. Although this rapidly growing body of research offers prospects of useful societal applications, the theory needed to confidently guide those applications remains insufficiently developed. This article describes the methods that have been developed, the findings that have been obtained, and the theoretical questions that remain to be answered. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Psychology, Volume 71 is January 4, 2020. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Prefrontal Regulation of Threat-Elicited Behaviors: A Pathway to Translation.
    Annu. Rev. Psychol. (IF 19.755) Pub Date : 2019-10-18
    Angela Roberts

    Regions of the prefrontal and cingulate cortices play important roles in the regulation of behaviors elicited by threat. Dissecting out their differential involvement will greatly increase our understanding of the varied etiology of symptoms of anxiety. I review evidence for altered activity within the major divisions of the prefrontal cortex, including orbitofrontal, ventrolateral, dorsolateral, and ventromedial sectors, along with the anterior cingulate cortex in patients with clinical anxiety. This review is integrated with a discussion of current knowledge about the causal role of these different prefrontal and cingulate regions in threat-elicited behaviors from experimental studies in rodents and monkeys. I highlight commonalities and inconsistencies between species and discuss the current state of our translational success in relating findings across species. Finally, I identify key issues that, if addressed, may improve that success in the future. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Psychology, Volume 71 is January 4, 2020. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Emotional Objectivity: Neural Representations of Emotions and Their Interaction with Cognition.
    Annu. Rev. Psychol. (IF 19.755) Pub Date : 2019-10-15
    Rebecca M Todd,Vladimir Miskovic,Junichi Chikazoe,Adam K Anderson

    Recent advances in our understanding of information states in the human brain have opened a new window into the brain's representation of emotion. While emotion was once thought to constitute a separate domain from cognition, current evidence suggests that all events are filtered through the lens of whether they are good or bad for us. Focusing on new methods of decoding information states from brain activation, we review growing evidence that emotion is represented at multiple levels of our sensory systems and infuses perception, attention, learning, and memory. We provide evidence that the primary function of emotional representations is to produce unified emotion, perception, and thought (e.g., "That is a good thing") rather than discrete and isolated psychological events (e.g., "That is a thing. I feel good"). The emergent view suggests ways in which emotion operates as a fundamental feature of cognition, by design ensuring that emotional outcomes are the central object of perception, thought, and action. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Psychology, Volume 71 is January 4, 2020. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Remembering Preservation in Hippocampal Amnesia.
    Annu. Rev. Psychol. (IF 19.755) Pub Date : 2015-09-12
    Ian A Clark,Eleanor A Maguire

    The lesion-deficit model dominates neuropsychology. This is unsurprising given powerful demonstrations that focal brain lesions can affect specific aspects of cognition. Nowhere is this more evident than in patients with bilateral hippocampal damage. In the past 60 years, the amnesia and other impairments exhibited by these patients have helped to delineate the functions of the hippocampus and shape the field of memory. We do not question the value of this approach. However, less prominent are the cognitive processes that remain intact following hippocampal lesions. Here, we collate the piecemeal reports of preservation of function following focal bilateral hippocampal damage, highlighting a wealth of information often veiled by the field's focus on deficits. We consider how a systematic understanding of what is preserved as well as what is lost could add an important layer of precision to models of memory and the hippocampus.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Adult neurogenesis: beyond learning and memory.
    Annu. Rev. Psychol. (IF 19.755) Pub Date : 2014-09-25
    Heather A Cameron,Lucas R Glover

    New neurons continue to be generated in the dentate gyrus throughout life, providing this region of the hippocampus with exceptional structural plasticity, but the function of this ongoing neurogenesis is unknown. Inhibition of adult neurogenesis produces some behavioral impairments that suggest a role for new neurons in learning and memory; however, other behavioral changes appear inconsistent with this function. A review of studies investigating the function of the hippocampus going back several decades reveals many ideas that seem to converge on a critical role for the hippocampus in stress response and emotion. These potential hippocampal functions provide new avenues for investigating the behavioral functions of adult neurogenesis. And, conversely, studies in animals lacking adult neurogenesis, which are likely to have more limited and more specific impairments than are seen with lesions, may provide valuable new insights into the function of the hippocampus. A complete understanding of the function of the hippocampus must explain its role in emotion and the relationship between its emotional and memory functions.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Human infancy…and the rest of the lifespan.
    Annu. Rev. Psychol. (IF 19.755) Pub Date : 2014-01-11
    Marc H Bornstein

    Human infancy has been studied as a platform for hypothesis and theory testing, as a major physiological and psychological adjustment, as an object of adults' effects as well as a source of effects on adults, for its comparative value, as a stage of life, and as a setting point for the life course. Following an orientation to infancy studies, including previous reviews and a discussion of the special challenges infants pose to research, this article focuses on infancy as a foundation and catalyst of human development in the balance of the life course. Studies of stability and prediction from infancy illustrate the depth and complexity of modern research on infants and provide a long-awaited reply to key philosophical and practical questions about the meaningfulness and significance of infancy.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Hippocampal-neocortical interactions in memory formation, consolidation, and reconsolidation.
    Annu. Rev. Psychol. (IF 19.755) Pub Date : 2009-07-07
    Szu-Han Wang,Richard G M Morris

    This review, focusing on work using animals, updates a theoretical approach whose aim is to translate neuropsychological ideas about the psychological and anatomical organization of memory into the neurobiological domain. It is suggested that episodic-like memory consists of both automatic and controlled components, with the medial temporal mediation of memory encoding including neurobiological mechanisms that are primarily automatic or incidental. These ideas, in the cognitive and behavioral domain, are linked to neurophysiological ideas about cellular consolidation concerning synaptic potentiation, particularly the relationship between protein synthesis-dependent long-term changes and shorter-lasting post-translational mechanisms. Ideas from psychology about mental schemas are considered in relation to the phenomenon of systems consolidation and, specifically, about how prior knowledge can alter the rate at which consolidation occurs. Finally, the hippocampal-neocortical interactions theory is updated in relation to reconsolidation, a process that enables updating of stored memory traces in response to novelty.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Relations among speech, language, and reading disorders.
    Annu. Rev. Psychol. (IF 19.755) Pub Date : 2008-07-26
    Bruce F Pennington,Dorothy V M Bishop

    In this article, we critically review the evidence for overlap among three developmental disorders, namely speech sound disorder (SSD), language impairment (LI), and reading disability (RD), at three levels of analysis: diagnostic, cognitive, and etiological. We find that while overlap exists at all three levels, it varies by comorbidity subtype, and the relations among these three disorders are complex and not fully understood. We evaluate which comorbidity models can be rejected or supported as explanations for why and how these three disorders overlap and what new data are needed to better define their relations.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Behavioral theories and the neurophysiology of reward.
    Annu. Rev. Psychol. (IF 19.755) Pub Date : 2005-12-02
    Wolfram Schultz

    The functions of rewards are based primarily on their effects on behavior and are less directly governed by the physics and chemistry of input events as in sensory systems. Therefore, the investigation of neural mechanisms underlying reward functions requires behavioral theories that can conceptualize the different effects of rewards on behavior. The scientific investigation of behavioral processes by animal learning theory and economic utility theory has produced a theoretical framework that can help to elucidate the neural correlates for reward functions in learning, goal-directed approach behavior, and decision making under uncertainty. Individual neurons can be studied in the reward systems of the brain, including dopamine neurons, orbitofrontal cortex, and striatum. The neural activity can be related to basic theoretical terms of reward and uncertainty, such as contiguity, contingency, prediction error, magnitude, probability, expected value, and variance.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Computational Models of Memory Search.
    Annu. Rev. Psychol. (IF 19.755) Pub Date : 2019-10-01
    Michael J Kahana

    The capacity to search memory for events learned in a particular context stands as one of the most remarkable feats of the human brain. How is memory search accomplished? First, I review the central ideas investigated by theorists developing models of memory. Then, I review select benchmark findings concerning memory search and analyze two influential computational approaches to modeling memory search: dual-store theory and retrieved context theory. Finally, I discuss the key theoretical ideas that have emerged from these modeling studies and the open questions that need to be answered by future research. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Psychology, Volume 71 is January 4, 2020. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Depression's Unholy Trinity: Dysregulated Stress, Immunity, and the Microbiome.
    Annu. Rev. Psychol. (IF 19.755) Pub Date : 2019-10-01
    Joana da Cruz Pereira,Kieran Rea,Yvonne M Nolan,Olivia F O'Leary,Timothy G Dinan,John F Cryan

    Depression remains one of the most prevalent psychiatric disorders, with many patients not responding adequately to available treatments. Chronic or early-life stress is one of the key risk factors for depression. In addition, a growing body of data implicates chronic inflammation as a major player in depression pathogenesis. More recently, the gut microbiota has emerged as an important regulator of brain and behavior and also has been linked to depression. However, how this holy trinity of risk factors interact to maintain physiological homeostasis in the brain and body is not fully understood. In this review, we integrate the available data from animal and human studies on these three factors in the etiology and progression of depression. We also focus on the processes by which this microbiota-immune-stress matrix may influence centrally mediated events and on possible therapeutic interventions to correct imbalances in this triune. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Psychology, Volume 71 is January 4, 2020. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Rethinking Food Reward.
    Annu. Rev. Psychol. (IF 19.755) Pub Date : null
    Ivan E de Araujo,Mark Schatzker,Dana M Small

    The conscious perception of the hedonic sensory properties of caloric foods is commonly believed to guide our dietary choices. Current and traditional models implicate the consciously perceived hedonic qualities of food as driving overeating, whereas subliminal signals arising from the gut would curb our uncontrolled desire for calories. Here we review recent animal and human studies that support a markedly different model for food reward. These findings reveal in particular the existence of subcortical body-to-brain neural pathways linking gastrointestinal nutrient sensors to the brain's reward regions. Unexpectedly, consciously perceptible hedonic qualities appear to play a less relevant, and mostly transient, role in food reinforcement. In this model, gut-brain reward pathways bypass cranial taste and aroma sensory receptors and the cortical networks that give rise to flavor perception. They instead reinforce behaviors independently of the cognitive processes that support overt insights into the nature of our dietary decisions. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Psychology, Volume 71 is January 4, 2020. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The Acquisition of Person Knowledge.
    Annu. Rev. Psychol. (IF 19.755) Pub Date : 2019-09-26
    Stefano Anzellotti,Liane L Young

    How do we learn what we know about others? Answering this question requires understanding the perceptual mechanisms with which we recognize individuals and their actions, and the processes by which the resulting perceptual representations lead to inferences about people's mental states and traits. This review discusses recent behavioral, neural, and computational studies that have contributed to this broad research program, encompassing both social perception and social cognition. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Psychology, Volume 71 is January 4, 2020. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Integrating Empathy and Interpersonal Emotion Regulation.
    Annu. Rev. Psychol. (IF 19.755) Pub Date : 2019-09-26
    Jamil Zaki

    When individuals experience empathy, they often seek to bolster others' well-being. But what do empathizers want others to feel? Though psychologists have studied empathy and prosociality for decades, this question has yet to be clearly addressed. This is because virtually all existing research focuses on a model under which improving others' well-being also comprises heightening their positive affect or decreasing their negative affect and helping them reach their own emotional goals. In this review, I argue that real-life empathic goals encompass a broader range-including sometimes worsening targets' affect or contravening their wishes in order to improve their well-being-that can be productively integrated into the framework of interpersonal emotion regulation (IER). I review the empathic IER spectrum in a number of contexts, including close relationships, professional caregiving, and group-based emotions. Integrating empathy and IER provides a synthetic and generative way to ask new questions about how social emotions produce prosocial actions. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Psychology, Volume 71 is January 4, 2020. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Concepts and Compositionality: In Search of the Brain's Language of Thought.
    Annu. Rev. Psychol. (IF 19.755) Pub Date : null
    Steven M Frankland,Joshua D Greene

    Imagine Genghis Khan, Aretha Franklin, and the Cleveland Cavaliers performing an opera on Maui. This silly sentence makes a serious point: As humans, we can flexibly generate and comprehend an unbounded number of complex ideas. Little is known, however, about how our brains accomplish this. Here we assemble clues from disparate areas of cognitive neuroscience, integrating recent research on language, memory, episodic simulation, and computational models of high-level cognition. Our review is framed by Fodor's classic language of thought hypothesis, according to which our minds employ an amodal, language-like system for combining and recombining simple concepts to form more complex thoughts. Here, we highlight emerging work on combinatorial processes in the brain and consider this work's relation to the language of thought. We review evidence for distinct, but complementary, contributions of map-like representations in subregions of the default mode network and sentence-like representations of conceptual relations in regions of the temporal and prefrontal cortex. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Psychology, Volume 71 is January 4, 2020. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The Neurocognition of Developmental Disorders of Language.
    Annu. Rev. Psychol. (IF 19.755) Pub Date : 2019-07-25
    Michael T Ullman,F Sayako Earle,Matthew Walenski,Karolina Janacsek

    Developmental disorders of language include developmental language disorder, dyslexia, and motor-speech disorders such as articulation disorder and stuttering. These disorders have generally been explained by accounts that focus on their behavioral rather than neural characteristics; their processing rather than learning impairments; and each disorder separately rather than together, despite their commonalities and comorbidities. Here we update and review a unifying neurocognitive account-the Procedural circuit Deficit Hypothesis (PDH). The PDH posits that abnormalities of brain structures underlying procedural memory (learning and memory that rely on the basal ganglia and associated circuitry) can explain numerous brain and behavioral characteristics across learning and processing, in multiple disorders, including both commonalities and differences. We describe procedural memory, examine its role in multiple aspects of language, and then present the PDH and relevant evidence across language-related disorders. The PDH has substantial explanatory power, and both basic research and translational implications. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Psychology Volume 71 is January 4, 2020. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Social Media Elements, Ecologies, and Effects.
    Annu. Rev. Psychol. (IF 19.755) Pub Date : 2019-09-14
    Joseph B Bayer,Penny Triệu,Nicole B Ellison

    This review delineates core components of the social media ecosystem, specifying how online platforms complicate established social psychological effects. We assess four pairs of social media elements and effects: profiles and self-presentation; networks and social mobilization; streams and social comparison; and messages and social connectedness. In the process, we describe features and affordances that comprise each element, underscoring the complexity of social media contexts as they shift to a central topic within psychology. Reflecting on this transitional state, we discuss how researchers will struggle to replicate the effects of dynamic social environments. Consequently, we outline the obstacles in isolating effects that reoccur across platforms, as well as the challenges-and opportunities-that come with measuring contexts across periods. By centering on the elements that define the online ecosystem, psychological research can establish a more durable foundation for replicating the effects of social media and chronicling the evolution of social interaction. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Psychology, Volume 71 is January 4, 2020. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Collective Choice, Collaboration, and Communication.
    Annu. Rev. Psychol. (IF 19.755) Pub Date : 2019-09-14
    Garold Stasser,Susanne Abele

    This article reviews recent empirical research on collective choice and collaborative problem solving. Much of the collective choice research focuses on hidden profiles. A hidden profile exists when group members individually have information favoring suboptimal choices but the group collectively has information favoring an optimal choice. Groups are notoriously bad at discovering optimal choices when information is distributed to create a hidden profile. Reviewed work identifies informational structures, individual processing biases, and social motivations that inhibit and facilitate the discovery of hidden profiles. The review of collaborative problem-solving research is framed by Larson's concept of synergy. Synergy refers to performance gains that are attributable to collaboration. Recent research has addressed factors that result in groups performing as well as their best member (weak synergy) and better than their best member (strong synergy). Communication dynamics underlying both collective choice and collaborative problem solving are discussed. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Psychology, Volume 71 is January 4, 2020. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Multisensory Integration as a Window into Orderly and Disrupted Cognition and Communication.
    Annu. Rev. Psychol. (IF 19.755) Pub Date : 2019-09-14
    Mark T Wallace,Tiffany G Woynaroski,Ryan A Stevenson

    During our everyday lives, we are confronted with a vast amount of information from several sensory modalities. This multisensory information needs to be appropriately integrated to effectively engage with and learn from our world. Research carried out over the last half century has provided new insights into the way such multisensory processing improves human performance and perception; the neurophysiological foundations of multisensory function; the time course for its development; how multisensory abilities differ in clinical populations; and, most recently, the links between multisensory processing and cognitive abilities. This review summarizes the extant literature on multisensory function in typical and atypical circumstances, discusses the implications of the work carried out to date for theory and research, and points toward next steps for advancing the field. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Psychology, Volume 71 is January 4, 2020. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Unfairness and Radicalization.
    Annu. Rev. Psychol. (IF 19.755) Pub Date : 2019-09-14
    Kees van den Bos

    This article reviews the relationship between people's perceptions of unfairness and their tendencies to think, feel, and act in radicalizing ways. Various theories of radicalization processes are reviewed that examine key aspects of the psychology of perceived unfairness. The review shows that experienced group deprivation and perceived immorality are among the core judgments that can drive Muslim radicalization, right-wing radicalization, and left-wing radicalization. Symbols of injustice, the legitimization of revolutionary thought, and the experience of unfair treatment can also increase radicalization. The review also examines core moderators (e.g., uncertainty and insufficient self-correction) and mediators (e.g., externally oriented emotions) of the linkage between perceived unfairness and core components of radicalization (e.g., rigidity of thoughts, hot-cognitive defense of cultural worldviews, and violent rejection of democratic principles and the rule of law). The review discusses how the study of unfairness and radicalization contributes to a robust and meaningful science of psychology. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Psychology, Volume 71 is January 4, 2020. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • New Paradigms in the Psychology of Reasoning.
    Annu. Rev. Psychol. (IF 19.755) Pub Date : null
    Mike Oaksford,Nick Chater

    The psychology of verbal reasoning initially compared performance with classical logic. In the last 25 years, a new paradigm has arisen, which focuses on knowledge-rich reasoning for communication and persuasion and is typically modeled using Bayesian probability theory rather than logic. This paradigm provides a new perspective on argumentation, explaining the rational persuasiveness of arguments that are logical fallacies. It also helps explain how and why people stray from logic when given deductive reasoning tasks. What appear to be erroneous responses, when compared against logic, often turn out to be rationally justified when seen in the richer rational framework of the new paradigm. Moreover, the same approach extends naturally to inductive reasoning tasks, in which people extrapolate beyond the data they are given and logic does not readily apply. We outline links between social and individual reasoning and set recent developments in the psychology of reasoning in the wider context of Bayesian cognitive science. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Psychology, Volume 71 is January 4, 2020. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Judging Truth.
    Annu. Rev. Psychol. (IF 19.755) Pub Date : null
    Nadia M Brashier,Elizabeth J Marsh

    Deceptive claims surround us, embedded in fake news, advertisements, political propaganda, and rumors. How do people know what to believe? Truth judgments reflect inferences drawn from three types of information: base rates, feelings, and consistency with information retrieved from memory. First, people exhibit a bias to accept incoming information, because most claims in our environments are true. Second, people interpret feelings, like ease of processing, as evidence of truth. And third, people can (but do not always) consider whether assertions match facts and source information stored in memory. This three-part framework predicts specific illusions (e.g., truthiness, illusory truth), offers ways to correct stubborn misconceptions, and suggests the importance of converging cues in a post-truth world in which falsehoods travel further and faster than the truth. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Psychology, Volume 71 is January 4, 2020. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Functional Specialization in the Attention Network.
    Annu. Rev. Psychol. (IF 19.755) Pub Date : null
    Ian C Fiebelkorn,Sabine Kastner

    Spatial attention is comprised of neural mechanisms that boost sensory processing at a behaviorally relevant location while filtering out competing information. The present review examines functional specialization in the network of brain regions that directs such preferential processing. This attention network includes both cortical (e.g., frontal and parietal cortices) and subcortical structures (e.g., the superior colliculus and the pulvinar nucleus of the thalamus). Here, we piece together existing evidence that these various nodes of the attention network have dissociable functional roles by synthesizing results from electrophysiology and neuroimaging studies. We describe functional specialization across several dimensions (e.g., at different processing stages and within different behavioral contexts), while focusing on spatial attention as a dynamic process that unfolds over time. Functional contributions from each node of the attention network can change on a moment-to-moment timescale, providing the necessary cognitive flexibility for sampling from highly dynamic environments. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Psychology, Volume 71 is January 4, 2020. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Judgment and Decision Making.
    Annu. Rev. Psychol. (IF 19.755) Pub Date : null
    Baruch Fischhoff,Stephen B Broomell

    The science of judgment and decision making involves three interrelated forms of research: analysis of the decisions facing people, description of their natural responses, and interventions meant to help them do better. After briefly introducing the field's intellectual foundations, we review recent basic research into the three core elements of decision making: judgment, or how people predict the outcomes that will follow possible choices; preference, or how people weigh those outcomes; and choice, or how people combine judgments and preferences to reach a decision. We then review research into two potential sources of behavioral heterogeneity: individual differences in decision-making competence and developmental changes across the life span. Next, we illustrate applications intended to improve individual and organizational decision making in health, public policy, intelligence analysis, and risk management. We emphasize the potential value of coupling analytical and behavioral research and having basic and applied research inform one another. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Psychology Volume 71 is January 4, 2020. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Self and Others in Adolescence.
    Annu. Rev. Psychol. (IF 19.755) Pub Date : null
    Eveline A Crone,Andrew J Fuligni

    Research has demonstrated that adolescence is an important time for self- and other-oriented development that underlies many skills vital for becoming a contributing member of society with healthy intergroup relations. It is often assumed that these two processes, thinking about self and thinking about others, are pitted against each other when adolescents engage in social decision making such as giving or sharing. Recent evidence from social neuroscience, however, does not support this notion of conflicting motives, suggesting instead that thinking about self and others relies on a common network of social-affective brain regions, with the medial prefrontal cortex playing a central role in the integration of perspectives related to self and others. Here, we argue that self- and other-oriented thinking are intertwined processes that rely on an overlapping neural network. Adolescents' motivation to contribute to society can be fostered most when self- and other-oriented motives align. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Psychology Volume 71 is January 4, 2020. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Remembering: An Activity of Mind and Brain.
    Annu. Rev. Psychol. (IF 19.755) Pub Date : null
    Fergus I M Craik

    I present the case for viewing human memory as a set of dynamic processes rather than as structural entities or memory stores. This perspective stems largely from the construct of levels of processing, reflecting work I published with Robert Lockhart and with Endel Tulving. I describe the personal and professional contexts in which these and other ideas evolved, and I discuss criticisms of the ideas and our responses to critics. I also show how later versions of a processing approach to memory may fit with current findings and theories in memory research. In related work I have been involved in studies of cognitive aging, and I describe some theoretical and empirical points deriving from this aspect of my research efforts. Finally, I deal briefly with some experiments and reflections on divided attention, consolidation, and bilingualism and touch upon the neural bases of a processing approach. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Psychology Volume 71 is January 4, 2020. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Retrieval of Emotional Events from Memory.
    Annu. Rev. Psychol. (IF 19.755) Pub Date : null
    Elizabeth A Kensinger,Jaclyn H Ford

    The enhancing effects of emotion on memory have been well documented; emotional events are often more frequently and more vividly remembered than their neutral counterparts. Much of the prior research has emphasized the effects of emotion on encoding processes and the downstream effects of these changes at the time of retrieval. In the current review, we focus specifically on how emotional valence influences retrieval processes, examining how emotion influences the experience of remembering an event at the time of retrieval (retrieval as an end point) as well as how emotion alters the way in which remembering the event affects the underlying memory representation and subsequent retrievals (retrieval as a starting point). We suggest ways in which emotion may augment or interfere with the selective enhancement of particular memory details, using both online and offline processes, and discuss how these effects of emotion may contribute to memory distortions in affective disorders. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Psychology Volume 71 is January 4, 2020. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Introduction.
    Annu. Rev. Psychol. (IF 19.755) Pub Date : 2019-01-06
    Susan T Fiske,Daniel L Schacte,Shelley E Taylor

    更新日期:2019-11-01
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