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  • Introduction.
    Annu. Rev. Psychol. (IF 19.755) Pub Date : 2019-01-06
    Susan T Fiske,Daniel L Schacte,Shelley E Taylor

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Introduction.
    Annu. Rev. Psychol. (IF 19.755) Pub Date : 2018-01-05
    Susan T Fiske,Daniel L Schacter,Shelley E Taylor

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Children's social competence in cultural context.
    Annu. Rev. Psychol. (IF 19.755) Pub Date : 2007-12-25
    Xinyin Chen,Doran C French

    Social initiative and behavioral control represent two major dimensions of children's social competence. Cultural norms and values with respect to these dimensions may affect the exhibition, meaning, and development of specific social behaviors such as sociability, shyness-inhibition, cooperation-compliance, and aggression-defiance, as well as the quality and function of social relationships. The culturally

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The education of dyslexic children from childhood to young adulthood.
    Annu. Rev. Psychol. (IF 19.755) Pub Date : 2007-12-25
    Sally E Shaywitz,Robin Morris,Bennett A Shaywitz

    The past two decades have witnessed an explosion in our understanding of dyslexia (or specific reading disability), the most common and most carefully studied of the learning disabilities. We first review the core concepts of dyslexia: its definition, prevalence, and developmental course. Next we examine the cognitive model of dyslexia, especially the phonological theory, and review empiric data suggesting

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Dual-processing accounts of reasoning, judgment, and social cognition.
    Annu. Rev. Psychol. (IF 19.755) Pub Date : 2007-12-25
    Jonathan St B T Evans

    This article reviews a diverse set of proposals for dual processing in higher cognition within largely disconnected literatures in cognitive and social psychology. All these theories have in common the distinction between cognitive processes that are fast, automatic, and unconscious and those that are slow, deliberative, and conscious. A number of authors have recently suggested that there may be two

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Relativity of remembering: why the laws of memory vanished.
    Annu. Rev. Psychol. (IF 19.755) Pub Date : 2007-12-25
    Henry L Roediger

    For 120 years, cognitive psychologists have sought general laws of learning and memory. In this review I conclude that none has stood the test of time. No empirical law withstands manipulation across the four sets of factors that Jenkins (1979) identified as critical to memory experiments: types of subjects, kinds of events to be remembered, manipulation of encoding conditions, and variations in test

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Color in complex scenes.
    Annu. Rev. Psychol. (IF 19.755) Pub Date : 2007-12-25
    Steven K Shevell,Frederick A A Kingdom

    The appearance of an object or surface depends strongly on the light from other objects and surfaces in view. This review focuses on color in complex scenes, which have regions of different colors in view simultaneously and/or successively, as in natural viewing. Two fundamental properties distinguish the chromatic representation evoked by a complex scene from the representation for an isolated patch

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The brain, appetite, and obesity.
    Annu. Rev. Psychol. (IF 19.755) Pub Date : 2007-12-25
    Hans-Rudolf Berthoud,Christopher Morrison

    Food intake and energy expenditure are controlled by complex, redundant, and distributed neural systems that reflect the fundamental biological importance of adequate nutrient supply and energy balance. Much progress has been made in identifying the various hormonal and neural mechanisms by which the brain informs itself about availability of ingested and stored nutrients and, in turn, generates behavioral

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Addiction and the brain antireward system.
    Annu. Rev. Psychol. (IF 19.755) Pub Date : 2007-12-25
    George F Koob,Michel Le Moal

    A neurobiological model of the brain emotional systems has been proposed to explain the persistent changes in motivation that are associated with vulnerability to relapse in addiction, and this model may generalize to other psychopathology associated with dysregulated motivational systems. In this framework, addiction is conceptualized as a cycle of decreased function of brain reward systems and recruitment

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The evolution of a cognitive psychologist: a journey from simple behaviors to complex mental acts.
    Annu. Rev. Psychol. (IF 19.755) Pub Date : 2007-12-25
    Gordon H Bower

    The author summarizes his evolving interests from conditioning studies within a behaviorist orientation, thence to human memory, knowledge representation, and narrative understanding and memory. Arguing that the study of skilled reading provides a microcosm for revealing cognitive processes, he illustrates this by reviewing his research on the use of spatial priming to investigate readers' on-line

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Health Psychology: the Search for Pathways between Behavior and Health.
    Annu. Rev. Psychol. (IF 19.755) Pub Date : 2007-10-17
    Howard Leventhal,John Weinman,Elaine A Leventhal,L Alison Phillips

    This review of the current status of theoretically based behavioral research for chronic illness management makes the following points: (a) Behavioral interventions have demonstrated effectiveness for improving health outcomes using biomedical indicators, (b) current interventions are too costly and time consuming to be used in clinical and community settings, (c) translation of the conceptual models

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Sample size planning for statistical power and accuracy in parameter estimation.
    Annu. Rev. Psychol. (IF 19.755) Pub Date : 2007-10-17
    Scott E Maxwell,Ken Kelley,Joseph R Rausch

    This review examines recent advances in sample size planning, not only from the perspective of an individual researcher, but also with regard to the goal of developing cumulative knowledge. Psychologists have traditionally thought of sample size planning in terms of power analysis. Although we review recent advances in power analysis, our main focus is the desirability of achieving accurate parameter

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Human abilities: emotional intelligence.
    Annu. Rev. Psychol. (IF 19.755) Pub Date : 2007-10-17
    John D Mayer,Richard D Roberts,Sigal G Barsade

    Emotional intelligence (EI) involves the ability to carry out accurate reasoning about emotions and the ability to use emotions and emotional knowledge to enhance thought. We discuss the origins of the EI concept, define EI, and describe the scope of the field today. We review three approaches taken to date from both a theoretical and methodological perspective. We find that Specific-Ability and Integrative-Model

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Social bonds and posttraumatic stress disorder.
    Annu. Rev. Psychol. (IF 19.755) Pub Date : 2007-09-22
    Anthony Charuvastra,Marylene Cloitre

    Retrospective and prospective studies consistently show that individuals exposed to human-generated traumatic events carry a higher risk of developing Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) than those exposed to other kinds of events. These studies also consistently identify perceptions of social support both before and after a traumatic event as an important factor in the determining vulnerability to

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Neuroeconomics.
    Annu. Rev. Psychol. (IF 19.755) Pub Date : 2007-09-22
    George Loewenstein,Scott Rick,Jonathan D Cohen

    Neuroeconomics has further bridged the once disparate fields of economics and psychology. Such convergence is almost exclusively attributable to changes within economics. Neuroeconomics has inspired more change within economics than within psychology because the most important findings in neuroeconomics have posed more of a challenge to the standard economic perspective. Neuroeconomics has primarily

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Motives of the human animal: comprehending, managing, and sharing inner states.
    Annu. Rev. Psychol. (IF 19.755) Pub Date : 2007-09-22
    E Tory Higgins,Thane S Pittman

    We propose that four fundamental developments of the human animal together produce distinct human motives: (a) social consciousness or awareness that the outcomes or significance of a person's action (self or other) depend upon how another person (self or other) reacts to it; (b) recognizing that people's inner states can mediate their outward behaviors; (c) relating the present to both the past and

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The mind and brain of short-term memory.
    Annu. Rev. Psychol. (IF 19.755) Pub Date : 2007-09-15
    John Jonides,Richard L Lewis,Derek Evan Nee,Cindy A Lustig,Marc G Berman,Katherine Sledge Moore

    The past 10 years have brought near-revolutionary changes in psychological theories about short-term memory, with similarly great advances in the neurosciences. Here, we critically examine the major psychological theories (the "mind") of short-term memory and how they relate to evidence about underlying brain mechanisms. We focus on three features that must be addressed by any satisfactory theory of

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Personnel selection.
    Annu. Rev. Psychol. (IF 19.755) Pub Date : 2007-09-15
    Paul R Sackett,Filip Lievens

    We review developments in personnel selection since the previous review by Hough & Oswald (2000) in the Annual Review of Psychology. We organize the review around a taxonomic structure of possible bases for improved selection, which includes (a) better understanding of the criterion domain and criterion measurement, (b) improved measurement of existing predictor methods or constructs, (c) identification

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Spontaneous inferences, implicit impressions, and implicit theories.
    Annu. Rev. Psychol. (IF 19.755) Pub Date : 2007-09-15
    James S Uleman,S Adil Saribay,Celia M Gonzalez

    People make social inferences without intentions, awareness, or effort, i.e., spontaneously. We review recent findings on spontaneous social inferences (especially traits, goals, and causes) and closely related phenomena. We then describe current thinking on some of the most relevant processes, implicit knowledge, and theories. These include automatic and controlled processes and their interplay; embodied

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Visual perception and the statistical properties of natural scenes.
    Annu. Rev. Psychol. (IF 19.755) Pub Date : 2007-08-21
    Wilson S Geisler

    The environments in which we live and the tasks we must perform to survive and reproduce have shaped the design of our perceptual systems through evolution and experience. Therefore, direct measurement of the statistical regularities in natural environments (scenes) has great potential value for advancing our understanding of visual perception. This review begins with a general discussion of the natural

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Grounded cognition.
    Annu. Rev. Psychol. (IF 19.755) Pub Date : 2007-08-21
    Lawrence W Barsalou

    Grounded cognition rejects traditional views that cognition is computation on amodal symbols in a modular system, independent of the brain's modal systems for perception, action, and introspection. Instead, grounded cognition proposes that modal simulations, bodily states, and situated action underlie cognition. Accumulating behavioral and neural evidence supporting this view is reviewed from research

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The biological basis of audition.
    Annu. Rev. Psychol. (IF 19.755) Pub Date : 2007-08-07
    Gregg H Recanzone,Mitchell L Sutter

    Interest has recently surged in the neural mechanisms of audition, particularly with regard to functional imaging studies in human subjects. This review emphasizes recent work on two aspects of auditory processing. The first explores auditory spatial processing and the role of the auditory cortex in both nonhuman primates and human subjects. The interactions with visual stimuli, the ventriloquism effect

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Neuroendocrine regulation of feminine sexual behavior: lessons from rodent models and thoughts about humans.
    Annu. Rev. Psychol. (IF 19.755) Pub Date : 2007-08-07
    Jeffrey D Blaustein

    Much has been learned concerning the neuroendocrine processes and cellular mechanisms by which steroid hormones influence reproductive behaviors in rodents and other animals. In this review, a short discussion of hormones and feminine sexual behavior in some rodent species is followed by an outline of the main principles that have been learned from these studies. Examples are given of the importance

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • A comprehensive review of the placebo effect: recent advances and current thought.
    Annu. Rev. Psychol. (IF 19.755) Pub Date : 2007-06-07
    Donald D Price,Damien G Finniss,Fabrizio Benedetti

    Our understanding and conceptualization of the placebo effect has shifted in emphasis from a focus on the inert content of a physical placebo agent to the overall simulation of a therapeutic intervention. Research has identified many types of placebo responses driven by different mechanisms depending on the particular context wherein the placebo is given. Some placebo responses, such as analgesia,

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Putting the altruism back into altruism: the evolution of empathy.
    Annu. Rev. Psychol. (IF 19.755) Pub Date : 2007-06-07
    Frans B M de Waal

    Evolutionary theory postulates that altruistic behavior evolved for the return-benefits it bears the performer. For return-benefits to play a motivational role, however, they need to be experienced by the organism. Motivational analyses should restrict themselves, therefore, to the altruistic impulse and its knowable consequences. Empathy is an ideal candidate mechanism to underlie so-called directed

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Cognition in organizations.
    Annu. Rev. Psychol. (IF 19.755) Pub Date : 2007-06-06
    Gerard P Hodgkinson,Mark P Healey

    This article reviews major developments from 2000 to early 2007 in the psychological analysis of cognition in organizations. Our review, the first in this series to survey cognitive theory and research spanning the entire field of industrial and organizational psychology, considers theoretical, empirical, and methodological advances across 10 substantive domains of application. Two major traditions

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Cross-cultural organizational behavior.
    Annu. Rev. Psychol. (IF 19.755) Pub Date : 2006-10-19
    Michele J Gelfand,Miriam Erez,Zeynep Aycan

    This article reviews research on cross-cultural organizational behavior (OB). After a brief review of the history of cross-cultural OB, we review research on work motivation, or the factors that energize, direct, and sustain effort across cultures. We next consider the relationship between the individual and the organization, and review research on culture and organizational commitment, psychological

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Research on attention networks as a model for the integration of psychological science.
    Annu. Rev. Psychol. (IF 19.755) Pub Date : 2006-10-13
    Michael I Posner,Mary K Rothbart

    As Titchener pointed out more than one hundred years ago, attention is at the center of the psychological enterprise. Attention research investigates how voluntary control and subjective experience arise from and regulate our behavior. In recent years, attention has been one of the fastest growing of all fields within cognitive psychology and cognitive neuroscience. This review examines attention as

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Causal cognition in human and nonhuman animals: a comparative, critical review.
    Annu. Rev. Psychol. (IF 19.755) Pub Date : 2006-10-13
    Derek C Penn,Daniel J Povinelli

    In this article, we review some of the most provocative experimental results to have emerged from comparative labs in the past few years, starting with research focusing on contingency learning and finishing with experiments exploring nonhuman animals' understanding of causal-logical relations. Although the theoretical explanation for these results is often inchoate, a clear pattern nevertheless emerges

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The experience of emotion.
    Annu. Rev. Psychol. (IF 19.755) Pub Date : 2006-09-28
    Lisa Feldman Barrett,Batja Mesquita,Kevin N Ochsner,James J Gross

    Experiences of emotion are content-rich events that emerge at the level of psychological description, but must be causally constituted by neurobiological processes. This chapter outlines an emerging scientific agenda for understanding what these experiences feel like and how they arise. We review the available answers to what is felt (i.e., the content that makes up an experience of emotion) and how

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Social cognitive neuroscience: a review of core processes.
    Annu. Rev. Psychol. (IF 19.755) Pub Date : 2006-09-28
    Matthew D Lieberman

    Social cognitive neuroscience examines social phenomena and processes using cognitive neuroscience research tools such as neuroimaging and neuropsychology. This review examines four broad areas of research within social cognitive neuroscience: (a) understanding others, (b) understanding oneself, (c) controlling oneself, and (d) the processes that occur at the interface of self and others. In addition

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Mediation analysis.
    Annu. Rev. Psychol. (IF 19.755) Pub Date : 2006-09-14
    David P MacKinnon,Amanda J Fairchild,Matthew S Fritz

    Mediating variables are prominent in psychological theory and research. A mediating variable transmits the effect of an independent variable on a dependent variable. Differences between mediating variables and confounders, moderators, and covariates are outlined. Statistical methods to assess mediation and modern comprehensive approaches are described. Future directions for mediation analysis are discussed

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Partitioning the domain of social inference: dual mode and systems models and their alternatives.
    Annu. Rev. Psychol. (IF 19.755) Pub Date : 2006-09-14
    Arie W Kruglanski,Edward Orehek

    Recent decades of theorizing about social inference phenomena have seen a variety of models that partitioned the underlying processes into two qualitatively distinct types whose specific nature was depicted differently in the different frameworks. The present article reviews major such partitioning efforts as well as their proposed alternatives, and discusses their unique features, their commonalities

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The representation of object concepts in the brain.
    Annu. Rev. Psychol. (IF 19.755) Pub Date : 2006-09-14
    Alex Martin

    Evidence from functional neuroimaging of the human brain indicates that information about salient properties of an object-such as what it looks like, how it moves, and how it is used-is stored in sensory and motor systems active when that information was acquired. As a result, object concepts belonging to different categories like animals and tools are represented in partially distinct, sensory- and

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Ostracism.
    Annu. Rev. Psychol. (IF 19.755) Pub Date : 2006-09-14
    Kipling D Williams

    In this review, I examine the social psychological research on ostracism, social exclusion, and rejection. Being ignored, excluded, and/or rejected signals a threat for which reflexive detection in the form of pain and distress is adaptive for survival. Brief ostracism episodes result in sadness and anger and threaten fundamental needs. Individuals then act to fortify or replenish their thwarted need

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Race, race-based discrimination, and health outcomes among African Americans.
    Annu. Rev. Psychol. (IF 19.755) Pub Date : 2006-09-07
    Vickie M Mays,Susan D Cochran,Namdi W Barnes

    Persistent and vexing health disadvantages accrue to African Americans despite decades of work to erase the effects of race discrimination in this country. Participating in these efforts, psychologists and other social scientists have hypothesized that African Americans' continuing experiences with racism and discrimination may lie at the root of the many well-documented race-based physical health

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Analysis of nonlinear patterns of change with random coefficient models.
    Annu. Rev. Psychol. (IF 19.755) Pub Date : 2006-09-07
    Robert Cudeck,Jeffrey R Harring

    Nonlinear patterns of change arise frequently in the analysis of repeated measures from longitudinal studies in psychology. The main feature of nonlinear development is that change is more rapid in some periods than in others. There generally also are strong individual differences, so although there is a general similarity of patterns for different persons over time, individuals exhibit substantial

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Motivational and emotional aspects of the self.
    Annu. Rev. Psychol. (IF 19.755) Pub Date : 2006-09-07
    Mark R Leary

    Recent theory and research are reviewed regarding self-related motives (self-enhancement, self-verification, and self-expansion) and self-conscious emotions (guilt, shame, pride, social anxiety, and embarrassment), with an emphasis on how these motivational and emotional aspects of the self might be related. Specifically, these motives and emotions appear to function to protect people's social well-being

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Moral emotions and moral behavior.
    Annu. Rev. Psychol. (IF 19.755) Pub Date : 2006-09-07
    June Price Tangney,Jeff Stuewig,Debra J Mashek

    Moral emotions represent a key element of our human moral apparatus, influencing the link between moral standards and moral behavior. This chapter reviews current theory and research on moral emotions. We first focus on a triad of negatively valenced "self-conscious" emotions-shame, guilt, and embarrassment. As in previous decades, much research remains focused on shame and guilt. We review current

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Health psychology: psychological adjustment to chronic disease.
    Annu. Rev. Psychol. (IF 19.755) Pub Date : 2006-08-26
    Annette L Stanton,Tracey A Revenson,Howard Tennen

    Chronic diseases carry important psychological and social consequences that demand significant psychological adjustment. The literature is providing increasingly nuanced conceptualizations of adjustment, demonstrating that the experience of chronic disease necessitates adaptation in multiple life domains. Heterogeneity in adjustment is apparent between individuals and across the course of the disease

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Work and vocational psychology: theory, research, and applications.
    Annu. Rev. Psychol. (IF 19.755) Pub Date : 2006-08-15
    Nadya A Fouad

    Work is integral to human functioning, and all psychologists need to understand the role of work in people's lives. Understanding factors influencing work choices and helping individuals effectively make career decisions is the focus of vocational psychologists. However, external changes, such as shifts in the economy and labor force, as well as initiatives within the field are challenging the assumptions

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The neurobiology of stress and development.
    Annu. Rev. Psychol. (IF 19.755) Pub Date : 2006-08-15
    Megan Gunnar,Karina Quevedo

    Stress is a part of every life to varying degrees, but individuals differ in their stress vulnerability. Stress is usefully viewed from a biological perspective; accordingly, it involves activation of neurobiological systems that preserve viability through change or allostasis. Although they are necessary for survival, frequent neurobiological stress responses increase the risk of physical and mental

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • An interactionist perspective on the socioeconomic context of human development.
    Annu. Rev. Psychol. (IF 19.755) Pub Date : 2006-08-15
    Rand D Conger,M Brent Donnellan

    This article addresses the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES), family processes, and human development. The topic is framed as part of the general issue of health disparities, which involves the oft-observed positive relationship between SES and the cognitive, social, emotional, and physical well-being of adults and children. A review of recent research and theory identifies three general

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Assessment and diagnosis of personality disorder: perennial issues and an emerging reconceptualization.
    Annu. Rev. Psychol. (IF 19.755) Pub Date : 2006-08-15
    Lee Anna Clark

    This chapter reviews recent (2000-2005) personality disorder (PD) research, focusing on three major domains: assessment, comorbidity, and stability. (a) Substantial evidence has accrued favoring dimensional over categorical conceptualization of PD, and the five-factor model of personality is prominent as an integrating framework. Future directions include assessing dysfunction separately from traits

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Work group diversity.
    Annu. Rev. Psychol. (IF 19.755) Pub Date : 2006-08-15
    Daan van Knippenberg,Michaéla C Schippers

    Work group diversity, the degree to which there are differences between group members, may affect group process and performance positively as well as negatively. Much is still unclear about the effects of diversity, however. We review the 1997-2005 literature on work group diversity to assess the state of the art and to identify key issues for future research. This review points to the need for more

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The development of coping.
    Annu. Rev. Psychol. (IF 19.755) Pub Date : 2006-08-15
    Ellen A Skinner,Melanie J Zimmer-Gembeck

    Research on coping during childhood and adolescence is distinguished by its focus on how children deal with actual stressors in real-life contexts. Despite burgeoning literatures within age groups, studies on developmental differences and changes have proven difficult to integrate. Two recent advances promise progress toward a developmental framework. First, dual-process models that conceptualize coping

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The elaboration of personal construct psychology.
    Annu. Rev. Psychol. (IF 19.755) Pub Date : 2006-08-15
    Beverly M Walker,David A Winter

    More than half a century has passed since the publication of George Kelly's (1955/1991) The Psychology of Personal Constructs. This review considers the elaboration of personal construct psychology (PCP) during this time, both by Kelly and by others who developed his ideas. Advances to the theory have principally concerned implicative relationships between constructs, construing of the self, social

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Perception of human motion.
    Annu. Rev. Psychol. (IF 19.755) Pub Date : 2006-08-15
    Randolph Blake,Maggie Shiffrar

    Humans, being highly social creatures, rely heavily on the ability to perceive what others are doing and to infer from gestures and expressions what others may be intending to do. These perceptual skills are easily mastered by most, but not all, people, in large part because human action readily communicates intentions and feelings. In recent years, remarkable advances have been made in our understanding

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Visual object recognition: do we know more now than we did 20 years ago?
    Annu. Rev. Psychol. (IF 19.755) Pub Date : 2006-08-15
    Jessie J Peissig,Michael J Tarr

    We review the progress made in the field of object recognition over the past two decades. Structural-description models, making their appearance in the early 1980s, inspired a wealth of empirical research. Moving to the 1990s, psychophysical evidence for view-based accounts of recognition challenged some of the fundamental assumptions of structural-description theories. The 1990s also saw increased

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The close relationships of Lesbians and gay men.
    Annu. Rev. Psychol. (IF 19.755) Pub Date : 2006-08-15
    Letitia Anne Peplau,Adam W Fingerhut

    This article reviews empirical studies of same-sex couples in the United States, highlighting consistent findings, drawing comparisons to heterosexual couples, and noting gaps in available research. U.S. Census data indicate that there were more than 600,000 same-sex couples living together in 2000. Research about relationship formation, the division of household labor, power, satisfaction, sexuality

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Behavioral theories and the neurophysiology of reward.
    Annu. Rev. Psychol. (IF 19.755) Pub Date : 2005-12-02
    Wolfram Schultz

    The functions of rewards are based primarily on their effects on behavior and are less directly governed by the physics and chemistry of input events as in sensory systems. Therefore, the investigation of neural mechanisms underlying reward functions requires behavioral theories that can conceptualize the different effects of rewards on behavior. The scientific investigation of behavioral processes

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Understanding affirmative action.
    Annu. Rev. Psychol. (IF 19.755) Pub Date : 2005-12-02
    Faye J Crosby,Aarti Iyer,Sirinda Sincharoen

    Affirmative action is a controversial and often poorly understood policy. It is also a policy that has been widely studied by social scientists. In this review, we outline how affirmative action operates in employment and education settings and consider the major points of controversy. In addition, we detail the contributions of psychologists and other social scientists in helping to demonstrate why

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Family violence.
    Annu. Rev. Psychol. (IF 19.755) Pub Date : 2005-12-02
    Patrick Tolan,Deborah Gorman-Smith,David Henry

    Family violence occurs in many forms; the most prominent are domestic violence, child abuse, and elder abuse. Family violence affects many persons at some point in their life and constitutes the majority of violent acts in our society. Although there has been considerable study of the patterns, risk factors, and interventions for each form of family violence, great controversy still exists within each

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The internet as psychological laboratory.
    Annu. Rev. Psychol. (IF 19.755) Pub Date : 2005-12-02
    Linda J Skitka,Edward G Sargis

    This chapter reviews studies published in American Psychological Association (APA) journals from 2003-2004 and additional studies (received in response to listserv requests) that used the Internet to collect data (N=121 total studies). Specific examples of three kinds of Web-based research are reviewed: (a) translational (established methods and research questions are adapted to the Web), (b) phenomenological

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Analysis of longitudinal data: the integration of theoretical model, temporal design, and statistical model.
    Annu. Rev. Psychol. (IF 19.755) Pub Date : 2005-12-02
    Linda M Collins

    This article argues that ideal longitudinal research is characterized by the seamless integration of three elements: (a) a well-articulated theoretical model of change observed using (b) a temporal design that affords a clear and detailed view of the process, with the resulting data analyzed by means of (c) a statistical model that is an operationalization of the theoretical model. Two general varieties

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Classroom goal structure, student motivation, and academic achievement.
    Annu. Rev. Psychol. (IF 19.755) Pub Date : 2005-12-02
    Judith L Meece,Eric M Anderman,Lynley H Anderman

    Over the past 25 years, achievement goal theory has emerged as one of the most prominent theories of achievement motivation. This chapter uses an achievement goal framework to examine the influence of classroom and school environments on students' academic motivation and achievement. Considerable evidence suggests that elementary and secondary students show the most positive motivation and learning

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Consumer psychology: categorization, inferences, affect, and persuasion.
    Annu. Rev. Psychol. (IF 19.755) Pub Date : 2005-12-02
    Barbara Loken

    This chapter reviews research on consumer psychology with emphasis on the topics of categorization, inferences, affect, and persuasion. The chapter reviews theory-based empirical research during the period 1994-2004. Research on categorization includes empirical research on brand categories, goals as organizing frameworks and motivational bases for judgments, and self-based processing. Research on

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Child development and the physical environment.
    Annu. Rev. Psychol. (IF 19.755) Pub Date : 2005-12-02
    Gary W Evans

    Characteristics of the physical environment that influence child development are discussed. Topics include behavioral toxicology, noise, crowding, housing and neighborhood quality, natural settings, schools, and day care settings. Socioemotional, cognitive, motivation, and psychophysiological outcomes in children and youths are reviewed. Necessary methodological and conceptual advances are introduced

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Personality and the prediction of consequential outcomes.
    Annu. Rev. Psychol. (IF 19.755) Pub Date : 2005-12-02
    Daniel J Ozer,Verónica Benet-Martínez

    Personality has consequences. Measures of personality have contemporaneous and predictive relations to a variety of important outcomes. Using the Big Five factors as heuristics for organizing the research literature, numerous consequential relations are identified. Personality dispositions are associated with happiness, physical and psychological health, spirituality, and identity at an individual

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Psychological perspectives on legitimacy and legitimation.
    Annu. Rev. Psychol. (IF 19.755) Pub Date : 2005-12-02
    Tom R Tyler

    Legitimacy is a psychological property of an authority, institution, or social arrangement that leads those connected to it to believe that it is appropriate, proper, and just. Because of legitimacy, people feel that they ought to defer to decisions and rules, following them voluntarily out of obligation rather than out of fear of punishment or anticipation of reward. Being legitimate is important

    更新日期:2019-11-01
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