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  • Referee height influences decision making in British football leagues
    BMC Psychol. (IF 0) Pub Date : 2020-01-17
    Dane McCarrick; Gayle Brewer; Minna Lyons; Thomas V. Pollet; Nick Neave

    Male height is positively associated with social dominance, and more agonistic/competitive behaviours. However, the ‘Napoleon complex’ or ‘small man syndrome’ suggests that smaller males are more assertive and punitive to compensate for lack of height and social dominance. Here, we assess possible relationships between height and punitive behaviours in a real-world setting. Using a non-experimental correlational design, we analysed data on 61 male association football referees from four professional leagues in England, and explored relationships between their height and punitive behaviours in the form of yellow cards, red cards and penalties given during an entire season. Overall there was no effect of referee height on fouls awarded. However, there was a main effect of height on yellow cards awarded, with shorter referees issuing more yellow cards. The same effect was found for red cards and penalties, though this was moderated by league. In the lower leagues, more red cards and penalties were awarded by relatively shorter referees, but in the higher leagues more red cards and penalties were awarded by relatively taller referees. These findings from real-life public dominance encounters show that height is associated with punitive behaviours, but is sensitive to context.

    更新日期:2020-01-17
  • The effect of transactional analysis on the self-esteem of imprisoned women: a clinical trial
    BMC Psychol. (IF 0) Pub Date : 2020-01-13
    Mahya Torkaman; Jamileh Farokhzadian; Sakineh Miri; Batool Pouraboili

    The imprisoned women usually have low self-esteem and suffer from various physical and mental complaints; they may suffer from feelings of emptiness, isolation, and depression. Transactional analysis (TA) is part of a comprehensive system attributed to the individual and social psychiatry for personal development of self-esteem among the imprisoned women. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the effect of TA group-training on the self-esteem of imprisoned women. This clinical trial was conducted among the imprisoned women in a prison in Southeastern Iran using pretest-posttest design. In this regard, 76 women were randomly allocated to the intervention (n = 35) and control (n = 41) groups. The TA group-training program was held for eight 90-min sessions for the intervention group. Data were collected using a demographic questionnaire and the Rosenberg’s self-esteem scale (RSES). Later, all participants were evaluated before and 1 month after the intervention. In pre-test, the mean scores of self-esteem were 11.8 ± 4.67 and 7.97 ± 4.52 for the intervention and control groups, respectively. These scores showed low levels of self-esteem and the difference between the two groups was significant (p = 0.001, t = − 3.61). In the post-test, the mean scores of self-esteem improved to the moderate level (22 ± 2.52) in the intervention group compared to the control group (8.92 ± 4.04). This indicates the significant improvement of self-esteem in the intervention group (p = 0.001, t = 17.15). The results showed that TA group-training had a significant effect on self-esteem. Therefore, the experienced and expert counselors and psychologists are recommended to hold transactional analysis group-training courses to enhance self-esteem among women prisoners. Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials, IRCT20170725035289N5 Date registered: 25/08/2018.

    更新日期:2020-01-13
  • “Free won’t” after a beer or two: chronic and acute effects of alcohol on neural and behavioral indices of intentional inhibition
    BMC Psychol. (IF 0) Pub Date : 2020-01-07
    Yang Liu; Wery P. M. van den Wildenberg; Gorka Fraga González; Davide Rigoni; Marcel Brass; Reinout W. Wiers; K. Richard Ridderinkhof

    Response inhibition can be classified into stimulus-driven inhibition and intentional inhibition based on the degree of endogenous volition involved. In the past decades, abundant research efforts to study the effects of alcohol on inhibition have focused exclusively on stimulus-driven inhibition. The novel Chasing Memo task measures stimulus-driven and intentional inhibition within the same paradigm. Combined with the stop-signal task, we investigated how alcohol use affects behavioral and psychophysiological correlates of intentional inhibition, as well as stimulus-driven inhibition. Experiment I focused on intentional inhibition and stimulus-driven inhibition in relation to past-year alcohol use. The Chasing Memo task, the stop-signal task, and questionnaires related to substance use and impulsivity were administered to 60 undergraduate students (18–25 years old). Experiment II focused on behavioral and neural correlates acute alcohol use on performance on the Chasing Memo task by means of electroencephalography (EEG). Sixteen young male adults (21–28 years old) performed the Chasing Memo task once under placebo and once under the influence of alcohol (blood alcohol concentration around 0.05%), while EEG was recorded. In experiment I, AUDIT (Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test) total score did not significantly predict stimulus-driven inhibition or intentional inhibition performance. In experiment II, the placebo condition and the alcohol condition were comparable in terms of behavioral indices of stimulus-driven inhibition and intentional inhibition as well as task-related EEG patterns. Interestingly, a slow negative readiness potential (RP) was observed with an onset of about 1.2 s, exclusively before participants stopped intentionally. These findings suggest that both past-year increases in risky alcohol consumption and moderate acute alcohol use have limited effects on stimulus-driven inhibition and intentional inhibition. These conclusions cannot be generalized to alcohol use disorder and high intoxication levels. The RP might reflect processes involved in the formation of an intention in general.

    更新日期:2020-01-07
  • Effects of a cognitive ergonomics workplace intervention (CogErg) on cognitive strain and well-being: a cluster-randomized controlled trial. A study protocol
    BMC Psychol. (IF 0) Pub Date : 2020-01-02
    Virpi Kalakoski; Sanna Selinheimo; Teppo Valtonen; Jarno Turunen; Sari Käpykangas; Hilkka Ylisassi; Pauliina Toivio; Heli Järnefelt; Heli Hannonen; Teemu Paajanen

    Cognitively straining conditions such as disruptions, interruptions, and information overload are related to impaired task performance and diminished well-being at work. It is therefore essential that we reduce their harmful consequences to individual employees and organizations. Our intervention study implements practices for managing the cognitive strain typical to office work tasks and working conditions in offices. We will examine the effects of a cognitive ergonomics intervention on working conditions, workflow, well-being, and productivity. The study is a stratified cluster randomized trial. The clusters are work units, for example, teams or offices. The four participating organizations entered a total of 36 clusters, and we invited all 1169 knowledge employees of these units to participate. We randomly allocated the clusters into an intervention group (cognitive ergonomics) or an active control group (recovery supporting). We invited an additional 471 participants to join a passive control group only for baseline and follow-up measurements, with no intervention. The study consists of a baseline survey and interviews and observations at the workplace, followed by an intervention. It starts with a workshop defining the specific actions for the intervention implementation stage, during which we send task reminder questionnaires to all employees to support behaviour change at the individual and team levels. The primary outcome measure is perceived frequency of cognitive strain from working conditions; the secondary outcome measures include subjective cognitive load, well-being, workflow/productivity, and cognitive stress symptoms. Process evaluation uses the quantitative and qualitative data obtained during the implementation and evaluation phases. The baseline measurements, intervention phase, and end-of-treatment measurements are now complete, and follow-up will continue until November 2019. There is a need to expand the research of cognitive strain, which poses a considerable risk to work performance and employee well-being in cognitively demanding tasks. Our study will provide new information about factors that contribute to such strain. Most importantly, the results will show which evidence-based cognitive ergonomic practices support work performance in knowledge work, and the project will provide concrete examples of how to improve at work. ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03573674. Registered 29 June 2018.

    更新日期:2020-01-02
  • Trust and respect in the patient-clinician relationship: preliminary development of a new scale
    BMC Psychol. (IF 0) Pub Date : 2019-12-30
    Paul Crits-Christoph; Agnes Rieger; Averi Gaines; Mary Beth Connolly Gibbons

    Trust and respect may be an important component of client-provider relationships. This study aimed to develop and report preliminary psychometric analyses of a new brief measure to evaluate a patient’s level of trust and respect for their clinician. The scale was designed to be applicable in multiple healthcare contexts, with a particular focus on mental healthcare. Adult patients completed the study survey in an academic outpatient psychiatric clinic waiting room. Classical and Item Response Theory (IRT) analyses were utilized to examine the adequacy of scale items. Validity was examined in relation to the patient-therapist alliance and to willingness to share private information (social media content) with one’s clinician. Beginning with 10 items, a final 8-item version of the measure was created with an internal consistency reliability of .91. Principal components analysis indicated that the scale was best viewed as capturing one overall dimension. A Graded Response Model IRT model indicated that all items contributed information on the latent dimension, and all item curves were not flat at any region. The correlation of the trust/respect total score with the alliance was .53 when respect-related items were deleted from the alliance score. The trust/respect scale was significantly associated with patient willingness to share social media posts with their clinician but the alliance was not. The brief measure of patient trust and respect towards their clinician was unidimensional, showed good internal consistency, and was not redundant with existing measures of the alliance. The scale has the potential to be used in a wide variety of healthcare settings.

    更新日期:2019-12-31
  • A clinical trial of group-based body psychotherapy to improve bodily disturbances in post-treatment cancer patients in combination with randomized controlled smartphone-triggered bodily interventions (KPTK): study protocol
    BMC Psychol. (IF 0) Pub Date : 2019-12-30
    Astrid Grossert; Cornelia Meffert; Viviane Hess; Christoph Rochlitz; Miklos Pless; Sabina Hunziker; Brigitta Wössmer; Ulfried Geuter; Gunther Meinlschmidt; Rainer Schaefert

    Disturbances in bodily well-being represent one key source of suffering and impairment related to cancer. There is growing evidence that body psychotherapy (BPT) is efficacious for the treatment of various mental disorders. However, with regard to cancer patients, evidence is scarce. The aims of this project are to evaluate whether bodily disturbances in post-treatment cancer patients can be improved by group BPT, and to estimate the efficacy of intermittent smartphone-triggered bodily interventions. The project is a bi-center study with two participating centers in Switzerland, applying a pre-post convergent parallel design of a weekly group BPT using a waiting-period comparator, including a nested RCT during the group BPT phase. During the BPT phase, either a smartphone-triggered bodily intervention or a smartphone-triggered control intervention is provided at random over 5 consecutive weeks, on 6 days weekly. Patients who had received curatively intended treatment for any malignant neoplasm (treatment being completed ≥3 months) and are suffering from bodily disturbances are screened to assess eligibility. Sample size estimation is based on an a priori power analysis. We plan to include a total of N = 88 subjects, aiming at at least 52 completers. Patients are surveyed three times (baseline assessment (T0), pre- (T1) and post-intervention assessment (T2)), and on a daily basis along BPT during five consecutive weeks. The primary outcome, bodily disturbances, is assessed using the ‘Body Image Scale‘(BIS). For the secondary outcomes standardized questionnaires are used to assess changes in experience of presence and vitality, mood, body mindfulness, somatic symptoms and somatic symptom disorder, quality of life, anxiety, and depression including suicidal tendency, vitality and mental health, as well as group cohesion. Using semi standardized interviews (at T0 and T2), we aim to explore the relation of BPT with bodily disturbances and body image in post-treatment cancer patients, as well as the acceptance and burden of the intervention. The proposed study has strong potential benefits for cancer patients, as it may pave the way for new therapeutic approaches to treat bodily disturbances, which persist despite curative tumor therapy. These may considerably improve patients’ biopsychosocial well-being and quality of life. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03707548 (registered 9 October 2018; retrospectively registered).

    更新日期:2019-12-30
  • The role of inhibition capacities in the Iowa gambling test performance in young tattooed women
    BMC Psychol. (IF 0) Pub Date : 2019-12-23
    Semion Kertzman; Alex Kagan; Omer Hegedish; Rina Lapidus; Abraham Weizman

    Using the Iowa Gambling Test (IGT), we demonstrated previously impaired decision- making process in young tattooed women. The purpose of the present study was to explore the associations among the three facets of impaired inhibition (response inhibition, reflection inhibition and interference inhibition) and decision-making processes in this population. To this end, the participants of the previous study (60 tattooed women and 60 non-tattooed women) were assessed in the Go/NoGo task, a measure of response inhibition, the Matched Familiar Figure Test (MFFT), a measure of reflection inhibition and the Stroop task a measure of interference inhibition. Tattooed women were significantly slower than non-tattooed women in the Go/NoGo performance; however, no differences were detected in the MFFT and the Stroop task. A hierarchical regression analysis did not reveal any significant main effects of these inhibition measures on the IGT performance. These findings do not support the hypothesis that risky decision in young tattooed women is due to impaired inhibitory control. Further studies are needed to identify the cognitive mechanisms involved in the tendency to risky decisions in young tattooed women.

    更新日期:2019-12-23
  • School functioning and internalizing problems in young schoolchildren
    BMC Psychol. (IF 0) Pub Date : 2019-12-23
    Marit Løtveit Pedersen; Solveig Holen; Stian Lydersen; Kristin Martinsen; Simon-Peter Neumer; Frode Adolfsen; Anne Mari Sund

    Symptoms of anxiety and depression are common mental health problems in children and are often referred to as internalizing symptoms. Youth with such symptoms are at greater risk for poor academic achievement, school non-completion, and future mental health problems, all of which, lead to public health consequences and costs to society. The aim of the current study was to investigate associations between young school children’s internalizing symptoms and school functioning, as assessed separately by the teachers and the children. This study is a cross-sectional study including children (N = 750. 58% girls) from the ages of 8–12 years with elevated levels of self-reported symptoms of anxiety (MASC-C) and/or depression (SMFQ). Teachers reported the academic achievement, school adaptation (TRF) and internalizing symptoms (BPM-T) of the children. Associations were analyzed using linear regression analyses. Both teacher-reported internalizing symptoms and children’s self-reported depressive symptoms were associated with poor academic achievement and school adaptation, while self-reported symptoms of anxiety were not. Symptoms of depression as assessed by the children were associated with teacher-rated internalizing symptoms, while self-reported symptoms of anxiety were not. We found negative associations between school functioning and internalizing symptoms, as assessed by both the teachers and the children. The dual findings strengthen the validity of these relationships. Thus, prevention of depressive and anxiety symptoms in children may lead to positive changes in school domains such as academic achievement and school adaptation. We also identified a negative association between teacher-rated internalizing symptoms and children’s self-report of depressive symptoms, indicating that teachers may have difficulties recognizing children with these symptoms. Clinical Trials NCT02340637, Registered on June 12, 2014, Retrospectively registered.

    更新日期:2019-12-23
  • Prevalence of adjustment disorder among cancer patients, and the reach, effectiveness, cost-utility and budget impact of tailored psychological treatment: study protocol of a randomized controlled trial
    BMC Psychol. (IF 0) Pub Date : 2019-12-23
    Florie E. van Beek; Lonneke M. A. Wijnhoven; Femke Jansen; José A. E. Custers; Eline J. Aukema; Veerle M. H. Coupé; Pim Cuijpers; Marije L. van der Lee; Birgit I. Lissenberg-Witte; Ben Wijnen; Judith B. Prins; Irma M. Verdonck-de Leeuw

    Information on the prevalence of adjustment disorders among cancer patients and the value of psychological interventions in this group of patients is limited. This study investigates the prevalence of adjustment disorders among cancer patients as well as the reach, effectiveness, cost-utility and budget impact of a tailored psychological intervention. This study consists of two parts. Part 1 is an observational study among a representative group of mixed cancer patients after cancer treatment on the prevalence of adjustment disorder as well as the uptake (i.e. reach) of psychological treatment. In Part 2, patients diagnosed with an adjustment disorder are invited to participate in a randomized controlled trial. Patients will be randomized to the intervention (access to the tailored psychological intervention) or control group (waitlist period of 6 months). The psychological intervention consists of three modules: one module containing psycho-education (3 sessions, all patients) and two additional modules (maximum of 6 sessions per module) provided as continuum, in case needed. Module 2 and 3 can consist of several evidence-based interventions (e.g. group interventions, mindfulness, eHealth) The primary outcome is psychological distress (HADS). Secondary outcomes are mental adjustment to cancer (MAC) and health-related quality of life (EORTC QLQ-C30). To assess the cost-utility and budget impact, quality of life (EQ-5D-5 L) and costs (iMCQ and iPCQ) will be measured. Measures will be completed at baseline and 3 and 6-months after randomization. This study will provide data of the prevalence of adjustment disorders and the reach, effectiveness, cost-utility and budget impact of a tailored psychological intervention. Netherlands Trial Register identifier: NL7763. Registered on 3 June 2019.

    更新日期:2019-12-23
  • Patients with chronic pain: evaluating depression and their quality of life in a single center study in Greece
    BMC Psychol. (IF 0) Pub Date : 2019-12-21
    Ekaterini Rapti; Dimitrios Damigos; Paraskevi Apostolara; Vasiliki Roka; Chara Tzavara; Christos Lionis

    Chronic pain constitutes one of the most common reasons for seeking health care services and may even lead to disability. Chronic pain has been associated with depression and deterioration of the quality of life. The aim of our study is to outline the burden of chronic pain in the context of a primary health care (PHC) setting in Greece and to investigate its association with depression and quality of life. A cross-sectional study was conducted from September 2016 to November 2016. The subjects of the study comprised 200 individuals who visited the regional medical center of Ag. Theodoroi, Greece. The collected data were from a representative sample of 200 adults and included demographic data, social and medical history, presence and characteristics of chronic pain and questions from three questionnaires for the assessment of pain (BPI- short form), the investigation of depression (PHQ-9) and the evaluation of the quality of life (EuroQ-5D) validated in Greek language. Multiple regression analysis was used in order to find associated factors with quality of life, depression and chronic pain. A percentage of 56.8% of the participants, the majority of whom (62%) were women, reported chronic pain. Among individuals with pain, lower back area was the most common location. Based on the given questionnaire, depression was detected in 22. 5% of the participants who claimed chronic pain. Regression analyses revealed that women and respondents with chronic mental disorders like depression and anxiety had significantly higher scores on the pain scale and suffered pain which had a greater impact on their daily activities. According to regression analysis decreased quality of life was expressed by women, as well as participants with a chronic mental disorder. A significant reverse correlation emerged between the quality of life, depression and pain scales. Chronic pain, as it has been studied within this PHC setting, is a common health care problem. Individuals who had experienced chronic pain and depression had a lower health-related quality of life.

    更新日期:2019-12-22
  • A Sociodemographic variables questionnaire (Q-SV) for research on family caregivers of children with chronic disease
    BMC Psychol. (IF 0) Pub Date : 2019-12-21
    Filiberto Toledano-Toledano; Rocío Rodríguez-Rey; José Moral de la Rubia; David Luna

    Chronic diseases in childhood can affect the physical and mental health of patients and their families. The literature on pediatric chronic diseases has found important associations between the sociodemographic variables of children and their caregivers and negative health consequences in families. In this study, we aimed to design and validate a questionnaire on sociodemographic variables that would be useful for research on pediatric chronic diseases; and investigate the relationship between sociodemographic variables and psychosocial variables among family caregivers. First, we created a questionnaire that consists of 20 demographic, medical, and family-related items based on a literature review and expert evaluations. This questionnaire was then validated by 335 expert reviewers in the field of Social Work, who work daily with the families of patients with chronic diseases in 10 National Institutes of Health of Mexico. The validation was based on three empirical criteria created specifically for this study, and the reviewers evaluated the usefulness, relevance, and permanence of the items. In a second cross-sectional, correlational and comparative study, a total of 446 family caregivers of children with chronic diseases were interviewed, and they completed the Sociodemographic Variables Questionnaire for research on family caregivers of children with chronic sociodemographic diseases and four psychosocial measurement instruments for evaluating anxiety, depression, caregiver burden and quality of life. Based on the results of the first study, we created the Sociodemographic Variables Questionnaire (Q-SV) for research on family caregivers of children with chronic diseases, and it includes 17 items that assess demographic, medical, and family characteristics. The results of the second study showed that the 17 sociodemographic variables obtained in the validation by expert judges are useful for measuring and evaluating the relationship between psychosocial variables in families of children with chronic diseases. Psychosocial and sociodemographic factors are relevant for the development of research processes for families that care for children with chronic diseases.

    更新日期:2019-12-21
  • PTSD prevalence among resident mothers and their offspring in Rwanda 25 years after the 1994 genocide against the Tutsi
    BMC Psychol. (IF 0) Pub Date : 2019-12-19
    Celestin Mutuyimana; Vincent Sezibera; Epaphrodite Nsabimana; Lambert Mugabo; Cindi Cassady; Clarisse Musanabaganwa; Yvonne Kayiteshonga

    The 1994 Genocide against the Tutsi was a major traumatic event affecting nearly all Rwandans. Significant psychological sequels continue to occur in the population 25 years after, with a high prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) found in women. Three groups are typically designated with regard to the Genocide against the Tutsi: those who were targeted and categorized as genocide “survivors,” those who were in the country during the genocide and were the “non-targeted” group, and those who were outside of the country, referred to as the “1959 returnees.” Each group experienced various traumatic events during and in the aftermath of the genocide. Offspring of the designated groups, currently exhibit symptoms of PTSD disregarding of being born in the years following the genocide. A number of studies have described the prevalence of PTSD in the general adult population. There is a lack of research comparing the prevalence of PTSD in women and their offspring among these three target groups, therefore, this study aimed to bridge the gap. We conducted a comparative cross-sectional study with a sample of 432 mothers and 432 children in three categories: genocide survivors, in country non-targeted and 1959 returnees. Participant ages for children were between 14 to 22 years and for mothers, between the ages of 32 to 87 years. The UCLA-PTSD DSM-5, PTSD Check list-5 and Life events Checklist-5 were translated from English to Kinyarwanda and were used to assess exposure to trauma and the prevalence of PTSD symptoms in Rwandan mothers and their offspring. Key Results yield a PTSD rate of 18.8, 6.2, 5.2% within survivors, in country non-targeted, and returnees respectively with an average PTSD rate of 43.8% for parents, and 16.5% for offspring. PTSD among the mothers’ groups and their offspring have been found, specifically in the offspring of genocide survivors. Considering these adolescents were not born at the time of the 1994 Genocide against the Tutsi, the results suggest future studies should explore the precipitating factors contributing to the PTSD symptoms within this specific group.

    更新日期:2019-12-20
  • Effects of a life-skills-based prevention program on self-esteem and risk behaviors in adolescents: a pilot study
    BMC Psychol. (IF 0) Pub Date : 2019-12-17
    Virginie Moulier; Hélène Guinet; Zorica Kovacevic; Zohra Bel-Abbass; Yacine Benamara; Nadhirati Zile; Arezki Ourrad; Pilar Arcella-Giraux; Emmanuel Meunier; Fanny Thomas; Dominique Januel

    Risk behaviors among young people are a major social and public health issue. This study aims to assess the impact of a life-skills-based prevention program (called Mission Papillagou) on self-esteem, well-being, and risk behaviors among adolescents. In a two-arm controlled study involving 520 school pupils aged between 10 and 15 years old, participants taking part in the prevention program (the Papillagou group) were compared to pupils who did not take part (the control group). Two assessment sessions were performed, one at baseline, and one after either the Mission Papillagou program (Papillagou group) or usual lessons (control group). Participants self-reported on their self-esteem, well-being, behaviors, interests and opinions. The Mission Papillagou program significantly improved Self-Esteem scores (ηρ2 = .035). Well-being (Cramér’s V = .14) and mood (“feeling of depression”: Cramér’s V = .503; “feeling hopelessness about the future”: Cramér’s V = .357; “waking up at night”: Cramér’s V = .343) also improved in the Papillagou group compared to the control group. Regarding risk behaviors, the prevention program produced a decrease in the frequency of insults (Cramér’s V = .267) and rumor-spreading (Cramér’s V = .440), and a change of opinion toward the possibility of smoking an electronic cigarette in the future (Cramér’s V = .372). This study suggests that life-skills-based risk prevention programs are effective.

    更新日期:2019-12-18
  • Predictors of clinically important improvements in occupational and quality of life outcomes among mental health service users after completion and follow-up of a lifestyle intervention: multiple regression modelling based on longitudinal data
    BMC Psychol. (IF 0) Pub Date : 2019-12-17
    Jenny Hultqvist; Kristine Lund; Elisabeth Argentzell; Mona Eklund

    Balancing Everyday Life (BEL) is a new activity-based lifestyle intervention for mental health service users. An earlier study found BEL to be effective in increasing occupational engagement, occupational balance, activity level, and quality of life scores when compared with a care-as-usual group. However, it is unclear whether care context and socio-demographic, clinical and self-related factors at baseline also influence the results. Thus, the aim of the current study was to explore whether such factors could predict clinically important improvements in occupational and quality of life aspects. Participants were interviewed and filled out self-report questionnaires before starting the 16-week intervention (n = 133), upon completion (n = 100), and 6 months following (n = 89). Bi-variate and multi-variate statistical analyses were performed. Several baseline factors were associated with clinically important improvements, but few predictors were found in the multivariate analyses. Having children was found to be a predictor of improvement in occupational engagement at BEL completion, but reduced the chance of belonging to the group with clinically important improvement in activity level at follow-up. Regarding occupational balance, having a close friend predicted belonging to the group with clinically important improvement in the leisure domain. At BEL completion, other predictors for improvements were female gender for the self-care domain, and self-esteem for the home chores domain. At follow-up, psychosocial functioning and lower education level predicted general balance. None of the factors explored in this study were found to be predictors for improvements in quality of life. Few of the studied care context, socio-demographic, clinical and self-related factors were found to predict clinically important improvements in occupational engagement, activity level, occupational balance, or QOL. This study, together with previous studies showing positive results, suggests that BEL can be an appropriate intervention in both community and clinical settings, and can support improvement in occupational aspects and QOL for participants with diverse socio-demographic, clinical, and self-related characteristics. This study is part of a larger research project that is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov. Reg. No. NCT02619318.

    更新日期:2019-12-18
  • Fathers today: design of a randomized controlled trial examining the role of oxytocin and vasopressin in behavioral and neural responses to infant signals
    BMC Psychol. (IF 0) Pub Date : 2019-12-16
    Annemieke M. Witte; Marleen H. M. de Moor; Marinus H. van IJzendoorn; Marian J. Bakermans-Kranenburg

    Previous research has mostly focused on the hormonal, behavioral and neural correlates of maternal caregiving. We present a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled within-subject design to examine the effects of intranasal administration of oxytocin and vasopressin on parenting behavior and the neural and behavioral responses to infant cry sounds and infant threat. In addition, we will test whether effects of oxytocin and vasopressin administration are moderated by fathers’ early childhood experiences. Fifty-five first-time fathers of a child between two and seven months old will participate in three experimental sessions with intervening periods of one to two weeks. Participants self-administer oxytocin, vasopressin or a placebo. Infant-father interactions and protective parenting responses are observed during play. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) is used to examine the neural processing of infant cry sounds and infant threat. A handgrip dynamometer is used to measure use of handgrip force when listening to infant cry sounds. Participants report on their childhood experiences of parental love-withdrawal and abuse and neglect. The results of this study will provide important insights into the hormonal, behavioral and neural correlates of fathers’ parenting behavior during the early phase of fatherhood. Dutch Trial Register: NTR (ID: NL8124); Date registered: October 30, 2019.

    更新日期:2019-12-17
  • Attachment to mothers and fathers during middle childhood: an evidence from Polish sample
    BMC Psychol. (IF 0) Pub Date : 2019-12-11
    Anna Kamza

    Middle childhood is a significant period of change both for a child’s cognition and social functioning. Considering that the primary developmental theme of attachment in middle childhood is the balance between child’s growing autonomy and the constant need of relatedness, cultural differences in developmental trends in the attachment might be considered as a function of individualism and collectivism orientations. However, little is known about whether the findings on predictors of individual differences in the attachment in middle childhood found in Western cultures, hold within the non-Western ones. Moreover, still little is known about differences between attachment to mothers and fathers in middle childhood. Hence, one goal of the present study was to investigate the role of a child’s age, sex, and emotionality in a middle-childhood attachment to mothers and fathers in the Polish sample. The second aim was to compare obtained results to the attachment research that focused on Western cultures. The sample consisted of 132 children aged 8–12 years (51% boys). They completed the Kern’s Security Scale and the Coping Strategies Questionnaire. Mothers completed a child’s EAS-C and short sociodemographic questionnaire. Pearson’s correlations were conducted to test relationships between a child’s age, sex, emotionality, SES, and attachment-related variables. A paired-samples t-test was used to compare the intensity of preoccupied and avoidant coping strategies with parents in the whole sample. The effects of a child’s age, sex, temperament, and attachment figure were tested with separate repeated-measures ANOVA. Some of the results replicated prior studies conducted in Western cultures. Similarly to the individualistic cultures, older Polish children reported less preoccupied and more avoidant coping strategies with their parents than younger children. Second, older girls reported higher felt-security with their fathers than with mothers, which suggests some significant changes in attachment relationships regarding the child’s sex. However, as opposed to Western cultures, there were no links between the child’s sex and preoccupied and avoidant coping. Polish children also reported higher rates of preoccupied coping than the avoidant one. Finally, children with relatively lower emotionality reported higher attachment security with both parents than children with relatively higher emotionality. The current study extends previous work on attachment in middle childhood, the area of rather sparse research, as compared to other developmental periods. The findings reveal the existence of both some specificity in the middle-child attachment in the Polish sample, as well as some culture-universal developmental trends. However, as many questions remain unanswered, they also highlight the strong need for future cross-cultural and comparative studies.

    更新日期:2019-12-11
  • Factors associated with alexithymia among the Lebanese population: results of a cross-sectional study
    BMC Psychol. (IF 0) Pub Date : 2019-12-11
    Sahar Obeid; Marwan Akel; Chadia Haddad; Kassandra Fares; Hala Sacre; Pascale Salameh; Souheil Hallit

    To our knowledge, no research project on alexithymia has been conducted in Lebanon. The objective of this study was to assess risk factors associated with alexithymia in a representative sample of the Lebanese population. This is a cross-sectional study, conducted between November 2017 and March 2018, which enrolled 789 participants from al districts of Lebanon. The Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20) was used to measure alexithymia, the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test to assess alcohol use, drinking patterns, and alcohol-related issues, the Rosenberg self-esteem scale to evaluate self-worth, the Hamilton depression rating scale and Hamilton Anxiety Scale to screen for depression and anxiety respectively, the Three-Dimensional Work Fatigue Inventory to measure physical, mental and emotional work fatigue respectively, the Columbia–Suicide Severity Rating Scale to evaluate suicidal ideation and behavior, the Perceived Stress Scale to measure stress, the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale to help identify a social anxiety disorder and the Quick Emotional Intelligence Self-Assessment to measure emotional intelligence. The results showed that 395 (50.4%) were not alexithymic, 226 (28.8%) were possible alexithymic, whereas 163 (20.8%) were alexithymic according to established clinical cutoffs. Stress (Beta = 0.456), emotional exhaustion (Beta = 0.249), the AUDIT score (Beta = 0.225) and anxiety (Beta = 0.096) were associated with higher alexithymia, whereas low emotional work fatigue (Beta = −0.114) and being married (Beta = −1.933) were associated with lower alexithymia. People in distress (Beta = 7.33) was associated with higher alexithymia scores, whereas people with high wellbeing (Beta = −2.18), an intermediate (Beta = −2.90) and a high (Beta = −2.71) family monthly income were associated with lower alexithymia compared to a low one. Alexithymia appears to be influenced by many factors, including stress, anxiety, and burnout. To reduce its prevalence, it is important that health professionals educate the public about these factors. Further studies on a larger scale are needed to confirm our findings.

    更新日期:2019-12-11
  • Validation of a brief mental health screening tool for pregnant women in a low socio-economic setting
    BMC Psychol. (IF 0) Pub Date : 2019-12-09
    Zulfa Abrahams; Marguerite Schneider; Sally Field; Simone Honikman

    In South Africa, the prevalence of symptoms of common mental disorders (CMD), i.e. depression, anxiety and suicidal thoughts are high. This study aimed to use a cognitive interviewing technique to validate the content and structure of a 4-item screening tool, to adapt the tool accordingly, and to use receiver operating curve (ROC) analysis to determine the optimum cut-point for identifying pregnant women with symptoms of CMD. We conducted a mixed method study at a Midwife Obstetric Unit in Cape Town. Women attending the clinic for their first antenatal visit during the recruitment period, whose first language was English, Afrikaans or isiXhosa, were invited to participate. A 4-item screening tool was administered in the first language of the interviewee, after which a cognitive interviewing technique was used to examine the question-response processes and considerations used by respondents as they formed answers to the screening tool questions. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) was used to identify women with symptoms of CMD. A 2-week recall period performed well. Questions about (1) being unable to stop worrying, or thinking too much, (2) feeling down, depressed or hopeless, and (3) having thoughts and plans to harm yourself, were well understood. The question that referred to feeling little interest or pleasure in doing things, was poorly understood across all languages. Using ROC analysis with the EPDS as the reference standard, and a cut-point of ≥13, we showed that a 3-item version of the screening tool was able to correctly classify 91% of the women screened. Cognitive interviewing enabled testing and refining of the language and constructs of an ultra-brief screening tool. The shortened, 3-item tool is well understood and effective at identifying pregnant women with symptoms of CMD, across the three most commonly spoken languages and cultures in Cape Town.

    更新日期:2019-12-11
  • Protecting the psychological wellbeing of staff exposed to disaster or emergency at work: a qualitative study
    BMC Psychol. (IF 0) Pub Date : 2019-12-10
    Samantha K. Brooks; Rebecca Dunn; Richard Amlôt; G. James Rubin; Neil Greenberg

    Disasters are becoming more prevalent across the world and people are frequently exposed to them as part of their occupational groups. It is important for organisations to understand how best to support employees who have experienced a trauma such as a disaster. The purpose of this study was to explore employees’ perceptions of workplace support and help-seeking in the context of a disaster. Forty employees in England took part in semi-structured interviews. Thematic analysis was used to extract recurring themes from the data. Participants reported both positive and negative psychological outcomes of experiencing a disaster or emergency at work. Most had little training in how to prepare for, and cope with, the psychological impact. They perceived stigma around mental health and treatment for psychological issues which often made them reluctant to seek help. Many reported that the psychological support available in the workplace was insufficient and tended to be reactive rather than proactive. Interpersonal relationships at work were viewed as being important sources of support, particularly support from managers. Participants suggested that psychosocial training in the workplace could be beneficial in providing education about mental health, encouraging supportive workplace relationships, and developing listening skills and empathy. Organisations can take steps to reduce the psychological impact of disasters on employees. This could be done through provision of training workshops incorporating mental health education to reduce stigma, and team-building exercises to encourage supportive workplace relationships.

    更新日期:2019-12-11
  • Psychosocial support for parents of extremely preterm infants in neonatal intensive care: a qualitative interview study
    BMC Psychol. (IF 0) Pub Date : 2019-11-29
    Anna Bry; Helena Wigert

    Extremely premature infants (those born before 28 weeks’ gestational age) are highly immature, requiring months of care at a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). For parents, their child’s grave medical condition and prolonged hospitalization are stressful and psychologically disruptive. This study aimed at exploring the needs of psychosocial support of parents of extremely premature infants, and how the NICU as an organization and its staff meets or fails to meet these needs. Sixteen open-ended interviews were conducted with 27 parents after their infant’s discharge from the NICU. Inductive content analysis was performed. Four themes were identified: Emotional support (with subthemes Empathic treatment by staff, Other parents as a unique source of support, Unclear roles of the various professions); Feeling able to trust the health care provider; Support in balancing time spent with the infant and other responsibilities; Privacy. Parents of extremely premature infants needed various forms of emotional support at the NICU, including support from staff, professional psychological help and/or companionship with other patients’ parents. Parents were highly variable in their desire to discuss their emotional state with staff. The respective roles of nursing staff, social workers and psychologists in supporting parents emotionally and identifying particularly vulnerable parents appeared unclear. Parents also needed to be able to maintain a solid sense of trust in the NICU and its staff. Poor communication with and among staff, partly due to staff discontinuity, damaged trust. Parents struggled with perceived pressure from staff to be at the hospital more than they could manage and with the limited privacy of the NICU. The complex and individual psychosocial needs of parents of extremely preterm infants present many challenges for the NICU and its staff. Increasing staffing and improving nurses’ competence in addressing psychosocial aspects of neonatal care would help both nurses and families. Clarifying the roles of different professions in supporting parents and developing their teamwork would lessen the burden on nurses. Communicating with parents about their needs and informing them early in their NICU stay about available support would be essential in helping them cope with their infant’s hospitalization.

    更新日期:2019-11-30
  • Monitoring neurocognitive functioning in childhood cancer survivors: evaluation of CogState computerized assessment and the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF)
    BMC Psychol. (IF 0) Pub Date : 2019-05-02
    Lyn M. Balsamo; Hannah-Rose Mitchell; Wilhelmenia Ross; Catherine Metayer; Kristina K. Hardy; Nina S. Kadan-Lottick

    Many childhood cancer survivors develop neurocognitive impairment, negatively affecting education and psychosocial functioning. Recommended comprehensive neuropsychological testing can be time- and cost- intensive for both institutions and patients and their families. It is important to find quick and easily administered surveillance measures to identify those in need of evaluation. We evaluated, individually and in combination, the sensitivity and specificity of the 1) Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Functioning-Metacognition Index (BRIEF-MCI), and 2) CogState Composite Index (computerized assessment of cognition) in identifying below grade-level performance on state-administered tests of reading and mathematics among childhood cancer survivors. The 45 participants (39% female) were a mean age of 7.1 ± 4.4 years at diagnosis, 14.0 ± 3.0 at evaluation, with a history of leukemia (58%), lymphoma (9%), central nervous system tumors (20%), and other tumors (13%). Impairment on the BRIEF-MCI was associated with low sensitivity (26% reading, 41% mathematics) but stronger specificity (88% reading, 96% mathematics). We found similar associations for the CogState Composite Index with sensitivity of 26% for reading and 29% for mathematics and specificity of 92% for both reading and mathematics. Combining the two measures did not improve sensitivity appreciably (47% reading, 59% mathematics) while reducing specificity (84% reading, 88% mathematics). While individuals identified from the BRIEF-MCI or CogState Composite would likely benefit from a full neuropsychological evaluation given the strong specificity, use of these measures as screening tools is limited. With poor sensitivity, they do not identify many patients with academic difficulties and in need of a full neuropsychological evaluation. Continued effort is required to find screening measures that have both strong sensitivity and specificity.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Type D personality is a predictor of prolonged acute brain dysfunction (delirium/coma) after cardiovascular surgery
    BMC Psychol. (IF 0) Pub Date : 2019-05-02
    Yujiro Matsuishi; Nobutake Shimojo; Takeshi Unoki; Hideaki Sakuramoto; Chiho Tokunaga; Yasuyo Yoshino; Haruhiko Hoshino; Akira Ouchi; Satoru Kawano; Hiroaki Sakamoto; Yuji Hiramatsu; Yoshiaki Inoue

    Previous studies have shown a relationship between delirium and depressive symptoms after cardiac surgery with distress personalities linking to negative surgical outcomes. The aim of the present study is to further investigate the association between patients with Type D (distressed) personality with regards to delirium after cardiac surgery. We conducted a consecutive-sample observational cohort pilot study with an estimated 142 patients needed. Enrollment criteria included patients aged ≥18 years who were undergoing planned cardiovascular, thoracic and abdominal artery surgery between October 2015 to August 2016 at the University of Tsukuba Hospital, Japan. All patients were screened by Type-D Personality Scale-14 (DS14) as well as the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) the day before surgery. Following surgery, daily data was collected during recovery and included severity of organ dysfunction, sedative/analgesic exposure and other relevant information. We then evaluated the association between Type D personality and delirium/coma days (DCDs) during the 7-day study period. We applied regression and mediation modeling for this study. A total of 142 patients were enrolled in the present study and the total prevalence of delirium was found to be 34% and 26% of the patients were Type D. Non-Type D personality patients experienced an average of 1.3 DCDs during the week after surgery while Type D patients experienced 2.1 days over the week after surgery. Multivariate analysis showed that Type D personality was significantly associated with increased DCDs (OR:2.8, 95%CI:1.3–6.1) after adjustment for depressive symptoms and clinical variables. Additionally, there was a significant Type D x depression interaction effect (OR:1.7, 95% CI:1.2–2.2), and depressive symptoms were associated with DCDs in Type D patients, but not in non-Type D patients. Mediation modeling showed that depressive symptoms partially mediated the association of Type D personality with DCDs (Aroian test =0.04). Type D personality is a prognostic predictor for prolonged acute brain dysfunction (delirium/coma) in cardiovascular patients independent from depressive symptoms and Type D personality-associated depressive symptoms increase the magnitude of acute brain dysfunction.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • The relationship between social networking addiction and academic performance in Iranian students of medical sciences: a cross-sectional study
    BMC Psychol. (IF 0) Pub Date : 2019-05-03
    Seyyed Mohsen Azizi; Ali Soroush; Alireza Khatony

    Social networks have had a major influence on students’ performance in recent years. These networks create many opportunities and threats for students in various fields. Addiction to social networking and its impact on students’ academic performance caused the researcher to design and conduct this study. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between social networking addiction and academic performance of students in Iran. In this cross-sectional study, 360 students were enrolled by stratified random sampling. The study tools included personal information form and the Bergen Social Media Addiction Scale. Also, the students’ overall grade obtained in previous educational term was considered as the indicator of academic performance. Data were analyzed using SPSS-18.0 and descriptive and inferential statistics. The mean social networking addiction was higher in male students (52.65 ± 11.50) than in female students (49.35 ± 13.96) and this difference was statistically significant (P < 0.01). There was a negative and significant relationship between students’ addiction to social networking and their academic performance (r = − 0.210, p < 0.01). The social networking addiction of the students was at moderate level and the male students had a higher level of addiction compared to the female students. There was a negative and significant relationship between the overall use of social networks and academic performance of students. Therefore, it is imperative that the university authorities take interventional steps to help students who are dependent on these networks and, through workshops, inform them about the negative consequences of addiction to social networks.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Interventions designed to reduce implicit prejudices and implicit stereotypes in real world contexts: a systematic review
    BMC Psychol. (IF 0) Pub Date : 2019-05-16
    Chloë FitzGerald; Angela Martin; Delphine Berner; Samia Hurst

    Implicit biases are present in the general population and among professionals in various domains, where they can lead to discrimination. Many interventions are used to reduce implicit bias. However, uncertainties remain as to their effectiveness. We conducted a systematic review by searching ERIC, PUBMED and PSYCHINFO for peer-reviewed studies conducted on adults between May 2005 and April 2015, testing interventions designed to reduce implicit bias, with results measured using the Implicit Association Test (IAT) or sufficiently similar methods. 30 articles were identified as eligible. Some techniques, such as engaging with others’ perspective, appear unfruitful, at least in short term implicit bias reduction, while other techniques, such as exposure to counterstereotypical exemplars, are more promising. Robust data is lacking for many of these interventions. Caution is thus advised when it comes to programs aiming at reducing biases. This does not weaken the case for implementing widespread structural and institutional changes that are multiply justified.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Reliability and validity of the Japanese version of the Mental Health Self-management Questionnaire among people with mental illness living in the community
    BMC Psychol. (IF 0) Pub Date : 2019-05-22
    Yasuko Morita; Yuki Miyamoto; Ayumi Takano; Norito Kawakami; Simon Coulombe

    Self-management is an important factor in maintaining and promoting mental health and recovery from mental health challenges. Thus, it is important to assess and support mental health self-management. In this study, we aimed to develop the Japanese version of the Mental Health Self-management Questionnaire (MHSQ-J), a scale to assess mental health self-management strategy, and clarify its psychometric properties among people with mental illness living in Japan. An anonymous self-administered survey including MHSQ-J was conducted for psychiatric outpatient users (N = 295), and 104 of the participants completed MHSQ-J again about two weeks later. Internal consistency was assessed with Cronbach’s α, and test-retest reliability was confirmed by the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Construct validity was assessed based on structural validity with confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and exploratory factor analysis (EFA), and hypotheses testing. The Self-management Skill Scale, the University of Tokyo Health Sociology version of the Sense of Coherence Scale ver1.2, the Japanese version of Self-identified Stage of Recovery Part-B, the Japanese version of the Flourishing Scale, and the Japanese version of the WHO Disability Assessment Scale 2.0 were used for hypotheses testing. Data from 243 respondents were analyzed. The result of CFA, the goodness-of-fit indices showed marginal fit (AGFI = .830, CFI = .852, RMSEA = .072). EFA identified three factors (Clinical, Empowerment, and Vitality), and the results suggested that the factor structure of the Japanese version of MHSQ was similar to the original 3-factor structure. Significant correlations were found with the hypotheses testing variables related to self-management and recovery, especially on the total score, the Empowerment subscale, and the Vitality subscale. Cronbach’s α (Clinical: .65, Empowerment: .81, Vitality: .75, Total: .83) and ICC (Clinical: .75, 95% confidence interval (CI) [.62, .84], Empowerment: .81, 95% CI [.70, .88], Vitality: .62, 95% CI [.44, .75], Total: .84, 95% CI [.75, .90]) indicated good reliability. The results show that MHSQ-J has acceptable reliability and validity to measure the use of self-management strategies for mental health among community living people with mental illness in Japan.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • “It is like a mind attack”: stress and coping among urban school-going adolescents in India
    BMC Psychol. (IF 0) Pub Date : 2019-05-28
    Rachana Parikh; Mahima Sapru; Madhuri Krishna; Pim Cuijpers; Vikram Patel; Daniel Michelson

    Mental health problems are leading contributors to the global disease burden in adolescents. This study aims to highlight (1) salient context-specific factors that influence stress and coping among school-going adolescents across two urban sites in India; and (2) potential targets for preventing mental health difficulties. Focus group discussions were undertaken with a large sample of 191 school-going adolescent boys and girls aged 11–17 years (mean = 14 years), recruited from low- and middle-income communities in the predominantly urban states of Goa and Delhi. Framework analysis was used to identify themes related to causes of stress, stress reactions, impacts and coping strategies. Proximal social environments (home, school, peers and neighborhood) played a major role in causing stress in adolescents’ daily lives. Salient social stressors included academic pressure, difficulties in romantic relationships, negotiating parental and peer influences, and exposure to violence and other threats to personal safety. Additionally, girls highlighted stress from having to conform to normative gender roles and in managing the risk of sexual harassment, especially in Delhi. Anger, rumination and loss of concentration were commonly experienced stress reactions. Adolescents primarily used emotion-focused coping strategies (e.g., distraction, escape-avoidance, emotional support seeking). Problem-focused coping (e.g., instrumental support seeking) was less common. Examples of harmful coping (e.g., substance use) were also reported. The development of culturally sensitive and age-appropriate psychosocial interventions for distressed adolescents should attend to the challenges posed by home, school, peer and neighborhood environments. Enhancements to problem- and emotion-focused strategies are needed in order to bolster adolescents’ repertoire of adaptive coping skills in stressful social environments.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Preliminary analysis of validation evidence for two new scales assessing teachers’ confidence and worries related to delivering mental health content in the classroom
    BMC Psychol. (IF 0) Pub Date : 2019-06-10
    Brooke Linden; Heather Stuart

    While mental health challenges in the classroom have increased over the past several years, existing research suggests that many educators feel unprepared to broach the topics of mental health and mental illness with their students. This paper outlines the development and gathering of preliminary evidence of validity for two new scales designed to assess teachers’ confidence and worries related to delivering mental health content in the classroom. Content evidence was collected through the use of two methods: a focus group held with members of the Elementary Teachers’ Federation of Ontario, and a consensus survey conducted among a sample of educational experts recruited from an Ontario university. Internal structure evidence was derived from the initial intake survey of an evaluation of a new online guide designed to give elementary school teachers the tools and knowledge to develop lesson plans related to mental health. Internal consistency reliability of test scores was estimated with Cronbach’s alpha. Both scales loaded on a single dimension with all items loading strongly (factor loadings greater than .60). Cronbach’s alpha coefficients of .96 for scores on the Teacher Confidence Scale and .93 for scores on the What Worries Me Scale estimated strong internal consistency reliability. We identified two unidimensional scales measuring concerns educators may have about discussing the topic of mental health in a classroom setting. The Teacher Confidence Scale for Delivering Mental Health Content contains 12 items measuring educators’ confidence in delivering mental health related materials in the classroom. The What Worries Me Scale contains 11 items. These scales may be useful for evaluating programs, educational workshops, and other initiatives aimed at improving teachers’ abilities to provide mental health content in the classroom.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Playing a video game is more than mere procrastination
    BMC Psychol. (IF 0) Pub Date : 2019-06-13
    Kent Nordby; Ronny Andre Løkken; Gerit Pfuhl

    Procrastination is seen as a severe problem among young people, and many factors have been claimed to be associated with it, playing video games being one of them. One of the reasons why video games might be related to procrastination is their ability to offer instant gratification and feedback, while at the same time offer distractions from less tempting and rewarding tasks. It is not yet agreed on whether or not video game players are more prone towards procrastination and discounting of future rewards. Over 500 participants across two studies completed two surveys on video gaming habits, as well as a measurement of procrastination tendencies. In study 1 participants performed an experiential discounting task, while participants in study 2 performed the 5-trial adjusting delay discounting task, both tasks assessing preference for delayed larger rewards. In study 1, hours of videogaming was not significantly related to procrastination or the discount rate. In study 2, hours of videogaming was not strongly associated with procrastination and delay discounting either. However, when asked why they play, those answering to escape reality and to reduce stress had more problems of procrastination than those who play for entertainment, reward or social reasons. Overall, the association between procrastination and hours spent playing video games was weak but positive, r(513) = .122. Time spent enjoying and engaging in video gaming is done for various reasons, only for a few this is related to procrastination. By using only hypothetical payouts in the discounting tasks, the absence of a relationship between hours spent video gaming, procrastination and delayed gratification requires further investigation. However, playing video games is more than mere procrastination.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Mental health and mindfulness amongst Australian fire fighters
    BMC Psychol. (IF 0) Pub Date : 2019-06-14
    Isabelle Counson; Dominic Hosemans; Tara J. Lal; Brendan Mott; Samuel B. Harvey; Sadhbh Joyce

    While extensive research has highlighted the positive mental health outcomes associated with mindfulness, little work has examined how mindfulness may protect the mental health of first responders exposed to trauma. This is important as there is increasing evidence that mindfulness skills, if protective, can be taught to groups of at-risk workers. The purpose of the current research was to examine the potential role mindfulness may have in supporting the mental health of Australian fire fighters. The sample consisted of 114 professional fire fighters who completed demographic and job-related questions followed by measures of mindfulness (FMI-14), well-being (WHO-5), depression (HADS-D) and anxiety (HADS-A). Hierarchical multiple linear regressions were performed to determine whether levels of mindfulness were associated with anxiety, depression and wellbeing after accounting for age and number of years of fire service. High levels of mindfulness were associated with decreased depression (p ≤ .001) and anxiety (p ≤ .001) as well as increased psychological well-being (p ≤ .001). Measures of mindfulness were able to explain a substantial amount of the variability in well-being (26.8%), anxiety (23.6%) and depression (22.4%), regardless of age and years of fire service. The present study provides evidence for robust associations between dispositional mindfulness and mental health markers of depression, anxiety and well-being in Australian fire fighters recently exposed to trauma. Mindfulness is a psychological characteristic that may be able to be modified, although further research is required to substantiate these findings and to formally test mindfulness interventions. Such studies would allow greater insight into the underlying mechanisms through which mindfulness may exert its beneficial effects.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • User perspectives on a psychosocial blended support program for partners of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and progressive muscular atrophy: a qualitative study
    BMC Psychol. (IF 0) Pub Date : 2019-06-15
    Jessica de Wit; Sigrid C. J. M. Vervoort; Eefke van Eerden; Leonard H. van den Berg; Johanna M. A. Visser-Meily; Anita Beelen; Carin D. Schröder

    Partners are often the main caregivers in the care for patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and progressive muscular atrophy (PMA). Providing care during the progressive and fatal disease course of these patients is challenging and many caregivers experience feelings of distress. A blended psychosocial support program based on Acceptance and Commitment Therapy was developed to support partners of patients with ALS and PMA. The aim of this qualitative study is to gather insight into experiences with different components of the support program (program evaluation) and to discover what caregivers gained from following the program (mechanisms of impact). Individual in-depth interviews, about caregivers’ experiences with the support program were conducted with 23 caregivers of ALS/PMA patients enrolled in a randomized controlled trial designed to measure the effectiveness of the blended psychosocial support program. The program, performed under the guidance of a psychologist, consists of psychoeducation, psychological and mindfulness exercises, practical tips and information, and options for peer contact. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and analyzed thematically. The program evaluation showed that caregivers perceived each component of the program as beneficial but ambivalent reactions were expressed about the mindfulness exercises and peer contact functions. Caregivers expressed the need for a more personalized program with respect to the order and timing of the modules and wanted to continue the support program for a longer time. The main mechanism of impact of the program that caregivers reported was that they became more aware of their own situation. They further indicated that the program helped them to perceive control over the caregiving situation, to accept negative emotions and thoughts, to be there for their partner and feel acknowledged. The blended psychosocial support program for caregivers of patients with ALS/PMA is valued by caregivers for enhancing self-reflection on their challenging situation which stimulated them to make choices in line with their own needs and increased their feeling of control over caregiving. The different components of the program were overall appreciated by caregivers, but the mindfulness and peer support components should be further adapted to the needs of the caregivers. Dutch Trialregister NTR5734 , registered 28 March 2016.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Psychometric properties of the St. Elizabeth Youngstown hospital wellbeing inventory and non-burnout inventory for physicians and nurses
    BMC Psychol. (IF 0) Pub Date : 2019-06-17
    C. Michael Dunham; Amanda L. Burger; Barbara M. Hileman; Elisha A. Chance

    Physicians and nurses have substantial problems with wellbeing and burnout. We examined the reliability and construct validity of a wellbeing inventory (WBI) administered to some physicians and nurses working in St. Elizabeth Youngstown Hospital (SEYH). The SEYH-WBI, consisting of 4 positive affect (PA) items and 7 negative affect (NA) items developed from 5 validated surveys, was administered (n = 419). A non-burnout inventory (SEYH-NBI) consisting of 2 PA items and 3 NA items was derived from the SEYH-WBI. The Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS), a validated survey consisting of 10 PA items and 10 NA items, was conducted (n = 191). The Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI), a validated survey consisting of 3 domains (3 items each), was completed (n = 150). For the SEYH-WBI, Cronbach coefficients were 0.76 for PA items and 0.83 for NA items. The NA item loading on factor 1 was 0.55–0.84 and the PA item loading on factor 2 was 0.47–0.89. Confirmatory indices were as follows: root mean square residual, 0.07 and Bentler Comparative Fit Index, 0.92. For the SEYH-NBI, Cronbach coefficients were 0.76 for PA items and 0.79 for NA items. The NA item loading on factor 1 was 0.80–0.87 and the PA item loading on factor 2 was 0.89–0.90. Confirmatory indices were as follows: root mean square residual, 0.02; and Bentler Comparative Fit Index, 0.99. PANAS correlations were as follows: SEYH-WBI PA and PANAS PA scores, r = 0.9; p < 0.0001; SEYH-WBI NA and PANAS NA scores, r = 0.9; p < 0.0001; SEYH-NBI PA and PANAS PA scores, r = 0.8; p < 0.0001; and SEYH-NBI NA and PANAS NA scores, r = 0.7; p < 0.0001. Correlations for SEYH-NBI and MBI were as follows: total NBI and total MBI, r = − 0.6, p < 0.0001; NA and emotional exhaustion, r = 0.6, p < 0.0001; PA and personal accomplishment, r = 0.3, p = 0.0003; and NA and depersonalization, r = 0.3, p = 0.0008. Validation assessments indicate that the SEYH-WBI and SEYH-NBI have acceptable psychometric performance. Similar findings in a larger cohort would be more compelling.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Offering mental health first aid to a person with depression: a Delphi study to re-develop the guidelines published in 2008
    BMC Psychol. (IF 0) Pub Date : 2019-06-21
    Kathy S. Bond; Fairlie A. Cottrill; Fiona L. Blee; Claire M. Kelly; Betty A. Kitchener; Anthony F. Jorm

    Depressive disorder is ranked as the largest contributor to non-fatal health burden. However, with prompt treatment, outcomes can improve. Family and friends are well placed to recognise the signs of depression and encourage early help seeking. Guidelines about how members of the public can provide mental health first aid to someone who is experiencing depression were developed in 2008. A Delphi study was conducted to re-develop these guidelines to ensure they are current and reflect best practice. A survey was developed using the 2008 depression mental health first aid guidelines and a systematic search of grey and academic literature. The questionnaire contained items about providing mental health first aid to a person with depression. These items were rated by two international expert panels – a lived experience panel (consumers and carers) and a professional panel. Three hundred and fifty-two items were rated by 53 experts (36 with lived experience and 17 professionals) according to whether they should be included in the revised guidelines. There were 183 items that met the criteria to be included in the updated guidelines. This re-development has added detail to the previous version of the guidelines, giving more guidance on the role of the first aider and allowing for a more nuanced approach to providing first aid to someone with depression. These guidelines are available to the public and will be used to update the Mental Health First Aid courses.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • “It all needs to be a full jigsaw, not just bits”: exploration of healthcare professionals’ beliefs towards supported self-management for long-term conditions
    BMC Psychol. (IF 0) Pub Date : 2019-06-24
    Niall Anderson; Gozde Ozakinci

    Long-Term Conditions are physical health issues which profoundly impact physical and psychological outcomes and have reached epidemic worldwide levels. An increasing evidence-base has developed for utilizing Supported Self-Management to ensure Health, Social Care & Voluntary staff are knowledgeable, skilled, and experienced to enable patients to have the confidence and capability to self-manage their conditions. However, despite Health Psychology theories underpinning chronic care models demonstrating beliefs are crucially associated with intention and behaviour, staff beliefs towards Supported Self-Management have received little attention. Therefore, the study aimed to explore healthcare professionals’ beliefs towards Supported Self-Management for Long-Term Conditions using the Theory of Planned Behaviour. A mixed-methods approach was conducted within a single UK local government authority region in 2 phases: (1) Qualitative focus group of existing Supported Self-Management project staff (N = 6); (2) Quantitative online questionnaire of general Long-Term Conditions staff (N = 58). (1) Eighty two utterances over 20 theme sub-codes demonstrated beliefs that Supported Self-Management improves healthcare outcomes, but requires enhancements to patient and senior stakeholder buy-in, healthcare culture-specific tailoring, and organizational policy and resources; (2) Mean scores indicated moderate-strength beliefs that Supported Self-Management achieves positive healthcare outcomes, but weak-strength intentions to implement Supported Self-Management and beliefs it is socially normative and perceived control over implementing it. Crucially, regression analyses demonstrated intentions to implement Supported Self-Management were only associated with beliefs that important others supported it and perceived control over, or by whether it was socially encouraged. Healthcare professionals demonstrated positive attitudes towards Supported Self-Management improving healthcare outcomes. However, intentions towards implementing this approach were low with staff only slightly believing important others (including patients and clinicians) supported it and that they had control over using it. Future Supported Self-Management projects should seek to enhance intention (and consequently behaviour) through targeting beliefs that important others do indeed actually support this approach and that staff have control over implementing it, as well as enhancing social encouragement.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Exploring the effect of the ‘Growing Together’ parenting education kit on early parenting - study protocol for a cluster randomised controlled trial
    BMC Psychol. (IF 0) Pub Date : 2019-06-24
    Touran Shafiei; Helen L. McLachlan; Jan M. Nicholson; Sarah Hay; Michelle Newton; Heather Grimes; Fiona McLardie-Hore; Della A. Forster

    Significant gaps exist in education for prospective and new parents, especially for some of the most vulnerable families. Prospective parents would like more information during pregnancy to prepare them for parenting, and need access to trusted and quality information. The Royal Women’s Hospital (the Women’s) in Melbourne, Australia, a large tertiary referral maternity hospital, developed a parenting education kit known as ‘Growing Together’. The kit, designed to guide prospective and new parents from conception until 1 year after birth, includes three components: an A4 sized book, a specifically designed ‘App’ and a children’s story book. We aim to evaluate the impact of the kit on a range of outcomes. A two-arm cluster randomised controlled trial will be used. Antenatal clinic days will be randomised to either the intervention or standard care arms. Women in the intervention arm receive the kit at their antenatal booking visit. Women in the standard care arm receive the standard information resources at the Women’s. Analyses will be by intention to treat. Inclusion criteria: primiparous women with adequate English-speaking ability and ≤ 30 weeks’ gestation at first pregnancy booking appointment. The primary outcome of the study is the ‘experience of motherhood questionnaire’ (EMQ), a 20 item validated self-report measure, ranging from 0 to 80, with lower scores indicating better maternal health and wellbeing. To detect a 10% difference in new mothers scoring ≤40 between women who have received the kit (60%) and those who have not (50%), would require 408 per group (total of 816 women) with 95% confidence and 80% power. Allowing for loss to follow up, we aim to recruit 1000 mothers. Secondary outcomes include parents’ views and experiences of their care and of the kit during pregnancy and after the birth, parental attachment, knowledge, confidence, wellbeing and health-seeking behaviour; and emotional, developmental and physical health of the infant. Survey data will be collected from mothers at 2, 6 and 12 months postpartum and partners at 6 months. This study will provide much needed high-level evidence on the impact of a comprehensive education resource for new parents. ANZCTRN12615000270516 - Retrospectively registered (23/03/2015); trial started on 16 March 2015.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Reality shock in radiography: fact or fiction? Findings from a phenomenological study in Durban, South Africa
    BMC Psychol. (IF 0) Pub Date : 2019-06-25
    Tawanda Gilbert Alfred Chipere; Pauline Busisiwe Nkosi

    Globally, the phenomenon of reality shock is a major contributor to the attrition of healthcare professionals. Reality shock negatively impacts on initial workplace transition, productivity, and ultimately, employee retention, hence it is important to ascertain its causative factors so that measures can be taken to mitigate its effects. Relative to other health professions, the field of radiography has been slow in detailing the occurrence of reality shock, and attrition is a major problem affecting the profession. In South Africa, a dearth of data exists pertaining to the potential presence of reality shock amongst newly-graduated radiographers as they transition to the workplace. A phenomenological approach was used. Seven newly-graduated radiographers provided their perceptions of their initial workplace experiences. In-depth, one-on-one, face to face interviews were conducted, audio recorded, and transcribed verbatim before interpretive phenomenological analysis was conducted on the obtained data. Three main themes emerged relating to increased responsibility, being undermined, and feeling overwhelmed. Respondents felt pressurized by their increased responsibilities when they commenced employment. They also felt undermined by their more experienced colleagues, and they were overwhelmed by the new work routine, which resulted in reality shock. Curricula at institutions of higher education need to include courses which educate student radiographers on what to expect within the workplace as autonomous practitioners. Heads of imaging departments must create structured induction programs for new employees for adequate orientation and mentoring to reduce reality shock.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • The extended nervous system: affect regulation, somatic and social change processes associated with mindful parenting
    BMC Psychol. (IF 0) Pub Date : 2019-06-27
    Kishani Townshend; Nerina Jane Caltabiano

    A theoretical model of mindful parenting has the potential to succinctly summarise its various change processes. The primary aim of this study was to investigate some of the change processes associated with mindful parenting, namely, the affect regulation, somatic and social change processes. A secondary aim was to verify whether clinical insights are consistent with the change processes identified in a systematic review of mindful parenting. Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) was used to analyse semi-structured interviews with four Australian clinicians delivering Mindful Parenting (MP) programs. The clinicians had extensive personal meditation practice. This qualitative study is part of a mixed methods study, which commenced with a quantitative systematic review. Six higher-order themes identified as change processes included reflective functioning, attachment, cognitive, affective, somatic and social change processes. The anchor is a new theoretical model summarising the change processes associated with mindful parenting. The mother portrayed as the extended nervous system for the infant is a neologism that also has not been previously mentioned in the literature. Given the limitations with the small sample and potential bias with interpretation, the anchor is a starting point to developing a theoretical model of mindful parenting. Future research with larger sample sizes and objective measures is needed to confirm whether the anchor is a reasonable summary of the change processes.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Anxious or empowered? A cross-sectional study exploring how wearable activity trackers make their owners feel
    BMC Psychol. (IF 0) Pub Date : 2019-07-03
    Jillian Ryan; Sarah Edney; Carol Maher

    The market for wearable activity trackers has grown prolifically in recent years, with increasing numbers of consumers using them to track, measure, and ideally improve their health and wellbeing. Empirical evidence tends to support wearables as valid, reliable, and effective health behaviour change tools, however little research has been conducted to understand experiential aspects of the devices, particularly thier effects on users’ psychological wellbeing and affect. This study addresses this literature gap by exploring wearable users’ affective responses to their devices and how these relate to personality traits and individual differences. Data were collected from adult wearable users (N = 237) via an online survey that assessed participant demographic characteristics, personality trait profiles, and experiences of negative (guilt, self-consciousness, & anxiety) and positive affect (empowerment, motivation, & accountability) related to their wearable both during wear, and when unable to wear (e.g. if the battery ran flat). Outcomes were analysed descriptively and general linear models used to examine associations between affect scores with personality traits and individual differences. Both current and previous wearable users experience more positive than negative affect related to their device whilst they were wearing it (p = <.001). When prevented from wearing their device, however, this pattern was reversed with most participants reporting stronger negative than positive affect (p = <.001). These patterns were generally consistent across demographic sub-groups and personality trait profiles, although conscientiousness and openness to experience were independently and positively associated with affect during wear (p = .001). Results suggest that using a wearable is a positive experience for users with little risk of negative psychological consequences. Whilst experiences of negative affect were uncommon, individuals low in conscientiousness or openness to experience are at greater risk of negative affect and all users may experience negative affect such as anxiety or frustration when prevented from wearing their device. Findings contribute to mounting evidence of wearables’ safety and appeal as health behaviour tools and highlight the importance of examining psychological and experiential aspects of activity tracking.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Guideline use among different healthcare professionals in diagnosing attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in Dutch children; who cares?
    BMC Psychol. (IF 0) Pub Date : 2019-07-03
    Birgit Levelink; Lonneke Walraven; Edward Dompeling; Frans J. M. Feron; Dorothea M. C. B. van Zeben-van der Aa

    Current data about Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Deficiency (ADHD) guideline use in the Netherlands are absent. This study analysed ADHD guideline use among different healthcare workers, and the use of key elements from these guidelines to diagnose ADHD. A survey assessing ADHD guideline use was distributed throughout the Netherlands to various health care professionals. Only professionals involved during the diagnostic process were included. Response rate among GPs was low (111/1450), but high among other health care professionals (251/287). A total of 362 surveys were analysed, 186 responders (51%) were involved during the diagnostic process. Overall guideline use was 64.5%; the national multidisciplinary guideline or a guideline made by a professional’s own institution were most used. Psychiatrists, psychologists and paediatricians reported compliance with key elements of the guidelines such as gathering information from a third party (> 90%) and carrying out a developmental history (> 88%). Use of a standardized interview (< 52% often use) was low. Only paediatricians performed a physical examination regularly (88%). Despite low general use of guidelines, psychiatrists, psychologists and paediatricians use similar key elements of ADHD guidelines. This study provides opportunities to improve care through increasing familiarity with ADHD guidelines and the use of standardized interviews.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • The link between mental health and safe drinking water behaviors in a vulnerable population in rural Malawi
    BMC Psychol. (IF 0) Pub Date : 2019-07-08
    Jurgita Slekiene; Hans-Joachim Mosler

    Mental disorders, particularly depression and post-traumatic stress disorder, are common long-term psychological outcomes in emergency contexts arising from conflicts, natural disasters, and other challenging environmental conditions. In emergencies, people suffer not only from the lack of external resources such as drinking water and food but also from poor mental health. Mental disorders can substantially impair daily activities in vulnerable individuals. However, water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) behaviors are daily activities that require effort, time, and strong internal motivation. Therefore, questions arise: whether there is a relationship between mental health and safe water behaviors, and if so, whether the motivational drivers of these behaviors are affected by mental health. Our cross-sectional study conducted face-to-face interviews with 638 households in rural Malawi. We used a quantitative questionnaire based on the risks, attitudes, norms, abilities, and self-regulation (RANAS) approach to measure motivational psychosocial factors. Mental health was assessed using the validated Chichewa version of the Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20). Results. Almost a third of the respondents reported poor mental health. We found significant negative association between mental health and self-reported safe water collection (p = .01, r = −.104) but not between safe water transportation and storage behavior. The moderation analysis revealed significant interaction effects of mental health with some psychosocial factors and therefore on WASH behaviors. Poor mental health changed the influence of three psychosocial factors—perceived others’ behavior, commitment, and remembering—on safe drinking water collection behavior. The influence on water transportation and storage behavior of the perceived severity of contracting a disease, the belief that transporting and storing water requires substantial effort, and others’ approval depended on the mental health condition of the respondent. These results imply that populations with a significant proportion of individuals with poor mental health will benefit from interventions to mitigate mental health before or parallel to behavioral change interventions for WASH. Specific population-level interventions have been shown to have a positive effect on mental well-being, and they have been successfully applied at scale. This research is especially relevant in emergency contexts, as it indicates that mental health measures before any WASH interventions will make them more effective.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Too much time? Time use and fertility-specific quality of life among men and women seeking specialty care for infertility
    BMC Psychol. (IF 0) Pub Date : 2019-07-09
    Rachel Cusatis; Nicole Fergestrom; Alexandra Cooper; Kate D. Schoyer; Abbey Kruper; Jay Sandlow; Estil Strawn; Kathryn E. Flynn

    There are known gender differences in the impacts infertility has on quality of life and well-being. Less is known about how infertile couples spend time on fertility-related tasks and associations with quality of life. The purpose of this study is to evaluate whether time spent on tasks related to family-building decision-making (including research, reflection, discussions with partner, discussions with others, and logistics) were associated with fertility-specific quality of life or anxiety among new patients. Couples or individuals (N = 156) with upcoming initial consultations with a reproductive specialist completed the Fertility Quality of Life (FertiQoL) tool, which produces a Core (total) score and four subscales: Emotional, Relational, Social, and Mind-Body. We developed questions to measure time spent in the previous 24 h on tasks related to family-building. We tested for differences by gender in time use (McNemar’s Test) and used ordinary least squares regression to analyze the relationship between time use and FertiQoL scores. In the week before a new consultation, a higher percentage of women reported time spent in the past 24 h in research, reflecting, discussion with others, and logistics compared to male partners (all p < 0.05). In adjusted models, more time spent reflecting was associated with worse FertiQoL scores for both men and women, as well as with higher anxiety for men. Time spent in discussion with others was associated with higher anxiety for women but better Social FertiQoL scores for men. Couples seeking infertility consultation with a specialist reported spending time on tasks related to family-building before the initial visit. There were gender differences in the amount of time spent on these tasks, and time was associated with fertility-specific quality of life and anxiety.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • A new conception and subsequent taxonomy of clinical psychological problems
    BMC Psychol. (IF 0) Pub Date : 2019-07-10
    Gary M. Bakker

    A taxonomy of the objects of study, theory, assessment, and intervention is critical to the development of all clinical sciences. Clinical psychology has been conceptually and administratively dominated by the taxonomy of an adjacent discipline – psychiatry’s Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM). Many have called for a ‘paradigm shift’ away from a medical nosology of diseases toward clinical psychology’s own taxonomy of clinical psychological problems (CPPs), without being able to specify what is to be listed and classified. An examination of DSM’s problems for clinical psychology, especially its lack of clinical utility, and a search for the essence of CPPs in what clinical psychologists actually do, leads to the proposal that: The critical psychological-level phenomenon underlying CPPs is the occurrence of ‘problem-maintaining circles’ (PMCs) of causally related cognitions, emotions, behaviours, and/or stimuli. This concept provides an empirically-derived, theory-based, treatment-relevant, categorical, essentialist, parsimonious, and nonstigmatizing definition of CPPs. It distinguishes psychological problems in which PMCs have not (yet?) formed, and which may respond to ‘counseling’, clinical psychological problems in which active PMCs require clinical intervention, and psychopathological problems which are unlikely to be ‘cured’ by PMC-breaking alone. A subsequent classification and coding system of PMCs is proposed, and expected benefits to research, communication, and the quality of case formulation in clinical psychology are described, reliant upon a development effort of some meaningful fraction of that which has been devoted to the DSM.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Association among dispositional mindfulness, self-compassion, and leukocyte telomere length in Chinese adults
    BMC Psychol. (IF 0) Pub Date : 2019-07-22
    Shian-Ling Keng; Onn Siong Yim; Poh San Lai; Soo Hong Chew; Richard P. Ebstein

    Whereas meditation training has been purported to support slower cellular aging, little work has explored the association among different facets of dispositional mindfulness, self-compassion, and cellular aging. The present study aimed to examine the relationship between leukocyte telomere length (LTL), an index of cellular aging, dispositional mindfulness, and self-compassion in a sample of Singaporean Chinese adults. One hundred and fifty-eight Chinese adults (mean age = 27.24 years; 63.3% female) were recruited from the community and completed self-report measures assessing dispositional mindfulness, self-compassion, and psychological symptoms, as well as provided blood samples for analyses of LTL. Multiple regression analyses were conducted to examine the role of trait mindfulness and self-compassion in predicting LTL, taking into consideration potential covariates such as chronological age and psychological symptoms. Results showed that nonreactivity, one of the five facets of dispositional mindfulness, was significantly associated with LTL, after controlling for chronological age. There was also a trend for dispositional mindfulness, self-compassion, and their selected facets (i.e., nonjudging, common humanity, and de-identification) to each be associated with longer LTL. Overall, the findings provide preliminary support for the association among aspects of dispositional mindfulness, self-compassion, and aging. In particular, individuals high on nonreactivity experience slower aging at the cellular level, likely through engaging in more adaptive coping mechanisms.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • The relationship between physical activity levels and symptoms of depression, anxiety and stress in individuals with alopecia Areata
    BMC Psychol. (IF 0) Pub Date : 2019-07-23
    Y. Rajoo; J. Wong; G. Cooper; I. S. Raj; D. J. Castle; A. H. Chong; J. Green; G. A. Kennedy

    Alopecia Areata (AA) is an autoimmune condition that is characterised by non-scarring hair loss. Its aesthetic repercussions can lead to profound changes in psychological well-being. Although physical activity (PA) has been associated with better mental health outcomes in diverse populations, the association in individuals with AA has not been established. The aim of this study was to examine the associations between PA and mental health outcomes in individuals with AA to inform intervention strategies for this specific population. A cross-sectional study was conducted among individuals who were diagnosed with AA. A total of 83 respondents aged (40.95 ± 13.24 years) completed a self-report questionnaire consisting of International Physical Activity Questionnaire-Short Form (IPAQ-SF) and the Depression and Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS-21). Three-way contingency Chi-square analyses were used to determine the associations between PA, mental health outcomes and participants with hair loss of more than 50% on the scalp. 81.9% of the participants did not meet PA guidelines. Participants with hair loss of more than 50% on the scalp, and who did not meet PA guidelines, were significantly more likely to experience symptoms of severe depression (p = .003), moderate anxiety (p = .04) and mild stress (p = .003) than those who met guidelines Findings suggest that increased PA participation in AA individuals with severe hair loss is associated with improved mental health status. Intervention efforts for this specific population should consider barriers and enablers to PA participation as they face challenges that differ from the general population.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Association between fatigue, motivational measures (BIS/BAS) and semi-structured psychosocial interview in hemodialytic treatment
    BMC Psychol. (IF 0) Pub Date : 2019-07-23
    Michela Balconi; Laura Angioletti; Daniela De Filippis; Maurizio Bossola

    Nowadays there is a growing interest in exploring causes of fatigue symptoms and the possible linked aspects in patients with Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) receiving hemodialysis (HD) treatment. Inflammatory processes were demonstrated to influence motivational systems functioning in chronic conditions. However, there is a lack of connection between quantitative motivational systems measure and patients self-report motivational and fatigue issue. Thus, the aim of this study was to identify an association between HD patients reward mechanisms, fatigue severity and psychosocial variables emerging from semi-structured interviews. Interviews were held for a sample of ninety-four patients (54 males, 40 females; Mage = 62.98 ± 17.94; dialytic mean age in months = 76.55 ± 84.89) receiving chronic HD treatment and consequently analyzed by means of quantitative and qualitative analysis. Behavioral motivation systems reflecting inhibition/approach tendency to rewards were measured by Behavioral Inhibition/Activation System (BIS/BAS) scale and the fatigue severity experienced by HD patients was measured with the Fatigue Severity Scale. Scale results were correlated to psychosocial variables and topics derived from the semi-structured interviews. Findings highlight the presence of two effects: one related to the Behavioral Activation System (BAS) as a protective factor against the HD treatment pervasive consequences; the other one deals with the self-reported levels of fatigue that seemed to significantly interfere with patients’ daily life, as a function of gender. Such results encourage the use of a mixed method approach to understand the complexity of the subjective experience of patients’ facing chronic disease and treatments.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Trends in childhood and adolescent internalizing symptoms: results from Swedish population based twin cohorts
    BMC Psychol. (IF 0) Pub Date : 2019-08-02
    Natalie Durbeej; Karolina Sörman; Eva Norén Selinus; Sebastian Lundström; Paul Lichtenstein; Clara Hellner; Linda Halldner

    Previous research has noted trends of increasing internalizing problems (e.g., symptoms of depression and anxiety), particularly amongst adolescent girls. Cross-cohort comparisons using identical assessments of both anxiety and depression in youth are lacking, however. In this large twin study, we examined trends in internalizing symptoms in samples of 9 year old children and 15 year old adolescents, gathered from successive birth cohorts from 1998 to 2008 (age 9) and 1994–2001 (age 15). Assessments at age 9 were parent-rated, and at age 15 self- and parent-rated. We examined (i) the relation between birth cohorts and internalizing symptoms using linear regressions, and (ii) whether percentages of participants exceeding scale cut-off scores changed over time, using Cochrane Armitage Trend Tests. Among 9 year old children, a significantly increasing percentage of participants (both boys and girls) had scores above cut-off on anxiety symptoms, but not on depressive symptoms. At age 15, a significantly increasing percentage of participants (both boys and girls) had scores above cut-off particularly on self-reported internalizing symptoms. On parent-reported internalizing symptoms, only girls demonstrated a corresponding trend. In line with previous studies, we found small changes over sequential birth cohorts in frequencies of depression and anxiety symptoms in children. Further, these changes were not exclusive to girls.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Psychometric properties of the self-report version of the strengths and difficulties questionnaire in the Ecuadorian context: an evaluation of four models
    BMC Psychol. (IF 0) Pub Date : 2019-08-06
    Paúl Arias-Medina

    This study evaluates the psychometric properties of four models of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) in a sample of 1470 children and adolescents from Biblián, Ecuador. The instrument has been used by researchers and students. However, there are not reports that show that the instrument is valid or reliable in the Ecuadorian context. Reliability was evaluated through Cronbach’s Alpha, McDonald’s Omega, Intra-class Correlations and Greatest Lower Bound (GLB). Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) and Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) with polychoric correlation matrix and Diagonally Weighted Least Square (DWLS) estimator is performed in each model. Due to possible readability problems, CFA was performed in three age groups. Measurement invariance analysis across biological sex and two groups of age is carried out. CFA and reliability analysis revealed poor construct validity of the original version of SDQ. Three additional factor structures were tested. A version that includes a prosocial subscale, and ҅ internalizing ҆ subscale and an ҅ externalizing ҆ subscale has the best yet insufficient construct validity properties among the four models (CFI = .858, TLI = .844, RMSEA = .055, WRMR = 1.588). Cronbach’s Alpha for the subscales ranged from .44 to .71, McDonald’s Omega from .22 to .606, GLB from .612 to .693, and ICC from .385 to .63. Measurement invariance analysis found no evidence of invariance across sex groups and evidence of partial invariance across age groups. The four tested models have questionable psychometric properties. Consequently, the use of the SDQ in the Ecuadorian context is not advisable. The three-factor first-order model of the SDQ that shows the best validity and reliability properties does not have undisputed psychometric properties. Comparisons across groups of age and/or sex using the SDQ should not be made.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Does the discrepancy between implicit and explicit attitudes moderate the relationships between explicit attitude and (intention to) being physically active?
    BMC Psychol. (IF 0) Pub Date : 2019-08-07
    Carolin Muschalik; Iman Elfeddali; Math J. J. M. Candel; Rik Crutzen; Hein de Vries

    Explicit attitudes as well as implicit attitudes have been shown to be associated with physical activity (PA). These two types of attitudes can, however, be discrepant towards the same object or behavior. This study investigated whether there is a discrepancy between explicit and implicit attitudes (IED) regarding physical activity (PA), and whether IED moderates the relationship between explicit attitude and PA, and explicit attitude and PA intention. At baseline (T0) and one (T1) and three months (T2) thereafter, students’ (N = 340) PA levels, intention, explicit attitudes, further PA determinants, e.g. self-efficacy, were assessed. Implicit attitudes towards PA were assessed by means of a tailored Single-Category Implicit Association task. IED was present but weak. Multiple hierarchical regressions revealed that IED did not moderate the relationship between explicit attitudes and PA or intention. Yet, IED was negatively associated with T0-PA and T1-PA. The study revealed the important insight that IED is detrimental for PA. Interventions targeting attitudes to increase PA, should ensure that implicit and explicit attitudes regarding PA are concordant.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Cognitive behavioral therapy for postpartum panic disorder: a case series
    BMC Psychol. (IF 0) Pub Date : 2019-08-22
    Kazuki Matsumoto; Koichi Sato; Sayo Hamatani; Yukihiko Shirayama; Eiji Shimizu

    Clinical anxiety is common during the perinatal period, and anxiety symptoms often persist after childbirth. Ten to 30 % of perinatal women are diagnosed with panic disorder (PD)—far more than the 1.5–3% rate among the general population. Although cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) has been determined to be an effective treatment for PD, few studies have been conducted on CBT effectiveness in treating postpartum PD and, to the best of the knowledge of the present authors, no research has been conducted on postpartum PD among Japanese women. In this manuscript, we report on our administration of CBT to three postpartum patients with PD, detailing the improvement in their symptoms. All patients in this study were married, in their thirties, and diagnosed using the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview as having PD with agoraphobia. The Panic Disorder Severity Scale (PDSS) was used to evaluate patients’ panic symptoms and their severity. All patients received a total of 16 weekly 50-min sessions of CBT, and all completed the treatment. All patients were exceedingly preoccupied with the perception that a “mother must protect her child,” which reinforced the fear that “the continuation of their perinatal symptoms would prevent them from rearing their children”. After treatment, all participants’ panic symptoms were found to have decreased according to the PDSS, and two no longer met clinical criteria: Chihiro’s score changed from 13 to 3, Beth’s PDSS score at baseline from 22 to 6, and Tammy’s score changed from 7 to 1. CBT provides a therapeutic effect and is a feasible method for treating postpartum PD. It is important that therapists prescribe tasks that patients can perform collaboratively with their children.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Empirical research in clinical supervision: a systematic review and suggestions for future studies
    BMC Psychol. (IF 0) Pub Date : 2019-08-22
    Franziska Kühne; Jana Maas; Sophia Wiesenthal; Florian Weck

    Although clinical supervision is considered to be a major component of the development and maintenance of psychotherapeutic competencies, and despite an increase in supervision research, the empirical evidence on the topic remains sparse. Because most previous reviews lack methodological rigor, we aimed to review the status and quality of the empirical literature on clinical supervision, and to provide suggestions for future research. MEDLINE, PsycInfo and the Web of Science Core Collection were searched and the review was conducted according to current guidelines. From the review results, we derived suggestions for future research on clinical supervision. The systematic literature search identified 19 publications from 15 empirical studies. Taking into account the review results, the following suggestions for further research emerged: Supervision research would benefit from proper descriptions of how studies are conducted according to current guidelines, more methodologically rigorous empirical studies, the investigation of active supervision interventions, from taking diverse outcome domains into account, and from investigating supervision from a meta-theoretical perspective. In all, the systematic review supported the notion that supervision research often lags behind psychotherapy research in general. Still, the results offer detailed starting points for further supervision research. PROSPERO; CRD42017072606 , registered on June 20, 2017.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Expectation of reward differentially modulates executive inhibition
    BMC Psychol. (IF 0) Pub Date : 2019-08-23
    Paula M. Herrera; Alberto Vélez Van Meerbeke; Mario Speranza; Claudia López Cabra; Mauricio Bonilla; Michaël Canu; Tristan A. Bekinschtein

    Inhibitory control, a key modulatory component of cognition guiding strategy and behaviour, can be affected by diverse contingencies. We explore here the effect of expectation of reward over behavioural adjustment in a Stop Signal Task modulated by reward. We hypothesize that cognitive control is modulated by different expectation of the reward. Participants were allocated to two groups differing in their degree of knowledge in what to expect from rewards. Expected Specific Reward participants (N = 21) were informed of the different monetary feedbacks they would receive after each successful inhibition. Unexpected Reward participants (N = 24) were only told that they would receive monetary reward after correct inhibitory trials, but not the amounts or differences. Our results confirmed previous observations demonstrating a “kick-start effect” where a high reward feedback at the beginning of the task increases response inhibition. The Expected Specific Reward condition seems also to improve inhibitory control -as measured by the stop signal reaction time (SSRT)-, compared to the Unexpected Reward group. Knowledge of reward magnitudes seems to play a role in cognitive control irrespective of feedback magnitude. The manipulation of reward expectation appears to trigger different strategies for cognitive control, inducing a bottom-up effect of external cues, or a top-down effect given by the anticipation of incoming rewards. This is an early exploration to unearth possible higher order modulators - expectation and motivation- of cognitive control. This approach aims to gain insight into diverse psychopathological conditions related to impulsivity and altered reward systems such as Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder (ADHD), personality disorders, substance abuse, pathological gambling and cognitive aspects of Parkinson Disease.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Less efficient detection of positive facial expressions in parents at risk of engaging in child physical abuse
    BMC Psychol. (IF 0) Pub Date : 2019-08-27
    Koji Shimada; Ryoko Kasaba; Akiko Yao; Akemi Tomoda

    Parental physical punishment (e.g., spanking) of children can gradually escalate into child physical abuse (CPA). According to social-information processing (SIP) models of aggressive behaviors, distorted social cognitive mechanisms can increase the risk of maladaptive parenting behaviors by changing how parents detect, recognize, and act on information from their social environments. In this study, we aimed to identify differences between mothers with a low and high risk of CPA regarding how quickly they detect positive facial expressions. Based on their use of spanking to discipline children, 52 mothers were assigned to a low- (n = 39) or high-CPA-risk group (n = 13). A single-target facial emotional search (face-in-the-crowd) task was used, which required participants to search through an array of faces to determine whether a target emotional face was present in a crowd of non-target neutral faces. Search efficiency index was computed by subtracting the search time for target-present trials from that for target-absent trials. The high-CPA-risk group searched significantly less efficiently for the happy, but not sad, faces, than did the low-CPA-risk group; meanwhile, self-reported emotional ratings (i.e., valence and arousal) of the faces did not differ between the groups. Consistent with the SIP models, our findings suggest that low- and high-CPA-risk mothers differ in how they rapidly detect positive facial expressions, but not in how they explicitly evaluate them. On a CPA-risk continuum, less efficient detection of positive facial expressions in the initial processes of the SIP system may begin to occur in the physical-discipline stage, and decrease the likelihood of positive interpersonal experiences, consequently leading to an increased risk of CPA.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Gender differences among Indigenous Canadians experiencing homelessness and mental illness
    BMC Psychol. (IF 0) Pub Date : 2019-08-28
    Brittany Bingham; Akm Moniruzzaman; Michelle Patterson; Jitinder Sareen; Jino Distasio; John O’Neil; Julian M. Somers

    Indigenous people are over represented among homeless populations worldwide and the prevalence of Indigenous homelessness appears to be increasing in Canadian cities. Violence against Indigenous women in Canada has been widely publicized but has not informed the planning of housing interventions. Despite historical policies leading to disenfranchisement of Indigenous rights in gender-specific ways, little is known about contemporary differences in need between homeless Indigenous men and women. This study investigated mental health, substance use and service use among Indigenous people who met criteria for homelessness and mental illness, and hypothesized that, compared to men, women would have significantly higher rates of trauma, suicidality, substance dependence, and experiences of violence. This study was conducted using baseline (pre-randomization) data from a multi-site trial. Inclusion in the current analyses was restricted to participants who self-reported Indigenous ethnicity, and combined eligible participants from Vancouver, BC and Winnipeg, MB. Logistic regression analyses were used to model the independent associations between gender and outcome variables. In multivariable regression models among Indigenous participants (n = 439), female gender was predictive of meeting criteria for PTSD, multiple mental disorders, current high suicidality and current substance dependence. Female gender was also significantly associated with reported physical (AOR: 1.52, 95% CI = 1.10–2.23) and sexual (AOR: 6.31, 95% CI = 2.78–14.31) violence. Our analyses of Indigenous men and women who are homeless illustrate the distinct legacy of colonization on the experiences of Indigenous women. Our findings are consistent with the widely documented violence against Indigenous women in Canada. Housing policies and services are urgently needed that take Indigenous historical contexts, trauma and gender into account. This trial has been registered with the International Standard Randomized Control Trial Number Register and assigned ISRCTN42520374 ; ISRCTN57595077 ; ISRCTN66721740 .

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Psychometric properties of a Korean version of the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) in a military sample
    BMC Psychol. (IF 0) Pub Date : 2019-08-30
    Sung Yong Park; Kimberly F. Colvin

    Perceived stress reflects a person’s feeling of how much stress the individual is under at a given time. The Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) is a popular instrument measuring the extent to which individuals perceive situations in their life as excessive relative to the ability to cope. Based on a literature review, however, several issues related to the scale remain: (a) the dimensionality is not established, (b) little information about the individual items exists, and (c) much research is based on university student samples. To address these, this study evaluated the psychometric properties of the Korean version of the Perceived Stress Scale (KPSS) using a military sample. This study was conducted in South Korea with 373 military personnel, aged 19–30 years. Both classical test theory (CTT) and the Rasch rating scale model were used to examine the psychometric properties of the KPSS, including factor structure, concurrent validity, reliability, and item analyses. Internal consistency reliability for the overall and negative/positive perception subscales was.85, .85 and .86, respectively. Based on Rasch reliability, person and item reliability were .82 and .98, respectively. Person and item separation were 2.13 and 7.19, respectively. Concurrent validity was established, with significantly positive association with the measures of depression and negative association with the measure of life satisfaction. Findings from the CFA suggested that a bifactor model with two group factors was the best fit to the observed data. The RSM showed that all but one item had acceptable infit and outfit statistics, and item difficulty ranged from −.73 to 1.22. Besides, the RSM showed positive and moderate inter-item correlations ranging from .42 to .75. The results provided evidence that a 10-item Korean version of the Perceived Stress Scale was a reliable and valid scale to measure perceived stress in military samples.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • A randomized controlled trial to examine the effect of two teaching methods on preschool children’s language and communication, executive functions, socioemotional comprehension, and early math skills
    BMC Psychol. (IF 0) Pub Date : 2019-09-05
    Tove Gerholm; Petter Kallioinen; Signe Tonér; Sofia Frankenberg; Susanne Kjällander; Anna Palmer; Hillevi Lenz-Taguchi

    During the preschool years, children’s development of skills like language and communication, executive functions, and socioemotional comprehension undergo dramatic development. Still, our knowledge of how these skills are enhanced is limited. The preschool contexts constitute a well-suited arena for investigating these skills and hold the potential for giving children an equal opportunity preparing for the school years to come. The present study compared two pedagogical methods in the Swedish preschool context as to their effect on language and communication, executive functions, socioemotional comprehension, and early math. The study targeted children in the age span four-to-six-year-old, with an additional focus on these children’s backgrounds in terms of socioeconomic status, age, gender, number of languages, time spent at preschool, and preschool start. An additional goal of the study was to add to prior research by aiming at disentangling the relationship between the investigated variables. The study constitutes a randomized controlled trial including 18 preschools and 29 preschool units, with a total of 431 children, and 98 teachers. The interventions lasted for 6 weeks, preceded by pre-testing and followed by post-testing of the children. Randomization was conducted on the level of preschool unit, to either of the two interventions or to control. The interventions consisted of a socioemotional and material learning paradigm (SEMLA) and a digitally implemented attention and math training paradigm (DIL). The preschools were further evaluated with ECERS-3. The main analysis was a series of univariate mixed regression models, where the nested structure of individuals, preschool units and preschools were modeled using random variables. The result of the intervention shows that neither of the two intervention paradigms had measurable effects on the targeted skills. However, there were results as to the follow-up questions, such as executive functions predicting all other variables (language and communication, socioemotional comprehension, and math). Background variables were related to each other in patterns congruent with earlier findings, such as socioeconomic status predicting outcome measures across the board. The results are discussed in relation to intervention fidelity, length of intervention, preschool quality, and the impact of background variables on children’s developmental trajectories and life prospects.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • The effects of martial arts participation on mental and psychosocial health outcomes: a randomised controlled trial of a secondary school-based mental health promotion program
    BMC Psychol. (IF 0) Pub Date : 2019-09-11
    Brian Moore; Dean Dudley; Stuart Woodcock

    Mental health problems are a significant social issue that have multiple consequences, including broad social and economic impacts. However, many individuals do not seek assistance for mental health problems. Limited research suggests martial arts training may be an efficacious sports-based mental health intervention that potentially provides an inexpensive alternative to psychological therapy. Unfortunately, the small number of relevant studies and other methodological problems lead to uncertainty regarding the validity and reliability of existing research. This study aims to examine the efficacy of a martial arts based therapeutic intervention to improve mental health outcomes. The study is a 10-week secondary school-based intervention and will be evaluated using a randomised controlled trial. Data will be collected at baseline, post-intervention, and 12-week follow-up. Power calculations indicate a maximum sample size of n = 293 is required. The target age range of participants is 11–14 years, who will be recruited from government and catholic secondary schools in New South Wales, Australia. The intervention will be delivered in a face-to-face group format onsite at participating schools and consists of 10 × 50–60 min sessions, once per week for 10 weeks. Quantitative outcomes will be measured using standardised psychometric instruments. The current study utilises a robust design and rigorous evaluation process to explore the intervention’s potential efficacy. As previous research examining the training effects of martial arts participation on mental health outcomes has not exhibited comparable scale or rigour, the findings of the study will provide valuable evidence regarding the efficacy of martial arts training to improve mental health outcomes. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Register ACTR N12618001405202 . Registered 21st August 2018.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • German version of the Death Attitudes Profile- Revised (DAP-GR) – translation and validation of a multidimensional measurement of attitudes towards death
    BMC Psychol. (IF 0) Pub Date : 2019-09-11
    Jonas Jansen; Christian Schulz-Quach; Nikolett Eisenbeck; David F. Carreno; Andrea Schmitz; Rita Fountain; Matthias Franz; Ralf Schäfer; Paul T. P. Wong; Katharina Fetz

    In Germany, only limited data are available on attitudes towards death. Existing measurements are complex and time consuming, and data on psychometric properties are limited. The Death Attitude Profile- Revised (DAP-R) captures attitudes towards dying and death. The measure consists of 32 items, which are assigned to 5 dimensions (Fear of Death, Death Avoidance, Neutral Acceptance, Approach Acceptance, Escape Acceptance). It has been translated and tested in several countries, but no German version exists to date. This study reports the translation of the Death Attitudes Profile-Revised (DAP-R) into German (DAP-GR) using a cross-cultural adaption process methodology and its psychometric assessment. The DAP-R was translated following guidelines for cultural adaption. A total of 216 medical students of the Heinrich Heine University Duesseldorf participated in this study. Interrater reliability was investigated by means of Kendall’s W concordance coefficient. The internal consistency of the DAP-GR Scales was assessed with Cronbach’s alpha coefficients. Split-half reliability was estimated using Spearman-Brown coefficients. Convergent validity was measured by Spearman’s correlation coefficient. Content validity was assessed by means of confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). All statistical analyses were performed using SPSS 24 and AMOS 22. The items showed fair to good interrater reliability, with W-values ranging from .30 to .79. Internal consistency of the five subscales ranged from .61 (Neutral Acceptance) to .94 (Approach Acceptance). Split-half reliability was good, with a Spearman-Brown-coefficient of .83. The results of CFA slightly diverged from the original scale. Our results suggest overall good reliability of the German version of the DAP-R. The DAP-GR promises to be a robust instrument to establish normative data on death attitudes for use in German-speaking countries.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Identifying culturally acceptable cognitive tests for use in remote northern Australia
    BMC Psychol. (IF 0) Pub Date : 2019-09-12
    Deborah Rock; Ian R. Price

    A lack of culturally appropriate tests hampers accurate assessment of cognition in remote Australian Aboriginal communities. In Arnhem Land, this study employed a community consultation process to evaluate commonly used Western tests of executive function, memory, attention, and visuospatial function. An initial consultation process and a follow-up pilot study resulted in the rejection of some common tests, the development of new tests, and culturally adapted versions of others. In the subsequent 30-person main trial, adult Aboriginal volunteers were examined on nine tests, plus the Kimberly Indigenous Cognitive Assessment screen, and a brief literacy test. Executive function, memory, and attention tests were found to group separately after an exploratory principal components analysis. Correlations between new tests and similar Kimberly screen items were not significant, but ceiling effects may be relevant. Six of 13 test scores were found to correlate with the literacy measure. A selection of cognitive tests were identified that Aboriginal people found culturally acceptable and engaging. In particular, Self-Ordered Pointing, Trail-Making, a verbal-switching task, and a new test “Which car?” show promise for further development. This work may contribute to the need for culturally appropriate cognitive testing in Aboriginal communities.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Process evaluation of text-based support for fathers during the transition to fatherhood (SMS4dads): mechanisms of impact
    BMC Psychol. (IF 0) Pub Date : 2019-09-13
    Richard Fletcher; Tess Knight; Jacqui A. Macdonald; Jennifer StGeorge

    There is growing evidence for the value of technology-based programs to support fathers to make positive transitions across the perinatal period. However, past research has focused on program outcomes with little attention to the mechanisms of impact. Knowledge of why a program works increases potential for replication across contexts. Participants were 40 Australian fathers enrolled in the SMS4dads text-based perinatal support program (Mean age 35.11 (5.87). From a starting point between 16 weeks gestation and 12 weeks postpartum, they were sent a maximum of 184 text messages. An inductive approach was used to analyse post-program semi-structured interviews. The aim was to identify mechanisms of impact aligned to previously identified program outcomes, which were that SMS4dads: 1) is helpful/useful; 2) lessens a sense of isolation; 3) promotes the father-infant relationship; and 4) supports the father-partner relationship. We identified two types of mechanisms: four were structural within the program messages and five were psychological within the participant. The structural mechanisms included: syncing information to needs; normalisation; prompts to interact; and, the provision of a safety net. The psychological mechanisms were: increase in knowledge; feelings of confidence; ability to cope; role orientation; and, the feeling of being connected. These mechanisms interacted with each other to produce the pre-identified program outcomes. If the current findings are generalisable then, future mobile health program design and evaluation would benefit from explicit consideration to how both program components and individual cognitive and behavioural processes combine to elicit targeted outcomes.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Yoga intervention and reminder e-mails for reducing cancer-related fatigue - a study protocol of a randomized controlled trial
    BMC Psychol. (IF 0) Pub Date : 2019-09-18
    Teresa Zetzl; Michael Schuler; Agnes Renner; Elisabeth Jentschke; Birgitt van Oorschot

    Almost 90% of cancer patients suffer from symptoms of fatigue during treatment. Supporting treatments are increasingly used to alleviate the burden of fatigue. This study examines the short-term and long-term effects of yoga on fatigue and the effect of weekly reminder e-mails on exercise frequency and fatigue symptoms. The aim of the first part of the study will evaluate the effectiveness of yoga for cancer patients with mixed diagnoses reporting fatigue. We will randomly allocate 128 patients to an intervention group (N = 64) receiving yoga and a wait-list control group (N = 64) receiving yoga 9 weeks later. The yoga therapy will be performed in weekly sessions of 60 min each for 8 weeks. The primary outcome will be self-reported fatigue symptoms. In the second part of the study, the effectiveness of reminder e-mails with regard to the exercise frequency and self-reported fatigue symptoms will be evaluated. A randomized allocated group of the participants (“email”) receives weekly reminder e-mails, the other group does not. Data will be assessed using questionnaires the beginning and after yoga therapy as well as after 6 months. Support of patients suffering from fatigue is an important goal in cancer patients care. If yoga therapy will reduce fatigue, this type of therapy may be introduced into routine practice. If the reminder e-mails prove to be helpful, new offers for patients may also develop from this. German Clincial Trials Register ( DRKS00016034 , 12/2018), retrospectively registered.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • The transition from university to work: what happens to mental health? A longitudinal study
    BMC Psychol. (IF 0) Pub Date : 2019-10-16
    Amy Østertun Geirdal; Per Nerdrum; Tore Bonsaksen

    When enrolled in university or college, students receive varying degrees of training in managing practical situations in the workplace. However, after graduation, the young professionals meet their responsibilities at work. The experience of the transition between education and work may connote a feeling of professional uncertainty and lack of coping, both of which are important factors related to young professionals’ mental health. The gap between the two areas of knowledge is frequently described as ‘practice shock’. Very few studies of mental health among students and young professional workers have used longitudinal designs. In the present study, we conducted a longitudinal investigation of change and stability in the levels of psychological distress among healthcare professionals, teachers, and social workers from the end of their study programs until 3 years into their subsequent professional lives. We also assessed the extent to which psychological distress at the end of the study program, sociodemographic characteristics, coping with the professional role, the psychosocial workplace environment, and experience of overall quality of life can predict psychological distress 3 years into their professional lives. Psychological distress was measured using the General Health Questionnaire 12 (GHQ-12). A total of 773 students/young professionals participated at both the end of their study programs and 3 years into their professional lives. Group differences were examined by the chi-squared test, independent samples t-test, and one-way analysis of variance. McNemar’s test were applied to identify changes in the proportion of cases at the two time points. Linear and logistic regressions were employed to identify factors associated with GHQ-12 Likert scores and GHQ-12 case scores, respectively. Psychological distress was significantly reduced at 3 years for health professionals. Among the social workers and teachers, the change in psychological distress was not significant during the same period. Higher current quality of life contributed to lower psychological distress. Our findings support assumptions about higher levels of mental health problems as students, with mental health improving as health professionals and social workers move into professional work.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
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