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  • Expanding the Reach of Psychological Science
    Psychol. Sci. (IF 4.902) Pub Date : 2019-12-18
    Patricia J. Bauer

    Welcome to the beginning of a new decade and a new editorial term for Psychological Science. I am honored by the opportunity to lead the flagship journal of the Association for Psychological Science (APS) and humbled by the faith my colleagues have placed in me to contribute to its continued health and well-being. It is my pleasure to commit to the effort. As my first official act, I express my respect and gratitude to Stephen Lindsay and his editorial team for their extraordinary contributions to Psychological Science. They have served the journal and the discipline exceptionally well. On behalf of all of us, thank you! My intention is to continue the best traditions established in the journal by Lindsay and his team, and those who came before him, giving ample room for policies and practices to evolve with our changing field.

    更新日期:2020-01-15
  • Infant and Adult Brains Are Coupled to the Dynamics of Natural Communication
    Psychol. Sci. (IF 4.902) Pub Date : 2019-12-17
    Elise A. Piazza; Liat Hasenfratz; Uri Hasson; Casey Lew-Williams

    Infancy is the foundational period for learning from adults, and the dynamics of the social environment have long been considered central to children’s development. Here, we reveal a novel, naturalistic approach for studying live interactions between infants and adults. Using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS), we simultaneously and continuously measured the brains of infants (N = 18; 9–15 months of age) and an adult while they communicated and played with each other. We found that time-locked neural coupling within dyads was significantly greater when dyad members interacted with each other than with control individuals. In addition, we characterized the dynamic relationship between neural activation and the moment-to-moment fluctuations of mutual gaze, joint attention to objects, infant emotion, and adult speech prosody. This investigation advances what is currently known about how the brains and behaviors of infants both shape and reflect those of adults during real-life communication.

    更新日期:2020-01-15
  • Use of Letter Names Benefits Young Children’s Spelling
    Psychol. Sci. (IF 4.902) Pub Date : 2019-12-03
    Rebecca Treiman; Sloane Wolter

    We studied how children begin to produce spellings that reflect the sounds in words. We asked 75 U.S. preschoolers (mean age = 4 years, 11 months) to participate in two sessions. In one session, the children were asked to spell words (e.g., bead) that begin with a sequence of sounds that matches the name of a letter; in another session, they were asked to spell control words (e.g., bed). The phonological plausibility of children’s spellings, particularly their spellings of the words’ first phonemes, was higher for letter-name words than for control words. When we categorized spelling performance in a session as prephonological if the child used phonologically appropriate letters no more often than would be expected by chance, we found that children were more likely to be prephonological spellers in the session with control words than in the session with letter-name words. Words with letter names can help children move from prephonological spellings to spellings that symbolize at least some of the sounds in words.

    更新日期:2020-01-15
  • Cultural Variability in the Association Between Age and Well-Being: The Role of Uncertainty Avoidance
    Psychol. Sci. (IF 4.902) Pub Date : 2019-12-18
    Smaranda Ioana Lawrie; Kimin Eom; Daniela Moza; Alin Gavreliuc; Heejung S. Kim

    Past research has found a mixed relationship between age and subjective well-being. The current research advances the understanding of these findings by incorporating a cultural perspective. We tested whether the relationship between age and well-being is moderated by uncertainty avoidance, a cultural dimension dealing with society’s tolerance for ambiguity. In Study 1 (N = 64,228), using a multilevel approach with an international database, we found that older age was associated with lower well-being in countries higher in uncertainty avoidance but not in countries lower in uncertainty avoidance. Further, this cultural variation was mediated by a sense of control. In Study 2 (N = 1,025), we compared a culture with low uncertainty avoidance (the United States) with a culture with high uncertainty avoidance (Romania) and found a consistent pattern: Age was negatively associated with well-being in Romania but not in the United States. This cultural difference was mediated by the use of contrasting coping strategies associated with different levels of a sense of control.

    更新日期:2020-01-15
  • Forecasting a Fatal Decision: Direct Replication of the Predictive Validity of the Suicide–Implicit Association Test
    Psychol. Sci. (IF 4.902) Pub Date : 2019-12-11
    Nina Tello; Ghina Harika-Germaneau; Wilfried Serra; Nematollah Jaafari; Armand Chatard

    A previous study by Nock et al. (2010) suggested that people’s implicit identification with “death” or “suicide” can accurately predict whether they will attempt suicide several months in advance. We report the first direct and independent replication of this promising finding. Participants were 165 patients seeking treatment at a psychiatric unit in France. At baseline, patients completed the Suicide–Implicit Association Test (S–IAT), a semistructured interview, and a self-report measure of suicide ideation. Six months later, we contacted participants by phone and examined their hospital medical records to determine whether they had made a new suicide attempt. Results showed that the S–IAT did not distinguish between patients who were admitted to the hospital following suicide attempts and those who were admitted for other reasons. As in the original study, however, the S–IAT predicted suicide attempts within the 6-month follow-up period beyond well-known predictors. The test correctly classified 85% of patients (95% confidence interval = [76.91, 91.53]), supporting its diagnostic value for identifying who will make a suicide attempt.

    更新日期:2020-01-15
  • On Why Objects Appear Smaller in the Visual Periphery
    Psychol. Sci. (IF 4.902) Pub Date : 2019-12-12
    Wladimir Kirsch; Roland Pfister; Wilfried Kunde

    An object appears smaller in the periphery than in the center of the visual field. In two experiments (N = 24), we demonstrated that visuospatial attention contributes substantially to this perceptual distortion. Participants judged the size of central and peripheral target objects after a transient, exogenous cue directed their attention to either the central or the peripheral location. Peripheral target objects were judged to be smaller following a central cue, whereas this effect disappeared completely when the peripheral target was cued. This outcome suggests that objects appear smaller in the visual periphery not only because of the structural properties of the visual system but also because of a lack of spatial attention.

    更新日期:2020-01-15
  • Erratum: Hypnotic Suggestions Can Induce Rapid Change in Implicit Attitudes
    Psychol. Sci. (IF 4.902) Pub Date : 2019-12-04

    Original article: Van Dessel, P., & De Houwer, J. (2019). Hypnotic suggestions can induce rapid change in implicit attitudes. Psychological Science, 30, 1362–1370. doi:10.1177/0956797619865183

    更新日期:2020-01-15
  • Corrigendum: The Gender-Equality Paradox in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics Education
    Psychol. Sci. (IF 4.902) Pub Date : 2019-12-06

    Original article: Stoet, G., & Geary, D. C. (2018). The gender-equality paradox in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics education. Psychological Science, 29, 581–593. doi:10.1177/0956797617741719

    更新日期:2020-01-15
  • Corrigendum: The Value of Interracial Contact for Reducing Anti-Black Bias Among Non-Black Physicians: A Cognitive Habits and Growth Evaluation (CHANGE) Study Report
    Psychol. Sci. (IF 4.902) Pub Date : 2019-12-10

    Original article: Onyeador, I. N., Wittlin, N. M., Burke, S. E., Dovidio, J. F., Perry, S. P., Hardeman, R. R., . . . van Ryn, M. (2019). The value of interracial contact for reducing anti-Black Bias among non-Black physicians: A Cognitive Habits and Growth Evaluation (CHANGE) Study report. Psychological Science. Advance online publication. doi:10.1177/0956797619879139

    更新日期:2020-01-15
  • Swan Song Editorial
    Psychol. Sci. (IF 4.902) Pub Date : 2019-12-03
    D. Stephen Lindsay

    Early in 2012, Geoff Cumming blew my mind with a talk that led me to realize that I had been conducting underpowered experiments for decades. In some lines of research in my lab, a predicted effect would come booming through in one experiment but melt away in the next. My students and I kept trying to find conditions that yielded consistent statistical significance—tweaking items, instructions, exclusion rules—but we sometimes eventually threw in the towel because results were maddeningly inconsistent. For example, a chapter by Lindsay and Kantner (2011) reported 16 experiments with an on-again/off-again effect of feedback on recognition memory. Cumming’s talk explained that p values are very noisy. Moreover, when between-subjects designs are used to study small- to medium-sized effects, statistical tests often yield nonsignificant outcomes (sometimes with huge p values) unless samples are very large. For example, if Cohen’s d equals 0.50 for a between-subjects comparison and there are 20 subjects in each group, then about two thirds of the time, p will be greater than .05, a Type II error. Even if the sample size is 50 per condition, nearly one in three between-subjects experiments with an effect size (d) of 0.50 would yield nonsignificant results. Experiments in my lab were trying to detect a small mixed-model interaction with two or three dozen subjects per group. No wonder our results were inconsistent.

    更新日期:2019-12-11
  • The Sign Effect in Past and Future Discounting
    Psychol. Sci. (IF 4.902) Pub Date : 2019-11-01
    Sarah Molouki; David J. Hardisty; Eugene M. Caruso

    We compared the extent to which people discounted positive and negative events in the future and in the past. We found that the tendency to discount gains more than losses (i.e., the sign effect) emerged more strongly for future than for past outcomes. We present evidence from six studies (total N = 1,077) that the effect of tense on discounting is tied to differences in the contemplation emotion of these events, which we assessed by measuring participants’ emotions while they either anticipated or remembered the event. We ruled out loss aversion, uncertainty, utility curvature, thought frequency, and connection to the future and past self as explanations for this phenomenon, and we discuss why people experience a distinct mixture of emotions when contemplating upcoming events.

    更新日期:2019-12-11
  • Development of Holistic Episodic Recollection
    Psychol. Sci. (IF 4.902) Pub Date : 2019-11-01
    Chi T. Ngo; Aidan J. Horner; Nora S. Newcombe; Ingrid R. Olson

    Episodic memory binds the diverse elements of an event into a coherent representation. This coherence allows for the reconstruction of different aspects of an experience when triggered by a cue related to a past event—a process of pattern completion. Previous work has shown that such holistic recollection is evident in young adults, as revealed by dependency in retrieval success for various associations from the same event. In addition, episodic memory shows clear quantitative increases during early childhood. However, the ontogeny of holistic recollection is uncharted. Using dependency analyses, we found here that 4-year-olds (n = 32), 6-year-olds (n = 30), and young adults (n = 31) all retrieved complex events in a holistic manner; specifically, retrieval accuracy for one aspect of an event predicted accuracy for other aspects of the same event. However, the degree of holistic retrieval increased from the age 4 to adulthood. Thus, extended refinement of multiway binding may be one aspect of episodic memory development.

    更新日期:2019-12-11
  • Reading Increases the Compositionality of Visual Word Representations
    Psychol. Sci. (IF 4.902) Pub Date : 2019-11-07
    Aakash Agrawal; K. V. S. Hari; S. P. Arun

    Reading causes widespread changes in the brain, but its effect on visual word representations is unknown. Learning to read may facilitate visual processing by forming specialized detectors for longer strings or by making word responses more predictable from single letters—that is, by increasing compositionality. We provided evidence for the latter hypothesis using experiments that compared nonoverlapping groups of readers of two Indian languages (Telugu and Malayalam). Readers showed increased single-letter discrimination and decreased letter interactions for bigrams during visual search. Importantly, these interactions predicted subjects’ overall reading fluency. In a separate brain-imaging experiment, we observed increased compositionality in readers, whereby responses to bigrams were more predictable from single letters. This effect was specific to the anterior lateral occipital region, where activations best matched behavior. Thus, learning to read facilitates visual processing by increasing the compositionality of visual word representations.

    更新日期:2019-12-11
  • Enhancement and Suppression Flexibly Guide Attention
    Psychol. Sci. (IF 4.902) Pub Date : 2019-11-06
    Seah Chang; Howard E. Egeth

    Previous research suggests that observers can suppress salient-but-irrelevant stimuli in a top-down manner. However, one question left unresolved is whether such suppression is, in fact, solely due to distractor-feature suppression or whether it instead also reflects some degree of target-feature enhancement. The present study (N = 60) addressed this issue. On search trials (70% of trials), participants searched for a shape target when an irrelevant color singleton was either present or absent; performance was better when a color singleton was present. On interleaved probe trials (30% of trials), participants searched for a letter target. Responses were faster for the letter on a target-colored item than on a neutral-colored item, whereas responses were slower for the letter on a distractor-colored item than on a neutral-colored item. The results demonstrate that target-feature enhancement and distractor-feature suppression contribute to attentional guidance independently; enhancement and suppression flexibly guide attention as the occasion demands.

    更新日期:2019-12-11
  • Not Learning From Failure—the Greatest Failure of All
    Psychol. Sci. (IF 4.902) Pub Date : 2019-11-08
    Lauren Eskreis-Winkler; Ayelet Fishbach

    Our society celebrates failure as a teachable moment. Yet in five studies (total N = 1,674), failure did the opposite: It undermined learning. Across studies, participants answered binary-choice questions, following which they were told they answered correctly (success feedback) or incorrectly (failure feedback). Both types of feedback conveyed the correct answer, because there were only two answer choices. However, on a follow-up test, participants learned less from failure feedback than from success feedback. This effect was replicated across professional, linguistic, and social domains—even when learning from failure was less cognitively taxing than learning from success and even when learning was incentivized. Participants who received failure feedback also remembered fewer of their answer choices. Why does failure undermine learning? Failure is ego threatening, which causes people to tune out. Participants learned less from personal failure than from personal success, yet they learned just as much from other people’s failure as from others’ success. Thus, when ego concerns are muted, people tune in and learn from failure.

    更新日期:2019-12-11
  • The Ethical Perils of Personal, Communal Relations: A Language Perspective
    Psychol. Sci. (IF 4.902) Pub Date : 2019-11-13
    Maryam Kouchaki; Francesca Gino; Yuval Feldman

    Most companies use codes of conduct, ethics training, and regular communication to ensure that employees know about rules to follow to avoid misconduct. In the present research, we focused on the type of language used in codes of conduct and showed that impersonal language (e.g., “employees” or “members”) and personal, communal language (e.g., “we”) lead to different behaviors because they change how people perceive the group or organization of which they are a part. Using multiple methods, including lab- and field-based experiments (total N = 1,443), and a large data set of S&P 500 firms (i.e., publicly traded, large U.S. companies that are part of the S&P 500 stock market index), we robustly demonstrated that personal, communal language (compared with impersonal language) influences perceptions of a group’s warmth, which, in turn, increases levels of dishonesty among its members.

    更新日期:2019-12-11
  • How to Change the Weight of Rare Events in Decisions From Experience
    Psychol. Sci. (IF 4.902) Pub Date : 2019-11-14
    Jared M. Hotaling; Andreas Jarvstad; Chris Donkin; Ben R. Newell

    When people make risky choices, two kinds of information are crucial: outcome values and outcome probabilities. Here, we demonstrate that the juncture at which value and probability information is provided has a fundamental effect on choice. Across four experiments involving 489 participants, we compared two decision-making scenarios: one in which value information was revealed during sampling (standard) and one in which value information was revealed after sampling (value ignorance). On average, participants made riskier choices when value information was provided after sampling. Moreover, parameter estimates from a hierarchical Bayesian implementation of cumulative-prospect theory suggested that participants overweighted rare events when value information was absent during sampling but did not overweight such events in the standard condition. This suggests that the impact of rare events on choice relies crucially on the timing of probability and value integration. We provide paths toward mechanistic explanations of our results based on frameworks that assume different underlying cognitive architectures.

    更新日期:2019-12-11
  • Lipid Profiles at Birth Predict Teacher-Rated Child Emotional and Social Development 5 Years Later
    Psychol. Sci. (IF 4.902) Pub Date : 2019-11-11
    Erika M. Manczak; Ian H. Gotlib

    The fetal environment has been increasingly implicated in later psychological health, but the role of lipids is unknown. Drawing on the ethnically diverse Born in Bradford (BiB) birth cohort, the current study related levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL), very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), and triglycerides in umbilical cord blood to 1,369 children’s teacher-rated psychosocial competence approximately 5 years later. Results of ordinal logistic regressions indicated that low levels of HDL, high levels of VLDL, and high levels of triglycerides predicted greater likelihood of being rated as less competent in domains of emotion regulation, self-awareness, and interpersonal functioning. Furthermore, these results generalized across ethnic background and children’s sex and were not accounted for by variables reflecting mothers’ psychological or physical health, children’s physical health, or children’s special education status. Together, these results identify fetal exposure to anomalous lipid levels as a possible contributor to subsequent psychological health and social functioning.

    更新日期:2019-12-11
  • Corrigendum: Action-Video-Game Experience Alters the Spatial Resolution of Vision
    Psychol. Sci. (IF 4.902) Pub Date : 2019-11-14

    Original article: Green, C. S., & Bavelier, D. (2007). Action-video-game experience alters the spatial resolution of vision. Psychological Science, 18, 88–94. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9280.2007.01853.x

    更新日期:2019-12-11
  • Corrigendum: “Our Country Needs a Strong Leader Right Now”: Economic Inequality Enhances the Wish for a Strong Leader
    Psychol. Sci. (IF 4.902) Pub Date : 2019-11-18

    Original article: Sprong, S., Jetten, J., Wang, Z., Peters, K., Mols, F., Verkuyten, M., . . . Wohl, M. J. A. (2019). “Our country needs a strong leader right now”: Economic inequality enhances the wish for a strong leader. Psychological Science, 30, 1625–1637. doi:10.1177/0956797619875472

    更新日期:2019-12-11
  • Corrigendum: Healthy Out-Group Members Are Represented Psychologically as Infected In-Group Members
    Psychol. Sci. (IF 4.902) Pub Date : 2019-11-15

    Original article: Petersen, M. B. (2017). Healthy out-group members are represented psychologically as infected in-group members. Psychological Science, 28, 1857–1863. doi:10.1177/0956797617728270

    更新日期:2019-12-11
  • Searching for Rewards Like a Child Means Less Generalization and More Directed Exploration
    Psychol. Sci. (IF 4.902) Pub Date : 2019-10-25
    Eric Schulz; Charley M. Wu; Azzurra Ruggeri; Björn Meder

    How do children and adults differ in their search for rewards? We considered three different hypotheses that attribute developmental differences to (a) children’s increased random sampling, (b) more directed exploration toward uncertain options, or (c) narrower generalization. Using a search task in which noisy rewards were spatially correlated on a grid, we compared the ability of 55 younger children (ages 7 and 8 years), 55 older children (ages 9–11 years), and 50 adults (ages 19–55 years) to successfully generalize about unobserved outcomes and balance the exploration–exploitation dilemma. Our results show that children explore more eagerly than adults but obtain lower rewards. We built a predictive model of search to disentangle the unique contributions of the three hypotheses of developmental differences and found robust and recoverable parameter estimates indicating that children generalize less and rely on directed exploration more than adults. We did not, however, find reliable differences in terms of random sampling.

    更新日期:2019-11-08
  • Poverty and Puberty: A Neurocognitive Study of Inhibitory Control in the Transition to Adolescence
    Psychol. Sci. (IF 4.902) Pub Date : 2019-09-26
    Kirby Deater-Deckard; Mengjiao Li; Jacob Lee; Brooks King-Casas; Jungmeen Kim-Spoon

    Pubertal development during early adolescence is modestly associated with individual differences in slowly developing inhibitory control of impulses—an aspect of self-regulation associated with reward-seeking behaviors such as the onset and frequency of sexual activity. However, this effect may be much stronger in resource-poor environments. On the basis of life-history and r/K-selection theories, we tested the hypothesis that early pubertal timing would be more strongly associated with less mature neurocognitive inhibitory control in lower-income environments. In an economically diverse Appalachian sample (N = 157; 138 with complete neuroimaging data) of 14-year-olds (52% male), inhibitory control was measured using the multisource-interference task during functional MRI. Results showed that among poor youths only, more advanced puberty for one’s age was linked with lower inhibitory control for the neural but not the behavioral measure. This finding has implications regarding poverty, neurocognitive development, and health-risk behaviors in adolescence.

    更新日期:2019-11-08
  • Rushing to Appear Virtuous: Time Pressure Increases Socially Desirable Responding
    Psychol. Sci. (IF 4.902) Pub Date : 2019-10-11
    John Protzko; Claire M. Zedelius; Jonathan W. Schooler

    Prosociality increases when decisions are made under time pressure. Here, we investigated whether time pressure increases socially desirable responding outside social interactions (Study 1). Finding that it did, we then examined whether this is because people align their responses with the concept of their “true” self or because of an intuitive tendency to comply with norms (Study 2). In Study 1, we randomly assigned each of 1,500 Americans to answer a measure of social-desirability bias either quickly or slowly and found that quick responding increased social desirability. In Study 2, we recruited a similar sample and tested whether fast-responding effects were moderated by the extent to which people display a good-true-self bias. A greater tendency to ascribe good behaviors to the true self predicted social desirability, but this relationship disappeared under time pressure. These results of socially desirable behavior under time pressure do not reflect people’s deep-down good selves but, rather, their desire to present themselves favorably to other people.

    更新日期:2019-11-08
  • Automated Study Challenges the Existence of a Foundational Statistical-Learning Ability in Newborn Chicks
    Psychol. Sci. (IF 4.902) Pub Date : 2019-10-15
    Samantha M. W. Wood; Scott P. Johnson; Justin N. Wood

    What mechanisms underlie learning in newborn brains? Recently, researchers reported that newborn chicks use unsupervised statistical learning to encode the transitional probabilities (TPs) of shapes in a sequence, suggesting that TP-based statistical learning can be present in newborn brains. Using a preregistered design, we attempted to reproduce this finding with an automated method that eliminated experimenter bias and allowed more than 250 times more data to be collected per chick. With precise measurements of each chick’s behavior, we were able to perform individual-level analyses and substantially reduce measurement error for the group-level analyses. We found no evidence that newborn chicks encode the TPs between sequentially presented shapes. None of the chicks showed evidence for this ability. Conversely, we obtained strong evidence that newborn chicks encode the shapes of individual objects, showing that this automated method can produce robust results. These findings challenge the claim that TP-based statistical learning is present in newborn brains.

    更新日期:2019-11-08
  • Increasing Vegetable Intake by Emphasizing Tasty and Enjoyable Attributes: A Randomized Controlled Multisite Intervention for Taste-Focused Labeling
    Psychol. Sci. (IF 4.902) Pub Date : 2019-10-02
    Bradley P. Turnwald; Jaclyn D. Bertoldo; Margaret A. Perry; Peggy Policastro; Maureen Timmons; Christopher Bosso; Priscilla Connors; Robert T. Valgenti; Lindsey Pine; Ghislaine Challamel; Christopher D. Gardner; Alia J. Crum

    Healthy food labels tout health benefits, yet most people prioritize tastiness in the moment of food choice. In a preregistered intervention, we tested whether taste-focused labels compared with health-focused labels increased vegetable intake at five university dining halls throughout the United States. Across 137,842 diner decisions, 185 days, and 24 vegetable types, taste-focused labels increased vegetable selection by 29% compared with health-focused labels and by 14% compared with basic labels. Vegetable consumption also increased. Supplementary studies further probed the mediators, moderators, and boundaries of these effects. Increased expectations of a positive taste experience mediated the effect of taste-focused labels on vegetable selection. Moderation tests revealed greater effects in settings that served tastier vegetable recipes. Taste-focused labels outperformed labels that merely contained positive words, fancy words, or lists of ingredients. Together, these studies show that emphasizing tasty and enjoyable attributes increases vegetable intake in real-world settings in which vegetables compete with less healthy options.

    更新日期:2019-11-08
  • Targeted Memory Reactivation During Sleep Improves Next-Day Problem Solving
    Psychol. Sci. (IF 4.902) Pub Date : 2019-10-11
    Kristin E. G. Sanders; Samuel Osburn; Ken A. Paller; Mark Beeman

    Many people have claimed that sleep has helped them solve a difficult problem, but empirical support for this assertion remains tentative. The current experiment tested whether manipulating information processing during sleep impacts problem incubation and solving. In memory studies, delivering learning-associated sound cues during sleep can reactivate memories. We therefore predicted that reactivating previously unsolved problems could help people solve them. In the evening, we presented 57 participants with puzzles, each arbitrarily associated with a different sound. While participants slept overnight, half of the sounds associated with the puzzles they had not solved were surreptitiously presented. The next morning, participants solved 31.7% of cued puzzles, compared with 20.5% of uncued puzzles (a 55% improvement). Moreover, cued-puzzle solving correlated with cued-puzzle memory. Overall, these results demonstrate that cuing puzzle information during sleep can facilitate solving, thus supporting sleep’s role in problem incubation and establishing a new technique to advance understanding of problem solving and sleep cognition.

    更新日期:2019-11-08
  • “Our Country Needs a Strong Leader Right Now”: Economic Inequality Enhances the Wish for a Strong Leader
    Psychol. Sci. (IF 4.902) Pub Date : 2019-09-30
    Stefanie Sprong; Jolanda Jetten; Zhechen Wang; Kim Peters; Frank Mols; Maykel Verkuyten; Brock Bastian; Amarina Ariyanto; Frédérique Autin; Nadia Ayub; Constantina Badea; Tomasz Besta; Fabrizio Butera; Rui Costa-Lopes; Lijuan Cui; Carole Fantini; Gillian Finchilescu; Lowell Gaertner; Mario Gollwitzer; Ángel Gómez; Roberto González; Ying-Yi Hong; Dorthe Høj Jensen; Inga Jasinskaja-Lahti; Minoru Karasawa; Thomas Kessler; Olivier Klein; Marcus Lima; Laura Mégevand; Thomas Morton; Paola Paladino; Tibor Polya; Tuuli Anna Renvik; Aleksejs Ruza; Wan Shahrazad; Sushama Shama; Heather J. Smith; Ana Raquel Torres; Anne Marthe van der Bles; Michael J. A. Wohl

    Societal inequality has been found to harm the mental and physical health of its members and undermine overall social cohesion. Here, we tested the hypothesis that economic inequality is associated with a wish for a strong leader in a study involving 28 countries from five continents (Study 1, N = 6,112), a study involving an Australian community sample (Study 2, N = 515), and two experiments (Study 3a, N = 96; Study 3b, N = 296). We found correlational (Studies 1 and 2) and experimental (Studies 3a and 3b) evidence for our prediction that higher inequality enhances the wish for a strong leader. We also found that this relationship is mediated by perceptions of anomie, except in the case of objective inequality in Study 1. This suggests that societal inequality enhances the perception that society is breaking down (anomie) and that a strong leader is needed to restore order (even when that leader is willing to challenge democratic values).

    更新日期:2019-11-08
  • Sound-Symbolism Effects in the Absence of Awareness: A Replication Study
    Psychol. Sci. (IF 4.902) Pub Date : 2019-10-22
    Tom Heyman; Anne-Sofie Maerten; Hendrik Vankrunkelsven; Wouter Voorspoels; Pieter Moors

    People have been shown to link particular sounds with particular shapes. For instance, the round-sounding nonword bouba tends to be associated with curved shapes, whereas the sharp-sounding nonword kiki is deemed to be related to angular shapes. People’s tendency to associate sounds and shapes has been observed across different languages. In the present study, we reexamined the claim by Hung, Styles, and Hsieh (2017) that such sound–shape mappings can occur before an individual becomes aware of the visual stimuli. More precisely, we replicated their first experiment, in which congruent and incongruent stimuli (e.g., bouba presented in a round shape or an angular shape, respectively) were rendered invisible through continuous flash suppression. The results showed that congruent combinations, on average, broke suppression faster than incongruent combinations, thus providing converging evidence for Hung and colleagues’ assertions. Collectively, these findings now provide a solid basis from which to explore the boundary conditions of the effect.

    更新日期:2019-11-08
  • How to Create Objects With Your Mind: From Object-Based Attention to Attention-Based Objects
    Psychol. Sci. (IF 4.902) Pub Date : 2019-10-21
    Joan Danielle K. Ongchoco; Brian J. Scholl

    When staring at a blank grid, one can readily “see” simple shapes—a peculiar experience that does not occur when viewing an empty background. But just what does this “seeing” entail? Previous work has explored many cues to object-based attention (e.g., involving continuity and closure), but here we asked whether attention can be object based even when there are no cues to objecthood. Observers viewed simple grids and attended to particular squares until they could effectively “see” shapes such as a capital H or I. During this scaffolded attention, two probes appeared, and observers reported whether they were the same or different. Remarkably, this produced a traditional same-object advantage: In several experiments (including high-powered direct replications), performance was enhanced for probes presented on the same (purely imagined) object, compared with equidistant probes presented on different objects. We conclude that attention not only operates over objects but also can effectively create object representations.

    更新日期:2019-11-08
  • Visually Entrained Theta Oscillations Increase for Unexpected Events in the Infant Brain
    Psychol. Sci. (IF 4.902) Pub Date : 2019-10-11
    Moritz Köster; Miriam Langeloh; Stefanie Hoehl

    In their first year after birth, infants develop basic concepts about their physical and social environment (Spelke & Kinzler, 2007), as indicated by their responses to unexpected events. For example, infants show basic expectations about physical laws (Spelke, Breinlinger, Macomber, & Jacobsen, 1992), numbers (Wynn, 1992), and human actions (Reid et al., 2009). Differential looking times and event-related responses in an electroencephalogram (EEG) to unexpected events are commonly interpreted as an increase in infants’ attention. In addition, recent evidence suggests that infants take unexpected events as an opportunity to learn (Stahl & Feigenson, 2015). In the present study, we use a rhythmic visual-stimulation approach to scrutinize the neuronal dynamics involved in infants’ processing of unexpected events.

    更新日期:2019-11-08
  • 更新日期:2019-11-01
  • 更新日期:2019-11-01
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  • Psychologically Informed Implementations of Sugary-Drink Portion Limits.
    Psychol. Sci. (IF 4.902) Pub Date : 2017-04-01
    Leslie K John,Grant E Donnelly,Christina A Roberto

    In 2012, the New York City Board of Health prohibited restaurants from selling sugary drinks in containers that would hold more than 16 oz. Although a state court ruled that the Board of Health did not have the authority to implement such a policy, it remains a legally viable option for governments and a voluntary option for restaurants. However, there is very limited empirical data on how such a policy might affect the purchasing and consumption of sugary drinks. We report four well-powered, incentive-compatible experiments in which we evaluated two possible ways that restaurants might comply with such a policy: bundling (i.e., dividing the contents of oversized cups into two regulation-size cups) and providing free refills (i.e., offering a regulation-size cup with unlimited refills). Bundling caused people to buy less soda. Free refills increased consumption, especially when a waiter served the refills. This perverse effect was reduced in self-service contexts that required walking just a few steps to get a refill.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Know thy avatar: the unintended effect of virtual-self representation on behavior.
    Psychol. Sci. (IF 4.902) Pub Date : 2014-02-07
    Gunwoo Yoon,Patrick T Vargas

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Misinformation and Morality: Encountering Fake-News Headlines Makes Them Seem Less Unethical to Publish and Share.
    Psychol. Sci. (IF 4.902) Pub Date : 2019-11-22
    Daniel A Effron,Medha Raj

    People may repeatedly encounter the same misinformation when it "goes viral." The results of four main experiments (two preregistered) and a pilot experiment (total N = 2,587) suggest that repeatedly encountering misinformation makes it seem less unethical to spread-regardless of whether one believes it. Seeing a fake-news headline one or four times reduced how unethical participants thought it was to publish and share that headline when they saw it again-even when it was clearly labeled as false and participants disbelieved it, and even after we statistically accounted for judgments of how likeable and popular it was. In turn, perceiving the headline as less unethical predicted stronger inclinations to express approval of it online. People were also more likely to actually share repeated headlines than to share new headlines in an experimental setting. We speculate that repeating blatant misinformation may reduce the moral condemnation it receives by making it feel intuitively true, and we discuss other potential mechanisms that might explain this effect.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Distracting Objects Induce Early Quitting in Visual Search.
    Psychol. Sci. (IF 4.902) Pub Date : 2019-11-21
    Jeff Moher

    Task-irrelevant objects can sometimes capture attention and increase the time it takes an observer to find a target. However, less is known about how these distractors impact visual search strategies. Here, I found that salient distractors reduced rather than increased response times on target-absent trials (Experiment 1; N = 200). Combined with higher error rates on target-present trials, these results indicate that distractors can induce observers to quit search earlier than they otherwise would. These effects were replicated when target prevalence was low (Experiment 2; N = 200) and with different stimuli that elicited shallower search slopes (Experiment 3; N = 75). These results demonstrate that salient distractors can produce at least two consequences in visual search: They can capture attention, and they can cause observers to quit searching early. This novel finding has implications both for understanding visual attention and for examining distraction in real-world domains where targets are often absent, such as medical image screening.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The Value of Interracial Contact for Reducing Anti-Black Bias Among Non-Black Physicians: A Cognitive Habits and Growth Evaluation (CHANGE) Study Report.
    Psychol. Sci. (IF 4.902) Pub Date : 2019-11-20
    Ivuoma N Onyeador,Natalie M Wittlin,Sara E Burke,John F Dovidio,Sylvia P Perry,Rachel R Hardeman,Liselotte N Dyrbye,Jeph Herrin,Sean M Phelan,Michelle van Ryn

    Although scholars have long studied circumstances that shape prejudice, inquiry into factors associated with long-term prejudice reduction has been more limited. Using a 6-year longitudinal study of non-Black physicians in training (N = 3,134), we examined the effect of three medical-school factors-interracial contact, medical-school environment, and diversity training-on explicit and implicit racial bias measured during medical residency. When accounting for all three factors, previous contact, and baseline bias, we found that quality of contact continued to predict lower explicit and implicit bias, although the effects were very small. Racial climate, modeling of bias, and hours of diversity training in medical school were not consistently related to less explicit or implicit bias during residency. These results highlight the benefits of interracial contact during an impactful experience such as medical school. Ultimately, professional institutions can play a role in reducing anti-Black bias by encouraging more frequent, and especially more favorable, interracial contact.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
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  • False-positive psychology: undisclosed flexibility in data collection and analysis allows presenting anything as significant.
    Psychol. Sci. (IF 4.902) Pub Date : 2011-10-19
    Joseph P Simmons,Leif D Nelson,Uri Simonsohn

    In this article, we accomplish two things. First, we show that despite empirical psychologists' nominal endorsement of a low rate of false-positive findings (≤ .05), flexibility in data collection, analysis, and reporting dramatically increases actual false-positive rates. In many cases, a researcher is more likely to falsely find evidence that an effect exists than to correctly find evidence that it does not. We present computer simulations and a pair of actual experiments that demonstrate how unacceptably easy it is to accumulate (and report) statistically significant evidence for a false hypothesis. Second, we suggest a simple, low-cost, and straightforwardly effective disclosure-based solution to this problem. The solution involves six concrete requirements for authors and four guidelines for reviewers, all of which impose a minimal burden on the publication process.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Healthy Out-Group Members Are Represented Psychologically as Infected In-Group Members.
    Psychol. Sci. (IF 4.902) Pub Date : 2017-10-20
    Michael Bang Petersen

    A range of studies have demonstrated that people implicitly treat out-groups as the carriers of pathogens and that considerable prejudice against out-groups is driven by concerns about pathogens. Yet the psychological categories that are involved and the selection pressures that underlie these categories remain unclear. A common view is that human pathogen-avoidance psychology is specifically adapted to avoid out-groups because of their potentially different pathogens. However, the series of studies reported here shows that there is no dedicated category for reasoning about out-groups in terms of pathogens. Specifically, a memory-confusion experiment conducted with two large-scale samples of Americans (one nationally representative) yielded strong, replicable evidence that healthy out-group members are represented using the same psychological category that is used to represent manifestly infected in-group members. This suggests that the link between out-group prejudice and pathogen concerns is a by-product of general mechanisms for treating any unfamiliar appearance as an infection cue.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Early-Childhood Social Reticence Predicts Brain Function in Preadolescent Youths During Distinct Forms of Peer Evaluation.
    Psychol. Sci. (IF 4.902) Pub Date : 2016-05-07
    Johanna M Jarcho,Megan M Davis,Tomer Shechner,Kathryn A Degnan,Heather A Henderson,Joel Stoddard,Nathan A Fox,Ellen Leibenluft,Daniel S Pine,Eric E Nelson

    Social reticence is expressed as shy, anxiously avoidant behavior in early childhood. With development, overt signs of social reticence may diminish but could still manifest themselves in neural responses to peers. We obtained measures of social reticence across 2 to 7 years of age. At age 11, preadolescents previously characterized as high (n = 30) or low (n = 23) in social reticence completed a novel functional-MRI-based peer-interaction task that quantifies neural responses to the anticipation and receipt of distinct forms of social evaluation. High (but not low) social reticence in early childhood predicted greater activity in dorsal anterior cingulate cortex and left and right insula, brain regions implicated in processing salience and distress, when participants anticipated unpredictable compared with predictable feedback. High social reticence was also associated with negative functional connectivity between insula and ventromedial prefrontal cortex, a region commonly implicated in affect regulation. Finally, among participants with high social reticence, negative evaluation was associated with increased amygdala activity, but only during feedback from unpredictable peers.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • When Is Higher Neuroticism Protective Against Death? Findings From UK Biobank.
    Psychol. Sci. (IF 4.902) Pub Date : 2017-07-14
    Catharine R Gale,Iva Čukić,G David Batty,Andrew M McIntosh,Alexander Weiss,Ian J Deary

    We examined the association between neuroticism and mortality in a sample of 321,456 people from UK Biobank and explored the influence of self-rated health on this relationship. After adjustment for age and sex, a 1- SD increment in neuroticism was associated with a 6% increase in all-cause mortality (hazard ratio = 1.06, 95% confidence interval = [1.03, 1.09]). After adjustment for other covariates, and, in particular, self-rated health, higher neuroticism was associated with an 8% reduction in all-cause mortality (hazard ratio = 0.92, 95% confidence interval = [0.89, 0.95]), as well as with reductions in mortality from cancer, cardiovascular disease, and respiratory disease, but not external causes. Further analyses revealed that higher neuroticism was associated with lower mortality only in those people with fair or poor self-rated health, and that higher scores on a facet of neuroticism related to worry and vulnerability were associated with lower mortality. Research into associations between personality facets and mortality may elucidate mechanisms underlying neuroticism's covert protection against death.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Action-video-game experience alters the spatial resolution of vision.
    Psychol. Sci. (IF 4.902) Pub Date : 2007-03-17
    C S Green,D Bavelier

    Playing action video games enhances several different aspects of visual processing; however, the mechanisms underlying this improvement remain unclear. Here we show that playing action video games can alter fundamental characteristics of the visual system, such as the spatial resolution of visual processing across the visual field. To determine the spatial resolution of visual processing, we measured the smallest distance a distractor could be from a target without compromising target identification. This approach exploits the fact that visual processing is hindered as distractors are brought close to the target, a phenomenon known as crowding. Compared with nonplayers, action-video-game players could tolerate smaller target-distractor distances. Thus, the spatial resolution of visual processing is enhanced in this population. Critically, similar effects were observed in non-video-game players who were trained on an action video game; this result verifies a causative relationship between video-game play and augmented spatial resolution.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
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  • Imagination can create false autobiographical memories.
    Psychol. Sci. (IF 4.902) Pub Date : 2003-03-29
    Giuliana Mazzoni,Amina Memon

    Previous studies have shown that imagining an event can alter autobiographical beliefs. The current study examined whether it can also create false memories. One group of participants imagined a relatively frequent event and received information about an event that never occurs. A second group imagined the nonoccurring event and received information about the frequent event. One week before and again 1 week immediately after the manipulation, participants rated the likelihood that they had experienced each of the two critical events and a series of noncritical events, using the Life Events Inventory. During the last phase, participants were also asked to describe any memories they had for the events. For both events, imagination increased the number of memories reported, as well as beliefs about experiencing the event. These results indicate that imagination can induce false autobiographical memories.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Now you see it, now you don't: explicit versus implicit measures of the personal/group discrimination discrepancy.
    Psychol. Sci. (IF 4.902) Pub Date : 2002-04-06
    Karen M Ruggiero,Jason P Mitchell,Nancy Kreiger,David M Marx,Melanie L Lorenzo

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Power Posing: P-Curving the Evidence.
    Psychol. Sci. (IF 4.902) Pub Date : 2017-05-10
    Joseph P Simmons,Uri Simonsohn

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Costs of Selective Attention: When Children Notice What Adults Miss.
    Psychol. Sci. (IF 4.902) Pub Date : 2017-04-08
    Daniel J Plebanek,Vladimir M Sloutsky

    One of the lawlike regularities of psychological science is that of developmental progression-an increase in sensorimotor, cognitive, and social functioning from childhood to adulthood. Here, we report a rare violation of this law, a developmental reversal in attention. In Experiment 1, 4- to 5-year-olds ( n = 34) and adults ( n = 35) performed a change-detection task that included externally cued and uncued shapes. Whereas the adults outperformed the children on the cued shapes, the children outperformed the adults on the uncued shapes. In Experiment 2, the same participants completed a visual search task, and their memory for search-relevant and search-irrelevant information was tested. The young children outperformed the adults with respect to search-irrelevant features. This demonstration of a paradoxical property of early attention deepens current understanding of the development of attention. It also has implications for understanding early learning and cognitive development more broadly.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Do Young Drivers Become Safer After Being Involved in a Collision?
    Psychol. Sci. (IF 4.902) Pub Date : 2017-04-14
    Fearghal O'Brien,Joe Bible,Danping Liu,Bruce G Simons-Morton

    As drivers age, their risk of being involved in a car collision decreases. The present study investigated if this trend is due, in part, to some risky drivers having a collision early in their driving lives and subsequently reducing their risky driving after that negative experience. Accelerometers and video cameras were installed in the vehicles of 16- to 17-year-old drivers ( N = 254), allowing coders to measure the number of g-force events (i.e., events in which a threshold acceleration level was exceeded) per 1,000 miles and the number of collisions. Among the 41 participants who experienced a severe collision, the rate of g-force events dropped significantly in the 1st month after the collision, remained unchanged for the 2nd month, and increased significantly in the 3rd month. There were no changes in the rate of g-force events at comparable time points for the drivers not involved in a collision. Being involved in a collision led to a decrease in risky driving, but this may have been a temporary effect.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Mother-Infant Contingent Vocalizations in 11 Countries.
    Psychol. Sci. (IF 4.902) Pub Date : 2015-07-03
    Marc H Bornstein,Diane L Putnick,Linda R Cote,O Maurice Haynes,Joan T D Suwalsky

    Mother-infant vocal interactions serve multiple functions in child development, but it remains unclear whether key features of these interactions are community-common or community-specific. We examined rates, interrelations, and contingencies of vocal interactions in 684 mothers and their 5½-month-old infants in diverse communities in 11 countries (Argentina, Belgium, Brazil, Cameroon, France, Israel, Italy, Japan, Kenya, South Korea, and the United States). Rates of mothers' and infants' vocalizations varied widely across communities and were uncorrelated. However, collapsing the data across communities, we found that mothers' vocalizations to infants were contingent on the offset of the infants' nondistress vocalizing, infants' vocalizations were contingent on the offset of their mothers' vocalizing, and maternal and infant contingencies were significantly correlated. These findings point to the beginnings of dyadic conversational turn taking. Despite broad differences in the overall talkativeness of mothers and infants, maternal and infant contingent vocal responsiveness is found across communities, supporting essential functions of turn taking in early-childhood socialization.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Expression of anger and ill health in two cultures: an examination of inflammation and cardiovascular risk.
    Psychol. Sci. (IF 4.902) Pub Date : 2015-01-08
    Shinobu Kitayama,Jiyoung Park,Jennifer Morozink Boylan,Yuri Miyamoto,Cynthia S Levine,Hazel Rose Markus,Mayumi Karasawa,Christopher L Coe,Norito Kawakami,Gayle D Love,Carol D Ryff

    Expression of anger is associated with biological health risk (BHR) in Western cultures. However, recent evidence documenting culturally divergent functions of the expression of anger suggests that its link with BHR may be moderated by culture. To test this prediction, we examined large probability samples of both Japanese and Americans using multiple measures of BHR, including pro-inflammatory markers (interleukin-6 and C-reactive protein) and indices of cardiovascular malfunction (systolic blood pressure and ratio of total to HDL cholesterol). We found that the link between greater expression of anger and increased BHR was robust for Americans. As predicted, however, this association was diametrically reversed for Japanese, among whom greater expression of anger predicted reduced BHR. These patterns were unique to the expressive facet of anger and remained after we controlled for age, gender, health status, health behaviors, social status, and reported experience of negative emotions. Implications for sociocultural modulation of bio-physiological responses are discussed.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Just how bad negative affect is for your health depends on culture.
    Psychol. Sci. (IF 4.902) Pub Date : 2014-10-12
    Katherine B Curhan,Tamara Sims,Hazel R Markus,Shinobu Kitayama,Mayumi Karasawa,Norito Kawakami,Gayle D Love,Christopher L Coe,Yuri Miyamoto,Carol D Ryff

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Physically developed and exploratory young infants contribute to their own long-term academic achievement.
    Psychol. Sci. (IF 4.902) Pub Date : 2013-08-22
    Marc H Bornstein,Chun-Shin Hahn,Joan T D Suwalsky

    A developmental cascade defines a longitudinal relation in which one psychological characteristic uniquely affects another psychological characteristic later in time, separately from other intrapersonal and extrapersonal factors. Here, we report results of a large-scale (N = 374), normative, prospective, 14-year longitudinal, multivariate, multisource, controlled study of a developmental cascade from infant motor-exploratory competence at 5 months to adolescent academic achievement at 14 years, through conceptually related and age-appropriate measures of psychometric intelligence at 4 and 10 years and academic achievement at 10 years. This developmental cascade applied equally to girls and boys and was independent of children's behavioral adjustment and social competence; mothers' supportive caregiving, verbal intelligence, education, and parenting knowledge; and the material home environment. Infants who were more motorically mature and who explored more actively at 5 months of age achieved higher academic levels as 14-year-olds.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Retinal vessel caliber and lifelong neuropsychological functioning: retinal imaging as an investigative tool for cognitive epidemiology.
    Psychol. Sci. (IF 4.902) Pub Date : 2013-05-17
    Idan Shalev,Terrie E Moffitt,Tien Y Wong,Madeline H Meier,Renate M Houts,Jie Ding,Carol Y Cheung,M Kamran Ikram,Avshalom Caspi,Richie Poulton

    Why do more intelligent people live healthier and longer lives? One possibility is that intelligence tests assess health of the brain, but psychological science has lacked technology to evaluate this hypothesis. Digital retinal imaging, a new, noninvasive method to visualize microcirculation in the eye, may reflect vascular conditions in the brain. We studied the association between retinal vessel caliber and neuropsychological functioning in the representative Dunedin birth cohort. Wider venular caliber was associated with poorer neuropsychological functioning at midlife, independently of potentially confounding factors. This association was not limited to any specific test domain and extended to informants' reports of cohort members' cognitive difficulties in everyday life. Moreover, wider venular caliber was associated with lower childhood IQ tested 25 years earlier. The findings indicate that retinal venular caliber may be an indicator of neuropsychological health years before the onset of dementing diseases and suggest that digital retinal imaging may be a useful investigative tool for psychological science.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • I know not to, but i can't help it: weight gain and changes in impulsivity-related personality traits.
    Psychol. Sci. (IF 4.902) Pub Date : 2013-05-01
    Angelina R Sutin,Paul T Costa,Wayne Chan,Yuri Milaneschi,William W Eaton,Alan B Zonderman,Luigi Ferrucci,Antonio Terracciano

    Reciprocal relations between weight and psychological factors suggest that there are deep connections between mind and body. Personality traits are linked to weight gain; weight gain may likewise be associated with personality change. Using data from two diverse longitudinal samples (N = 1,919) collected at two time points an average of 10 years apart, we showed that significant weight gain is associated with increases in both impulsiveness and deliberation: In both samples, middle-aged adults who gained 10% or more of their baseline body weight by follow-up increased in their tendency to give in to temptation, yet were more thoughtful about the consequences of their actions. The present research moves beyond life events to implicate health status in adult personality development. The findings also suggest that interventions focusing on the emotional component of impulse control may be more effective because even people who become more thoughtful about the consequences of their actions may have limited success at inhibiting their behavior.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The effect of birth cohort on well-being: the legacy of economic hard times.
    Psychol. Sci. (IF 4.902) Pub Date : 2013-01-26
    Angelina R Sutin,Antonio Terracciano,Yuri Milaneschi,Yang An,Luigi Ferrucci,Alan B Zonderman

    In the present research, we examined the effects of age, cohort, and time of measurement on well-being across adulthood. Cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses of two independent samples-one with more than 10,000 repeated assessments across 30 years (mean assessments per participant = 4.44, SD = 3.47) and one with nationally representative data-suggested that well-being declines with age. This decline, however, reversed when we controlled for birth cohort. That is, once we accounted for the fact that older cohorts had lower levels of well-being, all cohorts increased in well-being with age relative to their own baseline. Participants tested more recently had higher well-being, but time of measurement, unlike cohort, did not change the shape of the trajectory. Although well-being increased with age for everyone, cohorts that lived through the economic challenges of the early 20th century had lower well-being than those born during more prosperous times.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
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