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  • Multiple Approaches to Uniting Students Across Groups: Introduction to the Special Issue on Social Inclusion
    Educ. Psychol. (IF 5.956) Pub Date : 2019-11-15
    Jaana Juvonen

    (2019). Multiple Approaches to Uniting Students Across Groups: Introduction to the Special Issue on Social Inclusion. Educational Psychologist: Vol. 54, Promoting Inclusive School Climate: Multiple Approaches to Uniting Students Across Groups, pp. 247-249.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Promoting Social Inclusion in Educational Settings: Challenges and Opportunities
    Educ. Psychol. (IF 5.956) Pub Date : 2019-11-15
    Jaana Juvonen, Leah M. Lessard, Ritika Rastogi, Hannah L. Schacter, Danielle Sayre Smith

    The goal of this article is to provide a critical analysis of barriers to social inclusion and integration in schools and propose inclusive educational practices that help connect and unite diverse students. Diversity is defined broadly to refer to a range of differences (i.e., overall heterogeneity) across students. We review theoretical frameworks that help explain group dynamics and contextual conditions that contribute to exclusion (i.e., peer victimization, rejection, friendlessness) of students based on ethnicity, sexual orientation, body weight, and so on. We argue that to be able to facilitate inclusion (acceptance by peers, cross-group friendships), educators and school administrators need to be aware of group and interpersonal dynamics. They must also comprehend how some common school practices highlight differences and segregate students in ways that further promote divisions and reinforce negative stereotypes. We propose proactive school-based practices as “built-in” preventions to increase social inclusion. Also, relevant intervention approaches are reviewed. To conclude, we discuss teacher education and professional development and make recommendations for future research.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Gender Integration and the Promotion of Inclusive Classroom Climates
    Educ. Psychol. (IF 5.956) Pub Date : 2019-08-23
    Richard A. Fabes, Carol Lynn Martin, Laura D. Hanish

    The purpose of this article is to highlight the important role that gender plays in organizing and affecting the quality of the classroom climate. We review research showing how students’ peer relationships tend to be segregated by gender and discuss the consequences of children spending much of their time almost exclusively with same-gender peers, which perpetuates and exaggerates gender segregation. We suggest that a more beneficial pattern is enhancing students’ exposure to other-gender peers—that is, promoting gender integration. We describe the theories that support the benefits of integrating across social groups. Next, we review methods and results of strategies we have used to promote integration. Finally, we draw attention to the issues about gender integration that require further consideration and argue for more research that can help guide the development of effective strategies that build more inclusive environments, practices, and policies for today’s children and youth.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Promoting Inclusive Communities in Diverse Classrooms: Teacher Attunement and Social Dynamics Management
    Educ. Psychol. (IF 5.956) Pub Date : 2019-08-26
    Thomas W. Farmer, Jill V. Hamm, Molly Dawes, Katherine Barko-Alva, Jennifer Riedl Cross

    Classroom social integration with peers is vital to students’ school success, and all students can benefit from contact with peers who are different in various ways. Teachers are uniquely positioned to support the social adaptation of diverse learners but require an understanding of classroom dynamics. Moreover, teachers need strategies that help to leverage positive peer dynamics and that promote an engaged classroom climate for all students. Reflecting a person-in-context perspective, this review discusses the peer relations and social adjustment of students, particularly in classrooms with a diverse range of student characteristics and instructional needs, and proposes that teachers’ use of social dynamics management strategies can foster classroom communities that support the involvement and adjustment of all students.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Ethnic Diversity and Inclusive School Environments
    Educ. Psychol. (IF 5.956) Pub Date : 2019-08-23
    Adrienne Nishina, Jakeem Amir Lewis, Amy Bellmore, Melissa R. Witkow

    Inclusive school contexts can promote psychological and social adjustment and enhance learning among students. Changing demographics and 21st-century workplace needs suggest that ethnic diversity is one important dimension of inclusion to consider. This article presents 4 suggestions for how schools can facilitate inclusivity for ethnic diversity that are recommended to be employed in conjunction with one another: (a) school and classroom ethnic composition (i.e., increased ethnic diversity), (b) positive ethnic identity for ethnic minority students, (c) multicultural/diversity training and cooperative learning, and (d) the promotion of social competence and prosocial behaviors. Developmental considerations are discussed and a case is made that improving individual students’ functioning can ultimately promote inclusivity for all students. Assisting students to be ready and able to form friendships with peers from ethnically diverse backgrounds provides them with valuable experience and skills that they can carry forward to new educational, community, and workplace settings.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • The Importance, and the Challenges, to Ensuring an Inclusive School Climate
    Educ. Psychol. (IF 5.956) Pub Date : 2019-11-15
    Christia Spears Brown

    Although three articles in this special issue address three very different social groupings—gender, ethnicity, and academic needs—they all highlight why inclusion is important for students’ healthy development. The authors make specific suggestions for how schools might promote a more inclusive and welcoming climate for their students. Ultimately, all of the authors recognized that positive intergroup contact is necessary for students to feel included at school but will not simply occur because students have the opportunity to interact. Rather, it is necessary for teachers to be active in establishing prosocial and inclusive classroom norms. This will likely be both the best way to create inclusive schools and the biggest challenge.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Designing Classrooms for Diversity: Fostering Social Inclusion
    Educ. Psychol. (IF 5.956) Pub Date : 2019-11-15
    Shelley Hymel, Jennifer Katz

    Responding to the growing diversity of students within North American schools today, educators have recognized the value of social inclusion as an important goal, supporting both social-emotional and academic success for all students. This special issue explores how teachers play a significant role in promoting inclusive classes by understanding the social dynamics that operate in educational contexts. Addressing a number of different forms that diversity can take (gender, ethnicity, physical and/or mental exceptionalities), these articles rightfully focus attention on group processes that promote inclusion versus exclusion and their impact, and underscore the need for teacher training in such efforts. Supporting and extending this discussion, we present an overview of recent efforts to promote “universal design for learning” in education, which focuses on academic as well as social inclusion, in hopes that educators consider even broader approaches to celebrating diversity and teaching students to relate to others with acceptance and respect.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Complex Systems Research in Educational Psychology: Aligning Theory and Method.
    Educ. Psychol. (IF 5.956) Pub Date : 2018-01-01
    Jonathan C Hilpert,Gwen C Marchand

    The purpose of this work is to provide an overview of complex systems research for educational psychologists. We outline a philosophically and theoretically sourced definition of complex systems research organized around complex, dynamic, and emergent ontological characteristics that is useful and appropriate for educational psychology. A complex systems approach is positioned as a means to align underexplored elements of existing theory with appropriate interaction dominant theoretical models, research methods, and equation-based analytic techniques. We conclude with a brief discussion of several foundational topics for complex systems research in educational psychology.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • An Education in Awareness: Self, Motivation, and Self-Regulated Learning in Contemplative Perspective.
    Educ. Psychol. (IF 5.956) Pub Date : 2010-04-27
    Robert W Roeser,Stephen C Peck

    Consistent with the aims of this special issue, we present a systems perspective on self/identity, predicated on William James's classic distinction between I and Me, and use this perspective to explore conceptual relations between self/identity, motivation to learn, and self-regulated learning. We define the I self functionally in terms of the capacity for the conscious shifting and sustaining of awareness. The I is conceived of as that aspect of the self-system that affords the potential for the conscious and willful, rather than the non-conscious and automatic, motivation and regulation of behavior. We introduce contemplative education as a set of pedagogical practices designed to cultivate conscious awareness in an ethical-relational context in which the values of personal growth, learning, moral living, and caring for others are nurtured. We discuss the implications of contemplative education for the cultivation of conscious and willful forms of learning and living among students and educators alike.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Adapted Minds and Evolved Schools.
    Educ. Psychol. (IF 5.956) Pub Date : 2009-12-01
    Frank C Keil

    Evolutionary psychology raises questions about how cognitive adaptations might be related to the emergence of formal schooling. Is there a special role for natural domains of cognition such as folk physics, folk psychology and folk biology? These domains may vary from small fragments of reasoning to large integrated systems. This heterogeneity complicates claims about abilities to inhibit folk sciences and about how formal education exploits such inhibitory abilities. Moreover, formal education often needs to build on intuitive knowledge systems rather than inhibit them. Education must also reduce complex information to the right level of granularity and help students appreciate the limits of their understanding. This involves learning how to outsource understanding to other minds and to read intentions. Geary (2008) provides an important focus on these issues by suggesting that educational and evolutionary psychologists ask how the patterns found in each field might inform the other.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • A Framework for Designing Scaffolds That Improve Motivation and Cognition.
    Educ. Psychol. (IF 5.956) Pub Date : 2013-11-26
    Brian R Belland,Chanmin Kim,Michael J Hannafin

    A problematic, yet common, assumption among educational researchers is that when teachers provide authentic, problem-based experiences, students will automatically be engaged. Evidence indicates that this is often not the case. In this article, we discuss (a) problems with ignoring motivation in the design of learning environments, (b) problem-based learning and scaffolding as one way to help, (c) how scaffolding has strayed from what was originally equal parts motivational and cognitive support, and (d) a conceptual framework for the design of scaffolds that can enhance motivation as well as cognitive outcomes. We propose guidelines for the design of computer-based scaffolds to promote motivation and engagement while students are solving authentic problems. Remaining questions and suggestions for future research are then discussed.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Toward a Script Theory of Guidance in Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning.
    Educ. Psychol. (IF 5.956) Pub Date : 2013-02-05
    Frank Fischer,Ingo Kollar,Karsten Stegmann,Christof Wecker

    This article presents an outline of a script theory of guidance for computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL). With its 4 types of components of internal and external scripts (play, scene, role, and scriptlet) and 7 principles, this theory addresses the question of how CSCL practices are shaped by dynamically reconfigured internal collaboration scripts of the participating learners. Furthermore, it explains how internal collaboration scripts develop through participation in CSCL practices. It emphasizes the importance of active application of subject matter knowledge in CSCL practices, and it prioritizes transactive over nontransactive forms of knowledge application in order to facilitate learning. Further, the theory explains how external collaboration scripts modify CSCL practices and how they influence the development of internal collaboration scripts. The principles specify an optimal scaffolding level for external collaboration scripts and allow for the formulation of hypotheses about the fading of external collaboration scripts. Finally, the article points toward conceptual challenges and future research questions.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Social-Emotional Factors Affecting Achievement Outcomes Among Disadvantaged Students: Closing the Achievement Gap.
    Educ. Psychol. (IF 5.956) Pub Date : 2002-01-01
    Bronwyn E Becker,Suniya S Luthar

    Despite concentrated efforts at improving inferior academic outcomes among disadvantaged students, a substantial achievement gap between the test scores of these students and others remains (Jencks & Phillips, 1998; National Center for Education Statistics, 2000a, 2000b; Valencia & Suzuki, 2000). Existing research used ecological models to document social-emotional factors at multiple levels of influence that undermine academic performance. This article integrates ideas from various perspectives in a comprehensive and interdisciplinary model that will inform policy makers, administrators, and schools about the social-emotional factors that act as both risk and protective factors for disadvantaged students' learning and opportunities for academic success. Four critical social-emotional components that influence achievement performance (academic and school attachment, teacher support, peer values, and mental health) are reviewed.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Quasi-Experimental Designs for Causal Inference.
    Educ. Psychol. (IF 5.956) Pub Date : 2016-01-01
    Yongnam Kim,Peter Steiner

    When randomized experiments are infeasible, quasi-experimental designs can be exploited to evaluate causal treatment effects. The strongest quasi-experimental designs for causal inference are regression discontinuity designs, instrumental variable designs, matching and propensity score designs, and comparative interrupted time series designs. This article introduces for each design the basic rationale, discusses the assumptions required for identifying a causal effect, outlines methods for estimating the effect, and highlights potential validity threats and strategies for dealing with them. Causal estimands and identification results are formalized with the potential outcomes notations of the Rubin causal model.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Advanced, Analytic, Automated (AAA) Measurement of Engagement During Learning.
    Educ. Psychol. (IF 5.956) Pub Date : 2017-10-19
    Sidney D'Mello,Ed Dieterle,Angela Duckworth

    It is generally acknowledged that engagement plays a critical role in learning. Unfortunately, the study of engagement has been stymied by a lack of valid and efficient measures. We introduce the advanced, analytic, and automated (AAA) approach to measure engagement at fine-grained temporal resolutions. The AAA measurement approach is grounded in embodied theories of cognition and affect, which advocate a close coupling between thought and action. It uses machine-learned computational models to automatically infer mental states associated with engagement (e.g., interest, flow) from machine-readable behavioral and physiological signals (e.g., facial expressions, eye tracking, click-stream data) and from aspects of the environmental context. We present15 case studies that illustrate the potential of the AAA approach for measuring engagement in digital learning environments. We discuss strengths and weaknesses of the AAA approach, concluding that it has significant promise to catalyze engagement research.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Constructionist Gaming: Understanding the Benefits of Making Games for Learning.
    Educ. Psychol. (IF 5.956) Pub Date : 2016-03-29
    Yasmin B Kafai,Quinn Burke

    There has been considerable interest in examining the educational potential of playing video games. One crucial element, however, has traditionally been left out of these discussions-namely, children's learning through making their own games. In this article, we review and synthesize 55 studies from the last decade on making games and learning. We found that the majority of studies focused on teaching coding and academic content through game making, and that few studies explicitly examined the roles of collaboration and identity in the game making process. We argue that future discussions of serious gaming ought to be more inclusive of constructionist approaches to realize the full potential of serious gaming. Making games, we contend, not only more genuinely introduces children to a range of technical skills but also better connects them to each other, addressing the persistent issues of access and diversity present in traditional digital gaming cultures.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Learning and Collective Knowledge Construction With Social Media: A Process-Oriented Perspective.
    Educ. Psychol. (IF 5.956) Pub Date : 2015-08-08
    Joachim Kimmerle,Johannes Moskaliuk,Aileen Oeberst,Ulrike Cress

    Social media are increasingly being used for educational purposes. The first part of this article briefly reviews literature that reports on educational applications of social media tools. The second part discusses theories that may provide a basis for analyzing the processes that are relevant for individual learning and collective knowledge construction. We argue that a systems-theoretical constructivist approach is appropriate to examine the processes of educational social media use, namely, self-organization, the internalization of information, the externalization of knowledge, and the interplay of externalization and internalization providing the basis of a co-evolution of cognitive and social systems. In the third part we present research findings that illustrate and support this systems-theoretical framework. Concluding, we discuss the implications for educational design and for future research on learning and collective knowledge construction with social media.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Introduction to the Special Issue on Social and Emotional Learning
    Educ. Psychol. (IF 5.956) Pub Date : 2019-08-08
    Kathryn R. Wentzel

    (2019). Introduction to the Special Issue on Social and Emotional Learning. Educational Psychologist: Vol. 54, Social and Emotional Learning, pp. 127-128.

    更新日期:2019-10-25
  • Social and Emotional Learning: A Principled Science of Human Development in Context
    Educ. Psychol. (IF 5.956) Pub Date : 2019-07-30
    Stephanie M. Jones, Michael W. McGarrah, Jennifer Kahn

    Decades of research and practice in social and emotional development have left us with a body of knowledge that tells us that (1) social, emotional, and cognitive development are intertwined in the brain and in behavior and influence school and life outcomes; (2) social, emotional, and cognitive skills and competencies grow in supportive relationships and are influenced by experience and context; and (3) there are programs and practices that have been shown to be effective in supporting these skills and competencies. The science of social and emotional learning is distinct in that it represents a blend of the developmental and applied sciences. In this article, we summarize a key framework that has guided much of the research and practical work of social and emotional learning, and we synthesize the major areas of research that have propelled the field forward. We then turn to what’s next, describing and illustrating 4 essential principles that should guide work in the future.

    更新日期:2019-10-25
  • RULER: A Theory-Driven, Systemic Approach to Social, Emotional, and Academic Learning
    Educ. Psychol. (IF 5.956) Pub Date : 2019-06-17
    Marc A. Brackett, Craig S. Bailey, Jessica D. Hoffmann, Dena N. Simmons

    Social and emotional learning (SEL) is the process of integrating cognition, emotion, and behavior in our lives. In school settings, it involves systemic practices to incorporate SEL into leading, teaching, learning such that adults and children build self- and social awareness, learn to manage their own and other’s emotions and behavior, make responsible decisions, and build positive relationships. Here, we describe RULER, a systemic evidence-based approach to SEL, including its Theory of Change, and key theories that are foundational to the approach. RULER’s implementation model also is described, which involves training for school leaders, educators, and staff; integrating SEL into the curriculum across grade levels; infusing SEL into schoolwide practices and policies; and engaging families and the broader community. RULER’s current and expected outcomes for children and adults are reviewed, including both proximal (e.g., more developed emotion skills and enhanced classroom climate) and distal (e.g., reduced teacher stress and burnout and greater academic performance) outcomes. RULER’s future directions also are discussed.

    更新日期:2019-10-25
  • Transformative Social and Emotional Learning (SEL): Toward SEL in Service of Educational Equity and Excellence
    Educ. Psychol. (IF 5.956) Pub Date : 2019-07-22
    Robert J. Jagers, Deborah Rivas-Drake, Brittney Williams

    This article seeks to develop transformative social and emotional learning (SEL), a form of SEL intended to promote equity and excellence among children, young people, and adults. We focus on issues of race/ethnicity as a first step toward addressing the broader range of extant inequities. Transformative SEL is anchored in the notion of justice-oriented citizenship, and we discuss issues of culture, identity, agency, belonging, and engagement as relevant expressions of the Collaborative for Academic, Social and Emotional Learning 5 core competencies. We also point to programs and practices that hold promise for cultivating these competencies and the importance of adult professional development in making these efforts maximally effective for diverse children and youth. We conclude by offering a few next steps to further advance transformative SEL research and practice.

    更新日期:2019-10-25
  • Nurturing Nature: How Brain Development Is Inherently Social and Emotional, and What This Means for Education
    Educ. Psychol. (IF 5.956) Pub Date : 2019-07-30
    Mary Helen Immordino-Yang, Linda Darling-Hammond, Christina R. Krone

    New advances in neurobiology are revealing that brain development and the learning it enables are directly dependent on social-emotional experience. Growing bodies of research reveal the importance of socially triggered epigenetic contributions to brain development and brain network configuration, with implications for social-emotional functioning, cognition, motivation, and learning. Brain development is also impacted by health-related and physical developmental factors, such as sleep, toxin exposure, and puberty, which in turn influence social-emotional functioning and cognition. An appreciation of the dynamic interdependencies of social-emotional experience, health-related factors, brain development and learning underscores the importance of a “whole child” approach to education reform and leads to important insights for research on social-emotional learning. To facilitate these interdisciplinary conversations, here we conceptualize within a developmental framework current evidence on the fundamental and ubiquitous biological constraints and affordances undergirding social-emotional learning–related constructs and learning more broadly. Learning indeed depends on how nature is nurtured.

    更新日期:2019-10-25
  • Challenges and Opportunities in the Applied Assessment of Student Social and Emotional Learning
    Educ. Psychol. (IF 5.956) Pub Date : 2019-06-11
    Clark McKown

    Interest in school-based strategies to support student social and emotional learning (SEL) is strong. Although SEL policies and programs designed to support the development of student competencies have advanced significantly, less work has been done to develop methods of assessing student social and emotional competence. This article briefly reviews developments in the field of social and emotional competence assessment and examines challenges and opportunities in their applied use, including (a) balancing the priorities of assessment developers and educators; (b) ensuring that the inferences and decisions made from SEL assessment scores are supported by evidence of the assessment’s psychometric merit; (c) establishing conditions for SEL assessment and data use that maximize benefit while mitigating risks; (d) coordinating standards, assessment, programs, and professional learning; and (e) balancing highly focused assessments that by design do not vary in content or format, and the varied cultural contexts in which they may be used.

    更新日期:2019-10-25
  • Advancements in the Landscape of Social and Emotional Learning and Emerging Topics on the Horizon
    Educ. Psychol. (IF 5.956) Pub Date : 2019-08-08
    Kimberly A. Schonert-Reichl

    Around the globe, dialogs about educational reform and the integration of social and emotional learning (SEL) into policy and curriculum are proliferating. SEL is now a worldwide phenomenon and not just a passing fad, with SEL approaches and programs being implemented in countries throughout the world. Articles included in this special issue are authored by several of the SEL pioneers whose papers represent the current and emerging innovations in the field central to advancing SEL research. I offer 3 observations raised collectively in these articles: (a) social and emotional competencies predict children’s success in school and in life, (b) social and emotional competencies are malleable—they can be taught and assessed, and (c) explicit attention to context is foundational to the promotion of SEL. I also provide some additional suggestions for advancing SEL work, including (a) understanding and promoting teacher well-being, and (b) integrating SEL into teacher preparation.

    更新日期:2019-10-25
  • What If the Doors of Every Schoolhouse Opened to Social-Emotional Learning Tomorrow: Reflections on How to Feasibly Scale Up High-Quality SEL
    Educ. Psychol. (IF 5.956) Pub Date : 2019-08-08
    Maurice J. Elias

    Social-emotional learning (SEL) refers to a set of competencies that form the basis of human interaction. So, SEL in schools is no fad. But what would happen if every school actively wanted to bring in SEL tomorrow? Using the articles in the special issue on SEL as a springboard, this article looks at the neurological basis of SEL, SEL best practices, approaches to SEL instruction, assessment, and the complex issue of SEL and equity, and it reflects on the implications of these areas for scaling up sooner rather than later. Specific guidelines are provided, starting with this basic point: There are not enough experts available to guide this process, so schools must invest in staff learning about SEL, its rootedness in our biology, its basic role in accomplishing everything humans try to accomplish, and what we know about best practices and must provide cohort-based, ongoing professional development experiences that provide continuous support.

    更新日期:2019-10-25
  • Cognitive Load and Working Memory in Multimedia Learning: Conceptual and Measurement Issues
    Educ. Psychol. (IF 5.956) Pub Date : 2019-02-11
    Øistein Anmarkrud, Anette Andresen, Ivar Bråten

    This article reviews contemporary research on multimedia learning that uses cognitive load theory as the major theoretical framework. In particular, we address the extent to which working memory has been conceptualized and measured in this research, what kind of subjective measures of cognitive load have been used and whether such measures are combined with other measures of cognitive load, and how results from subjective measures have been related to learning and achievement. The findings show that most of the reviewed studies did not include any clear conceptualization or measurement of working memory, used only general subjective measures containing one or very few items, and did not report findings consistent with the hypothesized relationship between cognitive load and multimedia learning. The findings are discussed in relation to the broader goal of improving research on cognitive load in the context of multimedia learning.

    更新日期:2019-05-17
  • Academic Emotional Learning: A Critical Component of Self-Regulated Learning in the Emotional Learning Cycle
    Educ. Psychol. (IF 5.956) Pub Date : 2019-04-08
    Adar Ben-Eliyahu

    The aim of this article is to map the academic emotional learning cycle from a theoretical and practical perspective through the lens of self-regulated learning. Focusing on the learner, a further iteration of the emotional dimension of the integrated self-regulated learning model is articulated by considering within-individual components (i.e., the intraindividual system). Academic emotions are considered an important component of learning that, along with intellectual behavioral-cognitive goals, should be explicit targets of learning. An emotional learning cycle is presented, according to which broader affective inclinations––the expectation to experience certain affect or emotion––shape the relations between emotions and self-regulated emotions that occur during a learning episode. Strategies for self-regulated emotions are outlined in light of the need for more research in this field, along with proposed future directions for research and educational implications.

    更新日期:2019-05-17
  • Emotion Regulation in Achievement Situations: An Integrated Model
    Educ. Psychol. (IF 5.956) Pub Date : 2019-04-29
    Jason M. Harley, Reinhard Pekrun, Jamie L. Taxer, James J. Gross

    Achievement emotions are critical because of their impact on success and failure in important domains such as learning. These emotions may be modified via emotion regulation (ER). The dominant process model of ER (PMER) proposed by J. Gross, however, provides a domain-general account of ER strategies and has not had substantial contact with theories of achievement emotions such as R. Pekrun’s control-value theory (CVT) and the academic achievement literature. Moreover, ER has not been a focal point of major theories related to achievement emotions, such as CVT. We propose an integrated model of ER in achievement situations (ERAS) that integrates propositions about the generation of emotions from CVT with propositions about how emotions are regulated and types of ER strategies from PMER. The ERAS model also offers new propositions regarding how different achievement situations, object foci, and time frames, as well as discrete emotions with different appraisal patterns, impact ER strategies.

    更新日期:2019-05-17
  • Prevention–Permission–Promotion: A Review of Approaches to Errors in Learning
    Educ. Psychol. (IF 5.956) Pub Date : 2018-10-25
    Sarah Shi Hui Wong, Stephen Wee Hun Lim

    Errors are often perceived as undesirable events to be avoided at all costs. However, a growing body of research suggests that making errors is, in fact, beneficial for learning. Building on human resource development literature, the present review proposes a 3P framework of approaches to errors during learning: prevention (avoiding or observing errors), permission (allowing errors), and promotion (inducing or guiding errors). This framework is applied to examine and integrate the empirical evidence on errors that have been commonly investigated in cognitive, educational, and applied psychology research. The psychological mechanisms of each error approach are discussed, and implications for education are considered. This review then concludes by highlighting the ways in which the various error approaches interact with learner characteristics and learning contexts, as well as discussing the role of feedback in error correction and proposing directions for future research toward understanding how errors can be optimized in learning.

    更新日期:2019-02-22
  • Toward an Integrated Framework of Multiple Text Use
    Educ. Psychol. (IF 5.956) Pub Date : 2018-11-05
    Alexandra List, Patricia A. Alexander

    We introduce the Integrated Framework of Multiple Texts to understand how students use and form connections between multiple texts to accomplish personal or task goals. The Integrated Framework of Multiple Texts conceptualizes students’ multiple text use as unfolding over the course of three stages—preparation, execution, and production. In the preparation stage of the framework, individual difference factors and students’ task analysis result in learners’ adoption of a default stance, or a general orientation, toward multiple text use. During the execution stage of the framework, students engage in a variety of behavioral, cognitive, and metacognitive/regulatory strategies to develop cross-textual links and to integrate information across multiple texts. The execution stage concludes with students’ development of a variety of affective and cognitive outcomes as a consequence of text access. Finally, in the production stage of the framework, students draw on these affective and cognitive outcomes to develop external, often written products.

    更新日期:2019-02-22
  • Tail, Tusk, and Trunk: What Different Metrics Reveal About Racial Disproportionality in School Discipline
    Educ. Psychol. (IF 5.956) Pub Date : 2019-01-07
    Erik J. Girvan, Kent McIntosh, Keith Smolkowski

    There are substantial racial disparities in school discipline but little agreement on how best to measure them. The choice of metric can influence conclusions about the magnitude of racial discipline disproportionality and intervention effectiveness. This article describes 2 common (risk ratio, risk difference) and 3 relatively novel (standardized effect size, raw differential representation, discipline rate) approaches to evaluating racial disproportionality, with illustrations of their strengths and weaknesses. Its concludes with a discussion of the metrics and a recommendation that researchers and policymakers consider the raw number of students of color differentially disciplined, as among the easiest to understand, the most stable, and capturing the widest range of information. Even so, no metric captures all relevant aspects of disproportionality. Accordingly, researchers and policymakers should be deliberate in their specific aims in measuring discipline disproportionality and select a combination of metrics that provides information most responsive to their goals.

    更新日期:2019-02-22
  • Introduction to Conceptualizing Writing
    Educ. Psychol. (IF 5.956) Pub Date : 2018-12-17
    Steve Graham

    Writing has been the subject of scientific research since the start of the 20th century. The resulting body of research is rich and diverse, owing much of its heterogeneity and multiplicity to the different ways in which it has been conceptualized. This special issue continues this tradition by presenting new views on conceptualizing writing, ranging from new cognitive models to ones that combine both social and cognitive viewpoints.

    更新日期:2018-12-18
  • A Metacognitive Model of Writing: An Update From a Developmental Perspective
    Educ. Psychol. (IF 5.956) Pub Date : 2018-10-04
    Douglas J. Hacker

    In this article, writing is reconceptualized as primarily a metacognitive process that can be modeled using contemporary metacognitive theory. This reconceptualization of writing was described in an earlier publication, but in the current article the author provides an update on this metacognitive model of writing with 3 purposes in mind. First, the model is elaborated by using a broad range of literature from metalinguistics and children’s writing development that includes a strong focus on the nature of written language. Second, a developmental perspective on the model is provided. Third, future research stemming from this model of writing is discussed, with an emphasis on children’s use of writing as a way to instruct reading and on the use of metalinguistics and metapragmatics to develop writing skills.

    更新日期:2018-12-18
  • The Work of Writing: Raiding the Inarticulate
    Educ. Psychol. (IF 5.956) Pub Date : 2018-10-25
    David Galbraith, Veerle M. Baaijen

    This article proposes that two processes are involved in the generation of content during writing: (a) an active, knowledge-constituting process in which content is synthesized by constraints within semantic memory representing the implicit structure of the writer’s understanding, and (b) a reflective, knowledge-transforming process in which content retrieved from episodic memory is manipulated in working memory to satisfy rhetorical goals. It suggests that, although both processes are required for effective writing, the contrasting nature of the implicit organization guiding the constitution of the writer’s understanding and the explicit organization required to satisfy rhetorical goals is the source of a fundamental conflict in writing. The article starts by relating the processes to current models of writing. It outlines how they are combined in a dual-process model and discusses evidence for the model. The article concludes with a discussion of the implications for writing research and the teaching and development of writing.

    更新日期:2018-12-18
  • A Revised Writer(s)-Within-Community Model of Writing
    Educ. Psychol. (IF 5.956) Pub Date : 2018-10-04
    Steve Graham

    This article presents a revised version of the writer(s)-within-community model of writing. Writing is conceptualized as a social activity situated within specific writing communities. Writing in these communities is accomplished by its members. The model proposes that writing is simultaneously shaped and bound by the characteristics, capacity, and variability of the communities in which it takes place and by the cognitive characteristics, capacity, and individual differences of those who produce it. The model further proposes that writing development is a consequence of participation in writing communities and individual changes in writers’ capabilities, which interact with biological, neurological, physical, and environmental factors. This newer version of the model places a greater emphasis on communication and the reader. It expands the description of a writing community to include the social, cultural, political, institutional, and historical influences that shape it. It further describes the tenets that underlie the operation of the model.

    更新日期:2018-12-18
  • The Challenges of Writing in School: Conceptualizing Writing Development Within a Sociocognitive Framework
    Educ. Psychol. (IF 5.956) Pub Date : 2018-10-26
    Paul Deane

    This article argues for a conceptualization of school writing that emphasizes how cognitive and sociocultural factors interact. In academic, professional, and affinity-based communities, an emphasis on standards of quality drives the adoption of such practices as revision and peer and expert review. In school, everyday writing practices center around demonstrations of knowledge (taking notes, writing summaries, providing personal responses to readings, completing worksheets, etc.) where the teacher is often the sole or primary audience. This context tends to privilege knowledge-telling strategies and prioritize fluency and efficiency of expression. When these sociocultural factors interact with cognition, group differences tend to emerge, as knowledge telling provides few opportunities for disadvantaged groups to overcome barriers linked to differences in prior knowledge, fluency, attention management, or motivation. It also affects the efficacy of instructional practices, because cognitive ability and social identity affect how students internalize the metacognitive concepts and strategies characteristic of expert writers.

    更新日期:2018-12-18
  • What Does a Model Model? And for Whom?
    Educ. Psychol. (IF 5.956) Pub Date : 2018-10-04
    Charles Bazerman

    Writing is an ever-creative artifice, elaborated in many different ways and used for many different purposes in different situations throughout history. From this perspective, each writer, embedded within a perceived sociohistoric moment, poses problems to solve, makes choices, and creates solutions from locally available resources and practices to create an effective communication for local circumstances. Writers develop down idiosyncratic pathways by iteratively solving myriad problems from early childhood through advanced adult competence, at times choosing contingent models, but these are different from the generalized models sought by psychologists. Standardized and standardizing models of writing performance, although having some educational value, do not capture the variety of ways people go about writing and can constrain writing development outside the school walls. This article considers a number of the complexly ramifying problems writers may address, forming individualized solutions of how to go about writing and what writing to produce.

    更新日期:2018-12-18
  • Math Anxiety: Past Research, Promising Interventions, and a New Interpretation Framework
    Educ. Psychol. (IF 5.956) Pub Date : 2018-04-11
    Gerardo Ramirez, Stacy T. Shaw, Erin A. Maloney

    Mathematics anxiety is a pervasive issue in education that requires attention from both educators and researchers to help students reach their full academic potential. This review provides an overview of past research that has investigated the association between math anxiety and math achievement, factors that can cause math anxiety, characteristics of students that can increase their susceptibility to math anxiety, and efforts that educators can take to remedy math anxiety. We also derive a new Interpretation Account of math anxiety, which we use to argue the importance of understanding appraisal processes in the development and treatment of math anxiety. In conclusion, gaps in the literature are reviewed in addition to suggestions for future research that can help improve the field's understanding of this important issue.

    更新日期:2018-09-01
  • The Role of Epistemic Emotions in Personal Epistemology and Self-Regulated Learning
    Educ. Psychol. (IF 5.956) Pub Date : 2018-02-08
    Krista R. Muis, Marianne Chevrier, Cara A. Singh

    The purpose of this article is to delineate the role of epistemic emotions in personal epistemology and self-regulated learning (SRL). We first review important tenets of personal epistemology and SRL and then present a model of SRL that situates personal epistemology within that model. We then define epistemic emotions, describe under what conditions epistemic emotions arise, and delineate how these emotions may facilitate or constrain learning processes and learning outcomes. Specifically, we present five antecedents to epistemic emotions and five consequences of those emotions during learning. The five antecedents are control, value, novelty, complexity, and achievement or impasses of epistemic aims. The five consequences are effects on planning and goal setting, motivation, cognitive and metacognitive strategies, learning outcomes, and revisions to antecedents. We end with a discussion of educational implications and future directions for research.

    更新日期:2018-09-01
  • Complex Systems Research in Educational Psychology: Aligning Theory and Method
    Educ. Psychol. (IF 5.956) Pub Date : 2018-06-29
    Jonathan C. Hilpert, Gwen C. Marchand

    The purpose of this work is to provide an overview of complex systems research for educational psychologists. We outline a philosophically and theoretically sourced definition of complex systems research organized around complex, dynamic, and emergent ontological characteristics that is useful and appropriate for educational psychology. A complex systems approach is positioned as a means to align underexplored elements of existing theory with appropriate interaction dominant theoretical models, research methods, and equation-based analytic techniques. We conclude with a brief discussion of several foundational topics for complex systems research in educational psychology.

    更新日期:2018-09-01
  • Tests, Test Scores, and Constructs
    Educ. Psychol. (IF 5.956) Pub Date : 2018-06-29
    Edward H. Haertel

    In the service of educational accountability, student achievement tests are being used to measure constructs quite unlike those envisioned by test developers. Scores are compared to cut points to create classifications like “proficient”; scores are combined over time to measure growth; student scores are aggregated to measure the effectiveness of teachers, schools, and school districts; indices are created to measure college and career readiness. These and other new uses rely on derived scores created to measure new constructs. The field of educational and psychological measurement has largely ignored these significant, consequential measurement applications. The conceptual frameworks and analytical tools of educational and psychological measurement should be used to study such derived scores and the validity of their uses and interpretations.

    更新日期:2018-09-01
  • Introduction to the Special Issue: Critical Reflections and Future Directions in the Study of Race, Ethnicity, and Motivation
    Educ. Psychol. (IF 5.956) Pub Date : 2018-04-10
    Akane Zusho, Revathy Kumar

    This article introduces the special issue titled “Critical Reflections and Future Direction in the Study of Race, Ethnicity, and Motivation.” We begin by framing the importance of research that considers the changing demographic landscape of the United States. Specifically, we note the increasing racial and ethnic diversity in our schools, as well as the accompanying trend of racial segregation. We discuss the two aims of the special issue, which focus on the identification of constructs that are important to understanding the schooling experiences of racially and ethnic minority youth, as well as on culturally grounded methods that can improve the operationalization of constructs such as race, ethnicity, and culture. We conclude with an overview of the four main articles and commentary that compose the special issue.

    更新日期:2018-07-14
  • Race/Ethnicity and Social Adjustment of Adolescents: How (Not if) School Diversity Matters
    Educ. Psychol. (IF 5.956) Pub Date : 2018-03-02
    Sandra Graham

    In this article, I describe a program of research on the psychosocial benefits of racial/ethnic diversity in urban middle schools. It is hypothesized that greater diversity can benefit students' mental health, intergroup attitudes, and school adaptation via three mediating mechanisms: (a) the formation and maintenance of cross-ethnic friendships, (b) the development of complex social identities, and (c) decreases in perceived vulnerability. These hypotheses are examined in a 3-year longitudinal study of approximately 6,000 ethnically diverse 6th-grade students as they enter one of 26 urban middle schools in California. The overarching goal of this article is to present a strong argument that greater school ethnic diversity can buffer many of the normative challenges of early adolescence.

    更新日期:2018-07-14
  • Weaving Cultural Relevance and Achievement Motivation Into Inclusive Classroom Cultures
    Educ. Psychol. (IF 5.956) Pub Date : 2018-03-13
    Revathy Kumar, Akane Zusho, Rhonda Bondie

    Despite shifting demographic trends, research on motivation generally remains focused on European American, middle-class, educated samples, calling into question its utility and overall generalizability. Thus, the overarching purpose of this article is to increase the practical and cultural relevance of motivational research. Specifically, we review four key principles of motivation—meaningfulness, competence, autonomy, and relatedness—and unpack how they align with the research on culturally responsive and relevant education. Ultimately our goal is to emphasize the importance of interdisciplinary research and to demonstrate how the principles of culturally responsive education are instantiated in motivationally supportive classrooms where teachers are more culturally sensitive and create an environment where cultural differences are appreciated and valued.

    更新日期:2018-07-14
  • Black and Belonging at School: A Case for Interpersonal, Instructional, and Institutional Opportunity Structures
    Educ. Psychol. (IF 5.956) Pub Date : 2018-02-08
    DeLeon L. Gray, Elan C. Hope, Jamaal S. Matthews

    This article is guided by two goals: (a) to consider how race-based perspectives can serve as theoretical tools for investigating Black adolescents’ opportunities to belong at school, and (b) to describe cultural and political aspects of schooling that can support a sense of belongingness among Black adolescents. We discuss support for the belonging of Black adolescents in terms of interpersonal, instructional, and institutional opportunity structures. We provide a set of guiding questions for scholars seeking to advance educational psychology research at the intersection of race, belonging, and motivation. We end by describing specific research directions for an inclusive examination of school belonging, along with strategies to accomplish this goal.

    更新日期:2018-07-14
  • Examining the Academic Motivation of a Diverse Student Population: A Consideration of Methodology
    Educ. Psychol. (IF 5.956) Pub Date : 2018-03-15
    Tim Urdan, Kathryn Bruchmann

    In this article, we review research that has examined the association between race, ethnicity, culture, and student motivation. We begin by describing potential problems regarding how race, ethnicity, and culture are defined in research. Next, we review some of the methods that have been used to examine the associations among race, ethnicity, culture, and several constructs related to academic motivation (e.g., valuing of education, ethnic identity, generational status, and other contextual factors). In this review, we highlight how different methodologies reflect different assumptions, and have led to different conclusions, about these associations. The article concludes with a consideration of future research questions and methodology, including important factors to consider when examining the intersection of race, ethnicity, culture, and academic motivation.

    更新日期:2018-07-14
  • Acknowledging the Whiteness of Motivation Research: Seeking Cultural Relevance
    Educ. Psychol. (IF 5.956) Pub Date : 2018-04-10
    Ellen L. Usher

    This commentary revisits compelling arguments put forth by the contributors to this special issue on the role of race and ethnicity in academic motivation research. First, an overview of how race and motivation have been positioned in prominent theories of motivation is provided and juxtaposed with those offered in culturally responsive pedagogical approaches championed by multicultural educators. Special emphasis is placed on how teachers' and learners' sociohistorical and cultural contexts might influence motivation. Second, the critical role of identity and membership complexity is explored. Third, suggestions for more culturally attentive research methods are offered. The final section includes research and practice recommendations for supporting the academic motivation of diverse learners. Challenges to theoretical and methodological assumptions about race, ethnicity, and culture are offered throughout, including a call to address the role that racism, power, and privilege have played in perpetuating inequality in motivation research conducted in the United States.

    更新日期:2018-07-14
  • The Role of Metamotivational Monitoring in Motivation Regulation
    Educ. Psychol. (IF 5.956) Pub Date : 2017-10-12
    David B. Miele, Abigail A. Scholer

    This article builds on existing models of motivation regulation in order to examine how students identify and address motivational deficits (e.g., not enough motivation or not the right type of motivation). Integrating perspectives from the achievement motivation, metacognition, and emotion regulation literatures, we propose that metamotivational processes play an essential role in students' monitoring of their motivational states. By emphasizing the ways in which students monitor not only the quantity but also the quality of their motivation, our model extends existing perspectives. We identify different components of motivation that are likely to be the target of monitoring (e.g., self-efficacy, intrinsic value), specify the metamotivational feelings (e.g., hopelessness, boredom) that signal problems with each component, and discuss how strategies are selected to address these problems. Our framework generates new questions about how students monitor (and control) their task-specific motivation.

    更新日期:2018-02-03
  • Women in Academic Science: Experimental Findings From Hiring Studies
    Educ. Psychol. (IF 5.956) Pub Date : 2017-11-28
    Stephen J. Ceci

    Although women are underrepresented in the most mathematically intensive fields, the gender gap in these fields has narrowed over the past 2 decades. In my E. L. Thorndike address I summarized the temporal trends in sex differences for 8 fields and considered factors that drive both the underrepresentation of women and its recent narrowing. I reviewed evidence concerning sex differences in mathematical and spatial aptitude, biases in hiring, funding, publishing, remuneration, and promotion, and gendered preferences. I conclude that the most important causes of underrepresentation appear to occur before women matriculate in college and are concerned with ability-related beliefs, stereotypes, and preferences starting in early elementary school, which by the end of high school have reduced the size of the potential pool. By the time women reach graduate school, there is evidence that they are as successful as their male counterparts in being interviewed and hired for tenure-track positions, funded, and published.

    更新日期:2018-02-03
  • Executive Function and Reading Comprehension: A Meta-Analytic Review
    Educ. Psychol. (IF 5.956) Pub Date : 2017-04-17
    D. Jake Follmer

    This article presents a meta-analytic review of the relation between executive function and reading comprehension. Results (N = 6,673) supported a moderate positive association between executive function and reading comprehension (r = .36). Moderator analyses suggested that correlations between executive function and reading comprehension did not vary systematically by age range, type of executive function measure used, type of reading comprehension measure used, or whether the study was a dissertation or a published article but did vary by type of executive function examined in the studies. Studies linking specific executive functions with reading comprehension are then reviewed. The article concludes by discussing implications for a theoretical model of reading comprehension as well as for future research.

    更新日期:2018-02-03
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