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  • Paternal nicotine exposure induces hyperactivity in next-generation via down-regulating the expression of DAT
    Toxicology (IF 3.547) Pub Date : 2020-01-13
    Meixing Zhang; Dong Zhang; Jingbo Dai; Yong Cao; Wangjie Xu; Guang He; Zhaoxia Wang; Lianyu Wang; Runsheng Li; Zhongdong Qiao

    Many substances in cigarette smoke can induce changes in DNA methylation. Our previous studies have confirmed paternal nicotine exposure causes hyperactivity in the offspring via mmu-miR-15b. The main aim of the present study is to explore the molecular mechanism underlying the cross-generation effects of paternal nicotine exposure more comprehensively. The male C57BL/6 mice were exposed to 2 mg/kg/d nicotine for 5 weeks, and then mated with wild-type females. The offspring male mice were subjected to behavioral tests at 8 weeks after birth. The results suggested that, paternal nicotine exposure led to hyperactivity in the offspring. An analysis of the changes in DNA methylation revealed that nicotine exposure induced a rise in the total DNA methylation level of Dat in murine spermatozoa, and the hyper-methylation could imprint in the brains of the offspring mice. Then these epigenetic modifications reduced the expression of DAT in the brain of the offspring, resulting in a rise in the level of extracellular dopamine. The activation of D2 receptors caused the dephosphorylation of AKT, which led to increased activation of GSK3α/β, and ultimately caused hyperactivity in the offspring mice. Further, in wild-type mice, injection of DAT inhibitors simulated this hyperactive phenotype, while the injection of D2s inhibitors reversed the hyperactivity of the offspring caused by paternal nicotine exposure. In conclusion, all results indicated that paternal nicotine exposure could induce hyperactivity in the offspring via the hyper-methylation of Dat. Consequently, Dat may be one of the genes that mediate the cross-generation effects of nicotine besides mmu-mmiR-15b.

  • Trophoblast toxicity of the neonicotinoid insecticide acetamiprid and an acetamiprid-based formulation
    Toxicology (IF 3.547) Pub Date : 2020-01-11
    Gomez Diego Sebastian; Bustos Pamela Soledad; Sánchez Victoria Guadalupe; Ortega María Gabriela; Guiñazú Natalia
  • Toxicity mechanisms of selected engineered nanoparticles on human neural cells in vitro
    Toxicology (IF 3.547) Pub Date : 2020-01-09
    Jasna Lojk; Jernej Repas; Peter Veranič; Vladimir B. Bregar; Mojca Pavlin

    Environmental exposure to nanoparticles (NPs) has significantly increased in the last decades, mostly due to increased environmental pollution and frequent use of NP containing consumer products. Such NPs may enter our body and cause various health-related problems. The brain is a particularly problematic accumulation site due to its physiological and anatomical restrictions. Several mechanisms of NP neurotoxicity have already been identified, however not enough is known especially regarding toxicity of engineered/industrial NPs. The focus of this in vitro study was on analysis of neurotoxicity of different engineered NPs, with which we come into contact in our daily lives; SiO2 NPs, food grade (FG) TiO2 NPs, TiO2 P25 and silver NPs as examples of industrial NPs, and polyacrylic acid (PAA) coated cobalt ferrite NPs as an example of biomedical NPs. All short term exposure experiments (24-72 h) were performed on SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cell line in vitro using higher (25-50 μg/ml) as well as lower (2-10 μg/ml), concentrations that are more relevant for in vivo NPs exposure. We show that NPs can cause neurotoxicity through different mechanisms, such as membrane damage, cell cycle interference, ROS formation and accumulation of autophagosomes, depending on their physico-chemical properties and stability in physiological media. Low, in vivo achievable concentrations of NPs induced only minor or no changes in vitro, however prolonged exposure and accumulation in vivo could negatively affect the cells. This was also shown in case of autophagy dysfunction for TiO2 P25 NPs and decrease of cell viability for TiO2 FG NPs, which were only evident after 72 h of incubation.

  • Perfluorooctane Sulfonate Alters Gut Microbiota-Host Metabolic Homeostasis in Mice
    Toxicology (IF 3.547) Pub Date : 2020-01-08
    Limin Zhang; Bipin Rimal; Robert G. Nichols; Yuan Tian; Philip B. Smith; Emmanuel Hatzakis; Shu-Ching Chang; John L. Butenhoff; Jeffrey M. Peters; Andrew D. Patterson

    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is a persistent environmental chemical whose biological effects are mediated by multiple mechanisms. Recent evidence suggests that the gut microbiome may be directly impacted by and/or alter the fate and effects of environmental chemicals in the host. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine whether PFOS influences the gut microbiome and its metabolism, and the host metabolome. Four groups of male C57BL/6 J mice were fed a diet with or without 0.003%, 0.006%, or 0.012% PFOS, respectively. 16S rRNA gene sequencing, metabolomic, and molecular analyses were used to examine the gut microbiota of mice after dietary PFOS exposure. Dietary PFOS exposure caused a marked change in the gut microbiome compared to controls. Dietary PFOS also caused dose-dependent changes in hepatic metabolic pathways including those involved in lipid metabolism, oxidative stress, inflammation, TCA cycle, glucose, and amino acid metabolism. Changes in the metabolome correlated with changes in genes that regulate these pathways. Integrative analyses also demonstrated a strong correlation between the alterations in microbiota composition and host metabolic profiles induced by PFOS. Further, using isolated mouse cecal contents, PFOS exposure directly affected the gut microbiota metabolism. Results from these studies demonstrate that the molecular and biochemical changes induced by PFOS are mediated in part by the gut microbiome, which alters gene expression and the host metabolome in mice.

  • Identification of key metabolites during cisplatin-induced acute kidney injury using an HPLC-TOF/MS-based non-targeted urine and kidney metabolomics approach in rats
    Toxicology (IF 3.547) Pub Date : 2020-01-08
    Xiaoyu Qu; Huan Gao; Jingmeng Sun; Lina Tao; Yueming Zhang; Jinghui Zhai; Yanqing Song; Tingting Hu; Zhiyuan Li

    Kidney injury is a major adverse effect of cisplatin use. Metabolomics has been used to characterize physiological or pathological conditions through identification of metabolites and characterization of the metabolic pathway. Metabolomics profiling could allow for identification of nephrotoxic mechanisms of cisplatin and identification of biomarkers of cisplatin-induced injury. In this study, we performed metabolomics analysis to characterize key changes in metabolite levels during cisplatin-induced acute kidney injury (AKI) in rats, and screened for sensitive biomarkers for early diagnosis using HPLC-TOF/MS. Rats were intraperitoneally injected with 7.5 mg/kg or 15 mg/kg of cisplatin, or normal saline, and 12 h urine and kidney samples were collected after 72 h. Serum biochemical parameters and kidney histological evaluations showed dose-dependent AKI in response to cisplatin. Metabolomics analysis showed that 37 and 35 endogenous metabolite levels changed in rat urine and kidneys, respectively. Seven key metabolic pathways were disrupted, including the tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA cycle), phenylalanine, tyrosine, and tryptophan biosynthesis, phenylalanine metabolism, glycerophospholipid metabolism, taurine and hypotaurine metabolism, D-glutamine and D-glutamate metabolism, and nicotinate and nicotinamide metabolism. These pathways are involved in energy generation, and amino acid and lipid metabolism, and disruption of these pathways could contribute to oxidative stress injury, inflammation, and cell membrane damage. Furthermore, 11 sensitive metabolites in urine were screened as potential biomarkers of AKI. To validate these biomarkers, we quantified 4 off these biomarkers, and confirmed that levels of these metabolites were altered in urine of rats treated with CDDP.

  • Tracing and attribution of V-type nerve agents in human exposure by strategy of assessing the phosphonylated and disulfide adducts on ceruloplasmin
    Toxicology (IF 3.547) Pub Date : 2019-12-16
    Feiyan Fu; Jialin Chen; Pengcheng Zhao; Xiaogang Lu; Runli Gao; Dong Chen; Haibo Liu; Hongmei Wang; Chengxin Pei

    V-type agents are highly toxic organophosphorus nerve agents that inhibit acetylcholinesterase in the nervous system, causing a series of poison symptoms. Trace analytical methods are essential for the specific verification of exposure to these agents, especially for human exposure. This paper investigates the phosphonylated and disulfide adducts between human ceruloplasmin and O-ethyl S-(2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl) methylphosphonothioate (VX), O-isobutyl S-(2-(diethylamino)ethyl) methylphosphonothioate (VR), and O-butyl S-(2-(diethylamino)ethyl) methylphosphonothioate (Vs). After being digested by trypsin, the mixture of peptides was separated by a nano-liquid chromatography (nano-LC) and analyzed using quadrupole-orbitrap mass spectrometry (Q-Orbitrap-MS). The sensitive LC-MS/MS-assisted proteomics approach was developed to achieve the identification of human exposure to V-type agents based on these modified sites; results revealed that potential biomarkers could be derived from adducts based on the sulfur- and phosphorus-containing groups of V-type agents. This work offered a novel insight into the mechanism of disulfide-containing adducts resulting from the replacement of disulfide bridges by the thiolate groups from the V-type agents. Moreover, four disulfide adducts on human ceruloplasmin were also discovered during this research, specifically confirming exposure to the V-type agents. Furthermore, molecular simulation testified to the reactivity of the modified sites. Collectively, our findings suggest that the eleven binding sites on human ceruloplasmin have the potential use as a selective marker for prediction the V-type agent exposure in humans.

  • Influence of nanoparticles on liver tissue and hepatic functions: a review
    Toxicology (IF 3.547) Pub Date : 2019-12-13
    Raphaël Cornu; Arnaud Béduneau; Hélène Martin

    Due to the increasing interest in nanotechnology in very large application fields, including biotechnology, electronics and food industries, humans are increasingly exposed to nanoparticles (NPs). Consequently, the question about the safety of these nanomaterials and their impact on human health is a legitimate concern. The liver is the primary organ of detoxification and is one of the tissues that is most exposed to NPs. When they reach the bloodstream, NPs are mainly internalized by liver cells. This review focuses on recent in vitro and in vivo studies addressing the effects of organic and inorganic NPs on the liver. Specifically, the impact of the NPs on hepatic enzyme activities, the inflammatory response and genotoxicity processes will be described. Depending on the physicochemical parameters of the NPs and the conditions of exposure, NPs could lead to global liver injury.

  • Transcriptomic Profile Analysis of Brain Inferior Colliculus Following Acute Hydrogen Sulfide Exposure
    Toxicology (IF 3.547) Pub Date : 2019-12-13
    Dong-Suk Kim; Poojya Anantharam; Piyush Padhi; Daniel R Thedens; Ganwu Li; Ebony Gilbreath; Wilson K. Rumbeiha

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a gaseous molecule found naturally in the environment, and as an industrial byproduct, and is known to cause acute death and induces long-term neurological disorders following acute high dose exposures. Currently, there is no drug approved for treatment of acute H2S-induced neurotoxicity and/or neurological sequelae. Lack of a deep understanding of pathogenesis of H2S-induced neurotoxicity has delayed the development of appropriate therapeutic drugs that target H2S-induced neuropathology. RNA sequencing analysis was performed to elucidate the cellular and molecular mechanisms of H2S-induced neurodegeneration, and to identify key molecular elements and pathways that contribute to H2S-induced neurotoxicity. C57BL/6J mice were exposed by whole body inhalation to 700 ppm of H2S for either one day, two consecutive days or 4 consecutive days. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan analyses showed H2S exposure induced lesions in the inferior colliculus (IC) and thalamus (TH). This mechanistic study focused on the IC. RNA Sequencing analysis revealed that mice exposed once, twice, or 4 times had 283, 193 and 296 differentially expressed genes (DEG), respectively (q-value < 0.05, fold-change > 1.5). Hydrogen sulfide exposure modulated multiple biological pathways including unfolded protein response, neurotransmitters, oxidative stress, hypoxia, calcium signaling, and inflammatory response in the IC. Hydrogen sulfide exposure activated PI3K/Akt and MAPK signaling pathways. Pro-inflammatory cytokines were shown to be potential initiators of the modulated signaling pathways following H2S exposure. Furthermore, microglia were shown to release IL-18 and astrocytes released both IL-1β and IL-18 in response to H2S. This transcriptomic analysis data revealed complex signaling pathways involved in H2S-induced neurotoxicity and may provide important associated mechanistic insights.

  • Analysis of β-catenin gene mutations and gene expression in liver tumours of C57BL/10J mice produced by chronic administration of sodium phenobarbital
    Toxicology (IF 3.547) Pub Date : 2019-12-10
    James E. Sidaway, Terry C. Orton, Kassiani Kalaitzi, Huw B. Jones, Alison Foster, Brian G. Lake

    In this study liver tumours produced in male and female mice of the low spontaneous liver tumour incidence C57BL/10 J strain treated for 99 weeks with 1000 ppm in the diet with the model constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) activator sodium phenobarbital (NaPB) were analysed for β-catenin mutations by Western immunoblotting and DNA/RNA analysis. Some gene array analysis was also performed to identify genes involved in CAR activation and in β-catenin and Hras gene mutations. Analysis of 8 male and 2 female NaPB-induced liver tumour samples (comprising 2 adenomas, 6 carcinomas and 2 samples containing separate adenomas and carcinomas) revealed truncated β-catenin forms in just 4 male liver tumour samples, with the presence of the truncated β-catenin forms being confirmed by β-catenin exon 1-3 mutation analysis. Microarray gene expression analysis was performed with three of the NaPB-induced male mouse liver tumour samples where β-catenin mutations had not been identified by Western immunoblotting and DNA/RNA analysis and with three liver samples from both NaPB-induced non-tumour tissue and control animals. Treatment with NaPB resulted in induction of Cyp2b subfamily gene expression in both NaPB-induced mouse liver tumours and in NaPB-treated non-tumour tissue. In addition, the gene expression analysis demonstrated that the β-catenin and Hras pathways were not modified in NaPB-induced mouse liver tumours not exhibiting truncated β-catenin forms. Overall, while chronic administration of the model CAR activator NaPB results in both hepatocellular adenoma and carcinoma in the low spontaneous liver tumour incidence C57BL/10 J mouse strain, only 40% of the liver tumours evaluated in this study had β-catenin mutations. These results are in agreement with previous studies with the CAR activator oxazepam and demonstrate that mouse liver tumours induced by nongenotoxic CAR activators in the absence of initiation with a genotoxic agent are due to a number of mechanisms, including those largely independent of either the Wnt/β-catenin signalling pathway or Hras oncogene mutations.

  • D-glucuronolactone attenuates para-xylene-induced defects in neuronal development and plasticity in Xenopus tectum in vivo
    Toxicology (IF 3.547) Pub Date : 2019-12-04
    Yuan Liao, Yuhao Luo, Nanjisha Ding, Juanmei Gao, Xingbao Wang, Wanhua Shen

    Xylene and its derivatives are known to be neurotoxic to the central nervous system of animals. Our previous work has shown that para-xylene (PX) can cause an increase in apoptotic cells and abnormal avoidance behavior in Xenopus laevis. However, the mechanism underlying the impact of para-xylene (PX) on neuronal structural and functional plasticity is less clear. Here, we examined the effects of PX on neuronal development and plasticity in the developing optic tectum. We found that HuC/D-positive neurons are more vulnerable than SOX2-positive progenitor cells or BLBP-positive radial glial cells after exposure to PX at 1 mM for 48 hrs. The further measurement of postsynaptic receptors and synaptic vesicle proteins showed that the expression levels of GluA1 and GluA2, but not Rab3a and SNAP25, were significantly decreased in the tectal brain. In vivo time-lapse images and electrophysiological recordings showed that PX exposure resulted in significant deficits in neuronal structure, particularly in the total dendritic branch length (TDBL), and visual stimulation-induced excitatory compound synaptic currents (eCSCs) without altering neurotransmitter release probability. Strikingly, coexposure to D-glucuronolactone (GA) and PX rescued the structural and functional deficits caused by PX exposure alone. Furthermore, we found that visual experience-induced structural, functional and behavioral plasticity was blocked by PX exposure, which was also rescued by the simultaneous administration of GA and P X . Thus, our findings indicate that PX is neurotoxic to brain development and plasticity and that GA may be considered a promising candidate to treat PX-induced defects in neural circuits.

  • Altered expression and activity of phase I and II biotransformation enzymes in human liver cells by perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS)
    Toxicology (IF 3.547) Pub Date : 2019-12-03
    Marco E. Franco, Grace E. Sutherland, Maria T. Fernandez-Luna, Ramon Lavado

    Human exposure assessments for perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) have been mostly limited to the quantification of these chemicals in different environmental matrices, but only a few studies have addressed toxicological aspects associated with them. It has been suggested that both PFOA and PFOS are highly stable chemicals that are not metabolized, yet previous reports have described abnormal activity of important biotransformation pathways. Therefore, the goal of the present study was to investigate the effects of PFOA and PFOS on phase I and II biotransformation enzymes at the gene expression and activity levels, and by using the well-established human liver HepaRG cell line. Cells were exposed to a wide range of PFOA and PFOS concentrations for 24 or 48 hours, prior to cytotoxicity measurements, and quantification of expression and activity of three cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYP1A2, CYP2C19 and CYP3A4) and two conjugation enzymes (glutathione-S-transferase (GST-M1) and UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT-1A1)). Expression of all CYP enzymes was significantly reduced from exposure to both PFOA and PFOS after 48 h and from concentrations as low as 40-50 ng/L, with CYP3A4 also presenting the lowest activity. Among the conjugation enzymes, the expression of UGT was significantly reduced only by PFOA after 48 h of exposure, yet no significant alterations in its activity were observed. While the specific chemico-biological interactions of these compounds with gene expression and biotransformation pathways is not clear, the results from this study suggest that the interference of PFOA and PFOS with phase I and II biotransformation enzymes could potentially lead to adverse outcomes resulting from the inability of biotransformation pathways to function as needed.

  • Understanding the mechanistic insight of arsenic exposure and decoding the histone cipher
    Toxicology (IF 3.547) Pub Date : 2019-12-02
    Pritha Bhattacharjee, Somnath Paul
  • Kaempferol alleviates acute alcoholic liver injury in mice by regulating intestinal tight junction proteins and butyrate receptors and transporters
    Toxicology (IF 3.547) Pub Date : 2019-11-27
    Jing Chen, Yan-han Xuan, Ming-xiao Luo, Xiang-gui Ni, Li-qian Lin, Shi-jia Hu, Jing-qiao Chen, Jia-yi Xu, Li-ya Jiang, Wen-zhang Si, Lin Xu, Hui Gao, Zheng Liu, Haiyu Li
  • Effects of zearalenone-induced oxidative stress and Keap1–Nrf2 signaling pathway-related gene expression in the ileum and mesenteric lymph nodes of post-weaning gilts
    Toxicology (IF 3.547) Pub Date : 2019-11-21
    Qun Cheng, Shuzhen Jiang, Libo Huang, Yuxi Wang, Weiren Yang, Zaibin Yang, Jinshan Ge

    Zearalenone (ZEA) contamination of feed affects animal husbandry and the human health. Currently, the molecular mechanism underlying small intestine-related diseases caused by ZEA-induced oxidative stress is not well understood. In this study, we aimed to identify the mechanisms involved in ZEA (0.5–1.5 mg/kg)-induced oxidative stress in the ileum and mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs) and the role of the Kelch-like erythroid cell-derived protein with CNC homology-associated protein 1 (Keap1)–nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) signaling pathway in post-weaning gilts. Forty post-weaning gilts (Landrace × Yorkshire × Duroc) with an average body weight of 14.01 ± 0.86 kg were randomly allocated to four groups and fed a corn–soybean meal basal diet supplemented with < 0.1, 0.5, 1.0, or 1.5 mg/kg ZEA. The results showed that the activity of total superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase decreased (p < 0.05) linearly and quadratically and that the content of malondialdehyde increased (p < 0.05) quadratically in the ileum and MLNs with increasing ZEA in the diet. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that the expression of Nrf2 and glutathione peroxidase 1 (Gpx1) immunoreactive proteins in the ileum and MLNs were significantly enhanced with increasing ZEA. The relative mRNA and protein expression of Nrf2, Gpx1, quinone oxidoreductase 1 (Nqo1), hemeoxygenase 1 (Ho1), modifier subunit of glutamate-cysteine ligase (Gclm), and catalytic subunit of glutamate-cysteine ligase (Gclc) increased (p < 0.05) linearly and quadratically, and the relative mRNA and protein expression of Keap1 decreased (p < 0.05) linearly and quadratically in the ileum with increasing ZEA concentrations in the diet. Further, the relative mRNA and protein expression of Nrf2 and Gpx1 increased (p < 0.05) linearly and quadratically, and the relative mRNA and protein expression of Nqo1, Ho1, and Gclm decreased (p < 0.05) quadratically in the MLNs as ZEA concentrations increased in the diet. Our results provide valuable genetic information on ZEA-induced oxidative stress in the ileum and MLNs of post-weaning gilts and have elucidated the key regulatory genes involved in the Keap1–Nrf2 signaling pathway. Results indicated that the Keap1–Nrf2 signaling pathway might be a key target to further prevent and treat ZEA-induced injury to the ileum in post-weaning gilts.

  • Human CYP1B1-dependent genotoxicity of dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in mammalian cells
    Toxicology (IF 3.547) Pub Date : 2019-11-14
    Yuting Chen, Yifan Wu, Weiwei Xiao, Hansi Jia, Hansruedi Glatt, Ming Shi, Yungang Liu

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent organic pollutants and human carcinogens. It was reported that rat CYP1A1 and catfish CYP1A can hydroxylate 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 126) and 3,3',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (PCB 77), while potential roles of other CYP1 enzymes in the metabolism of dioxin-like (DL) PCBs remain unconfirmed. In this study, three representative DL-PCBs, i.e., PCB 77, PCB 126, and 3,4,4',5-tetrachlorobiphenyl (PCB 81), were investigated on their genotoxicity in Chinese hamster V79-derived cell lines genetically engineered for the expression of human CYP1A1, 1A2 and 1B1, and in the human hepatoma C3A cell line, which endogenously expresses various CYPs. Under both 6 h/18 h and 18 h/6 h (exposure/recovery) regimes, PCB 77 and 81 induced micronuclei in V79-hCYP1B1 cells at micromolar levels, with slightly higher potency in the latter regime, while they were inactive in the parental V79-Mz cells and the V79-derived cell lines expressing human CYP1A1 and 1A2. However, PCB 126 was negative in each cell line. Likewise, PCB 77 and 81 induced micronuclei formation in C3A cells, which expressed CYP1B1. This effect was blocked by co-exposure to tetramethoxystilbene (30 nM), a selective CYP1B1 inhibitor. Immuno-fluorescent staining of centromere protein B in the micronuclei in PCB-treated cultures showed a predominance of centromere-negative micronuclei, which indicated a clastogenic effect. Moreover, all three PCBs elevated the level of γ-H2AX protein (indicating DNA double-strand breaks) in C3A cells, and these effects were blocked by tetramethoxystilbene (10 nM). This study demonstrates that some DL-PCBs are clastogenic in mammalian cells following metabolic activation by human CYP1B1.

  • Prenatal glucocorticoids exposure and fetal adrenal developmental programming
    Toxicology (IF 3.547) Pub Date : 2019-10-12
    Yawen Chen, Zheng He, Guanghui Chen, Min Liu, Hui Wang

    Clinically, we apply synthetic glucocorticoids to treat fetal and maternal diseases, such as premature labor and autoimmune diseases. Although its clinical efficacy is positive, the fetus will be exposed to exogenous synthetic glucocorticoids. Prenatal adverse environments (such as xenobiotics exposure, malnutrition, infection, hypoxia and stress) can cause fetuses overexposure to excessive endogenous maternal glucocorticoids. The level of glucocorticoids is the key to fetal tissue maturation and postnatal fate. A large number of studies have found that prenatal glucocorticoids exposure can lead to fetal adrenal dysplasia and dysfunction, continuing after birth and even into adulthood. As the core organ of fetal-originated adult diseases, fetal adrenal dysplasia is closely related to the susceptibility and occurrence of multiple chronic diseases, and there are also obvious gender differences. However, its intrauterine programming mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. This review summarizes recent advances in prenatal glucocorticoids exposure and fetal adrenal developmental programming alterations, which is of great significance for explaining adrenal developmental toxicity and the intrauterine origin of fetal-originated adult diseases.

  • 3-Methylcholanthrene impacts on the female germ cells of rats without causing systemic toxicity
    Toxicology (IF 3.547) Pub Date : 2019-11-09
    Eric Alejandro Rhon Calderón, Rocío Alejandra Galarza, Alicia Graciela Faletti

    We have previously shown that daily exposure to the environmental pollutant 3-methylcholanthrene (3MC) alters the ovarian function by affecting follicle growth and ovulation. To extend our findings, the aims of this work were to study the effects of daily and non-daily exposure to 3MC on oocyte morphology and integrity and the meiosis process. To this end, immature female rats were daily (0.1-1.0 mg/kg) and non-daily (0.1 mg/kg, three times a week) exposed to 3MC and/or α-naphthoflavone (αNF) (80 mg/kg) for 20 days. The latter was used to study its ability to prevent the 3MC action. Follicular growth was examined by histology, apoptosis by in situ cell death detection, oocyte integrity by morphological parameters and fluorescent dyes, and the meiotic spindle by immunostaining. Compared with controls (C), and in a dose-dependent manner, all 3MC-treated rats showed i) increased presence of apoptotic cells in antral follicles and decreased percentage of healthy oocytes, ii) increased oocyte area, perimeter and perivitelline space and decreased thickness of the zona pellucida, and ii) increased percentage of oocytes with abnormal meiotic spindle. In addition, the non-daily dose of 3MC caused DNA damage in oocytes, but not in blood or bone marrow cells. All 3MC-induced changes were prevented with the co-treatment with αNF. These results suggest that low doses of 3MC severely disrupt the ovarian function and that germ cells seem to be more sensitive to this environmental pollutant than other cells such as peripheral blood and bone marrow cells.

  • Chlormequat chloride promotes rat embryonic growth and GH-IGF-1 axis
    Toxicology (IF 3.547) Pub Date : 2019-11-05
    Bayindala Xiagedeer, Chenping Kang, Xiaohong Hou, Hong Hu, Qianqian Xiao, Weidong Hao

    Chlormequat chloride, a plant growth regulator, is widely applied in agriculture because it can promote sturdier growth of the crops. In this research, we found that rat embryo growth on GD11 was inhibited in vitro at 50μg/ml but promoted in vivo at 75mg/kg.bw by maternal oral exposure. Therefore, the concentrations of chlormequat chloride in the sera of the pregnant rats on gestation day (GD)11 were determined by a high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) test to be 1.94±0.023μg/ml, 3.84±0.080μg/ml, and 7.08±0.11μg/ml, respectively, when the pregnant rats were orally exposed to chlormequat chloride at 75, 137.5, and 200mg/kg.bw. Hence, we performed WEC tests again and confirmed that the rat embryo growth in vitro was promoted by chlormequat chloride at 5μg/mL. The embryonic growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) levels were increased by chlormequat chloride both in vitro and in vivo compared with the control ones. We concluded that chlormequat chloride could elevate GH and IGF-1 levels in embryos and promote embryonic growth both in vitro and in vivo.

  • Gestational and Perinatal Exposure to Diazinon Causes Long-lasting Neurobehavioral Consequences in the Rat
    Toxicology (IF 3.547) Pub Date : 2019-11-05
    Andrew Hawkey, Erica Pippen, Hannah White, Joseph Kim, Eva Greengrove, Bruny Kenou, Zade Holloway, Edward D. Levin

    Diazinon is a widely-used organophosphate pesticide. Pulsatile exposure to diazinon during neonatal development has previously been shown cause long-term neurobehavioral impairments in rats. However, the effects of chronic low concentration exposures during perinatal development remain unclear. This experiment evaluated such effects in Sprague-Dawley rats by implanting osmotic pumps in breeder females prior to conception (N = 13-15 litters per condition) which then delivered chronic, zero order kinetic low-level infusions of 0, 114 or 228 ug/day of diazinon throughout pregnancy. One male and one female from each litter was assessed with a battery of behavioral tests that continued from four weeks of age into adulthood. Litter was used as the unit of variance for the analysis of variance test of significance, with sex as a within litter factor. Diazinon treatment condition was the between subjects factor and time or sessions were repeated measures. Chronic diazinon exposure from pre-mating until the neonatal period caused a significant (p < 0.05) increase in percent of time spent on the open arms of the elevated plus maze, an index of risk-taking behavior. Gestational and lactational diazinon exposure also caused a significant (p < 0.05) degree of hyperactivity in the Figure-8 apparatus during adolescence, specifically affecting the early part of the hour-long test session. This effect had dissipated by the time the rats reached adulthood. Diazinon exposure also caused a significant impairment in novel object recognition, a test of cognitive function. Offspring exposed to 228 ug/day diazinon (p < 0.05) showed significantly less preference for the novel vs. familiar object than controls during the first five minutes of the novel object recognition test.

  • Role of c-Myc/chloride intracellular channel 4 pathway in lipopolysaccharide-induced neurodegenerative diseases
    Toxicology (IF 3.547) Pub Date : 2019-11-03
    Bei Li, Yuan Zhao, ManYu Song, HaiLin Cui, XiuJing Feng, TianYuan Yang, Hong-Gang Fan
  • Cotinine, a major nicotine metabolite, induces cell proliferation on urothelium in vitro and in vivo
    Toxicology (IF 3.547) Pub Date : 2019-11-01
    Shugo Suzuki, Samuel M. Cohen, Lora L. Arnold, Karen L. Pennington, Hiroyuki Kato, Taku Naiki, Aya Naiki-Ito, Yoriko Yamashita, Satoru Takahashi

    Tobacco smoking is a major risk factor for human cancers including urinary bladder carcinoma. In a previous study, nicotine enhanced rat urinary bladder carcinogenesis using a rat urinary bladder two-stage carcinogenesis model. In the present study, nicotine metabolites (cotinine, trans-3’-hydroxy cotinine and N’-nitrosonornicotine) were evaluated in a cell proliferation assay using urinary bladder urothelial cell lines. Cotinine (0.1 to 1 mM) induced the highest cell proliferation compared to the others, including nicotine, in three bladder cancer cell lines (RT4, T24 and UMUC3 cells). By Western blot, cotinine induced phosphorylation of Stat3 and expression of cyclin D1 in UMUC3 cells. The cell proliferation induced by cotinine was blocked by inhibitors of nicotinic receptors (10 nM SR16584 or 10 µM methyllycaconitine citrate) and Stat3 (100 nM stattic). In an in vivo study, cotinine (13, 40 and 120 ppm) in drinking water also induced cell proliferation and simple hyperplasia in urinary bladder and renal pelvis urothelium of rats, but to a lesser degree compared to nicotine (40 ppm). Cytotoxicity detected by scanning electron microscopy and apoptosis in the bladder urothelium were induced by nicotine but not cotinine. These data suggest that cotinine is able to induce urothelial cell proliferation both in vitro and in vivo, and high urinary concentrations may enhance urothelial carcinogenesis.

  • 更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Editorial: Special issue on "Management of OP poisoning".
    Toxicology (IF 3.547) Pub Date : 2019-02-16
    Milan Jokanović

  • Editorial - Special issue on OP neurotoxicity.
    Toxicology (IF 3.547) Pub Date : 2019-02-03
    Milan Jokanović

  • 更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Corrigendum to "Wogonin inhibits H2O2-induced vascular permeability through suppressing the phosphorylation of caveolin-1" [Toxicology 305 (2013) 10-19].
    Toxicology (IF 3.547) Pub Date : 2019-10-23
    Fei Wang,Xiuming Song,Mi Zhou,Libin Wei,Qinsheng Dai,Zhiyu Li,Lu Na,Qinglong Guo

  • Study of acetylcholinesterase activity and apoptosis in SH-SY5Y cells and mice exposed to ethanol.
    Toxicology (IF 3.547) Pub Date : 2017-04-22
    Wenjun Sun,Liangjing Chen,Wei Zheng,Xiaoan Wei,Wenqi Wu,Ellen G Duysen,Wei Jiang

    Ethanol is one of the most commonly abused psychotropic substances with deleterious effects on the central nervous system. Ethanol exposure during development results in the loss of neurons in brain regions and when exposed to ethanol cultured cells undergo apoptosis. To date no information is available on whether abnormally high AChE activity is characteristic of apoptosis in animals exposed to ethanol. The aims of the present study were to determine whether induction of AChE activity is associated with ethanol-induced apoptosis and to explore the mechanism of enhanced AChE activity induced by ethanol. For this purpose, in vitro and in vivo experiments were performed. AChE activity was quantified by spectrophotometry and apoptosis by flow cytometer in SH-SY5Y cells exposed to ethanol. The results showed that cells treated with 500mM ethanol for 24h had a 9-fold increase in apoptotic cells and a 6-fold increase in AChE activity compared with controls. Mice exposed acutely to 200μl of 20% ethanol daily on days 1-4 had elevated AChE activity in plasma on days 3-7. On day 4, plasma AChE activity was 2.4-fold higher than pretreatment activity. More apoptotic cells were found in the brains of treated mice compared to controls. Cells in brain sections that were positive in the TUNEL assay stained for AChE activity. In conclusion, AChE activity and apoptosis were induced in SH-SY5Y cells and mice treated with ethanol, which may indicate that increased AChE may related to apoptosis induced by ethanol. Unusually high AChE activity may be an effect marker of exposure to ethanol. The relationship between AChE and apoptosis might represent a novel mechanism of ethanol-associated neuronal injury.

  • Lack of quinone reductase activity suggests that amyloid-beta peptide/ERAB induced lipid peroxidation is not directly related to production of reactive oxygen species by redoxcycling.
    Toxicology (IF 3.547) Pub Date : 2000-04-27
    S Salim,C Filling,E Mårtensson,U C Oppermann

    Mitochondrial type II hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase (ERAB) has recently been shown to mediate amyloid-beta peptide (Abeta) induced apoptosis and neurodegeneration. The precise mechanism of cell death induction is unknown, however, Abeta inhibits ERAB activities and as a result of ERAB-Abeta interactions, enhanced formation of lipid peroxidation products occur. The possibility that ERAB mediates quinone reduction is therefore investigated, thus giving the potential of redoxcycling and production of reactive oxygen species, leading to lipid peroxidation. Recombinant human ERAB was produced in a bacterial expression system and enzymological properties were evaluated. Using several orthoquinones as substrates, no ERAB mediated quinone reductase activity was found either in the presence or absence of Abeta, suggesting that the observed in vivo lipid peroxidation is a result of other mechanisms than redoxcycling by quinones.

  • Evaluation of tetrabromobisphenol A effects on human glucocorticoid and androgen receptors: A comparison of results from human- with yeast-based in vitro assays.
    Toxicology (IF 3.547) Pub Date : 2016-10-25
    Katharina R Beck,Tanja J Sommer,Daniela Schuster,Alex Odermatt

    The incidence of immune-related diseases increased over the last years in industrialized countries, suggesting a contribution of environmental factors. Impaired glucocorticoid action has been associated with immune disorders. Thus, there is an increasing interest to identify chemicals disrupting glucocorticoid action. The widely used flame retardant tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) was reported earlier to potently inhibit glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and moderately androgen receptor (AR) activity in yeast-based reporter gene assays. To further characterize possible GR disrupting effects of TBBPA, transactivation experiments using a human HEK-293 cell-based reporter gene assay and cell-free receptor binding experiments were performed in the present study. Both, transactivation and GR binding experiments failed to detect any activity of TBBPA on GR function. Molecular docking calculations supported this observation. Additionally, the current study could confirm the antiandrogenic activity of TBBPA seen in the yeast assay, although the effect was an order of magnitude less pronounced in the HEK-293 cell-based system. In conclusion, TBBPA does not directly affect GR function and, considering its rapid metabolism and low concentrations found in humans, it is unlikely to cause adverse effects by acting through AR. This study emphasizes the use of cell-free assays in combination with cell-based assays for the in vitro evaluation of endocrine disrupting chemicals.

  • Wogonin inhibits H2O2-induced vascular permeability through suppressing the phosphorylation of caveolin-1.
    Toxicology (IF 3.547) Pub Date : 2012-12-19
    Fei Wang,Xiuming Song,Mi Zhou,Libin Wei,Qinsheng Dai,Zhiyu Li,Na Lu,Qinglong Guo

    Wogonin, a naturally occurring monoflavonoid extracted from the root of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi, has been reported for its anti-oxidant activity. However, it is still unclear whether wogonin can inhibit oxidant-induced vascular permeability. In this study, we evaluated the effects of wogonin on H2O2-induced vascular permeability in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). We found that wogonin can suppress the H2O2-stimulated actin remodeling and albumin uptake of HUVECs, as well as transendothelial cell migration of the human breast carcinoma cell MDA-MB-231. The mechanism revealed that wogonin inhibited H2O2-induced phosphorylation of caveolin-1 (cav-1) associating with the suppression of stabilization of VE-cadherin and β-catenin. Moreover, wogonin repressed anisomycin-induced phosphorylation of p38, cav-1 and vascular permeability. These results suggested that wogonin could inhibit H2O2-induced vascular permeability by downregulating the phosphorylation of cav-1, and that it might have a therapeutic potential for the diseases associated with the development of both oxidant and vascular permeability.

  • Inhibitory effects of wogonin on the invasion of human breast carcinoma cells by downregulating the expression and activity of matrix metalloproteinase-9.
    Toxicology (IF 3.547) Pub Date : 2011-02-08
    Pu Chen,Na Lu,Yun Ling,Yan Chen,Hui Hui,Zhijian Lu,Xiuming Song,Zhiyu Li,Qidong You,Qinglong Guo

    Wogonin, a naturally occurring monoflavonoid extracted from Scutellariae radix, has been shown to possess tumor therapeutic potential in vitro and in vivo. However, the effects of wogonin on tumor cells invasion remains poorly understood. In this study, we performed in vitro experiments to investigate the anti-invasive and anti-metastatic activity of wogonin in MDA-MB-231 human breast carcinoma cells. Wogonin caused a concentration-dependent suppression of cell migration, adhesion and invasion. The mechanism revealed that wogonin significantly inhibited the expression and activity of both endogenous and phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA)-induced matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) potentially associating with the suppression of translocation of protein kinase C (PKC) δ and phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2). These results suggested that wogonin could inhibit the invasion of tumor cells by downregulating the expression and activity of MMP-9, the possible targets may be PKCδ and ERK1/2.

  • Glycyrrhizin and glycyrrhetinic acid inhibits alpha-naphthyl isothiocyanate-induced liver injury and bile acid cycle disruption.
    Toxicology (IF 3.547) Pub Date : 2017-05-28
    Haina Wang,Zhong-Ze Fang,Ran Meng,Yun-Feng Cao,Naoki Tanaka,Kristopher W Krausz,Frank J Gonzalez

    Alpha-naphthyl isothiocyanate (ANIT) is a common hepatotoxicant experimentally used to reproduce the pathologies of drug-induced liver injury in humans, but the mechanism of its toxicity remains unclear. To determine the metabolic alterations following ANIT exposure, metabolomic analyses was performed by use of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) of liver, serum, bile, ileum, and cecum of vehicle- and ANIT-treated mice revealed significant alterations of individual bile acids, including increased tauroursodeoxycholic acid, taurohydrodeoxycholic acid, taurochenodeoxycholic acid, and taurodeoxycholic acid, and decreased ω-, β- and tauro-α/β- murideoxycholic acid, cholic acid, and taurocholic acid in the ANIT-treated groups. In accordance with these changes, ANIT treatment altered the expression of mRNAs encoded by genes responsible for the metabolism and transport of bile acids and cholesterol. Pre-treatment of glycyrrhizin (GL) and glycyrrhetinic acid (GA) prevented ANIT-induced liver damage and reversed the alteration of bile acid metabolites and Cyp7a1, Npc1l1, Mttp, and Acat2 mRNAs encoding bile acid transport and metabolism proteins. These results suggested that GL/GA could prevent drug-induced liver injury and ensuing disruption of bile acid metabolism in humans.

  • Engineering epithelial-stromal interactions in vitro for toxicology assessment.
    Toxicology (IF 3.547) Pub Date : 2017-03-13
    David G Belair,Barbara D Abbott

    Crosstalk between epithelial and stromal cells drives the morphogenesis of ectodermal organs during development and promotes normal mature adult epithelial tissue homeostasis. Epithelial-stromal interactions (ESIs) have historically been examined using mammalian models and ex vivo tissue recombination. Although these approaches have elucidated signaling mechanisms underlying embryonic morphogenesis processes and adult mammalian epithelial tissue function, they are limited by the availability of tissue, low throughput, and human developmental or physiological relevance. In this review, we describe how bioengineered ESIs, using either human stem cells or co-cultures of human primary epithelial and stromal cells, have enabled the development of human in vitro epithelial tissue models that recapitulate the architecture, phenotype, and function of adult human epithelial tissues. We discuss how the strategies used to engineer mature epithelial tissue models in vitro could be extrapolated to instruct the design of organotypic culture models that can recapitulate the structure of embryonic ectodermal tissues and enable the in vitro assessment of events critical to organ/tissue morphogenesis. Given the importance of ESIs towards normal epithelial tissue development and function, such models present a unique opportunity for toxicological screening assays to incorporate ESIs to assess the impact of chemicals on mature and developing epidermal tissues.

  • Perfluoroalkyl acids-induced liver steatosis: Effects on genes controlling lipid homeostasis.
    Toxicology (IF 3.547) Pub Date : 2017-01-04
    Kaberi P Das,Carmen R Wood,Mimi T Lin,Anatoly A Starkov,Christopher Lau,Kendall B Wallace,J Christopher Corton,Barbara D Abbott

    Persistent presence of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in the environment is due to their extensive use in industrial and consumer products, and their slow decay. Biochemical tests in rodent demonstrated that these chemicals are potent modifiers of lipid metabolism and cause hepatocellular steatosis. However, the molecular mechanism of PFAAs interference with lipid metabolism remains to be elucidated. Currently, two major hypotheses are that PFAAs interfere with mitochondrial beta-oxidation of fatty acids and/or they affect the transcriptional activity of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) in liver. To determine the ability of structurally-diverse PFAAs to cause steatosis, as well as to understand the underlying molecular mechanisms, wild-type (WT) and PPARα-null mice were treated with perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), or perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), by oral gavage for 7days, and their effects were compared to that of PPARα agonist WY-14643 (WY), which does not cause steatosis. Increases in liver weight and cell size, and decreases in DNA content per mg of liver, were observed for all compounds in WT mice, and were also seen in PPARα-null mice for PFOA, PFNA, and PFHxS, but not for WY. In Oil Red O stained sections, WT liver showed increased lipid accumulation in all treatment groups, whereas in PPARα-null livers, accumulation was observed after PFNA and PFHxS treatment, adding to the burden of steatosis observed in control (untreated) PPARα-null mice. Liver triglyceride (TG) levels were elevated in WT mice by all PFAAs and in PPARα-null mice only by PFNA. In vitro β-oxidation of palmitoyl carnitine by isolated rat liver mitochondria was not inhibited by any of the 7 PFAAs tested. Likewise, neither PFOA nor PFOS inhibited palmitate oxidation by HepG2/C3A human liver cell cultures. Microarray analysis of livers from PFAAs-treated mice indicated that the PFAAs induce the expression of the lipid catabolism genes, as well as those involved in fatty acid and triglyceride synthesis, in WT mice and, to a lesser extent, in PPARα-null mice. These results indicate that most of the PFAAs increase liver TG load and promote steatosis in mice We hypothesize that PFAAs increase steatosis because the balance of fatty acid accumulation/synthesis and oxidation is disrupted to favor accumulation.

  • Pathology of diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione airway lesions in a rat model of obliterative bronchiolitis.
    Toxicology (IF 3.547) Pub Date : 2016-12-17
    Gordon P Flake,Daniel L Morgan

    Inhalation of diacetyl vapors by workers has been associated with obliterative bronchiolitis (OB), a poorly understood fibroproliferative disease of the small airways. Significant insights into the pathogenesis of OB have been obtained through the use of a rat model. Inhalation exposure of rats to diacetyl or 2,3-pentanedione, a related flavoring agent, can cause severe injury to the airway epithelium and underlying basement membrane. Repeated exposure to diacetyl or 2,3-pentanedione leads to aberrant repair, fibroproliferation and partial to complete occlusion of the airway lumen. Fibroproliferative lesions in rat airways were found to include both intraluminal polyps and circumferential intramural lesions. Intraluminal polyps have been observed to form secondary attachments spanning the airway lumen causing increasing obstruction. These airway lesions in rats are accompanied by inflammation in the form of peribronchial and perivascular infiltrates of lymphocytes, eosinophils and neutrophils. Diacetyl-induced OB lesions in the rat are similar to OB lesions in humans and provide a good model for studying the pathogenesis of this disease.

  • Novel cell-based assay for detection of thyroid receptor beta-interacting environmental contaminants.
    Toxicology (IF 3.547) Pub Date : 2016-10-19
    Diana A Stavreva,Lyuba Varticovski,Ludmila Levkova,Anuja A George,Luke Davis,Gianluca Pegoraro,Vicki Blazer,Luke Iwanowicz,Gordon L Hager

    Even though the presence of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) with thyroid hormone (TH)-like activities in the environment is a major health concern, the methods for their efficient detection and monitoring are still limited. Here we describe a novel cell assay, based on the translocation of a green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged chimeric molecule of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and the thyroid receptor beta (TRβ) from the cytoplasm to the nucleus in the presence of TR ligands. Unlike the constitutively nuclear TRβ, this GFP-GR-TRβ chimera is cytoplasmic in the absence of hormone while translocating to the nucleus in a time- and concentration-dependent manner upon stimulation with triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroid hormone analogue, TRIAC, while the reverse triiodothyronine (3,3',5'-triiodothyronine, or rT3) was inactive. Moreover, GFP-GR-TRβ chimera does not show any cross-reactivity with the GR-activating hormones, thus providing a clean system for the screening of TR beta-interacting EDCs. Using this assay, we demonstrated that Bisphenol A (BPA) and 3,3',5,5'-Tetrabromobisphenol (TBBPA) induced GFP-GR-TRβ translocation at micro molar concentrations. We screened over 100 concentrated water samples from different geographic locations in the United States and detected a low, but reproducible contamination in 53% of the samples. This system provides a novel high-throughput approach for screening for endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) interacting with TR beta.

  • Loss of c-Met signaling sensitizes hepatocytes to lipotoxicity and induces cholestatic liver damage by aggravating oxidative stress.
    Toxicology (IF 3.547) Pub Date : 2016-07-11
    Luis E Gomez-Quiroz,Daekwan Seo,Yun-Han Lee,Mitsuteru Kitade,Timo Gaiser,Matthew Gillen,Seung-Bum Lee,Ma Concepcion Gutierrez-Ruiz,Elizabeth A Conner,Valentina M Factor,Snorri S Thorgeirsson,Jens U Marquardt

    Recent studies confirmed a critical importance of c-Met signaling for liver regeneration by modulating redox balance. Here we used liver-specific conditional knockout mice (MetKO) and a nutritional model of hepatic steatosis to address the role of c-Met in cholesterol-mediated liver toxicity. Liver injury was assessed by histopathology and plasma enzymes levels. Global transcriptomic changes were examined by gene expression microarray, and key molecules involved in liver damage and lipid homeostasis were evaluated by Western blotting. Loss of c-Met signaling amplified the extent of liver injury in MetKO mice fed with high-cholesterol diet for 30days as evidenced by upregulation of liver enzymes and increased synthesis of total bile acids, aggravated inflammatory response and enhanced intrahepatic lipid deposition. Global transcriptomic changes confirmed the enrichment of networks involved in steatosis and cholestasis. In addition, signaling pathways related to glutathione and lipid metabolism, oxidative stress and mitochondria dysfunction were significantly affected by the loss of c-Met function. Mechanistically, exacerbation of oxidative stress in MetKO livers was corroborated by increased lipid and protein oxidation. Western blot analysis further revealed suppression of Erk, NF-kB and Nrf2 survival pathways and downstream target genes (e.g. cyclin D1, SOD1, gamma-GCS), as well as up-regulation of proapoptotic signaling (e.g. p53, caspase 3). Consistent with the observed steatotic and cholestatic phenotype, nuclear receptors RAR, RXR showed increased activation while expression levels of CAR, FXR and PPAR-alpha were decreased in MetKO. Collectively, our data provide evidence for the critical involvement of c-Met signaling in cholesterol and bile acids toxicity.

  • Screening a mouse liver gene expression compendium identifies modulators of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR).
    Toxicology (IF 3.547) Pub Date : 2015-07-29
    Keiyu Oshida,Naresh Vasani,Russell S Thomas,Dawn Applegate,Frank J Gonzalez,Lauren M Aleksunes,Curtis D Klaassen,J Christopher Corton

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor that mediates the biological and toxic effects of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), dioxin-like compounds (DLC) as well as some drugs and endogenous tryptophan metabolites. Short-term activation of AhR can lead to hepatocellular steatosis, and chronic activation can lead to liver cancer in mice and rats. Analytical approaches were developed to identify biosets in a genomic database in which AhR activity was altered. A set of 63 genes was identified (the AhR gene expression biomarker) that was dependent on AhR for regulation after exposure to TCDD or benzo[a]pyrene and includes the known AhR targets Cyp1a1 and Cyp1b1. A fold-change rank-based test (Running Fisher's test; p-value ≤ 10(-4)) was used to evaluate the similarity between the AhR biomarker and a test set of 37 and 41 biosets positive or negative, respectively for AhR activation. The test resulted in a balanced accuracy of 95%. The rank-based test was used to identify factors that activate or suppress AhR in an annotated mouse liver/mouse primary hepatocyte gene expression database of ∼ 1850 comparisons. In addition to the expected activation of AhR by TCDD and DLC, AhR was activated by AP20189 and phenformin. AhR was suppressed by phenobarbital and 1,4-Bis[2-(3,5-dichloropyridyloxy)] benzene (TCPOBOP) in a constitutive activated receptor (CAR)-dependent manner and pregnenolone-16α-carbonitrile in a pregnane X receptor (PXR)-dependent manner. Inactivation of individual genes in nullizygous models led to AhR activation (Pxr, Ghrhr, Taf10) or suppression (Ahr, Ilst6st, Hnf1a). This study describes a novel screening strategy for identifying factors in mouse liver that perturb AhR in a gene expression compendium.

  • Isoflavones enhance interleukin-17 gene expression via retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptors α and γ.
    Toxicology (IF 3.547) Pub Date : 2015-01-15
    Hiroyuki Kojima,Yukimasa Takeda,Ryuta Muromoto,Miki Takahashi,Toru Hirao,Shinji Takeuchi,Anton M Jetten,Tadashi Matsuda

    The retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptors α and γ (RORα and RORγ), are key regulators of helper T (Th)17 cell differentiation, which is involved in the innate immune system and autoimmune disorders. In this study, we investigated the effects of isoflavones on RORα/γ activity and the gene expression of interleukin (IL)-17, which mediates the function of Th17 cells. In doxycycline-inducible CHO stable cell lines, we found that four isoflavones, biochanin A (BA), genistein, formononetin, and daidzein, enhanced RORα- or RORγ-mediated transcriptional activity in a dose-dependent manner. In an activation assay of the Il17a promoter using Jurkat cells, these compounds enhanced the RORα- or RORγ-mediated activation of the Il17a promoter at concentrations of 1 × 10(-6)M to 1 × 10(-5)M. In mammalian two-hybrid assays, the four isoflavones enhanced the interaction between the RORα- or RORγ-ligand binding domain and the co-activator LXXLL peptide in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, these isoflavones potently enhanced Il17a mRNA expression in mouse T lymphoma EL4 cells treated with phorbol myristate acetate and ionomycin, but showed slight enhancement of Il17a gene expression in RORα/γ-knockdown EL4 cells. Immunoprecipitation and immunoblotting assays also revealed that BA enhanced the interaction between RORγt and SRC-1, which is a co-activator for nuclear receptors. Taken together, these results suggest that the isoflavones have the ability to enhance IL-17 gene expression by stabilizing the interactions between RORα/γ and co-activators. This also provides the first evidence that dietary chemicals can enhance IL-17 gene expression in immune cells.

  • The National Library of Medicine's (NLM) Hazardous Substances Data Bank (HSDB): background, recent enhancements and future plans.
    Toxicology (IF 3.547) Pub Date : 2014-09-17
    George Charles Fonger,Pertti Hakkinen,Shannon Jordan,Stephanie Publicker

    The National Library of Medicine's (NLM) Division of Specialized Information Services (SIS) Toxicology and Environmental Health Information Program is responsible for the management of the online Hazardous Substances Data Bank (HSDB). HSDB, a part of NLM's Toxicology Data Network (TOXNET(®)), is a file of chemical/substance information with one record for each specific chemical or substance, or for a category of chemicals or substances. Like the rest of TOXNET's databases and other resources, HSDB is available online at no cost to global users. HSDB has approximately 5600 chemicals and substances, with a focus on toxicology information and also on human exposure, industrial hygiene, emergency handling procedures, environmental fate, regulatory requirements, and related areas of likely interest to HSDB users. All data are from a core set of books, government documents, technical reports, selected primary journal literature, and other online sources of information, with a goal of linking the HSDB content to as much publicly available information as possible. HSDB's content is peer-reviewed by the Scientific Review Panel, a group of experts in the areas covering the scope of HSDB content. Recent enhancements include the addition of chemical structures to HSDB records, the addition of new subfields such as age groups for human data, more occupational exposure standards, and the addition of information on numerous nanomaterials. Examples of future plans include providing more exposure-related information, e.g., uses of a chemical or substance in consumer products; the addition of information summaries aimed towards consumers and other members of the public wanting to learn about a chemical or substance; more visual content such as diagrams (images) of the pathways of metabolism of a substance; and enhanced search features and navigation.

  • Contact sensitizing potential of pyrogallol and 5-amino-o-cresol in female BALB/c mice.
    Toxicology (IF 3.547) Pub Date : 2013-11-01
    T L Guo,D R Germolec,Ling X Zhang,W Auttachoat,M J Smith,K L White

    Hair dye components such as pyrogallol and cresol have been shown previously to promote allergic reactions such as rashes, dermal inflammation, irritation and dermatitis. The objective of this study was to determine the contact sensitization potential of pyrogallol (PYR) and 5-amino-o-cresol (AOC) when applied dermally to female BALB/c mice. Measurement of the contact hypersensitivity response was initially accomplished using the local lymph node assay. For PYR, significant increases in the proliferation of lymph node cells were observed at concentrations of 0.5% (w/v) and higher. For AOC, borderline increases, albeit significant, in auricular lymph node cell proliferation were observed at 5% and 10%. Results from the irritancy assay suggested that PYR, but not AOC, was an irritant. To further delineate whether PYR was primarily an irritant or a contact sensitizer, the mouse ear swelling test (MEST) was conducted. A significant increase in mouse ear thickness was observed at 72h following challenge with 0.5% PYR in mice that had been sensitized with 5% PYR. In contrast, no effects were observed in the MEST in mice sensitized and challenged with the highest achievable concentration of AOC (10%). Additional studies examining lymph node subpopulations and CD86 (B7.2) expression by B cells further support the indication that PYR was a sensitizer in BALB/c mice. The results demonstrate that PYR is both a sensitizer and an irritant in female BALB/c mice. However, the contact sensitization potential of AOC is minimal in this strain of mouse.

  • Perinatal toxicity and carcinogenicity studies of styrene-acrylonitrile trimer, a ground water contaminant.
    Toxicology (IF 3.547) Pub Date : 2013-09-26
    Mamta Behl,Susan A Elmore,David E Malarkey,Milton R Hejtmancik,Diane K Gerken,Rajendra S Chhabra

    Styrene acrylonitrile (SAN) trimer is a by-product in the production of acrylonitrile styrene plastics. Following a report of a childhood cancer cluster in the Toms River section of Dover Township, New Jersey, SAN Trimer was identified as one of the groundwater contaminants at Reich Farm Superfund site in the township. The contaminants from the Reich Farm site's ground water plume impacted two wells at the Parkway well field. The National Toxicology Program (NTP) studied the toxicity and carcinogenicity of SAN Trimer in rats exposed during their perinatal developmental period and adulthood. The chronic toxicity and carcinogenicity studies in F344/N rats were preceded by 7- and 18-week perinatal toxicity studies to determine the exposure concentrations for the 2-year studies. Subsequently, Fisher 344 pregnant dams were exposed to SAN Trimer containing diet at 400, 800, or 1600ppm concentrations during gestation, nursing and weaning periods of offspring followed by two year of adult exposures to both male and female pups. There was no statistically significant evidence of carcinogenic activity following SAN-Trimer exposure; however, rare neoplasms in the brain and spinal cord were observed in males and to lesser extent in female rats. These incidences were considered within the range of historical background in the animal model used in the current studies. Therefore, the presence of a few rarely occurring CNS tumors in the treated groups were not judged to be associated with the SAN Trimer exposure. The major finding was a dose-related peripheral neuropathy associated with the sciatic nerves in females and spinal nerve roots in males and females thereby suggesting that SAN Trimer is potentially a nervous system toxicant.

  • Evaluation of propargyl alcohol toxicity and carcinogenicity in F344/N rats and B6C3F1/N mice following whole-body inhalation exposure.
    Toxicology (IF 3.547) Pub Date : 2013-09-17
    Sheetal A Thakur,Gordon P Flake,Greg S Travlos,Jeffrey A Dill,Sondra L Grumbein,Sam J Harbo,Michelle J Hooth

    Propargyl alcohol (PA) is a high production volume chemical used in synthesis of many industrial chemicals and agricultural products. Despite the potential for prolonged or accidental exposure to PA in industrial settings, the toxicity potential of PA was not well characterized. To address the knowledge gaps relevant to the toxicity profile of PA, the National Toxicology Program (NTP) conducted 2-week, 14-week and 2-year studies in male and female F344/N rats and B6C3F1/N mice. For the 2-week inhalation study, the rats and mice were exposed to 0, 31.3, 62.5, 125, 250 or 500ppm. Significant mortality was observed in both rats and mice exposed to ≥125ppm of PA. The major target organ of toxicity in both mice and rats was the liver with exposure-related histopathological changes (250 and 500ppm). Based on the decreased survival in the 2-week study, the rats and mice were exposed to 0, 4, 8, 16, 32 or 64ppm of PA in the 14-week study. No treatment-related mortality was observed. Mean body weights of male (≥8ppm) and female mice (32 and 64ppm) were significantly decreased (7-16%). Histopathological changes were noted in the nasal cavity, and included suppurative inflammation, squamous metaplasia, hyaline droplet accumulation, olfactory epithelium atrophy, and necrosis. In the 2-year inhalation studies, the rats were exposed to 0, 16, 32 and 64ppm of PA and the mice were exposed to 0, 8, 16 and 32ppm of PA. Survival of male rats was significantly reduced (32 and 64ppm). Mean body weights of 64ppm male rats were significantly decreased relative to the controls. Both mice and rats showed a spectrum of non-neoplastic changes in the nose. Increased neoplastic incidences of nasal respiratory/transitional epithelial adenoma were observed in both rats and mice. The incidence of mononuclear cell leukemia was significantly increased in male rats and was considered to be treatment-related. In conclusion, the key findings from this study indicated that the nose was the primary target organ of toxicity for PA. Long term inhalation exposure to PA led to nonneoplastic changes in the nose, and increased incidences of respiratory/transitional epithelial adenomas in both mice and rats. Increased incidences of harderian gland adenoma may also have been related to exposure to PA in male mice.

  • Exposure to DEHP decreased four fatty acid levels in plasma of prepartum mice.
    Toxicology (IF 3.547) Pub Date : 2013-04-27
    Ryosuke Nakashima,Yumi Hayashi,Khalequzzaman Md,Xiaofang Jia,Dong Wang,Hisao Naito,Yuki Ito,Michihiro Kamijima,Frank J Gonzalez,Tamie Nakajima

    Maternal exposure to di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) decreased the plasma triglyceride in prepartum mice. To identify the fatty acid (FA) species involved and to understand the underlying mechanisms, pregnant Sv/129 wild-type (mPPARα), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α-null (Pparα-null) and humanized PPARα (hPPARα) mice were treated with diets containing 0%, 0.01%, 0.05% or 0.1% DEHP. Dams were dissected on gestational day 18 together with fetuses, and on postnatal day 2 together with newborns. n-3/n-6 polyunsaturated, saturated, and monounsaturated FAs in maternal plasma and in liver of wild-type offspring, and representative enzymes for FA desaturation and elongation in maternal liver, were measured. The plasma levels of linoleic acid, α-linolenic acid, palmitic acid and oleic acid were higher in the pregnant control mPPARa mice than in Ppara-null and hPPARa mice. DEHP exposure significantly decreased the levels of these four FAs only in pregnant mPPARα mice. Plasma levels of many FAs were higher in pregnant mice than in postpartum ones in a genotype-independent manner, while it was lower in the livers of fetuses than pups. DEHP exposure slightly increased hepatic arachidonic acid, α-linolenic acid, palmitoleic acid and oleic acid in fetuses, but not in pups. However, DEHP exposure did not clearly influence FA desaturase 1 and 2 nor elongase 2 and 5 expressions in the liver of all maternal mice. Taken together, the levels of plasma four FAs with shorter carbon chains were higher in pregnant mPPARα mice than in other genotypes, and DEHP exposure decreased these specific FA concentrations only in mPPARα mice, similarly to triglyceride levels.

  • Mixtures research at NIEHS: an evolving program.
    Toxicology (IF 3.547) Pub Date : 2012-11-14
    Cynthia V Rider,Danielle J Carlin,Micheal J Devito,Claudia L Thompson,Nigel J Walker

    The National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) has a rich history in evaluating the toxicity of mixtures. The types of mixtures assessed by the Division of the National Toxicology Program (DNTP) and the extramural community (through the Division of Extramural Research and Training, DERT) have included a broad range of chemicals and toxicants, with each study having a unique set of questions and design considerations. Some examples of the types of mixtures studied include: groundwater contaminants, pesticides/fertilizers, dioxin-like chemicals (assessing the toxic equivalency approach), drug combinations, air pollution, metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, technical mixtures (e.g., pentachlorophenol, flame retardants), and mixed entities (e.g., herbals, asbestos). These endeavors have provided excellent data on the toxicity of specific mixtures and have been informative to the human health risk assessment process in general (e.g., providing data on low dose exposures to environmental chemicals). However, the mixtures research effort at NIEHS, to date, has been driven by test article nominations to the DNTP or by investigator-initiated research through DERT. Recently, the NIEHS has embarked upon an effort to coordinate mixtures research across both intramural and extramural divisions in order to maximize mixtures research results. A path forward for NIEHS mixtures research will be based on feedback from a Request for Information (RFI) designed to gather up-to-date views on the knowledge gaps and roadblocks to evaluating mixtures and performing cumulative risk assessment, and a workshop organized to bring together mixtures experts from risk assessment, exposure science, biology, epidemiology, and statistics. The future of mixtures research at NIEHS will include projects from nominations to DNTP, studies by extramural investigators, and collaborations across government agencies that address high-priority questions in the field of mixtures research.

  • Repeated dose toxicity and relative potency of 1,2,3,4,6,7-hexachloronaphthalene (PCN 66) 1,2,3,5,6,7-hexachloronaphthalene (PCN 67) compared to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) for induction of CYP1A1, CYP1A2 and thymic atrophy in female Harlan Sprague-Dawley rats.
    Toxicology (IF 3.547) Pub Date : 2012-07-21
    Michelle J Hooth,Abraham Nyska,Laurene M Fomby,Daphne Y Vasconcelos,Molly Vallant,Michael J DeVito,Nigel J Walker

    In this study we assessed the relative toxicity and potency of the chlorinated naphthalenes 1,2,3,4,6,7-hexachloronaphthalene (PCN 66) and 1,2,3,5,6,7-hexachloronaphthalene (PCN 67) relative to that of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). Chemicals were administered in corn oil:acetone (99:1) by gavage to female Harlan Sprague-Dawley rats at dosages of 0 (vehicle), 500, 1500, 5000, 50,000 and 500,000 ng/kg (PCN 66 and PCN 67) and 1, 3, 10, 100, and 300 ng/kg (TCDD) for 2 weeks. Histopathologic changes were observed in the thymus, liver and lung of TCDD treated animals and in the liver and thymus of PCN treated animals. Significant increases in CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 associated enzyme activity were observed in all animals exposed to TCDD, PCN 66 and PCN 67. Dose response modeling of CYP1A1, CYP1A2 and thymic atrophy gave ranges of estimated relative potencies, as compared to TCDD, of 0.0015-0.0072, for PCN 66 and 0.00029-0.00067 for PCN 67. Given that PCN 66 and PCN 67 exposure resulted in biochemical and histopathologic changes similar to that seen with TCDD, this suggests that they should be included in the WHO toxic equivalency factor (TEF) scheme, although the estimated relative potencies indicate that these hexachlorinated naphthalenes should not contribute greatly to the overall human body burden of dioxin-like activity.

  • Endosulfan upregulates AP-1 binding and ARE-mediated transcription via ERK1/2 and p38 activation in HepG2 cells.
    Toxicology (IF 3.547) Pub Date : 2011-12-08
    Min Ok Song,Chang-Ho Lee,Hyun Ok Yang,Jonathan H Freedman

    Endosulfan is an organochlorine insecticide and has been implicated in neurotoxicity, hepatotoxicity, immunosuppression and teratogenicity. However, the molecular mechanism of endosulfan toxicity is not yet clear. Recent studies demonstrated that oxidative stress induced by endosulfan is involved in its toxicity and accumulating evidence suggests that endosulfan can modulate the activities of stress-responsive signal transduction pathways including extracellular signal regulated kinases (ERK) 1/2. However, none of the previous studies investigated the ability of endosulfan to modulate activating protein-1 (AP-1) binding and antioxidant response element (ARE)-mediated transcription as an underlying mechanism of endosulfan toxicity. In this report, we show that treatment of HepG2 cells with endosulfan significantly increased oxidative stress-responsive transcription via AP-1 activation. In addition, endosulfan-induced transcription was enhanced in cells depleted of glutathione by buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) treatment. Exposure to endosulfan resulted in a significant increase in the activities of MAPKs, ERK1/2 and p38. Endosulfan-induced increases in enzymatic activities of these MAPKs were consistent with MAPK phosphorylation. Endosulfan exposure also caused an increase in c-Jun phosphorylation. These results suggest a model for endosulfan toxicity in which endosulfan increases ERK1/2 and p38 activities and these activated MAPKs then increase c-Jun phosphorylation. Phosphorylated c-Jun, in turn, increases AP-1 activity, which results in activation of ARE-mediated transcription.

  • Correlation of tissue concentrations of the pyrethroid bifenthrin with neurotoxicity in the rat.
    Toxicology (IF 3.547) Pub Date : 2011-08-23
    Edward J Scollon,James M Starr,Kevin M Crofton,Marcelo J Wolansky,Michael J DeVito,Michael F Hughes

    The potential for human exposure to pyrethroid pesticides has prompted pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic research to better characterize risk. This work tested the hypothesis that blood and brain concentrations of the pyrethroid bifenthrin are predictive of neurotoxic effects. Adult male Long Evans rats received a single oral dose of bifenthrin dissolved in corn oil. Using figure-eight mazes, motor activity was measured for 1h at 4- and 7-h following exposure to bifenthrin (0-16mg/kg or 0-9mg/kg, respectively; n=4-8/group). Whole blood and brains were collected immediately following motor activity assays. Bifenthrin concentrations in blood and brain were quantified using HPLC/MS/MS. Bifenthrin exposure decreased motor activity from 20% to 70% in a dose-dependent manner at both time points. The relationship between motor activity data and administered dose, and blood and brain bifenthrin concentrations were described using a sigmoidal E(max) model. The relationships between motor activity and administered dose or blood concentrations were different between the 4- and 7-h time points. The relationship between motor activity and brain concentration was not significantly different between the two time points. These data suggest that momentary brain concentration of bifenthrin may be a more precise dose metric for predicting behavioral effects because the relationship between brain concentration and locomotor activity is independent of the time of exposure.

  • Microgram-order ammonium perfluorooctanoate may activate mouse peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha, but not human PPARalpha.
    Toxicology (IF 3.547) Pub Date : 2009-09-16
    Toshiki Nakamura,Yuki Ito,Yukie Yanagiba,Doni Hikmat Ramdhan,Yasuhide Kono,Hisao Naito,Yumi Hayashi,Yufei Li,Toshifumi Aoyama,Frank J Gonzalez,Tamie Nakajima

    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) is a ligand for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) alpha, which exhibits marked species differences in expression and function, especially between rodents and humans. We investigated the functional difference in PFOA response between mice and humans, using a humanized PPARalpha transgenic mouse line. Three genotyped mice, 129/Sv wild-type (mPPARalpha), Pparalpha-null mice and humanized PPARalpha (hPPARalpha) mice (8-week-old males) were divided into three groups: the first was treated with water daily for 2 weeks by gavage (control group), and the remaining two groups were treated with 0.1 and 0.3mg/kg ammonium perflurooctanate (APFO), respectively, for 2 weeks by gavage. The APFO dosages used did not influence the plasma triglyceride or total cholesterol levels in any mouse line, but the high dose increased both hepatic lipid levels only in mPPARalpha mice. APFO increased mRNA and/or protein levels of PPARalpha target genes cytochrome P450 Cyp4a10, peroxisomal thiolase and bifunctional protein only in the liver of mPPARalpha mice, but not in Pparalpha-null or hPPARalpha mice. This chemical also increased expression of mitochondrial very long chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase only in the liver of mPPARalpha mice. Taken together, human PPARalpha may be less responsive to PFOA than that of mice when a relatively low dose is applied. This information may be very valuable in considering whether PFOA influences the lipid metabolism in humans.

  • Inflammatory and chloracne-like skin lesions in B6C3F1 mice exposed to 3,3',4,4'-tetrachloroazobenzene for 2 years.
    Toxicology (IF 3.547) Pub Date : 2009-09-10
    Yuval Ramot,Abraham Nyska,Warren Lieuallen,Alex Maly,Gordon Flake,Grace E Kissling,Amy Brix,David E Malarkey,Michelle J Hooth

    Exposure to dioxin and dioxin-like compounds (DLCs) has been connected to the induction of chloracne in humans and animals. 3,3',4,4'-Tetrachloroazobenzene (TCAB) is an environmental contaminant that induces chloracne in humans. TCAB has been studied only to a limited extent in laboratory animals. While performing a 2-year gavage study in B6C3F1 mice to evaluate the toxic and carcinogenic effects of TCAB, we also explored potential chloracnegenic properties. Groups of 50 male and 50 female B6C3F1 mice were exposed by gavage to TCAB at dose levels of 0, 3, 10 and 30 mg/kg for 5 days a week for 2 years. The animals developed treatment-related gross inflammatory skin lesions, which were characterized histologically by inflammation, fibrosis, hyperplasia, and ulcers. Additionally, many of the animals developed follicular dilatation and sebaceous gland atrophy, consistent with chloracne-like lesions. This current 2-year study supports recently published papers showing susceptibility to chloracne in mouse strains other than hairless mice. The chloracne-like lesions were not clinically evident; therefore, our study highlights the need for careful examination of the skin in order to identify subtle lesions consistent with chloracne-like changes in rodents exposed to dioxin and DLCs. Since previous short-term studies did not demonstrate any skin lesions, we suggest that reliable assessment of all safety issues involving dioxin and DLCs requires evaluation following chronic exposure. Such studies in animal models will help to elucidate the mechanisms of dioxin-related health hazards.

  • Aberrant cytokeratin expression during arsenic-induced acquired malignant phenotype in human HaCaT keratinocytes consistent with epidermal carcinogenesis.
    Toxicology (IF 3.547) Pub Date : 2009-06-16
    Yang Sun,Jingbo Pi,Xueqian Wang,Erik J Tokar,Jie Liu,Michael P Waalkes

    Inorganic arsenic is a known human skin carcinogen. Chronic arsenic exposure results in various human skin lesions, including hyperkeratosis and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), both characterized by distorted cytokeratin (CK) production. Prior work shows the human skin keratinocyte HaCaT cell line, when exposed chronically for >25 weeks to a low level of inorganic arsenite (100nM) results in cells able to produce aggressive SCC upon inoculation into nude mice. In the present study, CK expression analysis was performed in arsenic-exposed HaCaT cells during the progressive acquisition of this malignant phenotype (0-20 weeks) to further validate this model as relevant to epidermal carcinogenesis induced by arsenic in humans. Indeed, we observed clear evidence of acquired cancer phenotype by 20 weeks of arsenite exposure including the formation of giant cells, a >4-fold increase in colony formation in soft agar and a approximately 2.5-fold increase in matrix metalloproteinase-9 secretion, an enzyme often secreted by cancer cells to help invade through the local extra-cellular matrix. During this acquired malignant phenotype, various CK genes showed markedly altered expression at the transcript and protein levels in a time-dependent manner. For example, CK1, a marker of hyperkeratosis, increased up to 34-fold during arsenic-induced transformation, while CK13, a marker for dermal cancer progression, increased up to 45-fold. The stem cell marker, CK15, increased up to 7-fold, particularly during the later stages of arsenic exposure, indicating a potential emergence of cancer stem-like cells with arsenic-induced acquired malignant phenotype. The expression of involucrin and loricrin, markers for keratinocyte differentiation, increased up to 9-fold. Thus, during arsenic-induced acquired cancer phenotype in human keratinocytes, dramatic and dynamic alterations in CK expression occur which are consistent with the process of epidermal carcinogenesis helping validate this as an appropriate model for the study of arsenic-induced skin cancer.

  • Exposure and toxicity of green tea polyphenols in fasted and non-fasted dogs.
    Toxicology (IF 3.547) Pub Date : 2009-05-26
    I M Kapetanovic,J A Crowell,R Krishnaraj,A Zakharov,M Lindeblad,A Lyubimov

    Standardized green tea extract was evaluated for exposure and toxicity in Beagle dogs following oral dosing by capsules. The main component (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) accounted for 56-72% of the material. A 9-month chronic study (0, 200, 500, and 1000 mg/kg/day) was done in fasted dogs to take advantage of the reported improved catechin bioavailability with fasting. Extensive morbidity, mortality, and pathology of many major organs led to its early termination at 6.5 months and prevented identification of the toxicity mechanisms. A follow-up 13-week study examined the exposure to and toxicity of the extract. In general, toxicities were less severe than in the chronic study during the same interval. Dosing in a fed state resulted in considerably lower and less variable exposure than found under fasted conditions. Toxicity was less frequent and of lesser severity with lower exposure but limited sample size and large variability prevented reaching that definitive conclusion. Differences in mortality and morbidity between the preliminary terminated chronic and follow-up subchronic studies with the same dose of the same drug lot and similar exposure were not fully resolved as there may be other as yet unclear confounding factors.

  • Impact of life stage and duration of exposure on arsenic-induced proliferative lesions and neoplasia in C3H mice.
    Toxicology (IF 3.547) Pub Date : 2009-05-20
    Gene J Ahlborn,Gail M Nelson,Rachel D Grindstaff,Michael P Waalkes,Bhalchandra A Diwan,James W Allen,Kirk T Kitchin,R Julian Preston,Araceli Hernandez-Zavala,Blakely Adair,David J Thomas,Don A Delker

    Epidemiological studies suggest that chronic exposure to inorganic arsenic is associated with cancer of the skin, urinary bladder and lung as well as the kidney and liver. Previous experimental studies have demonstrated increased incidence of liver, lung, ovary, and uterine tumors in mice exposed to 85 ppm (approximately 8 mg/kg) inorganic arsenic during gestation. To further characterize age susceptibility to arsenic carcinogenesis we administered 85 ppm inorganic arsenic in drinking water to C3H mice during gestation, prior to pubescence and post-pubescence to compare proliferative lesion and tumor outcomes over a one-year exposure period. Inorganic arsenic significantly increased the incidence of hyperplasia in urinary bladder (48%) and oviduct (36%) in female mice exposed prior to pubescence (beginning on postnatal day 21 and extending through one year) compared to control mice (19 and 5%, respectively). Arsenic also increased the incidence of hyperplasia in urinary bladder (28%) of female mice continuously exposed to arsenic (beginning on gestation day 8 and extending though one year) compared to gestation only exposed mice (0%). In contrast, inorganic arsenic significantly decreased the incidence of tumors in liver (0%) and adrenal glands (0%) of male mice continuously exposed from gestation through one year, as compared to levels in control (30 and 65%, respectively) and gestation only (33 and 55%, respectively) exposed mice. Together, these results suggest that continuous inorganic arsenic exposure at 85 ppm from gestation through one year increases the incidence and severity of urogenital proliferative lesions in female mice and decreases the incidence of liver and adrenal tumors in male mice. The paradoxical nature of these effects may be related to altered lipid metabolism, the effective dose in each target organ, and/or the shorter one-year observational period.

  • Aberrant DNA methylation and gene expression in livers of newborn mice transplacentally exposed to a hepatocarcinogenic dose of inorganic arsenic.
    Toxicology (IF 3.547) Pub Date : 2007-04-25
    Yaxiong Xie,Jie Liu,Lamia Benbrahim-Tallaa,Jerry M Ward,Daniel Logsdon,Bhalchandra A Diwan,Michael P Waalkes

    Our prior work showed that brief exposure of pregnant C3H mice to inorganic arsenic-induced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) formation in adult male offspring. The current study examined the early hepatic events associated with this oncogenic transformation. Pregnant mice were exposed to a known carcinogenic dose of arsenic (85 ppm) in the drinking water from gestation days 8 to 18. The dams were allowed to give birth and liver samples from newborn males were analyzed for arsenic content, global DNA methylation and aberrant expression of genes relevant to the carcinogenic process. Arsenic content in newborn liver reached 57 ng/g wet weight, indicating arsenic had crossed the placenta, reached the fetal liver and that significant amounts remained after birth. Global methylation status of hepatic DNA was not altered by arsenic in the newborn. However, a significant reduction in methylation occurred globally in GC-rich regions. Microarray and real-time RT-PCR analysis showed that arsenic exposure enhanced expression of genes encoding for glutathione production and caused aberrant expression of genes related to insulin growth factor signaling pathways and cytochrome P450 enzymes. Other expression alterations observed in the arsenic-treated male mouse newborn liver included the overexpression of cdk-inhibitors and stress response genes including increased expression of metallothionein-1 and decreased expression of betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase and thioether S-methyltransferase. Thus, transplacental exposure to arsenic at a hepatocarcinogenic dose induces alterations in DNA methylation and a complex set of aberrant gene expressions in the newborn liver, a target of arsenic carcinogenesis.

  • Carcinogenesis studies of cresols in rats and mice.
    Toxicology (IF 3.547) Pub Date : 2008-12-31
    J M Sanders,J R Bucher,J C Peckham,G E Kissling,M R Hejtmancik,R S Chhabra

    Cresols, monomethyl derivatives of phenol, are high production chemicals with potential for human exposure. The three isomeric forms of cresol are used individually or in mixtures as disinfectants, preservatives, and solvents or as intermediates in the production of antioxidants, fragrances, herbicides, insecticides, dyes, and explosives. Carcinogenesis studies were conducted in groups of 50 male F344/N rats and 50 female B6C3F1 mice exposed to a 60:40 mixture of m- and p-cresols (m-/p-cresol) in feed. Rats and mice were fed diets containing 0, 1500, 5000, or 15,000 ppm and 0, 1000, 3000, or 10,000 ppm, respectively. Survival of each exposed group was similar to that of their respective control group. Mean body weight gains were depressed in rats exposed to 15,000 ppm and in mice exposed to 3000 ppm and higher. A decrease of 25% over that of controls for the final mean body weight in mice exposed to 10,000 ppm appeared to be associated with lack of palatability of the feed. A marginally increased incidence of renal tubule adenoma was observed in the 15,000-ppm-exposed rats. The increased incidence was not statistically significant, but did exceed the range of historical controls. No increased incidence of hyperplasia of the renal tubules was observed; however, a significantly increased incidence of hyperplasia of the transitional epithelium associated with an increased incidence of nephropathy was observed at the high exposure concentration. The only significantly increased incidence of a neoplastic lesion related to cresol exposure observed in these studies was that of squamous cell papilloma in the forestomach of 10,000-ppm-exposed mice. A definitive association with irritation at the site-of-contact could not be made because of limited evidence of injury to the gastric mucosa at the time of necropsy. However, given the minimal chemical-related neoplastic response in these studies, it was concluded that there was no clear evidence of carcinogenicity in male rats or female mice exposed to the cresol mixture.

  • A comparative 90-day toxicity study of allyl acetate, allyl alcohol and acrolein.
    Toxicology (IF 3.547) Pub Date : 2008-09-27
    Scott S Auerbach,Joel Mahler,Gregory S Travlos,Richard D Irwin

    Allyl acetate (AAC), allyl alcohol (AAL), and acrolein (ACR) are used in the manufacture of detergents, plastics, pharmaceuticals, and chemicals and as agricultural agents. A metabolic relationship exists between these chemicals in which allyl acetate is metabolized to allyl alcohol and subsequently to the highly reactive, alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehyde, acrolein. Due to the weaker reactivity of the protoxicants, allyl acetate and allyl alcohol, relative to acrolien we hypothesized the protoxicants would attain greater systemic exposure and therefore deliver higher doses of acrolein to the internal organs. By extension, the higher systemic exposure to acrolein we hypothesized should lead to more internal organ toxicity in the allyl acetate and allyl alcohol treated animals relative to those treated with acrolein. To address our hypothesis we compared the range of toxicities produced by all three chemicals in male and female Fischer 344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice exposed 5 days a week for 3 months by gavage in 0.5% methylcellulose. Rats (10/group) were dosed with 0-100mg/kg allyl acetate, 0-25mg/kg allyl alcohol, or 0-10mg/kg acrolein. Mice (10/group) were dosed with 0-125mg/kg allyl acetate, 0-50mg/kg allyl alcohol, or 0-20mg/kg acrolein. The highest dose of allyl acetate and acrolein decreased survival in both mice and rats. The primary target organ for the toxicity of all three chemicals in both species and sexes was the forestomach; squamous epithelial hyperplasia was observed following exposure to each chemical. In both species the highest allyl acetate dose group exhibited forestomach epithelium necrosis and hemorrhage and the highest dose of acrolein led to glandular stomach hemorrhage. Liver histopathology was the most apparent with allyl acetate, was also observed with allyl alcohol, but was not observed with acrolein. All chemicals had effects on the hematopoietic system with allyl acetate having the most pronounced effect. When dosed at quantities limited by toxicity, allyl acetate and allyl alcohol produce higher levels of urinary mercapturic acids than the minimally toxic dose of acrolein. This observation is likely due to biotransformation of allyl acetate and ally alcohol to acrolein that occurs after absorption and suggests that these chemicals are protoxicants that increase systemic exposure of acrolein. Increased systemic exposure to acrolein is likely responsible for the differences in hepatic toxicological profile observed with these chemicals.

  • Toxicity and carcinogenicity of methyl isobutyl ketone in F344N rats and B6C3F1 mice following 2-year inhalation exposure.
    Toxicology (IF 3.547) Pub Date : 2008-01-08
    Matthew D Stout,Ronald A Herbert,Grace E Kissling,Fernando Suarez,Joseph H Roycroft,Rajendra S Chhabra,John R Bucher

    Methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK) is primarily used as a denaturant for rubbing alcohol, as a solvent and in the manufacture of methyl amyl alcohol. Inhalation of vapors is the most likely route of exposure in the work place. In order to evaluate the potential of MIBK to induce toxic and carcinogenic effects following chronic exposure, groups of 50 male and 50 female F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice were exposed to MIBK at concentrations of 0, 450, 900, or 1800ppm by inhalation, 6h/day, 5 days per week for 2 years. Survival was decreased in male rats at 1800ppm. Body weight gains were decreased in male rats at 900 and 1800ppm and in female mice at 1800ppm. The primary targets of MIBK toxicity and carcinogenicity were the kidney in rats and the liver in mice. In male rats, there was increased mineralization of the renal papilla at all exposure concentrations. The incidence of chronic progressive nephropathy (CPN) was increased at 1800ppm and the severity was increased in all exposed groups. There were also increases in renal tubule hyperplasia at all exposure concentrations, and in adenoma and adenoma or carcinoma (combined) at 1800ppm; these lesions are thought to represent a continuum in the progression of proliferative lesions in renal tubule epithelium. These increases may have resulted from the increased severity of CPN, either through alpha2micro-globulin-dependent or -independent mechanisms. An increase in mononuclear cell leukemia at 1800ppm was an uncertain finding. Adrenal medulla hyperplasia was increased at 1800ppm, and there was a positive trend for increases in benign or malignant pheochromocytomas (combined). In female rats, there were increases in the incidence of CPN in all exposure concentrations and in the severity at 1800ppm, indicating that CPN was increased by mechanisms in addition to those related to alpha2micro-globulin. There were renal mesenchymal tumors, which have not been observed in historical control animals, in two female rats at 1800ppm. The relationship of these tumors to exposure to MIBK was uncertain. Hepatocellular adenomas, and adenoma or carcinoma (combined) were increased in male and female mice exposed to 1800ppm. There were also treatment-related increases in multiple adenomas in both sexes.

  • Toxicity and carcinogenicity of the water disinfection byproduct, dibromoacetic acid, in rats and mice.
    Toxicology (IF 3.547) Pub Date : 2006-12-13
    Ronald L Melnick,Abraham Nyska,Paul M Foster,Joseph H Roycroft,Grace E Kissling

    Dibromoacetic acid (DBA) is a water disinfection byproduct formed by the reaction of chlorine oxidizing compounds with natural organic matter in water containing bromide. Male and female F344/N rats and B6C3F(1) mice were exposed to DBA in drinking water for 2 weeks (N=5), 3 months (N=10), or 2 years (N=50). Concentrations of DBA in drinking water were 0, 125, 250, 500, 1000, and 2000mg/L in the 2-week and 3-month studies, and 0, 50, 500, and 1000mg/L in the 2-year studies. Toxic effects of DBA in the prechronic studies were detected in the liver (hepatocellular cytoplasmic vacuolization in rats and mice) and testes (delayed spermiation and atypical residual bodies in male rats and mice, and atrophy of the germinal epithelium in rats). In the 2-year studies, neoplasms were induced at multiple sites in rats and mice exposed to DBA; these included mononuclear cell leukemia and abdominal cavity mesothliomas in rats, and neoplasms of the liver (hepatocellular adenoma or carcinoma and hepatoblastoma) and lung (alveolar adenoma or carcinoma) in mice. The increase in incidence of hepatocellular neoplasms in male mice was significant even at the lowest exposure concentration of 50mg/L, which is equivalent to an average daily dose of approximately 4mg/kg. These studies provide critical information for future re-evaluations of health-based drinking water standards for haloacetic acids.

  • Mitochondrial toxicity of tobacco smoke and air pollution.
    Toxicology (IF 3.547) Pub Date : 2017-08-26
    Jessica L Fetterman,Melissa J Sammy,Scott W Ballinger

  • Bisphenol exposure, hazard and regulation.
    Toxicology (IF 3.547) Pub Date : 2019-07-14
    Calvin C Willhite,George P Daston

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