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  • Post-Exposure Effects of Vaccines on Infectious Diseases
    Epidemiol. Rev. (IF 6.455) Pub Date : 2019-11-04
    Gallagher T, Lipsitch M.

    Many available vaccines have demonstrated post-exposure effectiveness, but no published systematic reviews have synthesized these findings. We searched the PubMed database for clinical trials and observational human studies concerning the post-exposure vaccination effects, targeting infections with Food and Drug Administration licensed vaccine plus dengue, hepatitis E, malaria, and tick borne encephalitis

  • The Many Faces of Emerging and Re-emerging Infectious Disease
    Epidemiol. Rev. (IF 6.455) Pub Date : 2019-11-04
    Lessler J, Orenstein W.

    The emergence of disease threats can take many forms, from the adaptation of a traditionally zoonotic pathogen for efficient spread in humans, to the development of antibiotic resistance in well-known pathogens, to the creation of new niches for established disease through social and societal changes. In this commentary, the authors explore these various facets of disease emergence through the lens

  • Forecasting the 2014 West African Ebola Outbreak
    Epidemiol. Rev. (IF 6.455) Pub Date : 2019-11-29
    Carias C, O’Hagan J, Gambhir M, et al.

    In 2014/15 an Ebola outbreak of unprecedented dimensions afflicted the West African countries of Liberia, Guinea, and Sierra Leone. We performed a systematic review of manuscripts that forecasted the outbreak while it was occurring, and derive implications on the ways results could be interpreted by policy-makers. We reviewed 26 manuscripts, published between 2014 and April 2015, that presented forecasts

  • Hepatitis C Virus Infection In Indigenous Populations: A Systematic Review Of The United States And Canada
    Epidemiol. Rev. (IF 6.455) Pub Date : 2019-11-29
    Bruce V, Eldredge J, Leyva Y, et al.

    American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) and Canadian Indigenous people are disproportionally affected by hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection yet are frequently under-represented in epidemiological studies and surveys that are often used to inform public health efforts. To address this issue, we performed a systematic review of published and unpublished literature and summarized our findings on HCV prevalence

  • A review of asymptomatic and sub-clinical Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Infections
    Epidemiol. Rev. (IF 6.455) Pub Date : 2019-11-29
    Grant R, Malik M, Elkholy A, et al.

    The epidemiology of Middle East Respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) since 2012 has been largely characterised by recurrent zoonotic spill-over from dromedary camels followed by limited human-to-human transmission, predominantly in health care settings. The full extent of infection of MERS-CoV is not clear, nor is the extent and/or role of asymptomatic infections in transmission. We conducted

  • Smoking in Correctional Settings Worldwide: Prevalence, Bans, and Interventions
    Epidemiol. Rev. (IF 6.455) Pub Date : 2018-05-08
    Spaulding A, Eldridge G, Chico C, et al.

    Smoking tobacco contributes to 11.5% of deaths worldwide and, in some countries, more hospitalizations than alcohol and drugs combined. Globally in 2015, 25% of men and 5% of women smoked. In the United States, a higher proportion of people in prison smoke than do community-dwelling individuals. To determine smoking prevalence in prisons worldwide, we systematically reviewed the literature using Preferred

  • Understanding and Improving the Health of People Who Experience Incarceration: An Overview and Synthesis
    Epidemiol. Rev. (IF 6.455) Pub Date : 2018-04-20
    Kinner S, Young J.

    The world prison population is growing at a rate that exceeds the rate of population growth. This issue of Epidemiologic Reviews comprises articles in which researchers summarize what is known about some of the key health issues facing people in prison, particularly in relation to human immunodeficiency virus and other blood-borne viral infections. A key recurring theme is that addressing the health

  • Advances in Data Driven Responses to Preventing Spread of Antibiotic Resistance across Healthcare Settings
    Epidemiol. Rev. (IF 6.455) Pub Date : 2019-11-04
    Fridkin S.

    Among the most urgent and serious antibiotic resistant threats to public health, seven are bacteria predominately acquired during health care delivery. There is an emerging field of healthcare epidemiology focused on preventing healthcare-associated infections with antibiotic resistant bacteria incorporating data from patient transfers or patient movements both within and between facilities; this analytic

  • What Do We Know About the Association Between Firearm Legislation and Firearm-Related Injuries?
    Epidemiol. Rev. (IF 6.455) Pub Date : 2016-02-26
    Julian Santaella-Tenorio,Magdalena Cerdá,Andrés Villaveces,Sandro Galea

    Firearms account for a substantial proportion of external causes of death, injury, and disability across the world. Legislation to regulate firearms has often been passed with the intent of reducing problems related to their use. However, lack of clarity around which interventions are effective remains a major challenge for policy development. Aiming to meet this challenge, we systematically reviewed

  • Aggressive and violent behavior among military personnel deployed to Iraq and Afghanistan: prevalence and link with deployment and combat exposure.
    Epidemiol. Rev. (IF 6.455) Pub Date : 2015-01-24
    Deirdre MacManus,Roberto Rona,Hannah Dickson,Greta Somaini,Nicola Fear,Simon Wessely

    A systematic review and meta-analyses were conducted on studies of the prevalence of aggressive and violent behavior, as well as of violent offenses and convictions, among military personnel following deployment to Iraq and/or Afghanistan; the relationship with deployment and combat exposure; and the role that mental health problems, such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), have on the pathway

  • Epidemiologic approaches to veterans' health.
    Epidemiol. Rev. (IF 6.455) Pub Date : 2015-01-24
    J Michael Gaziano,John Concato,Sandro Galea,Nicholas L Smith,Dawn Provenzale

    The present issue of Epidemiologic Reviews is dedicated to better understanding the health of men and women who have served in the military. There are 13 articles that discuss a range of physical and mental health concerns among both military personnel who are currently serving and those who served in the past. The corresponding research provides insight into issues that are directly relevant and of

  • Alcohol and drug misuse, abuse, and dependence in women veterans.
    Epidemiol. Rev. (IF 6.455) Pub Date : 2015-01-23
    Katherine J Hoggatt,Andrea L Jamison,Keren Lehavot,Michael A Cucciare,Christine Timko,Tracy L Simpson

    We conducted a systematic literature review on substance misuse, abuse, and dependence in women veterans, including National Guard/reserve members. We identified 837 articles published between 1980 and 2013. Of 56 included studies, 32 reported rates of alcohol misuse, binge drinking, or other unhealthy alcohol use not meeting diagnostic criteria for abuse or dependence, and 33 reported rates of drug

  • Prevalence of mental health disorders among justice-involved veterans.
    Epidemiol. Rev. (IF 6.455) Pub Date : 2015-01-21
    Janet C Blodgett,Tigran Avoundjian,Andrea K Finlay,Joel Rosenthal,Steven M Asch,Natalya C Maisel,Amanda M Midboe

    Justice-involved veterans are a special population with unique mental health needs compared with other veterans or justice-involved adults. Prevalence estimates of mental health concerns of justice-involved veterans across 18 samples of these veterans (1987-2013), including both incarcerated and community samples, were identified through a systematic literature search of published studies supplemented

  • Hearing impairment and tinnitus: prevalence, risk factors, and outcomes in US service members and veterans deployed to the Iraq and Afghanistan wars.
    Epidemiol. Rev. (IF 6.455) Pub Date : 2015-01-21
    Sarah M Theodoroff,M Samantha Lewis,Robert L Folmer,James A Henry,Kathleen F Carlson

    Hearing loss and tinnitus are the 2 most prevalent service-connected disabilities among veterans in the United States. Veterans of Operations Enduring Freedom, Iraqi Freedom, and New Dawn have been exposed to multiple hazards associated with these conditions, such as blasts/explosions, ototoxic chemicals, and most notably high levels of noise. We conducted a systematic literature review of evidence

  • Prevalence and treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus infection in the US Department of Veterans Affairs.
    Epidemiol. Rev. (IF 6.455) Pub Date : 2015-01-21
    Lauren A Beste,George N Ioannou

    Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) is the most common blood-borne pathogen in the United States. HCV disproportionately affects Veterans Affairs (VA) health-care users: 174,302 HCV-infected veterans were in VA care in 2013, making the VA the world's largest HCV care provider. This systematic review identified 546 articles related to HCV in the VA. After assessment by 2 independent reviewers, 28 articles

  • Mental health among reserve component military service members and veterans.
    Epidemiol. Rev. (IF 6.455) Pub Date : 2015-01-18
    Gregory H Cohen,David S Fink,Laura Sampson,Sandro Galea

    Since 2001, the US military has increasingly relied on National Guard and reserve component forces to meet operational demands. Differences in preparation and military engagement experiences between active component and reserve component forces have long suggested that the psychiatric consequences of military engagement differ by component. We conducted a systematic review of prevalence and new onset

  • Risk factors for homelessness among US veterans.
    Epidemiol. Rev. (IF 6.455) Pub Date : 2015-01-18
    Jack Tsai,Robert A Rosenheck

    Homelessness among US veterans has been a focus of research for over 3 decades. Following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, this is the first systematic review to summarize research on risk factors for homelessness among US veterans and to evaluate the evidence for these risk factors. Thirty-one studies published from 1987 to 2014 were divided into

  • Associations between cigarette smoking and pain among veterans.
    Epidemiol. Rev. (IF 6.455) Pub Date : 2015-01-18
    Shawna L Carroll Chapman,Li-Tzy Wu

    Individuals with chronic pain often report using cigarettes to cope, and smoking and chronic pain appear prevalent among US veterans. Pain may be a barrier to cigarette cessation and abstinence in this population. Because of physiological effects, smoking cigarettes may also interfere with pain management. A better understanding of how cigarette use relates to pain may assist in veteran cigarette cessation

  • Post-traumatic stress disorder, physical activity, and eating behaviors.
    Epidemiol. Rev. (IF 6.455) Pub Date : 2015-01-18
    Katherine S Hall,Katherine D Hoerster,William S Yancy

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), a prevalent and costly psychiatric disorder, is associated with high rates of obesity and cardiometabolic diseases. Many studies have examined PTSD and risky behaviors (e.g., smoking, alcohol/substance abuse); far fewer have examined the relationship between PTSD and health-promoting behaviors. Physical activity and eating behaviors are 2 lifestyle factors that

  • Stigma as a barrier to seeking health care among military personnel with mental health problems.
    Epidemiol. Rev. (IF 6.455) Pub Date : 2015-01-18
    Marie-Louise Sharp,Nicola T Fear,Roberto J Rona,Simon Wessely,Neil Greenberg,Norman Jones,Laura Goodwin

    Approximately 60% of military personnel who experience mental health problems do not seek help, yet many of them could benefit from professional treatment. Across military studies, one of the most frequently reported barriers to help-seeking for mental health problems is concerns about stigma. It is, however, less clear how stigma influences mental health service utilization. This review will synthesize

  • Alcohol use and substance use disorders in Gulf War, Afghanistan, and Iraq War veterans compared with nondeployed military personnel.
    Epidemiol. Rev. (IF 6.455) Pub Date : 2015-01-16
    Helen Louise Kelsall,Millawage Supun Dilara Wijesinghe,Mark Christopher Creamer,Dean Philip McKenzie,Andrew Benjamin Forbes,Matthew James Page,Malcolm Ross Sim

    Although recent veterans have been found to be at increased risk of psychiatric disorders, limited research has focused on alcohol or substance use disorders. This systematic review and meta-analysis examined whether alcohol or substance use disorders were more common in Gulf War, Afghanistan, and Iraq War veterans compared with military comparison groups nondeployed to the corresponding conflict,

  • Airborne hazards exposure and respiratory health of Iraq and Afghanistan veterans.
    Epidemiol. Rev. (IF 6.455) Pub Date : 2015-01-16
    Michael J Falvo,Omowunmi Y Osinubi,Anays M Sotolongo,Drew A Helmer

    More than 2.6 million military personnel have been deployed to recent conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan and were likely exposed to a variety of airborne hazards during deployment. Despite several epidemiologic reports of increased respiratory symptoms, whether or not these respiratory illnesses lead to reductions in lung function and/or specific pulmonary disease is unclear. We reviewed data published

  • Military service, deployments, and exposures in relation to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis etiology and survival.
    Epidemiol. Rev. (IF 6.455) Pub Date : 2014-10-31
    John D Beard,Freya Kamel

    Rates of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) have been reported to be higher among US military veterans, who currently number more than 21 million, but the causal factor(s) has not been identified. We conducted a review to examine the weight of evidence for associations between military service, deployments, and exposures and ALS etiology and survival. Thirty articles or abstracts published through

  • Epidemiologic tools to study the influence of environmental factors on fecundity and pregnancy-related outcomes.
    Epidemiol. Rev. (IF 6.455) Pub Date : 2013-12-24
    Rémy Slama,Ferran Ballester,Maribel Casas,Sylvaine Cordier,Merete Eggesbø,Carmen Iniguez,Mark Nieuwenhuijsen,Claire Philippat,Sylvie Rey,Stéphanie Vandentorren,Martine Vrijheid

    Adverse pregnancy outcomes entail a large health burden for the mother and offspring; a part of it might be avoided by better understanding the role of environmental factors in their etiology. Our aims were to review the assessment tools to characterize fecundity troubles and pregnancy-related outcomes in human populations and their sensitivity to environmental factors. For each outcome, we reviewed

  • Can infections cause Alzheimer's disease?
    Epidemiol. Rev. (IF 6.455) Pub Date : 2013-01-26
    Francis Mawanda,Robert Wallace

    Late-onset Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most prevalent cause of dementia among older adults, yet more than a century of research has not determined why this disease develops. One prevailing hypothesis is that late-onset AD is caused by infectious pathogens, an idea widely studied in both humans and experimental animal models. This review examines the infectious AD etiology hypothesis and summarizes

  • Type 2 diabetes as a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease: the confounders, interactions, and neuropathology associated with this relationship.
    Epidemiol. Rev. (IF 6.455) Pub Date : 2013-01-15
    Nicholas T Vagelatos,Guy D Eslick

    We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to explore whether type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) increases the risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD). We also reviewed interactions with smoking, hypertension, and apolipoprotein E ɛ4. Using a series of databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, PubMed, Current Contents Connect, and Google Scholar), we identified a total of 15 epidemiologic studies. Fourteen studies

  • Telomere length in epidemiology: a biomarker of aging, age-related disease, both, or neither?
    Epidemiol. Rev. (IF 6.455) Pub Date : 2013-01-11
    Jason L Sanders,Anne B Newman

    Telomeres are nucleoprotein caps flanking DNA. They are shortened by cell division and oxidative stress and are lengthened by the enzyme telomerase and DNA exchange during mitosis. Short telomeres induce cellular senescence. As an indicator of oxidative stress and senescence (2 processes thought to be fundamental to aging), telomere length is hypothesized to be a biomarker of aging. This hypothesis

  • Adiposity, muscle mass, and muscle strength in relation to functional decline in older persons.
    Epidemiol. Rev. (IF 6.455) Pub Date : 2012-12-12
    Laura A Schaap,Annemarie Koster,Marjolein Visser

    Aging is associated with changes in body composition and muscle strength. This review aimed to determine the relation between different body composition measures and muscle strength measures and functional decline in older men and women. By use of relevant databases (PubMed, Embase, and CINAHL) and keywords in a search from 1976 to April 2012, 50 articles were reviewed that met the inclusion criteria

  • Epidemiologic approaches to injury and violence.
    Epidemiol. Rev. (IF 6.455) Pub Date : 2011-12-20
    Susan P Baker,Guohua Li

    This volume of Epidemiologic Reviews features 13 articles covering a variety of injury problems and research topics. In this commentary, the authors highlight the remarkable achievements in injury control and the important role the Haddon Matrix has played in understanding injury causation and developing preventive strategies; comment on the individual articles included in this volume in the broad

  • Humanitarian relief workers and trauma-related mental illness.
    Epidemiol. Rev. (IF 6.455) Pub Date : 2011-12-20
    Ellen Connorton,Melissa J Perry,David Hemenway,Matthew Miller

    Humanitarian relief work is a growing field characterized by ongoing exposure to primary and secondary trauma, which has implications for workers' occupational mental health. This paper reviews and summarizes research to date on mental health effects of relief work. Twelve studies on relief workers and 5 studies on organizations that employ relief workers are examined to determine whether relief work

  • An aging workforce and injury in the construction industry.
    Epidemiol. Rev. (IF 6.455) Pub Date : 2011-12-17
    Natalie V Schwatka,Lesley M Butler,John R Rosecrance

    The relatively large birth cohort between 1946 and 1964, combined with the economic recession in the first decade of the 21st century, have led to an increase in the proportion of older workers in the US workplace. Understanding the health and safety needs of an aging workforce will be critical, especially in the construction industry, where physical job demands are high. This paper reviews the epidemiologic

  • Suicide in Asia: opportunities and challenges.
    Epidemiol. Rev. (IF 6.455) Pub Date : 2011-12-14
    Ying-Yeh Chen,Kevin Chien-Chang Wu,Saman Yousuf,Paul S F Yip

    Asian countries account for approximately 60% of the world's suicides, but there is a great mismatch in the region between the scale of the problem and the resources available to tackle it. Despite certain commonalities, the continent itself is culturally, economically, and socially diverse. This paper reviews current epidemiologic patterns of suicide, including suicide trends, sociodemographic factors

  • Peer victimization among school-aged children with chronic conditions.
    Epidemiol. Rev. (IF 6.455) Pub Date : 2011-12-02
    Mariane Sentenac,Catherine Arnaud,Aoife Gavin,Michal Molcho,Saoirse Nic Gabhainn,Emmanuelle Godeau

    Peer victimization is a common problem among school-aged children, and those with chronic conditions are at an increased risk. A systematic review of the literature was carried out to explore the increased risk of peer victimization among children with chronic conditions compared with others, considering a variety of chronic conditions; and to assess intervention programs designed to reduce negative

  • Does the alcohol make them do it? Dating violence perpetration and drinking among youth.
    Epidemiol. Rev. (IF 6.455) Pub Date : 2011-12-01
    Emily F Rothman,Luz McNaughton Reyes,Renee M Johnson,Michael LaValley

    Strong evidence links alcohol use to partner violence perpetration among adults, but the relation between youth alcohol use and dating violence perpetration (DVP) is not as well studied. The authors used meta-analytic procedures to evaluate current knowledge on the association between alcohol use and DVP among youth. The authors reviewed 28 studies published in 1985-2010; most (82%) were cross-sectional

  • Network meta-analysis to evaluate the effectiveness of interventions to increase the uptake of smoke alarms.
    Epidemiol. Rev. (IF 6.455) Pub Date : 2011-12-01
    Nicola J Cooper,Denise Kendrick,Felix Achana,Paula Dhiman,Zhimin He,Persephone Wynn,Elodie Le Cozannet,Pedro Saramago,Alex J Sutton

    This study is the first known to use network meta-analysis to simultaneously evaluate the effectiveness of interventions to increase the prevalence of functioning smoke alarms in households with children. The authors identified 24 primary studies from a systematic review of reviews and of more recently published primary studies, of which 23 (17 randomized controlled trials and 6 nonrandomized comparative

  • Measuring the population burden of fatal and nonfatal injury.
    Epidemiol. Rev. (IF 6.455) Pub Date : 2011-11-25
    Suzanne Polinder,Juanita A Haagsma,Ronan A Lyons,Belinda J Gabbe,Shanthi Ameratunga,Colin Cryer,Sarah Derrett,James E Harrison,Maria Segui-Gomez,Ed F van Beeck

    The value of measuring the population burden of fatal and nonfatal injury is well established. Population health metrics are important for assessing health status and health-related quality of life after injury and for integrating mortality, disability, and quality-of-life consequences. A frequently used population health metric is the disability-adjusted life-year. This metric was launched in 1996

  • Motor vehicle deaths among American Indian and Alaska Native populations.
    Epidemiol. Rev. (IF 6.455) Pub Date : 2011-11-18
    Keshia M Pollack,Shannon Frattaroli,Jessica L Young,Gail Dana-Sacco,Andrea C Gielen

    In the United States, the American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) population has the highest motor vehicle death rate, which is significantly greater than that of any other race or ethnic group. To better understand why this significant disparity exists and how to eliminate it, the authors conducted a systematic review of the published scientific literature. Included studies were published between

  • Roadway characteristics and pediatric pedestrian injury.
    Epidemiol. Rev. (IF 6.455) Pub Date : 2011-11-16
    Charles DiMaggio,Guohua Li

    Changing the built environment is a sound, but often underutilized approach to injury control. The authors reviewed the literature and conducted a meta-analysis to synthesize the evidence on the association of roadway characteristics with risk of pediatric pedestrian injury. To synthesize the data, they converted results to odds ratios based on direct results or abstracted outcomes and used Bayesian

  • Classifying external causes of injury: history, current approaches, and future directions.
    Epidemiol. Rev. (IF 6.455) Pub Date : 2011-11-03
    Kirsten McKenzie,Lois Fingerhut,Sue Walker,Adam Harrison,James E Harrison

    The International Classification of Diseases (ICD) is used to categorize diseases, injuries, and external causes of injury, and it is a key epidemiologic tool enabling storage and retrieval of data from health and vital records to produce core international mortality and morbidity statistics. The ICD is updated periodically to ensure the classification system remains current, and work is now under

  • Marijuana use and motor vehicle crashes.
    Epidemiol. Rev. (IF 6.455) Pub Date : 2011-10-07
    Mu-Chen Li,Joanne E Brady,Charles J DiMaggio,Arielle R Lusardi,Keane Y Tzong,Guohua Li

    Since 1996, 16 states and the District of Columbia in the United States have enacted legislation to decriminalize marijuana for medical use. Although marijuana is the most commonly detected nonalcohol drug in drivers, its role in crash causation remains unsettled. To assess the association between marijuana use and crash risk, the authors performed a meta-analysis of 9 epidemiologic studies published

  • The role of race/ethnicity in alcohol-attributable injury in the United States.
    Epidemiol. Rev. (IF 6.455) Pub Date : 2011-09-21
    Katherine M Keyes,Xianfang C Liu,Magdalena Cerda

    A substantial proportion of injuries worldwide are attributable to alcohol consumption, and US estimates indicate that the drinking patterns of racial/ethnic groups vary considerably. The authors reviewed evidence from 19 publications regarding racial/ethnic differences in overall alcohol-attributable injury as well as percent blood alcohol content positivity for injury deaths in the United States

  • Interventions to reduce risks associated with vehicle incompatibility.
    Epidemiol. Rev. (IF 6.455) Pub Date : 2011-09-20
    Jon S Vernick,Gregory J Tung,Jonathan N Kromm

    Occupants of smaller, lighter passenger cars are more likely to be killed or injured in collisions with larger, heavier sport utility vehicles and light trucks than in collisions with other cars. Interventions are needed to reduce this vehicle "incompatibility" and its consequences. The authors conducted a systematic literature review to identify evaluations of interventions to reduce incompatibility

  • Genetic screening.
    Epidemiol. Rev. (IF 6.455) Pub Date : 2011-06-29
    Wylie Burke,Beth Tarini,Nancy A Press,James P Evans

    Current approaches to genetic screening include newborn screening to identify infants who would benefit from early treatment, reproductive genetic screening to assist reproductive decision making, and family history assessment to identify individuals who would benefit from additional prevention measures. Although the traditional goal of screening is to identify early disease or risk in order to implement

  • Reconsidering the criteria for evaluating proposed screening programs: reflections from 4 current and former members of the U.S. Preventive services task force.
    Epidemiol. Rev. (IF 6.455) Pub Date : 2011-06-15
    Russell Harris,George F Sawaya,Virginia A Moyer,Ned Calonge

    In 1968, Wilson and Jungner published 10 "principles" for evaluating screening programs (Public Health Papers No. 34. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization), criteria widely used since then. The 4 authors of this review (all current or former members of the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force) have found a different paradigm more useful for evaluating screening programs. This review was written

  • Cost-effectiveness of colorectal cancer screening.
    Epidemiol. Rev. (IF 6.455) Pub Date : 2011-06-03
    Iris Lansdorp-Vogelaar,Amy B Knudsen,Hermann Brenner

    Colorectal cancer is an important public health problem. Several screening methods have been shown to be effective in reducing colorectal cancer mortality. The objective of this review was to assess the cost-effectiveness of the different colorectal cancer screening methods and to determine the preferred method from a cost-effectiveness point of view. Five databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cost-Effectiveness

  • Measuring mortality reductions in cancer screening trials.
    Epidemiol. Rev. (IF 6.455) Pub Date : 2011-06-01
    James A Hanley

    Randomized trials involving large numbers of people and long follow-up have helped measure the mortality reductions achievable by screening for cancer. However, in many of these trials, the reported reductions have been modest. Part of the reason is the inappropriate way the reductions have been calculated. Analyses have largely ignored the fact that there is a time window in the first several years

  • Uncertainty in mapping malaria epidemiology: implications for control.
    Epidemiol. Rev. (IF 6.455) Pub Date : 2010-06-29
    David Sullivan

    Malaria is a location-specific, dynamic infectious disease transmitted by mosquitoes to humans and is influenced by environmental, vector, parasite, and host factors. The principal purposes of malarial epidemiology are 1) to describe the malarial distribution in space and time along with the physical, biologic, and social etiologic factors and 2) to guide control objectives for either modeling impact

  • The expanding epidemics of HIV type 1 among men who have sex with men in low- and middle-income countries: diversity and consistency.
    Epidemiol. Rev. (IF 6.455) Pub Date : 2010-06-25
    Chris Beyrer,Stefan D Baral,Damian Walker,Andrea L Wirtz,Benjamin Johns,Frangiscos Sifakis

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) have borne a disproportionate burden of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and remain a markedly underresourced population globally. To better describe HIV epidemics among MSM in low- and middle-income countries, the authors conducted a systematic review of published and unpublished literature available after January 1, 2000 (2000-2009). A total of 133 HIV

  • Family planning and the burden of unintended pregnancies.
    Epidemiol. Rev. (IF 6.455) Pub Date : 2010-06-24
    Amy O Tsui,Raegan McDonald-Mosley,Anne E Burke

    Family planning is hailed as one of the great public health achievements of the last century, and worldwide acceptance has risen to three-fifths of exposed couples. In many countries, however, uptake of modern contraception is constrained by limited access and weak service delivery, and the burden of unintended pregnancy is still large. This review focuses on family planning's efficacy in preventing

  • Trends and directions of global public health surveillance.
    Epidemiol. Rev. (IF 6.455) Pub Date : 2010-06-11
    Carlos Castillo-Salgado

    Recently, global health and global health surveillance have received unprecedented recognition of their importance because of the newly emerging and reemerging infectious diseases, new cycles of pandemics, and the threats of bioterrorism. The aim of this review is to provide an update of the current state of knowledge on health surveillance in a globalized world. Three key areas will be highlighted

  • Randomized controlled trials of interventions to prevent sexually transmitted infections: learning from the past to plan for the future.
    Epidemiol. Rev. (IF 6.455) Pub Date : 2010-06-04
    Catherine M Wetmore,Lisa E Manhart,Judith N Wasserheit

    Globally, sexually transmitted infections (STIs) represent a significant source of morbidity and disproportionately impact the health of women and children. The number of randomized controlled trials testing interventions to prevent STIs has dramatically increased over time. To assess their impact, the authors conducted a systematic review of interventions to prevent sexual transmission or acquisition

  • Global health and foreign policy.
    Epidemiol. Rev. (IF 6.455) Pub Date : 2010-04-29
    Harley Feldbaum,Kelley Lee,Joshua Michaud

    Health has long been intertwined with the foreign policies of states. In recent years, however, global health issues have risen to the highest levels of international politics and have become accepted as legitimate issues in foreign policy. This elevated political priority is in many ways a welcome development for proponents of global health, and it has resulted in increased funding for and attention

  • Text messaging as a tool for behavior change in disease prevention and management.
    Epidemiol. Rev. (IF 6.455) Pub Date : 2010-04-01
    Heather Cole-Lewis,Trace Kershaw

    Mobile phone text messaging is a potentially powerful tool for behavior change because it is widely available, inexpensive, and instant. This systematic review provides an overview of behavior change interventions for disease management and prevention delivered through text messaging. Evidence on behavior change and clinical outcomes was compiled from randomized or quasi-experimental controlled trials

  • Health disparities in the Latino population.
    Epidemiol. Rev. (IF 6.455) Pub Date : 2009-08-29
    William A Vega,Michael A Rodriguez,Elisabeth Gruskin

    In this review, the authors provide an approach to the study of health disparities in the US Latino population and evaluate the evidence, using mortality rates for discrete medical conditions and the total US population as a standard for comparison. They examine the demographic structure of the Latino population and how nativity, age, income, and education are related to observed patterns of health

  • Do lifestyle or social factors explain ethnic/racial inequalities in breast cancer survival?
    Epidemiol. Rev. (IF 6.455) Pub Date : 2009-08-14
    Fiona McKenzie,Mona Jeffreys

    Despite numerous studies documenting ethnic inequalities in breast cancer survival between minority and majority ethnic groups worldwide, reasons for these inequalities remain unclear. The authors performed a systematic review of published literature to identify studies that investigated the explanatory power of smoking, alcohol consumption, body mass index (BMI), and socioeconomic position (SEP) on

  • Associations between childhood socioeconomic position and adulthood obesity.
    Epidemiol. Rev. (IF 6.455) Pub Date : 2009-08-04
    Laura C Senese,Nisha D Almeida,Anne Kittler Fath,Brendan T Smith,Eric B Loucks

    Childhood socioeconomic position (SEP) is inversely associated with cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality. Obesity in adulthood may be a biologic mechanism. Objectives were to systematically review literature published between 1998 and 2008 that examined associations of childhood SEP with adulthood obesity. Five databases (Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Web of Science) were searched

  • Built environments and obesity in disadvantaged populations.
    Epidemiol. Rev. (IF 6.455) Pub Date : 2009-07-11
    Gina S Lovasi,Malo A Hutson,Monica Guerra,Kathryn M Neckerman

    In the United States, health disparities in obesity and obesity-related illnesses have been the subject of growing concern. To better understand how obesity-related health disparities might relate to obesogenic built environments, the authors conducted a systematic review of the published scientific literature, screening for studies with relevance to disadvantaged individuals or areas, identified by

  • Cardiometabolic health disparities in native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders.
    Epidemiol. Rev. (IF 6.455) Pub Date : 2009-06-18
    Marjorie K Mau,Ka'imi Sinclair,Erin P Saito,Kau'i N Baumhofer,Joseph Keawe'aimoku Kaholokula

    Elimination of health disparities in the United States is a national health priority. Cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and obesity are key features of what is now referred to as the "cardiometabolic syndrome," which disproportionately affects racial/ethnic minority populations, including Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders (NHOPI). Few studies have adequately characterized the cardiometabolic

  • Epi + demos + cracy: linking political systems and priorities to the magnitude of health inequities--evidence, gaps, and a research agenda.
    Epidemiol. Rev. (IF 6.455) Pub Date : 2009-05-29
    Jason Beckfield,Nancy Krieger

    A new focus within both social epidemiology and political sociology investigates how political systems and priorities shape health inequities. To advance-and better integrate-research on political determinants of health inequities, the authors conducted a systematic search of the ISI Web of Knowledge and PubMed databases and identified 45 studies, commencing in 1992, that explicitly and empirically

  • The burden of mental disorders.
    Epidemiol. Rev. (IF 6.455) Pub Date : 2008-09-23
    William W Eaton,Silvia S Martins,Gerald Nestadt,O Joseph Bienvenu,Diana Clarke,Pierre Alexandre

    In the last decade, there has been an increase in interest in the burden of chronic and disabling health conditions that are not necessarily fatal, such as the mental disorders. This review systematically summarizes data on the burden associated with 11 major mental disorders of adults. The measures of burden include estimates of prevalence, mortality associated with the disorders, disabilities and

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全球疫情及响应:BMC Medicine专题征稿