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  • Role of glial fibrillary acidic protein as a biomarker in differentiating intracerebral haemorrhage from ischaemic stroke and stroke mimics: a meta-analysis
    Biomarkers (IF 1.73) Pub Date : 2019-11-28
    Amit Kumar; Shubham Misra; Arun Kumar Yadav; Ram Sagar; Bhawna Verma; Ashoo Grover; Kameshwar Prasad

    Background: Studies have suggested promising evidence that glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) could be used as a blood biomarker to distinguish between ischaemic stroke (IS) and intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH) in acute stage. Objective: To determine the available evidence for GFAP as a blood biomarker for differentiating ICH from IS and stroke mimics using a meta-analysis approach. Methods: Search terms were used for literature search: (“STROKE” [Mesh] OR “BIOMARKER” [Title/Abstract] OR “GFAP” [Title/Abstract])] OR “SPECIFICITY” OR “SENSTIVITY” at various search engines like PubMed, Google scholar, Trip database, clinicaltrial.gov for articles from 1990 to April 2019 using filter ‘human subjects’. Data were analysed using software STATA version 13. Results: A pooled analysis including 12 studies suggested that GFAP if used as a biomarker to differentiate between different types of strokes (ICH from IS and mimics) had a sensitivity of 78% (95% CI: 67–86%) and a specificity of 95% (95% CI: 88–98%). Positive likelihood ratio (LR) was 14.4 and negative LR was 0.23. SROC with prediction and confidence contours suggests promising area under the curve 0.93, 95% CI ranges from 0.90 to 0.95. Diagnostic odds ratio with 95% CI was observed 63 (31–125). Conclusion: Our meta-analysis suggests that GFAP has a promising diagnostic accuracy for the differentiation of ICH from IS and mimics. Further, phase II and phase III diagnostic test studies are required to validate the findings before using GFAP as a blood based biomarker for clinical use. Trial Registration: This study was registered in OSF registries 10.17605/OSF.IO/B9JP4

    更新日期:2019-12-20
  • Diagnosis of acute intoxications in critically ill patients: focus on biomarkers – part 1: epidemiology, methodology and general overview
    Biomarkers (IF 1.73) Pub Date : 2019-11-26
    Alexander Reisinger; Jasmin Rabensteiner; Gerald Hackl

    Acute intoxications account for a significant proportion of the patient population in intensive care units and sedative medications, ethanol, illicit drugs, inhalable poisons and mixed intoxications are the most common causes. The aim of this article is to describe biomarkers for screening and diagnosis of acute intoxications in critically ill patients. For this purpose, a survey of the relevant literature was conducted, and guidelines, case reports, expert assessments, and scientific publications were reviewed. In critical care, it should always be attempted to identify and quantify the poison or toxin with the assistance of enzyme immunoassay (EIA), chromatography, and mass spectrometry techniques and this section is critically appraised in this publication. The principles for anion gap, osmol gap and lactate gap and their usage in intoxications is shown. Basic rules in test methodology and pre-analytics are reviewed. Biomarkers in general are presented in part one and biomarkers for specific intoxications including ethanol, paracetamol, cardiovascular drugs and many others are presented in part two of these publications.

    更新日期:2019-12-20
  • Early serum cystatin C-enhanced risk prediction for acute kidney injury post cardiac surgery: a prospective, observational, cohort study
    Biomarkers (IF 1.73) Pub Date : 2019-11-14
    Xudong Wang; Xinghui Lin; Bo Xie; Ritai Huang; Yucheng Yan; Shang Liu; Mingli Zhu; Renhua Lu; Jiaqi Qian; Zhaohui Ni; Song Xue; Miaolin Che

    Background: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common post-cardiac surgery complication. It leads to increased morbidity and mortality. The aim of our study is to identify the prevalence and risk factors of AKI and to demonstrate if early postoperative serum cystatin C (sCyC) could accurately predict the development of AKI. Methods: We prospectively studied 628 patients undergoing elective cardiac surgery. Pre-morbid and operative variables known to be or potentially associated with AKI or other adverse outcomes were examined. AKI was defined according to Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) creatinine criteria. Blood samples for biomarker measurement were collected at baseline, within 10 h of surgical completion and daily for three days. Logistic regression was used to assess predictive factors for AKI including 10 h sCyC. Model discrimination was assessed using receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curves. Results: AKI occurred in 178 (28.3%) patients, Stage 1 in 17.5%, Stage 2 in 8.6% and Stage 3 in 2.2%. Mortality rose progressively with increased AKI stage (non-AKI 0.2%, Stage 1 1.8%, Stage 2 11.1% and Stage 3 35.7%). Age > 75 years, baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), proteinuria, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, hyperuricaemia, NYHA classification >2, recent myocardial infarction were associated with AKI in univariate analysis. A multivariate logistic model with clinical factors (age, eGFR, hypertension, NYHA classification >2, combined surgery and operation time) demonstrated moderate discrimination for AKI (area under ROC curve [AUC] 0.75). The 10 h postoperative sCyC levels strongly associated with AKI. After multivariable adjustment, the highest quartile of sCyC was associated with 13.1 – higher odds of AKI, compared with the lowest quartile. Elevated 10 h sCyC levels associated with longer hospital stay, longer intensive care unit stay and duration of mechanical ventilation. The addition of 10 h sCyC improved model discrimination for AKI (AUC 0.81). Conclusions: AKI following cardiac surgery was identified using KDIGO criteria in around one fourth of the patients. These patients had significantly increased morbidity and mortality. When added to prediction model, 10 h sCyC may enhance the identification of patients at higher risk of AKI, providing a readily available prognostic marker.

    更新日期:2019-12-20
  • Nicotine metabolite ratios in serum and urine among US adults: variations across smoking status, gender and race/ethnicity
    Biomarkers (IF 1.73) Pub Date : 2019-11-14
    Ram B. Jain

    Purpose: The objective of this study was to evaluate factors affecting variabilities in the observed levels of nicotine metabolite ratios in serum (NMRS, N = 10,234) and urine (NMRU, N = 2286) for US adults aged ≥20 years. Materials and methods: Data from NHANES were used to fit regression models for log10 transformed values of NMRS and NMRU stratified by gender and smoking status. Results: Females had higher NMRS than males among both smokers and non-smokers. Females had lower NMRU than males among both smokers and non-smokers. Smokers had lower levels of both NMRS and NMRU among both males and females. The order in which NMRS by race/ethnicity was observed was non-Hispanic whites > Hispanics and others > non-Hispanic blacks. The order in which NMRU by race/ethnicity was observed was non-Hispanic blacks > non-Hispanic whites > Hispanics and others. Most of the pairwise differences between non-Hispanic blacks and whites were statistically significant (p ≤ 0.02). Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) at home was associated with higher NMRU among male smokers (2.13 vs. 1.41, p = 0.01). Conclusions: Data on nicotine metabolite ratios can be used to study differences in how nicotine is metabolized by males and females and by smokers and non-smokers.

    更新日期:2019-12-20
  • Is Engrailed-2 (EN2) a truly promising biomarker in prostate cancer detection?
    Biomarkers (IF 1.73) Pub Date : 2019-11-14
    Joana Do Carmo Silva; Stepan Vesely; Vojtech Novak; Hana Luksanova; Richard Prusa; Marko Babjuk

    Purpose: Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is a sensitive but unspecific marker for prostate cancer (PC) detection, which may result in harms including overdiagnosis and overtreatment. Therefore, the development of new markers is of absolute value. The urinary level of engrailed-2 (EN2) protein has been recently suggested as a promising PC biomarker, correlating with tumour volume and stage. This study evaluated EN2 and its potential use in clinical practice. Materials and methods: Urinary EN2 was assessed by different commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. The study sample included 90 patients with clinically localized PC compared to 30 healthy controls, and a group of 40 patients indicated for prostate biopsy due to an elevated PSA level where both pre- and post-digital rectal examination urine samples were collected. Results: No statistical difference between the patient group and the control group was obtained in all measured variables. There was no significant correlation between urinary EN2 and serum PSA, tumour staging and grading. Attentive DRE did not lead to significant changes of urinary EN2 or impact on its predictive power. Conclusions: Our results show that EN2 as a PC biomarker brings no additional value to the current use of PSA in clinical practice.

    更新日期:2019-12-20
  • New potential modulators of CYP4F2 enzyme activity in angina pectoris: hsa-miR-24-3p and hsa-miR-34a-5p
    Biomarkers (IF 1.73) Pub Date : 2019-11-14
    Dovydas Gecys; Vacis Tatarunas; Audrone Veikutiene; Vaiva Lesauskaite

    Purpose: To find an association of relative expression of hsa-miR-24-3p and hsa-miR-34a-5p molecules and CYP4F2 enzyme activity in blood plasma of stable angina pectoris (AP) patients'. Materials and Methods: MiRNA gene expression analysis was performed on total RNA extracted from blood plasma, using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. CYP4F2 enzyme levels were determined using commercial ELISA kit. In total, 32 AP and 15 control samples were examined. Results: The relative expression of hsa-miR-24-3p and hsa-miR-34a-5p was upregulated by 4.4 (p = 0.0001) and 3.8 (p = 0.005) -fold in AP patient's blood plasma compared to control subjects. CYP4F2 enzyme level in blood plasma were 2.1 (p = 0.001) times lower in AP patients. Circulating hsa-miR-24-3p was negatively associated with CYP4F2 enzyme level (Spearman correlation coefficient rank r= −0.32; p = 0.03). Moreover, patients that were taking atorvastatin, had 1.5 (p = 0.04) times higher hsa-miR-24-3p expression in blood plasma. Conclusions. Our data suggest that hsa-miR-24-3p might have an effect on CYP4F2 activity during atherosclerosis.

    更新日期:2019-12-20
  • Gastroprotective effect of leaf extract of two varieties grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) native wild and cultivar grown in North of Tunisia against the oxidative stress induced by ethanol in rats
    Biomarkers (IF 1.73) Pub Date : 2019-11-19
    Nabil Saadaoui; Asma Weslati; Taha Barkaoui; Ikram Khemiri; Wafa Gadacha; Abdelaziz Souli; Moncef Mokni; Mounira Harbi; Mossadok Ben-Attia

    Context: Vitis vinifera leaves are traditionally used in Tunisian folk medicine to treat digestive pathologies. Objective: We aimed to compare the gastroprotective effects of hydromethanolic leaves extracts of wild and cultivated grapes accessions native of Tunisia. Materials and methods: The phytochemical analysis of grapevine leaves extracts was performed. The gastroprotective activity was evaluated by ethanol-induced gastric-ulcer in rats pre-treated with increased doses of the extracts or with the standard omeprazole. Index of gastric secretions (volume, pH and gastric mucus production), stomach wall histology and biochemical parameters were estimated for assessment of anti-secretory and gastroprotective effects of the extracts. Results: Pre-treatment with grapevine leaves extracts decreased significantly gastric volume, gastric mucosal damage and increased significantly gastric juice pH compared with the negative control group. The extracts prevented ethanol-induced decrease of the activity of antioxidant enzymes while the levels of malondialdehyde and of reduced glutathione were decreased significantly. Moreover, the most marked effect was observed at low doses of wild ecotype ‘Nefza-I’ extracts. Conclusion: The leaves of Vitis species might be suitable as a functional food for therapeutic purpose and demonstrates gastroprotective action in gastric lesions model. Both accessions exhibited gastroprotective effects, but wild ‘Nefza-I’ ecotype was more effective than cultivar ‘Marsaoui’.

    更新日期:2019-12-20
  • Tissue-based miRNA mapping in alcoholic liver cirrhosis: different profiles in cirrhosis with or without hepatocellular carcinoma
    Biomarkers (IF 1.73) Pub Date : 2019-11-14
    Philipp Felgendreff; Nathanael Raschzok; Kerstin Kunze; Annekatrin Leder; Steffen Lippert; Sergej Klunk; Hans-Michael Tautenhahn; Hans-Michael Hau; Rosa Bianca Schmuck; Anja Reutzel-Selke; Igor Maximilian Sauer; Michael Bartels; Mehmet Haluk Morgül

    Context: Alcoholic liver cirrhosis is a significant risk factor for the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The importance of tumour-associated cirrhosis in the development or progression of HCC is not understood. MiRNAs are important regulators for HCC development, but their role in HCC due to alcoholic liver cirrhosis is unclear. Objective: The aim of this study is the detection of miRNA expression in alcoholic liver cirrhosis, tumour-associated cirrhosis, and HCC. Materials and methods: We analysed the differences in the miRNA profiles of HCC, tumour-associated cirrhosis, and cirrhosis without HCC samples from 30 patients who underwent liver transplantation because of alcoholic liver disease. Results: Microarray analyses revealed 40 significantly differentially expressed miRNAs between HCC tissue and tumour-associated cirrhosis tissue. Furthermore, the microarray analysis discovered 56 differentially expressed miRNAs in tumour-associated cirrhosis and cirrhosis without HCC. Discussion: The differences of miRNA profile in alcoholic liver cirrhosis with and without HCC could improve understanding of HCC development, as well as lead to a new diagnostic tool in HCC screening. Conclusion: We were able to show for the first time, the differences of miRNA profile as promising biomarker in HCC, tumour-associated cirrhosis, and cirrhosis without HCC in context of alcoholic liver disease

    更新日期:2019-12-20
  • Clinicopathologic features and prognostic significance of CD30 expression in de novo diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL): results in a homogeneous series from a single institution
    Biomarkers (IF 1.73) Pub Date : 2019-11-21
    María Queralt Salas; Fina Climent; Gustavo Tapia; Eva DomingoDomènech; Santiago Mercadal; Ana Carla Oliveira; Carmen Aguilera; García Olga; Miriam Moreno Velázquez; Marcio Andrade-Campos; Maite Encuentra; Alberto Fernández de Sevilla; Anna Sureda; Juan Manuel Sancho; Eva González-Barca

    Introduction: The present study evaluates CD30 expression by immunohistochemistry (IHQ) in 216 patients with de novo DLBCL. Methods: CD30 expression was assessed retrospectively in all cases by IHQ. More than >0% and >20% of CD30 expression in the malignant cells were used as a cut-off for positivity. Survival was analysed in 176 patients treated with R-CHOP/R-CHOP-like regimens. Results: CD30 expression >0% was found in 66 (31%) patients, and >20% in 41 (19%). Younger patients <60 years (p = 0.03), good performance status (p = 0.04), and non-GCB subtype (p = 0.004) correlated with CD30 expression. No significant differences were found in overall survival and progression-free survival (PFS), although there was a trend towards better PFS in CD30-positive patients (p = 0.07). Among 7 patients with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-positive-DLBCL, CD30 was expressed in 71%, and 2-year PFS significantly inferior compared with CD30-positive EBV-negative-DLBCL patients (p = 0.01). Conclusion: CD30 is expressed in 30% of DLBCL patients, in whom targeted therapy with an anti-CD30 monoclonal antibody could be explored. CD30 is expressed more frequently younger patients, with better performance status and in the non-GCB subtype and its expression trends towards a better PFS. No significant differences regarding characteristics at diagnosis or prognosis were found between groups with different cut-off for positivity.

    更新日期:2019-12-20
  • Circulating microRNA as biomarkers of clozapine-induced cardiotoxicity
    Biomarkers (IF 1.73) Pub Date : 2019-11-21
    Kathryn E. Burns; Kieran D. Deane-Alder; Brandi L. Bellissima; Malcolm D. Tingle

    Purpose: This work investigated the utility of circulating microRNA (miRNA) as biomarkers of clozapine (CLZ)-induced cardiotoxicities: serious adverse events with an unusually high incidence in Australia and New Zealand. Methods: Global plasma miRNA expression was analysed by microarray in patients taking CLZ, to investigate differential expression between CLZ-induced cardiotoxicity cases (n = 6) and matched control patients (n = 12). The results were validated by RT-qPCR using a panel of 17 miRNA, and their expression was examined in both CLZ-naïve healthy volunteers (n = 12) and an expanded cohort of CLZ-taking patients (n = 21). Temporal changes were also examined in two healthy volunteers and two CLZ-induced cardiotoxicity patients. Results: No miRNA were differentially expressed between cases of CLZ-induced cardiotoxicity and control patients. Circulating levels of several miRNA were significantly altered in CLZ-taking patients compared to healthy volunteers, with miR-16-5p, miR-25-3p, miR-92a-3p, miR-320a-3p, and miR-486-3p upregulated and miR-22-3p, miR-126-3p, and miR-142-3p downregulated in the patients. Five of these (miR-16-5p, miR-22-3p, miR-92a-3p, miR-126-3p, miR-142-3p) were stably expressed over time in both CLZ-induced cardiotoxicity patients and CLZ-naïve healthy volunteers. Conclusions: Plasma miRNA are not useful biomarkers of CLZ-induced cardiotoxicity, however patients taking CLZ have significantly altered circulating miRNA compared to healthy volunteers.

    更新日期:2019-12-20
  • Impact of betanin against paracetamol and diclofenac induced hepato-renal damage in rats
    Biomarkers (IF 1.73) Pub Date : 2019-12-06
    Tarek K. Motawi; Samia A. Ahmed; Noha A. El-Boghdady; Nadia S. Metwally; Noha N. Nasr

    Context: Paracetamol (PAR) and diclofenac (DF) are the most popular consumed analgesics and anti-inflammatory medications. Objective: This study aimed to explore the protective effect of betanin (Bet) against PAR or DF induced hepato-renal damage in rats. Methods: Rats were randomly divided into five groups: Normal control (NC) group rats were given saline only. PAR group rats received PAR (400 mg/kg). PAR/Bet treated group rats administered PAR (400 mg/kg) plus Bet (25 mg/kg). DF group rats received DF (10 mg/kg). DF/Bet treated group rats administered DF (10 mg/kg) plus Bet (25 mg/kg). All drugs were given by gavage for 28 consecutive days. Results: PAR and DF administration in high dose and long-time induced liver and kidney injury, disrupted serum lipid profile, enhanced serum levels of inflammatory and oxidative stress markers, triggered DNA fragmentation and caused drastic changes in the histopathological pictures of the two organs. Bet supplementation succeeded to ameliorate most of the biochemical changes and protected DNA from damage as obtained from comet assay. Histological features in H&E taken to different groups also mirrors this findings. Conclusion: Bet exerted a potential anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effect against hepato-renal damage induced by PAR or DF overconsumption.

    更新日期:2019-12-20
  • The progressive alteration of urine metabolomic profiles of rats following long-term and low-dose exposure to permethrin
    Biomarkers (IF 1.73) Pub Date : 2019-12-01
    Yu-Jie Liang; Pan Wang; Ding-Xin Long; Hui-Ping Wang; Ying-Jian Sun; Yi-Jun Wu

    Background: Permethrin is a type of widely used pyrethroid pesticide. Although acute toxicity of permethrin has been well-characterised, the non-acute toxicity of permethrin upon long-term exposure at low dose has been seldom studied yet. The current study investigates the time-course change of the metabolomic profiles of urine following the low level long-term exposure of permethrin and identified biomarkers of the chronic toxicity of permethrin. Methods: Male Wistar rats were administrated orally with permethrin (75 mg/kg body weight/day, 1/20 LD50) daily for consecutive 90 days. The urine samples from day 30, day 60, and day 90 after the first dosing were collected and analysed by 1H NMR spectrometry. Serum biochemical analysis was also carried out. Results: Permethrin caused significant changes in the urine metabolites such as taurine, creatinine, acetate, lactate, dimethylamine, dimethylglycine, and trimethylamine-N-oxide. These biological markers indicated prominent kidney and liver toxicity induced by permethrin. However, there was no change in serum biochemical parameters for the toxicity, indicating that metabolomic approach was much more sensitive in detecting the chronic toxicity. Conclusion: The time-course alteration of metabolomic profiles of the urine based on 1H NMR reflects the progressive development of the chronic toxicity with the long-term low-level exposure of permethrin.

    更新日期:2019-12-20
  • Urinary 1H NMR metabolomics profile of Italian citizens exposed to background levels of arsenic: a (pre)cautionary tale
    Biomarkers (IF 1.73) Pub Date : 2019-10-24
    Emanuela Locci, Luigi Isaia Lecca, Roberto Piras, Antonio Noto, Ilaria Pilia, Ernesto d’Aloja, Marcello Campagna

    Objectives: Arsenic is a toxic metal ubiquitous in the environment and in daily life items. Long-term arsenic exposure is associated with severe adverse health effects involving various target organs. It would be useful to investigate the existence of metabolic alterations associated with lifestyle and/or with the environment. For this purpose, we studied the correlation between urinary arsenic levels and urinary proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H NMR) metabolomics profiles in a non-occupationally nor environmentally arsenic exposed general population. Methods: Urine samples were collected from 86 healthy subjects. Total and non-alimentary urinary arsenic (U-naAs) levels, namely the sum of arsenite, arsenate, monomethylarsonate and dimethylarsinate, were measured and 1H NMR analysis was performed. Orthogonal Projection to Latent Structures was applied to explore the correlation between the metabolomics profiles and U-naAs levels. Results: Despite the extremely low U-naAs levels (mean value = 6.13 ± 3.17 µg/g creatinine) of our studied population a urinary metabolomics profile related to arsenic was identified. Conclusion: The identified profile could represent a fingerprint of early arsenic biological effect and could be used in further studies as an indicator of susceptibility, also in subjects exposed to a low arsenic dose, with implications in occupational health, toxicology, and public health.

    更新日期:2019-11-15
  • LncRNA CAIF was downregulated in end-stage cardiomyopathy and is a promising diagnostic and prognostic marker for this disease
    Biomarkers (IF 1.73) Pub Date : 2019-10-17
    Di Wu, Yanqiu Zhou, Yudong Fan, Qingjun Zhang, Feifei Gu, Wen Mao, Miaomiao Zhang

    Cardiac autophagy inhibitory factor (CAIF) is a novel lncRNA with protective effects on myocardial infarction. We explored the involvement of CAIF in end-stage cardiomyopathy. Patients with end-stage cardiomyopathy and healthy volunteers were included in this study. Myocardial tissues and serum were collected. CAIF was detected by RT-qPCR. ROC curve was used for diagnostic analysis. Prognostic value of CAIF expression for end-stage cardiomyopathy was evaluated by survival curve analysis. Correlations between CAIF expression and clinicopathological data of patients with end-stage cardiomyopathy were analysed by chi-square test. Downregulated CAIF was observed in end-stage cardiomyopathy patients than in healthy controls. CAIF expression distinguished end-stage cardiomyopathy patients from healthy controls and predict the survival of patients. LncRNA CAIF was downregulated in end-stage cardiomyopathy and may serve as a promising prognostic and diagnostic marker for this disease.

    更新日期:2019-11-15
  • Fabrication of an improved amperometric creatinine biosensor based on enzymes nanoparticles bound to Au electrode
    Biomarkers (IF 1.73) Pub Date : 2019-10-24
    Parveen Kumar, Mohit Kamboj, Ranjana Jaiwal, C.S. Pundir

    An improved amperometric creatinine biosensor was fabricated that dependent on covalent immobilisation of nanoparticles of creatininase (CANPs), creatinase (CINPs) and sarcosine oxidase (SOxNPs) onto gold electrode (AuE). The CANPs/CINPs/SOxNPs/AuE was characterised by scanning electron microscopy and cyclic voltammetry at various stages. The working electrode exhibited optimal response within 2 s at a potential of 0.6 V, against Ag/AgCl, pH 6.5 and 30 °C. A linear relationship was observed between creatinine concentration range, 0.1–200μM and biosensor response i.e. current in mA, under optimum conditions. Biosensor offered a low detection limit of 0.1 μM with long storage stability. Analytical recoveries of added creatinine in blood sera at 0.5 mM and at 1.0 mM concentrations, were 92.0% and 79.20% respectively. The precision i.e. within and between-batch coefficients of variation were 2.04% and 3.06% respectively. There was a good correlation (R2 = 0.99) between level of creatinine in sera, as calculated by the colorimetric method and present electrode. The CANPs/CINPs/SOxNPs/Au electrode was reused 200 times during the period of 180 days, with just 10% loss in its initial activity, while being stored at 4 °C, when not in use. Highlights Prepared and characterised creatininase (CA), creatinase (CI) sarcosine oxidase (SOx) nanoparticles and immobilised them onto gold electrode (AuE) for fabrication of an improved amperometric creatinine biosensor. The biosensor displayed a limit of detection (LOD) of 0.1 μM with a linear working range of 0.1 μM–200 μM. The biosensor was evaluated and applied to measure elevated creatinine levels in sera from whom suffering from kidney and muscular disorders. The working electrode retained 90% of its initial activity, while being stored dry at 4 ˚C for 180 days.

    更新日期:2019-11-15
  • Assessment of relationship between serum vascular adhesion protein-1 (VAP-1) and gestational diabetes mellitus
    Biomarkers (IF 1.73) Pub Date : 2019-11-04
    Burcu Dincgez Cakmak, Betul Dundar, Fatma Ketenci Gencer, Durkadin Elif Yildiz, Feyza Bayram, Gulten Ozgen, Burcu Aydin Boyama

    Purpose: VAP-1 plays a crucial role in inflammation, oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction which are main pathophysiologic mechanisms for gestational diabetes. We aimed to determine serum VAP-1 levels, assess its diagnostic value and correlation with clinical parameters in gestational diabetes. Methods: A total of 60 pregnant women with gestational diabetes and 75 healthy pregnant women between 24–28th gestational weeks between January–June 2017 were included. Pregnant women were screened for gestational diabetes by two-step protocol. Demographic, clinical and laboratory parameters of patients were recorded. VAP-1 was measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. Results: Gestational diabetes group had higher fasting and postprandial glucose, HbA1c, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte-ratio, platelet-to-lymphocyte-ratio, plateletcrit and C-reactive protein. Furthermore, VAP-1 levels were higher in gestational diabetes (3.35 ± 1.52 vs 2.2 ± 0.74; p < 0.001). VAP-1 levels >2.315 could predict gestational diabetes with a sensitivity of 70% and specificity of 65.3%. VAP-1 was correlated with clinical follow-up parameters such as fasting glucose (r = 0.473, p < 0.001), postprandial glucose (r = 0.416, p < 0.001), HbA1c (r = 0.462, p < 0.001) and inflammatory biomarkers such as platelet-to-lymphocyte-ratio (r = 0.254, p = 0.04), neutrophil-to-lymphocyte-ratio (r = 0.375, p = 0.003) and C-reactive protein (r = 0.306, p = 0.017). Conclusions: Elevated VAP-1 levels in gestational diabetes correlated with clinical follow-up and inflammatory markers may suggest the pathogenetic role of VAP-1 in gestational diabetes. Hence, we think that VAP-1 could be a promising marker for the prediction of gestational diabetes.

    更新日期:2019-11-15
  • Concentrations of urine cotinine and hydroxycotinine among US children, adolescents, and adults: data from NHANES 2013–2014
    Biomarkers (IF 1.73) Pub Date : 2019-11-07
    Ram Baboo Jain

    Purpose: The objective of this study was to evaluate variabilities in the levels of urine cotinine and hydroxycotinine by age, gender, race/ethnicity and smoking status among US residents. Materials and methods: Data from NHANES (N = 3135) were analysed by fitting regression models with log10-transformed values of urine cotinine and hydroxycotinine as dependent variables. Separate models were fitted for children aged 6–11 years, adolescents aged 12–19 years, and adults aged ≥20 years. Models were stratified by smoking status. Those self-reporting using combustible and/or smokeless tobacco products during the last 5 days were classified as being smokers. Results: No gender differences were observed. Among non-smokers, non-Hispanic blacks had the highest levels of cotinine and hydroxycotinine and Hispanics had the lowest levels of cotinine and hydroxycotinine. Among smokers, non-Hispanic whites had the highest levels of cotinine and hydroxycotinine. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke at home and other indoor environments was associated with as much as 500% higher levels of cotinine and hydroxycotinine. Conclusions: In addition to currently available data on cotinine in serum and NNAL in urine, availability of data on cotinine and hydroxycotinine in urine provides another tool to monitor the smoking health of the US population.

    更新日期:2019-11-15
  • Tumour necrosis factor like cytokine 1A levels and lesion complexity in non-smoking patients with coronary artery disease
    Biomarkers (IF 1.73) Pub Date : 2019-11-05
    Aydın Akyüz, Demet Özkaramanlı Gür, Şeref Alpsoy, Savaş Güzel

    Background: Tumour necrosis factor like cytokine 1A (TL1A), which is a member of tumour necrosis factor alpha superfamily (TNF-α), is a novel indicator of atherosclerosis. Objective: Smoking is an established stimulant of TNF-α. We aimed to investigate whether TLA1 plays a role in the presence and complexity of coronary artery atherosclerosis, exclusively in non-smoking patients with CAD. Methods: We enrolled 103 participants in the study, who underwent coronary angiography for stable angina pectoris. We divided the study population into 2 groups: The CAD group consisted of 62 patients with CAD and the control group consisted of 41 subjects with non-CAD. SYNTAX and Gensini scores, indicating CAD severity and complexity, were analysed as well as TLA1 levels. Results: TLA1 levels was higher in patients with CAD than those in controls (228[119–824] vs 178[15–418]pg/ml, p < 0.001). Presence of CAD (β ± SE = 106.29 ± 33.11, p = 0.002), Syntax score (β ± SE= 6.57 ± 1.75, p = 0.012), and Gensini score (β ± SE = 2.30 ± 0.65, p = 0.001) were found to be predictors of TL1A levels. Gensini score and Syntax score were positively correlated with TL1A levels (r = 0.420, p < 0.001, and r = 0.402, p < 0.001, respectively). Conclusions: Non-smoker CAD patients have higher TLA1 levels that are promising biomarker for diagnosing CAD and indicating CAD lesion complexity.

    更新日期:2019-11-15
  • Serum cholinesterase biomarker study in farmers – Souss Massa region-, Morocco: case–control study
    Biomarkers (IF 1.73) Pub Date : 2019-11-08
    H. Sine, K. El Grafel, S. Alkhammal, A. Achbani, K. Filali

    Background: Farmers and their workers are exposed to a wide variety of pesticides. The use of pesticides has been documented to lead to several adverse health effects. Inhibition of cholinesterase, primarily butyrylcholinesterase is a good indicator of occupational exposure to organophosphates and carbamates. Objective: This case-control study aims to study the risks associated with pesticide exposure among farmers and agricultural workers in the Souss Massa region by analyzing variations in the response of a pesticides exposure biomarker: Serum Cholinesterase Activity (butyrylcholinesterase (BChE)). Materials and methods: This was a prospective study conducted on 133 participants (71 farmers and 62 non-farmers). A structured questionnaire was applied collecting socio-demographic information and determining knowledge and work practices in relation to pesticide use. The activity of Serum cholinesterase was measured by the butyrulthiocholine method a spectrophotometric assay. Results: The mean age of the participants was 42.5 ± 10.66 years. The study demonstrated significantly lower BChE activity, respectively, in the plasma of farmers exposed to pesticides, compared to the control group (p < 0.05). The measured mean level of BChE activity was (7304.80 ± 1939.99 U/L) and (9746.42 ± 1699.85 U/L) in the farmers and the control group (non-farmers), respectively. In addition, a high proportion of farmers reported that empty containers are burned in the open (74.6%) for waste disposal. A proportion (11.3%) of farmers also reported that empty container waste is spilled on the farm. Conclusions: The decrease in BChE indicates a serious public health problem among farmers who use organophosphate pesticides. This study suggests that regular monitoring for blood cholinesterase and effective interventions to reduce pesticide exposure to prevent health effects should be provided to farmers.

    更新日期:2019-11-15
  • MicroRNAs as biomarkers of harmful environmental and occupational exposures: a systematic review
    Biomarkers (IF 1.73) Pub Date : 2019-08-19
    Michail Kotsyfakis, Evridiki Patelarou

    Environmental exposure is a growing public health burden associated with several negative health effects. An estimated 4.2 million deaths occur each year from ambient air pollution alone. Biomarkers that reflect specific exposures have the potential to measure the real integrated internal dose from all routes of complex environmental exposure. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), small non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression, have been studied as biomarkers in various diseases and have also shown potential as environmental exposure biomarkers. Here, we review the available human epidemiological and experimental evidence of miRNA expression changes in response to specific environmental exposures including airborne particulate matter. In doing so, we establish that miRNA exposure biomarker development remains in its infancy and future studies will need to carefully consider biological and analytical ‘design rules’ in order to facilitate clinical translation.

    更新日期:2019-11-04
  • Prediction of all-cause mortality with hypoalbuminemia in patients with heart failure: a meta-analysis
    Biomarkers (IF 1.73) Pub Date : 2019-08-29
    Wenhua Peng, Channa Zhang, Zhijun Wang, Wenqi Yang

    Objective: The prognostic utility of serum albumin level for mortality in heart failure patients has received considerable attention. This meta-analysis sought to examine the prognostic significance of hypoalbuminemia for prediction of all-cause mortality in patients with heart failure. Materials and methods: Pubmed and Embase databases were systematically searched up to 10 March 2019 to identify eligible studies. Epidemiological studies reporting a multivariable-adjusted risk estimate of all-cause mortality associated with hypoalbuminemia in acute or chronic heart failure patients were included. Results: Nine studies from 10 articles involving 16,763 heart failure patients were included in the final analysis. Hypoalbuminemia was associated with an increased in-hospital mortality (risk ratio [RR] 4.90; 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.96–8.10) and long-term all-cause mortality (RR 1.75; 95% CI 1.35–2.27) in acute heart failure patients. Chronic heart failure patients with hypoalbuminemia exhibited a 3.5-fold (95% CI 1.29–9.73) higher risk for long-term all-cause mortality. Conclusions: Hypoalbuminemia is possibly an independent predictor of all-cause mortality in patients with acute or chronic heart failure. However, the current findings should be further confirmed in future prospective studies. Moreover, future well-designed randomized controlled trials would be required to investigate whether correcting hypoalbuminemia in heart failure patients has potential to improve survival outcome.

    更新日期:2019-11-04
  • Renalase in children with chronic kidney disease
    Biomarkers (IF 1.73) Pub Date : 2019-07-23
    Piotr Skrzypczyk, Magdalena Okarska-Napierała, Anna Stelmaszczyk-Emmel, Elżbieta Górska, Małgorzata Pańczyk-Tomaszewska

    Background: Renalase is kidney-derived molecule initially considered as catecholamine-inactivating enzyme. However, recent studies suggest that renalase exerts potent cardio- and nephroprotective actions, not related to its enzymatic activity. Purpose: To assess renalase level in children with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Material and methods: Serum renalase, BMI, arterial stiffness, peripheral and central blood pressure, intima-media thickness (IMT), medications, and biochemical parameters were analyzed in 38 children with CKD (12.23 ± 4.19 years) (stage G2-5). Control group consisted of 38 healthy children. Results: In the study group, GFR was 25.74 ± 8.94 mL/min/1.73 m2; 6 children were dialyzed; 26 had arterial hypertension. Renalase level was higher in the study group compared to control group (p < 0.001). In CKD children renalase correlated (p < 0.05) with BMI Z-score (r = –0.36), alfacalcidol dose (r = 0.41), GFR (r = –0.69), hemoglobin (r = –0.48), total cholesterol (r = 0.35), LDL-cholesterol (r = 0.36), triglycerides (r = 0.52), phosphate (r = 0.35), calcium-phosphorus product (r = 0.35), parathormone (r = 0.58), and pulse wave velocity Z-score (r = 0.42). In multivariate analysis GFR (β = –0.63, p < 0.001), triglycerides (β = 0.59, p = 0.002), and alfacalcidol dose (β = –0.49, p = 0.010) were determinants of renalase. Conclusions: In children with CKD there is a strong correlation between renalase level and CKD stage. Furthermore, in these patients renalase does not correlate with blood pressure but may be a marker of arterial stiffness.

    更新日期:2019-11-04
  • Protective effects of betanin against paracetamol and diclofenac induced neurotoxicity and endocrine disruption in rats
    Biomarkers (IF 1.73) Pub Date : 2019-08-05
    Tarek K. Motawi, Samia A. Ahmed, Noha A. El-Boghdady, Nadia S. Metwally, Noha N. Nasr

    Context: Overconsumption of paracetamol (PAR) and diclofenac (DF) have been reported to induce neurotoxicity and endocrine disruption. Objective: The current study was designed to explore the protective potential of betanin against PAR and DF inducing neurotoxicity and endocrine disruption in a rat model. Material and Methods: Forty rats were equally divided into five groups: group I served as control, group II received PAR (400 mg/kg), group III received PAR plus betanin (25 mg/kg), group IV received DF (10 mg/kg) and group V received DF plus betanin orally for 28 consecutive days. Thyroid axis hormones, sex hormone, neurotransmitters, paraoxonase-1, hemeoxygenase-1 and nuclear factor-2 were measured by ELISA. While, the oxidative stress markers were colorimetrically estimated. Moreover, DNA damage and histopathological picture of the brains were investigated. Results: A marked reduction in thyroid axis hormones, brain neurotransmitters and serum testosterone as well as enhanced oxidative stress and brain DNA damage accompanied by drastic changes in the brain histopathological picture were recorded in the challenged PAR and DF groups. Betanin supplementation ameliorated most of the biochemical and histopathological changes induced by PAR or DF. Conclusion: The study suggests betanin of potential protective effects against neurotoxicity and endocrine disruption induced by PAR and DF overconsumption.

    更新日期:2019-11-04
  • Association of galectin-3 with changes in left ventricular function in recent-onset dilated cardiomyopathy
    Biomarkers (IF 1.73) Pub Date : 2019-07-22
    Andreas J. Rieth, Claudia Jung, Henning Gall, Andreas Rolf, Veselin Mitrovic, Christian W. Hamm, Johannes Sperzel, Christoph Liebetrau

    Background: The course of newly diagnosed dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) varies from persistent reduction of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) to recovery or even worsening. The aim of the present study was to examine the prognostic value of selected biomarkers with regard to changes in LVEF. Methods: Main inclusion criterion was LVEF ≤45% with exclusion of coronary artery or valvular heart disease. The primary endpoint was LVEF ≤35% in the follow-up echocardiogram. Galectin-3, N-terminal prohormone of brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) and C-reactive protein (CRP) were related to the endpoint. Results: Data from 80 DCM patients (55 male, mean age 53 years) were analyzed. Median LVEF was 25% (IQR 25–30). The endpoint was met for 24 patients (30%). These had higher baseline levels of galectin-3 (median 20.3 ng/mL [IQR 14.3–26.9] vs. 14.7 ng/mL [IQR 10.9–17.7], p = 0.007) and NT-proBNP (3089 pg/mL [IQR 1731–6694] vs. 1498 pg/mL [IQR 775–3890]; p = 0.004) in univariate Cox regression analysis. ROC analysis revealed that CRP (median 0.4 mg/dL [IQR 0.2–1.2]) was also related to the endpoint (p = 0.043). Conclusion: Higher levels of galectin-3, NT-proBNP, and CRP were associated with LVEF ≤35% in our cohort. An approach utilizing a combination of biomarkers for patient management should be assessed in further studies.

    更新日期:2019-11-04
  • A pilot study on the association between SLCO1B1 RS4363657 polymorphism and muscle adverse events in adults with newly diagnosed dyslipidaemia who were prescribed a statin: the Malaysian primary health care cohort
    Biomarkers (IF 1.73) Pub Date : 2019-08-06
    Subashini C. Thambiah, Meor Fairuz Rizal Meor Anuar Shuhaili, Boon How Chew, Intan Nureslyna Samsudin, Hejar Abdul Rahman, Johnson Stanslas, Shariful Hasan, Zalinah Ahmad

    Introduction: Statin, the first-line treatment for dyslipidaemia, may have suboptimal adherence due to its associated muscle adverse events. These data, however, remain limited. Aim: To determine the association of serum creatine kinase (CK) and SLCO1B1 rs4363657 polymorphism with statin-associated muscle adverse events (SAMAE) among dyslipidaemia participants. Methods: This was a prospective cohort study at government health clinics involving newly diagnosed adults with dyslipidaemia. SAMAE were recorded based on the patient’s complaint after a month on statin. CK was taken at baseline and follow-up. Genetic profiling was performed for SLCO1B1 rs4363657 polymorphism. Results: Among 118 participants, majority were Malay (72%) males (61%) with a mean age of 49 ± 12.2 years old and prescribed lovastatin (61.9). There was a significant association between statin types (lovastatin and simvastatin) and SAMAE (p = 0.0327); no significant association noted between CK and SAMAE (p = 0.5637). The SLCO1B1 rs4363657 polymorphism was significantly associated SAMAE (p < 0.0001). Conclusions: In this first pilot study of a multiethnic Malaysian population, the incidence of SAMAE was 18.6%. SAMAE were significantly higher in subjects on lovastatin compared to simvastatin. SLCO1B1 rs4363657 polymorphism was a significant risk factor for SAMAE.

    更新日期:2019-11-04
  • Glutathione reductase and catalase as potential biomarkers for synergistic intoxication of pesticides in fish
    Biomarkers (IF 1.73) Pub Date : 2019-08-19
    Ankur Khare, Naina Chhawani, Kanchan Kumari

    Synergy occurs when chemicals give pronounced effect on combination in contrast to their individual effect. The objective of this study was to investigate the synergistic effect of pesticides carbaryl (C) and methyl parathion (MP) on oxidative stress biomarkers viz catalase (CAT), glutathione reductase (GSSG-R) including different enzymes like lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) and acetyl cholinesterase (AChE) in different tissues of carps Catla catla. Fishes were exposed to 6.25 mg/L of MP and 2.3 mg/L of C in mixture (one-third of LC50 value). CAT and GSSG-R were studied in gills, brain, liver and muscle of carp were found to be elevated significantly (p < 0.005). LDH activity increased significantly (p < 0.005) in synergistic group, there was a seven-fold (748%) increase in LDH activity in muscle compared to individual studies with same pesticides. Contrary to LDH, sudden decrease in SDH activity was accounted. Significant (p < 0.005) decrease in AChE activity after initial 24 h was remarkable addressing to the shift in neurotransmission pathway in organism. Significant increase was observed in activity of CAT and GSSG-R in all tissues compared to control fishes in individual as well as synergistic (MP + C) group suggesting that CAT and GSSG-R can be a potential biomarker of oxidative stress when studied in combination.

    更新日期:2019-11-04
  • Prognostic value of stem cell markers in glioblastoma
    Biomarkers (IF 1.73) Pub Date : 2019-09-08
    Francesc Alameda, José María Velarde, Cristina Carrato, Noemí Vidal, Montserrat Arumí, Dolores Naranjo, Maria Martinez-Garcia, Teresa Ribalta, Carme Balañá

    Background/Context: Glioblastoma (GB) is the most common primary brain tumour in adults and it is associated with a high mortality rate. According to the stem cell theory, the growth, relapse and treatment response of GB is determined by the stem cell subpopulation present in the tumour. Objective: Our aim is to study the prognostic value of stem cell markers (CD44, Nestin, Olig2 and SOX2) in a series of homogeneously treated GBs. Material and methods: We study 280 GBs treated with STUPP acheme with a histologican review of the cases and TMA with a máximum of 4 spots for each case. Each slide was immunohistochemically stained and Reading. We compared the immunohistochemical results with survival tme. Results: Only SOX2 immunoexpression (IE) excedding 10% of the tumour cells was found to be related to good survival (p= 0.037) in univariate analysis. However, amultivariate analysis indicate the age, surgery and MGMT promotes methylation but no SOX2 IE are prognostic factors. Conclusions: We conclude the immunohistochemical studies of stem cell markers in GB are not useful for predicting prognosis in daily practice.

    更新日期:2019-11-04
  • Low proportions of folic acid deficiency after introduction of mandatory folic acid fortification in remote areas of northern Queensland, Australia: a secondary health data analysis
    Biomarkers (IF 1.73) Pub Date : 2019-08-25
    Anna Slagman, Linton Harriss, Sandra Campbell, Reinhold Muller, Robyn McDermott

    Background: Australia implemented mandatory folic acid fortification of bread-making flour in 2009. Objective: To assess the impact of folic acid fortification in remote vs. regional urban areas and Indigenous vs. non-Indigenous populations in northern Queensland. Methods: Routinely collected data on folic acid measurements in remote areas and two regional urban centres in northern Queensland between 2004 and 2015 were analysed (n = 13,929) dichotomously (folic deficient vs. non-deficient). Results: Overall prevalence of folic acid deficiency was 3.2% (235/7282) in urban centres compared with 7.2% (480/6647) in remote areas (p < 0.001), and 9.3% (393/4240) in the Indigenous population compared with 3.2% (273/8451) in the non-Indigenous population (p < 0.001). Prevalence of folic acid deficiency dropped from 12.2% (n = 481) in 2004–2008 to 1.5% (n = 126) in 2010–2015 (p < 0.001). This translates into a relative risk reduction (RRR) of 88%. RRR was 79% (7.2% vs. 1.5%) in urban centres, 91% (17.3% vs. 1.5%) in remote areas, 92% (20.5% vs. 1.6%) in the Indigenous population and 80% (7.4% vs. 1.5%) in the non-Indigenous population (p < 0.001 for all). Conclusions: Substantial declines of folic acid deficiency to low and comparable proportions in former high-risk populations indicate that mandatory folic acid fortification of flour has had a population-wide benefit in northern Queensland.

    更新日期:2019-11-04
  • Urinary cell cycle arrest biomarker [TIMP-2]·[IGFBP7] in patients with hepatorenal syndrome
    Biomarkers (IF 1.73) Pub Date : 2019-08-22
    Chengcheng Christine Zhang, Diane Alix Artémis Hoffelt, Uta Merle

    Background: Patients with hepatorenal syndrome carry a high short-term mortality. Early diagnosis and treatment are essential for patients’ outcome. Nevertheless diagnosis of HRS remains difficult. First-line therapy terlipressin is often associated with severe complications. Biomarkers become more on focus for an early diagnosis. Objective: The aim of this study was to test the diagnostic accuracy of urinary [TIMP-2]·[IGFBP7] for HRS patients and prognostic value for therapy responding patients. Material and methods: NephroCheck® measures urinary concentrations of TIMP-2 and IGFBP-7, both indicating stress of renal cells and associated with induction of cell cycle arrest. 22 HRS patients and 30 patients with normal kidney function were included. [TIMP-2]·[IGFBP7] was measured using NephroCheck®. HRS patients receiving terlipressin were also examined. Results: [TIMP-2]·[IGFBP7] values did not differ significantly (1.3 ± 2.09 vs. 1.03 ± 1.03; p = 0.55). Furthermore, there was no significant difference of [TIMP-2]·[IGFBP7] regarding response of terlipressin (1.32 ± 2.39 vs. 0.81 ± 1.05; p = 0.56). Low [TIMP-2]·[IGFBP7] values were significantly associated with higher mortality (p = 0.01). Conclusions: The results of this study suggest that [TIMP-2]·[IGFBP7] is not suitable for diagnostic of HRS and prediction of therapy response, but there might be evidence for prognostic value of [TIMP-2]·[IGFBP7] in regard to mortality of liver cirrhosis patients.

    更新日期:2019-11-04
  • Clinical and prognostic effects of CDKN2A, CDKN2B and CDH13 promoter methylation in ovarian cancer: a study using meta-analysis and TCGA data
    Biomarkers (IF 1.73) Pub Date : 2019-09-05
    Liang Xia, Wenzhu Zhang, Li Gao

    Background: Promoter methylation of tumour suppressor genes (TSGs) CDKN2A, CDKN2B and CDH13 has been reported in ovarian cancer. However, the clinicopathological characteristics and prognostic role of CDKN2A, CDKN2B and CDH13 promoter methylation in ovarian carcinoma remained unclear. Methods: The pooled odds ratio (OR) or hazard ratios (HRs) with their 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated in this meta-analysis. The Cancer Genome Atlas data were obtained to confirm the role of CDKN2A, CDKN2B and CDH13 methylation in ovarian cancer. Results: CDKN2A, CDKN2B and CDH13 promoter methylation was higher in ovarian cancer than in normal ovarian tissues. CDH13 promoter methylation was correlated with tumour histology (serous vs. non-serous type: OR = 0.33, p = 0.031). CDKN2A promoter methylation was not linked to overall survival (OS), but it was correlated with a poor prognosis in progression-free survival (HR = 1.55, p = 0.004). TCGA data showed no correlation between CDKN2A, CDKN2B and CDH13 methylation and OS as well as disease-free survival (DFS). Conclusions: CDKN2A, CDKN2B and CDH13 promoter methylation may correlate with the increased risk of ovarian cancer. CDKN2A promoter methylation may be an independent prognostic biomarker for predicting progression-free survival.

    更新日期:2019-11-04
  • Responses of serum chemokines to dramatic changes of air pollution levels, a panel study
    Biomarkers (IF 1.73) Pub Date : 2019-09-15
    Yanli Li, Matthew R. Bonner, Richard W. Browne, Furong Deng, Lili Tian, Junfeng ( Jim) Zhang, Mya Swanson, Kate Rittenhouse-Olson, Zeinab Farhat, Lina Mu

    Background: Despite the in vitro and in vivo evidence, studies are limited in evaluating whether chemokines are potential inflammatory mediators in response to air pollution exposure in humans. Methods: We conducted a panel study coinciding with the Beijing Olympics, when temporary air pollution controls were implemented. We measured a suite of serum chemokines among healthy adults before, during and after the Olympics, respectively. Linear mixed-effect models were used to evaluate changes in chemokine levels over the three time periods. Results: In response to the 50% drop in air pollution levels during the games, levels of RANTES, MCP-2, and TARC decreased by 25.8%, 20.9% and 35.3%, respectively (p < 0.001) from pre-Olympics, and then increased by 45.8%, 34.9% and 61.5%, respectively (p < 0.001) after the games when air pollution levels went up again. Similar patterns were observed in subgroup analyses by sex, age, smoking and body mass index. GRO-α and IL-8 decreased significantly during the games (22.5% and 30.4%), and increased non-significantly after the games. Eotaxin-1 only increased significantly from during- to post-games. Conclusions: The strongest associations with air pollution levels were observed among RANTES, TARC and MCP-2. Those chemokines may play important roles in the air pollution-induced inflammatory pathway.

    更新日期:2019-11-04
  • Genotoxic action of Luna Experience-SC 400 fungicide on rat bone marrow
    Biomarkers (IF 1.73) Pub Date : 2019-08-29
    Ayla Çelik, Gizem Güler, Cuma Aktaş, Serap Yalin

    Background: Fungicides describe all chemicals used to control fungi that infect plants. Luna Experience SC-400 is a new line of fungicide that consist of Fluopyram and Tebuconazole. Objective: In this study, We investigated the genotoxicty and cytotoxicty of Luna Experience-SC 400 using comet assay, micronucleus test and polychromatic erythrocytes number in rat bone marrow. The present study is the first report indicating the effects of genotoxic and cytotoxic of Luna experience SC-400 on rat bone marrow cells. Material and Methods: We used three different doses (5mg/kg, 10mg/kg, 20mg/kg) of Luna Experience SC 400 at 48 h intervals during 30 days by gavage in rats.Genotoxicity was evaluated using comet assay and micronucleus test and cytotoxicity was measured the PCE/NCE rate in rat bone marrow. Results: Based on these experimental results, we report that Luna Experience-SC 400 fungicide presents genotoxic and cytotoxic potential on rat bone marrow. There is a significant difference between negative control group and all the doses of Luna Experience-SC 400 (p < 0.05) for comet assay and micronucleus. Even moderate and high doses of fungicides seem to have reached the values of almost positive control group for Genetic Damage Index (GDI) and Damaged Cell Percentage (DCP). In this study, we also investigated the PCE/NCE rate. Fungicide caused a decrease in the level of significant in the PCE/NCE ratio (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Our in vivo study suggests that the gavage exposure to Luna experience SC 400 used in the present investigation may be genotoxic and cytotoxic in rat bone marrow in view of these findings. Because this findings is first report represented in the pesticide biology, it is important to carry out more investigations using various cytogenetic tests under different experimental conditions to definitively resolve the the possible genotoxic and cytotoxic risk associated with new generation pesticides-fungicides.

    更新日期:2019-11-04
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