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  • Issue Information
    Contrast Media Mol. Imaging (IF 1.984) Pub Date : 2017-01-19

    No abstract is available for this article.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Dual nano‐sized contrast agents in PET/MRI: a systematic review
    Contrast Media Mol. Imaging (IF 1.984) Pub Date : 2017-01-19
    Afsaneh Lahooti, Saeed Sarkar, Sophie Laurent, Saeed Shanehsazzadeh
    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Preclinical evaluation of [111In]MICA‐401, an activity‐based probe for SPECT imaging of in vivo uPA activity
    Contrast Media Mol. Imaging (IF 1.984) Pub Date : 2016-08-24
    Christel Vangestel, David Thomae, Jeroen Van Soom, Johan Ides, Leonie wyffels, Patrick Pauwels, Sigrid Stroobants, Pieter Van der Veken, Viktor Magdolen, Jurgen Joossens, Koen Augustyns, Steven Staelens
    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Cellular internalization and morphological analysis after intravenous injection of a highly hydrophilic octahedral rhenium cluster complex – a new promising X‐ray contrast agent
    Contrast Media Mol. Imaging (IF 1.984) Pub Date : 2016-08-04
    Anna A. Krasilnikova, Anastasiya O. Solovieva, Kristina E. Trifonova, Konstantin A. Brylev, Anton A. Ivanov, Sung‐Jin Kim, Michael A. Shestopalov, Maria S. Fufaeva, Alexander M. Shestopalov, Yuri V. Mironov, Alexander F. Poveshchenko, Lidia V. Shestopalova
    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Biodistribution and evaluation of 131I‐labeled neuropilin‐binding peptide for targeted tumor imaging
    Contrast Media Mol. Imaging (IF 1.984) Pub Date : 2016-08-15
    Ping Dong, Huawei Cai, Lihong Chen, Yalun Li, Cen Yuan, Xiaoai Wu, Guohua Shen, Huijun Zhou, Wenjie Zhang, Lin Li
    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • 64CuS‐labeled nanoparticles: a new sentinel‐lymph‐node‐mapping agent for PET–CT and photoacoustic tomography
    Contrast Media Mol. Imaging (IF 1.984) Pub Date : 2016-08-15
    Qiufang Liu, Min Zhou, Panli Li, Geng Ku, Gang Huang, Chun Li, Shaoli Song
    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • 更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Myelin‐targeted, texaphyrin‐based multimodal imaging agent for magnetic resonance and optical imaging
    Contrast Media Mol. Imaging (IF 1.984) Pub Date : 2016-09-06
    Sashiprabha M. Vithanarachchi, Casey D. Foley, Sarah Trimpin, James R. Ewing, Meser M. Ali, Matthew J. Allen
    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • In vivo and ex vivo 19‐fluorine magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy of beta‐cells and pancreatic islets using GLUT‐2 specific contrast agents
    Contrast Media Mol. Imaging (IF 1.984) Pub Date : 2016-09-14
    Sayuan Liang, Karim Louchami, Hauke Kolster, Anna Jacobsen, Ying Zhang, Julian Thimm, Abdullah Sener, Joachim Thiem, Willy Malaisse, Tom Dresselaers, Uwe Himmelreich
    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Improved specific loss power on cancer cells by hyperthermia and MRI contrast of hydrophilic FexCo1‐xFe2O4 nanoensembles
    Contrast Media Mol. Imaging (IF 1.984) Pub Date : 2016-09-22
    S. Manjura Hoque, Yuegao Huang, Emiliano Cocco, Samuel Maritim, Alessandro D. Santin, Erik M. Shapiro, Daniel Coman, Fahmeed Hyder
    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • 更新日期:2019-11-18
  • In vivo quantification of magnetically labelled cells by MRI relaxometry
    Contrast Media Mol. Imaging (IF 1.984) Pub Date : 2016-10-21
    Ulysse Gimenez, Hélène Lajous, Michèle El Atifi, Marie Bidart, Vincent Auboiroux, Pascal Henry Fries, François Berger, Hana Lahrech
    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • USPIO enhanced lymph node MRI using 3D multi‐echo GRE in a rabbit model
    Contrast Media Mol. Imaging (IF 1.984) Pub Date : 2016-12-15
    Sung Hun Kim, Soon Nam Oh, Hyun Seok Choi, Hyun Sil Lee, Jaeseop Jun, Yoonho Nam, Sung Hak Lee, Jin‐Kwon Lee, Hae Giu Lee
    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Lentiviral transduction and subsequent loading with nanoparticles do not affect cell viability and proliferation in hair‐follicle‐bulge‐derived stem cells in vitro
    Contrast Media Mol. Imaging (IF 1.984) Pub Date : 2016-12-15
    Timo Schomann, Laura Mezzanotte, Ierry‐Ann‐Lym M. Lourens, John C. M. J. de Groot, Johan H. M. Frijns, Margriet A. Huisman
    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Magnetically driven nanoparticles: 18FDG‐radiolabelling and positron emission tomography biodistribution study
    Contrast Media Mol. Imaging (IF 1.984) Pub Date : 2017-01-04
    Mariarosaria De Simone, Daniele Panetta, Emilia Bramanti, Cristiana Giordano, Maria C. Salvatici, Lisa Gherardini, Arianna Menciassi, Silvia Burchielli, Caterina Cinti, Piero A. Salvadori
    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Surgical tissue handling methods to optimize ex vivo fluorescence with the activatable optical probe γ‐glutamyl hydroxymethyl rhodamine green
    Contrast Media Mol. Imaging (IF 1.984) Pub Date : 2016-07-22
    Toshiko Harada, Yuko Nakamura, Kazuhide Sato, Tadanobu Nagaya, Peter L. Choyke, Yasuyuki Seto, Hisataka Kobayashi
    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • 11C-Labeled Pictilisib (GDC-0941) as a Molecular Tracer Targeting Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase (PI3K) for Breast Cancer Imaging.
    Contrast Media Mol. Imaging (IF 1.984) Pub Date : null
    Na Han,Yaqun Jiang,Yongkang Gai,Qingyao Liu,Lujie Yuan,Yichun Wang,Mengting Li,Yongxue Zhang,Xiaoli Lan

    Pictilisib (GDC-0941) is an inhibitor of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), part of a signaling cascade involved in breast cancer development. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of pictilisib noninvasively by radiolabeling it with 11C and to assess the usability of the resulting [11C]-pictilisib as a positron-emission tomography (PET) tracer to screen for pictilisib-sensitive tumors. In this study, pictilisib was radiolabeled with [11C]-methyl iodide to obtain 11C-methylated pictilisib ([11C]-pictilisib) using an automated synthesis module with a high radiolabeling yield. Considerably higher uptake ratios were observed in MCF-7 (PIK3CA mutation, pictilisib-sensitive) cells than those in MDA-MB-231 (PIK3CA wild-type, pictilisib-insensitive) cells at all evaluated time points, indicating good in vitro binding of [11C]-pictilisib. Dynamic micro-PET scans in mice and biodistribution results showed that [11C]-pictilisib was mainly excreted via the hepatobiliary tract into the intestines. MCF-7 xenografts could be clearly visualized on the static micro-PET scans, while MDA-MB-231 tumors could not. Biodistribution results of two xenograft models showed significantly higher uptake and tumor-to-muscle ratios in the MCF-7 xenografts than those in MDA-MB-231 xenografts, exhibiting high in vivo targeting specificity. In conclusion, [11C]-pictilisib was first successfully prepared, and it exhibited good potential to identify pictilisib-sensitive tumors noninvasively, which may have a great impact in the treatment of cancers with an overactive PI3K/Akt/mTOR signal pathway. However, the high activity in hepatobiliary system and intestines needs to be addressed.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Early Prediction of Treatment Response of Neuroendocrine Hepatic Metastases after Peptide Receptor Radionuclide Therapy with 90Y-DOTATOC Using Diffusion Weighted and Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced MRI.
    Contrast Media Mol. Imaging (IF 1.984) Pub Date : null
    Thomas Weikert,Ole Christopher Maas,Tanja Haas,Markus Klarhöfer,Jens Bremerich,Flavio Forrer,Alexander Walter Sauter,Gregor Sommer

    The purpose of this study was to determine if parameters derived from diffusion-weighted (DW-) and dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE-) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can help to assess early response to peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) with 90Y-DOTATOC in neuroendocrine hepatic metastases (NET-HM). Twenty patients (10 male; 10 female; mean age: 59.2 years) with NET-HM were prospectively enrolled in this single-center imaging study. DW-MRI and DCE-MRI studies were performed just before and 48 hours after therapy with 90Y-DOTATOC. Abdominal SPECT/CT was performed 24 hours after therapy. This MRI imaging and therapy session was repeated after a mean interval of 10 weeks. Up to four lesions per patient were evaluated. Response to therapy was evaluated using metastasis sizes at the first and second therapy session as standard for comparison (regressive, stable, and progressive). DW-MRI analysis included the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and parameters related to intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM), namely, diffusion (D), perfusion fraction (f) and pseudo-diffusion (D ∗ ). DCE-MRI analysis comprised Ktrans, v e and k ep. For statistical analysis of group differences, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and appropriate post hoc testing was performed. A total of 51 lesions were evaluated. Seven of 51 lesions (14%) showed size progression, 18/51 (35%) regression, and 26/51 (51%) remained stable. The lesion-to-spleen uptake ratio in SPECT showed a decrease between the two treatment sessions that was significantly stronger in regressive lesions compared with stable (p = 0.013) and progressive lesions (p = 0.021). ANOVA showed significant differences in mean ADC after 48 h (p = 0.026), with higher ADC values for regressive lesions. Regarding IVIM, highest values for D at baseline were seen in regressive lesions (p = 0.023). In DCE-MRI, a statistically significant increase in v e after 10 weeks (p = 0.046) was found in regressive lesions. No differences were observed for the transfer constants Ktrans and k ep. Diffusion restriction quantified as ADC was able to differentiate regressive from progressive NET-HMs as early as 48 hours after PRRT. DW-MRI therefore may complement scintigraphy/SPECT for early assessment of response to PRRT. Assessment of perfusion parameters using IVIM and DCE-MRI did not show an additional benefit.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Prediction of Overall Survival and Progression-Free Survival by the 18F-FDG PET/CT Radiomic Features in Patients with Primary Gastric Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma.
    Contrast Media Mol. Imaging (IF 1.984) Pub Date : 2019-11-30
    Yi Zhou,Xue-Lei Ma,Lu-Tong Pu,Ruo-Fan Zhou,Xue-Jin Ou,Rong Tian

    Purpose. To determine whether the radiomic features of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) contribute to prognosis prediction in primary gastric diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (PG-DLBCL) patients. Methods. This retrospective study included 35 PG-DLBCL patients who underwent PET/CT scans at West China Hospital before curative treatment. The volume of interest (VOI) was drawn around the tumor, and radiomic analysis of the PET and CT images, within the same VOI, was conducted. The metabolic and textural features of PET and CT images were evaluated. Correlations of the extracted features with the overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) were evaluated. Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to assess the prognostic value of the radiomic parameters. Results. In the univariate model, many of the textural features, including kurtosis and volume, extracted from the PET and CT datasets were significantly associated with survival (5 for OS and 7 for PFS (PET); 7 for OS and 14 for PFS (CT)). Multivariate analysis identified kurtosis (hazard ratio (HR): 28.685, 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.067-398.152, p=0.012), metabolic tumor volume (MTV) (HR: 26.152, 95% CI: 2.089-327.392, p=0.011), and gray-level nonuniformity (GLNU) (HR: 14.642, 95% CI: 2.661-80.549, p=0.002) in PET and sphericity (HR: 11.390, 95% CI: 1.360-95.371, p=0.025) and kurtosis (HR: 11.791, 95% CI: 1.583-87.808, p=0.016), gray-level nonuniformity (GLNU) (HR: 6.934, 95% CI: 1.069-44.981, p=0.042), and high gray-level zone emphasis (HGZE) (HR: 9.805, 95% CI: 1.359-70.747, p=0.024) in CT as independent prognostic factors. Conclusion. 18F-FDG PET/CT radiomic features are potentially useful for survival prediction in PG-DLBCL patients. However, studies with larger cohorts are needed to confirm the clinical prognostication of these parameters.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Contrast-Enhanced MRI Texture Parameters as Potential Prognostic Factors for Primary Central Nervous System Lymphoma Patients Receiving High-Dose Methotrexate-Based Chemotherapy.
    Contrast Media Mol. Imaging (IF 1.984) Pub Date : 2019-11-30
    Chaoyue Chen,Hongyu Zhuo,Xiawei Wei,Xuelei Ma

    Introduction The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prognostic value of texture features on contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for patients with primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL). Methods In this retrospective study, fifty-two patients diagnosed with PCNSL were enrolled from October 2010 to March 2017. The texture feature of tumor tissue on the histogram-based matrix (histo-) and the grey-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) was retrieved by contrast-enhanced T1-weighted imaging before any antitumor treatment. Receiver operating characteristic curve analyses were performed to obtain their optimal cutoff values, based on which we dichotomized patients into subgroups. The Kaplan-Meier analyses were conducted to compare overall survival (OS) of subgroups, and multivariate Cox regression analyses were used to determine if they could be taken as independent prognostic factors. Results Ten texture features were extracted from the MR image, including Energy, Entropy, Kurtosis, Skewness on the histogram-based matrix, and Correlation, Contrast, Dissimilarity, Energy, Entropy, and Homogeneity on the grey-level co-occurrence matrix. Three of them (GLCM-Contrast, GLCM-Dissimilarity, and GLCM-Homogeneity) are shown to be significant in relation to overall survival (OS). The multivariate Cox regression analyses suggest that GLCM-Homogeneity could be taken as independent predictors. Conclusions The texture features of contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) could potentially serve as prognostic biomarkers for PCNSL patients.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Differentiation of Pituitary Adenoma from Rathke Cleft Cyst: Combining MR Image Features with Texture Features.
    Contrast Media Mol. Imaging (IF 1.984) Pub Date : 2019-11-20
    Yang Zhang,Chaoyue Chen,Zerong Tian,Yangfan Cheng,Jianguo Xu

    Objectives To differentiate pituitary adenoma from Rathke cleft cyst in magnetic resonance (MR) scan by combing MR image features with texture features. Methods A total number of 133 patients were included in this study, 83 with pituitary adenoma and 50 with Rathke cleft cyst. Qualitative MR image features and quantitative texture features were evaluated by using the chi-square tests or Mann-Whitney U test. Binary logistic regression analysis was conducted to investigate their ability as independent predictors. ROC analysis was conducted subsequently on the independent predictors to assess their practical value in discrimination and was used to investigate the association between two types of features. Results Signal intensity on the contrast-enhanced image was found to be the only significantly different MR image feature between the two lesions. Two texture features from the contrast-enhanced images (Histo-Skewness and GLCM-Correlation) were found to be the independent predictors in discrimination, of which AUC values were 0.80 and 0.75, respectively. Besides, the above two texture features (Histo-Skewness and GLCM-Contrast) were suggested to be associated with signal intensity on the contrast-enhanced image. Conclusion Signal intensity on the contrast-enhanced image was the most significant MR image feature in differentiation between pituitary adenoma and Rathke cleft cyst, and texture features also showed promising and practical ability in discrimination. Moreover, two types of features could be coordinated with each other.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • A Window on the Lung: Molecular Imaging as a Tool to Dissect Pathophysiologic Mechanisms of Acute Lung Disease.
    Contrast Media Mol. Imaging (IF 1.984) Pub Date : 2019-09-19
    Guido Musch

    In recent years, imaging has given a fundamental contribution to our understanding of the pathophysiology of acute lung diseases. Several methods have been developed based on computed tomography (CT), positron emission tomography (PET), and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging that allow regional, in vivo measurement of variables such as lung strain, alveolar size, metabolic activity of inflammatory cells, ventilation, and perfusion. Because several of these methods are noninvasive, they can be successfully translated from animal models to patients. The aim of this paper is to review the advances in knowledge that have been accrued with these imaging modalities on the pathophysiology of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI), asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Prediction of Chemotherapy Response of Osteosarcoma Using Baseline 18F-FDG Textural Features Machine Learning Approaches with PCA.
    Contrast Media Mol. Imaging (IF 1.984) Pub Date : 2019-08-21
    Su Young Jeong,Wook Kim,Byung Hyun Byun,Chang-Bae Kong,Won Seok Song,Ilhan Lim,Sang Moo Lim,Sang-Keun Woo

    Purpose Patients with high-grade osteosarcoma undergo several chemotherapy cycles before surgical intervention. Response to chemotherapy, however, is affected by intratumor heterogeneity. In this study, we assessed the ability of a machine learning approach using baseline 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) positron emitted tomography (PET) textural features to predict response to chemotherapy in osteosarcoma patients. Materials and Methods This study included 70 osteosarcoma patients who received neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Quantitative characteristics of the tumors were evaluated by standard uptake value (SUV), total lesion glycolysis (TLG), and metabolic tumor volume (MTV). Tumor heterogeneity was evaluated using textural analysis of 18F-FDG PET scan images. Assessments were performed at baseline and after chemotherapy using 18F-FDG PET; 18F-FDG textural features were evaluated using the Chang-Gung Image Texture Analysis toolbox. To predict the chemotherapy response, several features were chosen using the principal component analysis (PCA) feature selection method. Machine learning was performed using linear support vector machine (SVM), random forest, and gradient boost methods. The ability to predict chemotherapy response was evaluated using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). Results AUCs of the baseline 18F-FDG features SUVmax, TLG, MTV, 1st entropy, and gray level co-occurrence matrix entropy were 0.553, 0538, 0.536, 0.538, and 0.543, respectively. However, AUCs of the machine learning features linear SVM, random forest, and gradient boost were 0.72, 0.78, and 0.82, respectively. Conclusion We found that a machine learning approach based on 18F-FDG textural features could predict the chemotherapy response using baseline PET images. This early prediction of the chemotherapy response may aid in determining treatment plans for osteosarcoma patients.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Diagnostic Performance of 18F-FDG PET/CT in Infectious and Inflammatory Diseases according to Published Meta-Analyses.
    Contrast Media Mol. Imaging (IF 1.984) Pub Date : 2019-08-21
    Giorgio Treglia

    Purpose To date, several meta-analyses have reported data about the diagnostic performance of 18F-FDG PET/CT in infectious and inflammatory diseases. This article aims to summarize the published evidence-based data about the diagnostic performance of 18F-FDG PET/CT in this setting. Methods A comprehensive computer literature search of meta-analyses published in PubMed/MEDLINE and Cochrane library database from January 2009 through December 2018 and regarding the diagnostic performance of 18F-FDG PET/CT in infectious and inflammatory diseases was carried out. This combination of key words was used: (i) "PET" OR "positron emission tomography" OR "FDG" OR "fluorodeoxyglucose" AND (ii) meta-analysis. Only records on inflammatory or infectious diseases were selected. Results The diagnostic performance of 18F-FDG PET/CT in detecting inflammatory and infectious diseases has been summarized taking into account 36 meta-analyses published in the literature. Evidence-based data demonstrated good diagnostic performance of 18F-FDG PET/CT for several inflammatory and infectious diseases, in particular cardiovascular infectious and inflammatory diseases and some musculoskeletal infections. Conclusions Evidence-based data about the diagnostic performance of 18F-FDG PET/CT in infectious and inflammatory diseases are increasing, with good diagnostic performance of this imaging method for some indications. More prospective multicenter studies and cost-effective analyses are warranted.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Prognostic Value of Functional Parameters of 18F-FDG-PET Images in Patients with Primary Renal/Adrenal Lymphoma.
    Contrast Media Mol. Imaging (IF 1.984) Pub Date : 2019-08-21
    Manni Wang,Hui Xu,Liu Xiao,Wenpeng Song,Sha Zhu,Xuelei Ma

    Objectives The aim of this study is to explore the textural features that may identify the morphological changes in the lymphoma region and predict the prognosis of patients with primary renal lymphoma (PRL) and primary adrenal lymphoma (PAL). Methods This retrospective study comprised nineteen non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) patients undergoing 18F-FDG-PET/CT at West China Hospital from December 2013 to May 2017. 18F-FDG-PET images were reviewed independently by two board certificated radiologists of nuclear medicine, and the texture features were extracted from LifeX packages. The prognostic value of PET FDG-uptake parameters, patients' baseline characteristics, and textural parameters were analyzed using Kaplan-Meier analysis. Cox regression analysis was used to identify the independent prognostic factors among the imaging and clinical features. Results The overall survival of included patients was 18.84 ± 13.40 (mean ± SD) months. Univariate Cox analyses found that the tumor stage, GLCM (gray-level co-occurrence matrix) entropy, GLZLM_GLNU (gray-level nonuniformity), and GLZLM_ZLNU (zone length nonuniformity), values were significant predictors for OS. Among them, GLRLM_RLNU ≥216.6 demonstrated association with worse OS at multivariate analysis (HR 9.016, 95% CI 1.041-78.112, p=0.046). Conclusions The texture analysis of 18F-FDG-PET images could potentially serve as a noninvasive strategy to predict the overall survival of patients with PRL and PAL.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Diffusion Kurtosis MR Imaging versus Conventional Diffusion-Weighted Imaging for Distinguishing Hepatocellular Carcinoma from Benign Hepatic Nodules.
    Contrast Media Mol. Imaging (IF 1.984) Pub Date : 2019-08-10
    Yingmei Jia,Huasong Cai,Meng Wang,Yanji Luo,Ling Xu,Zhi Dong,Xu Yan,Zi-Ping Li,Shi-Ting Feng

    Objectives To assess the efficacy of diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) and compare DKI-derived parameters with conventional diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) for distinguishing hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) from benign hepatic nodules including focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH), hemangioma, and hepatocellular adenoma (HCA). Materials and Methods 151 patients with 182 hepatic nodules (114 HCCs and 68 benign nodules including 33 FNHs, 29 hemangiomas, and 6 HCAs) were analyzed. Preoperative MRI examinations including DKI (b values: 0, 200, 500, 800, 1500, and 2000 sec/mm2) were performed, and kurtosis (K), diffusivity (D), and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) were calculated. The efficacy of DKI-derived parameters K, D, and ADC for distinguishing HCC from these benign nodules was analyzed. Results ROC (receiver operating characteristic curve) analysis showed the optimal cutoff values of ADC, D, and K for identification of these benign nodules, and HCCs were 1.295 (area under the curve (AUC): 0.826; sensitivity 80.6%; specificity 70.8%), 1.787 (AUC: 0.770; sensitivity 83.6%; specificity 59.6%), and 1.002 (AUC: 0.761; sensitivity 65.5%; specificity 79.0%), respectively. Statistically significant differences were found in ADC, D, and K values between groups of HCC-FNH and HCC-hemangioma (P < 0.05). There were significant differences in K and ADC values between groups of FNH-hemangioma and HCA-hemangioma (P < 0.05), respectively. Using logistic regression analysis, a regression equation was obtained: Logit(P)=-1.982X 1+1.385X 3+1.948(X 1: ADC; X 3: K), and odds ratios (OR) were 0.138 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.052, 0.367), and 8.996 (95% CI: 0.970, 16.460), respectively. Conclusion Both ADC value and DKI-derived parameters K and D values have demonstrated a higher preoperative efficacy in distinguishing HCC from FNH, hemangioma, and HCA. No evidence was shown to suggest D or K value was superior to the ADC value.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Multifunctionalized Microscale Ultrasound Contrast Agents for Precise Theranostics of Malignant Tumors.
    Contrast Media Mol. Imaging (IF 1.984) Pub Date : 2019-07-31
    Jia-Wei Fu,Yi-Sheng Lin,Sheng-Long Gan,Yong-Rui Li,Yao Wang,Shi-Ting Feng,Hao Li,Guo-Fu Zhou

    In ultrasonography, ultrasound contrast agents (UCAs) that possess high acoustic impedance mismatch with the bulk medium are frequently employed to highlight the borders between tissues by enhanced ultrasound scattering in a clinic. Typically, the most common UCA, microbubble, is generally close in size to a red blood cell (<∼10 μm). These microscale UCAs cannot be directly entrapped into the target cells but generate several orders of magnitude stronger echo signals than the nanoscale ones. And their large containment and high ultrasound responsiveness also greatly facilitate to perform combined treatments, e.g., drug delivery and other imaging techniques. So multifunctionalized microscale UCAs appear on this scene and keep growing toward a promising direction for precise theranostics. In this review, we systematically summarize the new advances in the principles and preparations of multifunctionalized microscale UCAs and their medical applications for malignant tumors.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Evaluation of an AI-Powered Lung Nodule Algorithm for Detection and 3D Segmentation of Primary Lung Tumors.
    Contrast Media Mol. Imaging (IF 1.984) Pub Date : 2019-07-30
    Thomas Weikert,Tugba Akinci D'Antonoli,Jens Bremerich,Bram Stieltjes,Gregor Sommer,Alexander W Sauter

    Automated detection and segmentation is a prerequisite for the deployment of image-based secondary analyses, especially for lung tumors. However, currently only applications for lung nodules ≤3 cm exist. Therefore, we tested the performance of a fully automated AI-based lung nodule algorithm for detection and 3D segmentation of primary lung tumors in the context of tumor staging using the CT component of FDG-PET/CT and including all T-categories (T1-T4). FDG-PET/CTs of 320 patients with histologically confirmed lung cancer performed between 01/2010 and 06/2016 were selected. First, the main primary lung tumor within each scan was manually segmented using the CT component of the PET/CTs as reference. Second, the CT series were transferred to a platform with AI-based algorithms trained on chest CTs for detection and segmentation of lung nodules. Detection and segmentation performance were analyzed. Factors influencing detection rates were explored with binominal logistic regression and radiomic analysis. We also processed 94 PET/CTs negative for pulmonary nodules to investigate frequency and reasons of false-positive findings. The ratio of detected tumors was best in the T1-category (90.4%) and decreased continuously: T2 (70.8%), T3 (29.4%), and T4 (8.8%). Tumor contact with the pleura was a strong predictor of misdetection. Segmentation performance was excellent for T1 tumors (r = 0.908, p < 0.001) and tumors without pleural contact (r = 0.971, p < 0.001). Volumes of larger tumors were systematically underestimated. There were 0.41 false-positive findings per exam. The algorithm tested facilitates a reliable detection and 3D segmentation of T1/T2 lung tumors on FDG-PET/CTs. The detection and segmentation of more advanced lung tumors is currently imprecise due to the conception of the algorithm for lung nodules <3 cm. Future efforts should therefore focus on this collective to facilitate segmentation of all tumor types and sizes to bridge the gap between CAD applications for screening and staging of lung cancer.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • An Efficient T 1 Contrast Agent for Labeling and Tracking Human Embryonic Stem Cells on MRI.
    Contrast Media Mol. Imaging (IF 1.984) Pub Date : 2019-07-19
    Inga E Haedicke,Sadi Loai,Hai-Ling Margaret Cheng

    Noninvasive cell tracking in vivo has the potential to advance stem cell-based therapies into the clinic. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides an excellent image-guidance platform; however, existing MR cell labeling agents are fraught with limited specificity. To address this unmet need, we developed a highly efficient manganese porphyrin contrast agent, MnEtP, using a two-step synthesis. In vitro MRI at 3 Tesla on human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) demonstrated high labeling efficiency at a very low dose of 10 µM MnEtP, resulting in a four-fold lower T 1 relaxation time. This extraordinarily low dose is ideal for labeling large cell numbers required for large animals and humans. Cell viability and differentiation capacity were unaffected. Cellular manganese quantification corroborated MRI findings, and the agent localized primarily on the cell membrane. In vivo MRI of transplanted hESCs in a rat demonstrated excellent sensitivity and specificity of MnEtP for noninvasive stem cell tracking.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Imaging Diagnostic and Pathology in the Management of Oncological-Patients.
    Contrast Media Mol. Imaging (IF 1.984) Pub Date : 2019-07-19
    Elena Bonanno,Nicola Toschi,Alessandro Bombonati,Pietro Muto,Orazio Schillaci

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Monitoring the Early Response of Fulvestrant Plus Tanshinone IIA Combination Therapy to Estrogen Receptor-Positive Breast Cancer by Longitudinal 18F-FES PET/CT.
    Contrast Media Mol. Imaging (IF 1.984) Pub Date : 2019-07-10
    SiMin He,MingWei Wang,YongPing Zhang,JianMin Luo,YingJian Zhang

    Endocrine monotherapy of breast cancers is generally hampered by the primary/acquired resistance and adverse sides in clinical settings. Herein, advantaging the multitargeting antitumor effects and normal organ-protecting roles of Chinese herbal medicine, the aim of this study was to investigate the enhanced synergistic efficacy of fulvestrant plus Tan IIA combination therapy in ER-positive breast cancers and to monitor the early response by longitudinal 18F-FES PET/CT imaging. The experimental results showed FUL + Tan IIA combination therapy significantly inhibited tumor growth of ER-positive ZR-75-1 tumor xenografts and exhibited distinct antitumor effects at an earlier time point after treatment than did the monotherapy of FUL or Tan IIA. Moreover, 18F-FES PET/CT imaging competently monitored the early response of FUL + Tan IIA combination therapy. The quantitative 18F-FES %ID/gmax in vivo was further confirmed by and correlated well with ERα expression ex vivo. In conclusion, the synergic effect of FUL + Tan IIA combination therapy to ER-positive breast cancers was verified in the preclinical tumor models and the early treatment response could be monitored by 18F-FES PET/CT.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Labeling Stem Cells with a New Hybrid Bismuth/Carbon Nanotube Contrast Agent for X-Ray Imaging.
    Contrast Media Mol. Imaging (IF 1.984) Pub Date : 2019-07-10
    Mayra Hernández-Rivera,Stephen Y Cho,Sakineh E Moghaddam,Benjamin Y Cheong,Maria da Graça Cabreira-Hansen,James T Willerson,Emerson C Perin,Lon J Wilson

    The poor retention and survival of cells after transplantation to solid tissue represent a major obstacle for the effectiveness of stem cell-based therapies. The ability to track stem cells in vivo can lead to a better understanding of the biodistribution of transplanted cells, in addition to improving the analysis of stem cell therapies' outcomes. Here, we described the use of a carbon nanotube-based contrast agent (CA) for X-ray computed tomography (CT) imaging as an intracellular CA to label bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Porcine MSCs were labeled without observed cytotoxicity. The CA consists of a hybrid material containing ultra-short single-walled carbon nanotubes (20-80 nm in length, US-tubes) and Bi(III) oxo-salicylate clusters which contain four Bi3+ ions per cluster (Bi4C). The CA is thus abbreviated as Bi4C@US-tubes.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • MR Imaging-Histology Correlation by Tailored 3D-Printed Slicer in Oncological Assessment.
    Contrast Media Mol. Imaging (IF 1.984) Pub Date : 2019-07-06
    D Baldi,M Aiello,A Duggento,M Salvatore,C Cavaliere

    3D printing and reverse engineering are innovative technologies that are revolutionizing scientific research in the health sciences and related clinical practice. Such technologies are able to improve the development of various custom-made medical devices while also lowering design and production costs. Recent advances allow the printing of particularly complex prototypes whose geometry is drawn from precise computer models designed on in vivo imaging data. This review summarizes a new method for histological sample processing (applicable to e.g., the brain, prostate, liver, and renal mass) which employs a personalized mold developed from diagnostic images through computer-aided design software and 3D printing. Through positioning the custom mold in a coherent manner with respect to the organ of interest (as delineated by in vivo imaging data), the cutting instrument can be precisely guided in order to obtain blocks of tissue which correspond with high accuracy to the slices imaged. This approach appeared crucial for validation of new quantitative imaging tools, for an accurate imaging-histopathological correlation and for the assessment of radiogenomic features extracted from oncological lesions. The aim of this review is to define and describe 3D printing technologies which are applicable to oncological assessment and slicer design, highlighting the radiological and pathological perspective as well as recent applications of this approach for the histological validation of and correlation with MR images.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Nanoparticle-Based Paramagnetic Contrast Agents for Magnetic Resonance Imaging.
    Contrast Media Mol. Imaging (IF 1.984) Pub Date : 2019-06-14
    Juan Pellico,Connor M Ellis,Jason J Davis

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a noninvasive medical imaging modality that is routinely used in clinics, providing anatomical information with micron resolution, soft tissue contrast, and deep penetration. Exogenous contrast agents increase image contrast by shortening longitudinal (T 1) and transversal (T 2) relaxation times. Most of the T 1 agents used in clinical MRI are based on paramagnetic lanthanide complexes (largely Gd-based). In moving to translatable formats of reduced toxicity, greater chemical stability, longer circulation times, higher contrast, more controlled functionalisation and additional imaging modalities, considerable effort has been applied to the development of nanoparticles bearing paramagnetic ions. This review summarises the most relevant examples in the synthesis and biomedical applications of paramagnetic nanoparticles as contrast agents for MRI and multimodal imaging. It includes the most recent developments in the field of production of agents with high relaxivities, which are key for effective contrast enhancement, exemplified through clinically relevant examples.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Early Achilles Enthesis Involvement in a Murine Model of Spondyloarthropathy: Morphological Imaging with Ultrashort Echo-Time Sequences and Ultrasmall Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide (USPIO) Particle Evaluation in Macrophagic Detection.
    Contrast Media Mol. Imaging (IF 1.984) Pub Date : 2019-05-03
    Benjamin Dallaudiere,Aurelien J Trotier,Emeline J Ribot,Stéphane Loubrie,Sylvain Miraux,Olivier Hauger

    Purpose To confirm the interest of 3-dimensional ultrashort echo-time (3D-UTE) sequences to assess morphologic aspects in normal and pathological Achilles entheses in a rat model of spondyloarthropathy (SpA) with histological correlations, in comparison with conventional RARE T2 Fat-Sat sequences, and, furthermore, to evaluate the feasibility of a 3D multiecho UTE sequence performed before and after the intravenous injection of ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide (USPIO) particles to assess macrophagic involvement in the Achilles enthesis in the same rat model of SpA. Materials and Methods Fourteen rats underwent in vivo MRI of the ankle at 4.7 T, including a 3D RARE T2 Fat-Sat sequence and a 3D ultrashort echo-time (UTE) sequence for morphologic assessment at baseline and day 3 after induction of an SpA model, leading to Achilles enthesopathy in the left paw (right paw serving as a control). A 3D multiecho UTE sequence was also performed at day 3 before and then 24 (4 rats) and 48 (2 rats) hours after intravenous injection of USPIO. Visual analysis and signal intensity measurements of all images were performed at different locations of the Achilles enthesis and preinsertional area. Visual analysis and T2∗ measurements were performed before and after USPIO injection, on the 3D multiecho UTE sequence in the same locations. Normal and pathological values were compared by Wilcoxon signed-rank tests. MR findings were compared against histological data. Results 3D-UTE sequences enabled morphologic identification of the anterior fibrocartilage and posterior collagenic areas of the Achilles enthesis. Visual analysis and signal intensity measurements distinguished SpA-affected entheses from healthy ones at day 3 (P=0.02). After administration of USPIO, no differences in signals were detected. Similarly, both visual analysis and signal T2∗ measurements in the enthesis were unable to distinguish the SpA-affected tendons from healthy ones (P=0.914). Neither the normal anatomy of the enthesis nor its pathological pattern could be distinguished using the standard RARE sequence. Histology confirmed the absence of USPIO in Achilles entheses, despite marked signs of inflammation. Conclusion Unlike conventional RARE T2 Fat-Sat sequences, 3D-UTE sequences enable morphologic assessment of normal enthesis anatomy and early detection of abnormalities in pathological conditions. However, 3D multiecho UTE sequences combined with USPIO injections with T2∗ measurements were unable to detect macrophagic involvement in these pathological conditions.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Toward the Optimization of (+)-[11C]PHNO Synthesis: Time Reduction and Process Validation.
    Contrast Media Mol. Imaging (IF 1.984) Pub Date : 2019-10-28
    Sarah Pfaff,Cécile Philippe,Lukas Nics,Neydher Berroterán-Infante,Katharina Pallitsch,Christina Rami-Mark,Ana Weidenauer,Ulrich Sauerzopf,Matthäus Willeit,Markus Mitterhauser,Marcus Hacker,Wolfgang Wadsak,Verena Pichler

    (+)-[11C]PHNO, a dopamine D2/3 receptor agonistic radiotracer, is applied for investigating the dopaminergic system via positron emission tomography (PET). An improved understanding of neuropsychiatric disorders associated with dysfunctions in the dopamine system and the underlying mechanism is a necessity in order to promote the development of new potential therapeutic drugs. In contrast to other broadly applied 11C-radiopharmaceuticals, the production of this radiotracer requires a challenging four-step radiosynthesis involving harsh reaction conditions and reactants as well as an inert atmosphere. Consequently, the production is prone to errors and troubleshooting after failed radiosyntheses remains time consuming. Hence, we aimed to optimize the radiosynthesis of (+)-[11C]PHNO for achieving better activity yields without loss of product quality. Therefore, we synthesized (+)-[11C]PHNO and omitted all heating and cooling steps leading to higher activity yields. As a result, radiosynthesis fully conducted at room temperature led to a time-reduced production procedure that saves about 5 min, which is an appreciable decay-prevention of around 15% of the activity yield. Additionally, we established a troubleshooting protocol by investigating reaction intermediates, byproducts, and impurities. Indeed, partial runs enabled the assignment of byproducts to their associated error source. Finally, we were able to generate a decision tree facilitating error detection in (+)-[11C]PHNO radiosynthesis.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
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  • Preclinical Molecular Imaging for Precision Medicine in Breast Cancer Mouse Models.
    Contrast Media Mol. Imaging (IF 1.984) Pub Date : 2019-10-11
    M F Fiordelisi,L Auletta,L Meomartino,L Basso,G Fatone,M Salvatore,M Mancini,A Greco

    Precision and personalized medicine is gaining importance in modern clinical medicine, as it aims to improve diagnostic precision and to reduce consequent therapeutic failures. In this regard, prior to use in human trials, animal models can help evaluate novel imaging approaches and therapeutic strategies and can help discover new biomarkers. Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women worldwide, accounting for 25% of cases of all cancers and is responsible for approximately 500,000 deaths per year. Thus, it is important to identify accurate biomarkers for precise stratification of affected patients and for early detection of responsiveness to the selected therapeutic protocol. This review aims to summarize the latest advancements in preclinical molecular imaging in breast cancer mouse models. Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging remains one of the most common preclinical techniques used to evaluate biomarker expression in vivo, whereas magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), particularly diffusion-weighted (DW) sequences, has been demonstrated as capable of distinguishing responders from nonresponders for both conventional and innovative chemo- and immune-therapies with high sensitivity and in a noninvasive manner. The ability to customize therapies is desirable, as this will enable early detection of diseases and tailoring of treatments to individual patient profiles. Animal models remain irreplaceable in the effort to understand the molecular mechanisms and patterns of oncologic diseases.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • 99mTc-Labeled LyP-1 for SPECT Imaging of Triple Negative Breast Cancer.
    Contrast Media Mol. Imaging (IF 1.984) Pub Date : 2019-10-11
    Ningning Song,Lingzhou Zhao,Meilin Zhu,Jinhua Zhao

    Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC), the most aggressive breast cancer type, is associated with high mortality and recurrence rates. An active-targeted strategy based on homing peptides is an effective approach to diagnose and treat cancer as it can deliver imaging agents or therapeutic drugs into desired tissues and accumulate less into off-target tissues. As a homing peptide, LyP-1 has shown properties of targeting, internalization, and proapoptosis to TNBC. In the study, we designed a Technetium-99m- (99mTc-) labeled LyP-1 and investigated its feasibility for targeted single-positron emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging of TNBC. The results showed that the LyP-1 peptide had acceptable biocompatibility in the studied concentration range and could specifically bind to TNBC cells in vitro. 99mTc-labeled LyP-1 showed high radiochemical purity and stability and could be used as a probe for targeted SPECT imaging of TNBC cells in vitro and in a TNBC tumor-bearing mouse model. Our findings indicate that this active-targeted strategy has great potential to be developed into a new imaging tool for TNBC diagnosis.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • T2 ∗ Relaxation Time Obtained from Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Liver Is a Useful Parameter for Use in the Construction of a Murine Model of Iron Overload.
    Contrast Media Mol. Imaging (IF 1.984) Pub Date : 2019-10-11
    Yukari Matsuo-Tezuka,Yusuke Sasaki,Toshiki Iwai,Mitsue Kurasawa,Keigo Yorozu,Yoshihito Tashiro,Michinori Hirata

    Aim Iron overload is a life-threatening disorder that can increase the risks of cancer, cardiovascular disease, and liver cirrhosis. There is also a risk of iron overload in patients with chronic kidney disease. In patients with renal failure, iron storage is increased due to inadequate iron utilization associated with decreased erythropoiesis and also to the inflammatory status. To evade the risk of iron overload, an accurate and versatile indicator of body iron storage in patients with iron overload is needed. In this study, we aimed to find useful iron-related parameters that could accurately reflect body iron storage in mice in order to construct a murine model of iron overload. Methods To select an appropriate indicator of body iron status, a variety of parameters involved in iron metabolism were evaluated. Noninvasively measured parameters were R1, R2, and R2 ∗ derived from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Invasively measured parameters included serum hepcidin levels, serum ferritin levels, and liver iron contents. Histopathological analysis was also conducted. Results/Conclusion Among the several parameters evaluated, the MRI T2 ∗ relaxation time was able to detect iron storage in the liver as sensitively as serum ferritin levels. Moreover, it is expected that using an MRI parameter will allow accurate evaluation of body iron storage in mice over time.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Radiosynthesis and Preclinical Evaluation of 11C-VA426, a Cyclooxygenase-2 Selective Ligand.
    Contrast Media Mol. Imaging (IF 1.984) Pub Date : 2019-10-11
    Assunta Carpinelli,Paolo Rainone,Sara Belloli,Annalisa Reale,Andrea Cappelli,Giuliani Germano,Valentina Murtaj,Angela Coliva,Giuseppe Di Grigoli,Angela Valeri,Maria Carla Gilardi,Luigi Gianolli,Maurizio Anzini,Rosa Maria Moresco

    Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is involved in the inflammatory response, and its recurrent overexpression in cancers as well as in neurodegenerative disorders has made it an important target for therapy. For this reason, noninvasive imaging of COX-2 expression may represent an important diagnostic tool. In this work, a COX-2 inhibitor analogue, VA426 [1-(4-fluorophenyl)-3-(2-methoxyethyl)-2-methyl-5-(4-(methylsulfonil)phenyl)-1H-pyrrole], was synthesized and radiolabelled with the 11C radioisotope. The ex vivo biodistribution profile of 11C-VA426 was evaluated in the brain and periphery of healthy rats and mice and in brain and periphery of inflammation models, based on the administration of LPS. 11C-VA426 synthesis with the tBuOK base showed optimal radiochemical yield (15 ± 2%) based on triflate activity, molar activity (range 37-148 GBq/μmol), and radiochemical purity (>95%). Ex vivo biodistribution studies showed a fast uptake of radioactivity but a rapid washout, except in regions expressing COX-2 (lungs, liver, and kidney) both in rats and in mice, with maximum values at 30 and 10 minutes p.i., respectively. LPS administration did not show significant effect on radioactivity accumulation. Celecoxib competition experiments performed in rats and mice treated with LPS produced a general target unrelated reduction of radioactivity concentration in all peripheral tissues and brain areas examined. Finally, in agreement with the negative results obtained from biodistribution experiments, radiometabolites analysis revealed that 11C-VA426 is highly unstable in vivo. This study indicates that the compound 11C-VA426 is not currently suitable to be used as radiopharmaceutical for PET imaging. This family of compounds needs further implementation in order to improve in vivo stability.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles for direct labeling of stem cells and in vivo MRI tracking.
    Contrast Media Mol. Imaging (IF 1.984) Pub Date : 2015-08-04
    Saejeong J Kim,Bobbi Lewis,Mark-Steven Steiner,Ursula V Bissa,Christian Dose,Joseph A Frank

    To develop effective stem cell therapies, it is important to track therapeutic cells non-invasively and monitor homing to areas of pathology. The purpose of this study was to design and evaluate the labeling efficiency of commercially available dextran-coated superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles, FeraTrack Direct (FTD), in various stem and immune cells; assess the cytotoxicity and tolerability of the FTD in stem cells; and monitor stem cell homing using FTD-labeled bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (BMSCs) and neural stem cells (NSCs) in a tumor model by in vivo MRI. BMSCs, NSCs, hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), T-lymphocytes, and monocytes were labeled effectively with FTD without the need for transfection agents, and Prussian blue (PB) staining and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) confirmed intracellular uptake of the agent. The viability, proliferation, and functionality of the labeled cells were minimally or not affected after labeling. When 10(6) FTD-labeled BMSCs or NSCs were injected into C6 glioma bearing nude mice, the cells homing to the tumors were detected as hypointense regions within the tumor using 3 T clinical MRI up to 10 days post injection. Histological analysis confirmed the homing of injected cells to the tumor by the presence of PB positive cells that are not macrophages. Labeling of stem cells or immune cells with FTD was non-toxic, and should facilitate the translation of this agent to clinical trials for evaluation of trafficking of cells by MRI.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Dynamic fluorescent imaging with indocyanine green for monitoring the therapeutic effects of photoimmunotherapy.
    Contrast Media Mol. Imaging (IF 1.984) Pub Date : 2014-04-08
    Towhid Ali,Takahito Nakajima,Kohei Sano,Kazuhide Sato,Peter L Choyke,Hisataka Kobayashi

    A new type of monoclonal antibody (mAb)-based, highly specific phototherapy (photoimmunotherapy; PIT) that uses a near-infrared (NIR) phthalocyanine dye, IRDye700DX (IR700) conjugated with an mAb, has recently been described. NIR light exposure leads to immediate, target-selective necrotic cell death. However, tumor shrinkage takes several days to occur, making it difficult to detect earlier changes in the tumor. In this study, Panitumumab targeting the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR1) conjugated to IR700 was used to treat EGFR-expressing A431 tumor cells and in vivo xenografts. PIT was performed at varying doses of NIR light (10, 30, 50 and 100 J cm(-2)) in xenograft tumors in mice. Indocyanine green (ICG) dynamic imaging was evaluated for monitoring cytotoxic effects for the first hour after PIT. Our results demonstrated a statistical difference (p < 0.05) in ICG intensity between control and PIT treated tumors in the higher light exposure groups (50 J cm(-2): 2.94 ± 0.35 vs 5.22 ± 0.92, p = 0.02; and 100 J cm(-2) : 3.56 ± 0.96 vs 5.71 ± 1.43, p = 0.008) as early as 20 min post ICG injection. However, no significant difference (p > 0.05) in ICG intensity between control and PIT treated tumors was evident in the lower light exposure group at any time points up to 60 min (10 J cm(-2) : 1.92 ± 0.49 vs 1.71 ± 0.3, p = 0.44; and 30 J cm(-2): 1.57 ± 0.35 vs 2.75 ± 0.59, p = 0.07). Similarly, the retention index (background to corrected uptake ratio of ICG) varied with light exposure. In conclusion, ICG may serve as a potential indicator of acute cytotoxic effects of mAb-IR700-induced PIT even before morphological changes can be seen in targeted tumors.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • In vivo real-time lymphatic draining using quantum-dot optical imaging in mice.
    Contrast Media Mol. Imaging (IF 1.984) Pub Date : 2012-10-31
    Nobuyuki Kosaka,Makoto Mitsunaga,Peter L Choyke,Hisataka Kobayashi

    The lymphatic system is essential for fluid regulation and for the maintenance of host immunity. However, in vivo lymph flow is difficult to track in real time, because of the lack of an appropriate imaging method. In this study, we combined macro-zoom fluorescence microscopy with quantum-dot (Qdot) optical lymphatic imaging to develop an in vivo real-time optical lymphatic imaging method that allows the tracking of lymph through lymphatic channels and into lymph nodes. After interstitial injection of Qdots in a mouse, rapid visualization of the cervical lymphatics and cervical lymph nodes was achieved. Real-time monitoring of the injected Qdots revealed that the cortex of the node enhanced first followed by a net-like pattern in the central portion of the node. Histology revealed that the rim and net-like enhancing regions corresponded to the subcapsular sinuses and medullary sinuses respectively. Additionally, multiplexed two-color real-time lymphatic tracking was performed with two different Qdots. With this real-time imaging system, we successfully tracked microscopic lymphatic flow in vivo. This method could have a potential impact for lymphatic research in visualizing normal or abnormal functional lymphatic flows.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Rapid spectrophotometric technique for quantifying iron in cells labeled with superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles: potential translation to the clinic.
    Contrast Media Mol. Imaging (IF 1.984) Pub Date : 2012-10-31
    Esmaeel R Dadashzadeh,Matthew Hobson,L Henry Bryant,Dana D Dean,Joseph A Frank

    Labeling cells with superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) nanoparticles provides the ability to track cells by magnetic resonance imaging. Quantifying intracellular iron concentration in SPIO labeled cells would allow for the comparison of agents and techniques used to magnetically label cells. Here we describe a rapid spectrophotometric technique (ST) to quantify iron content of SPIO-labeled cells, circumventing the previous requirement of an overnight acid digestion. Following lysis with 10% sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) of magnetically labeled cells, quantification of SPIO doped or labeled cells was performed using commonly available spectrophotometric instrument(s) by comparing absorptions at 370 and 750 nm with correction for turbidity of cellular products to determine the iron content of each sample. Standard curves demonstrated high linear correlation (R(2) = 0.998) between absorbance spectra of iron oxide nanoparticles and concentration in known SPIO-doped cells. Comparisons of the ST with inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) or nuclear magnetic resonance relaxometric (R(2)) determinations of intracellular iron contents in SPIO containing samples resulted in significant linear correlation between the techniques (R(2) vs ST, R(2) > 0.992, p < 0.0001; ST vs ICP-MS, R(2) > 0.995, p < 0.0001) with the limit of detection of ST for iron = 0.66 µg ml(-1) for 10(6) cells ml(-1). We have developed a rapid straightforward protocol that does not require overnight acid digestion for quantifying iron oxide content in magnetically labeled cells using readily available analytic instrumentation that should greatly expedite advances in comparing SPIO agents and protocols for labeling cells.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • MR and optical imaging of early micrometastases in lymph nodes: triple labeling with nano-sized agents yielding distinct signals.
    Contrast Media Mol. Imaging (IF 1.984) Pub Date : 2012-03-22
    Nobuyuki Kosaka,Marcelino Bernardo,Makoto Mitsunaga,Peter L Choyke,Hisataka Kobayashi

    Few imaging methods are available for depicting in vivo cancer cell migration within the lymphatic system. Detection of such early micrometastases requires extremely high target to background. In this study, we dual-labeled human breast cancer cells (MDA-MB468) with a small particle of iron oxide (SPIO) and a quantum dot (QD), and tracked these cells in the lymphatic system in mice using in vivo MRI and optical imaging. A generation-6 gadolinium-dendrimer-based MRI contrast agent (Gd-G6) was employed for visualizing regional lymphatic channels and nodes. Since Gd-G6 shortened T(1) leading to high signal, whereas SPIO-labeled cancer cells greatly lowered signal, a small number of cells were simultaneously visualized within the draining lymphatic basins. One million dual-labeled cancer cells were subcutaneously injected into the paws of mice 24 h prior to imaging. Then whole body images were acquired pre- and post-intracutaneous injection of Gd-G6 with 3D-T(1) w-FFE and balanced-FFE sequences for cancer cell tracking and MR lymphangiography. In vivo MRI clearly visualized labeled cancer cells migrating from the paw to the axillary lymph nodes using draining lymphatics. In vivo optical imaging using a fluorescence surgical microscope demonstrated tiny cancer cell clusters in the axillary lymph node with high spatial resolution. Thus, using a combination of MRI and optical imaging, it is possible to depict macro- and early micrometastases within the lymphatic system. This platform offers a versatile research tool for investigating and treating lymphatic metastases in animal models.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Self-illuminating in vivo lymphatic imaging using a bioluminescence resonance energy transfer quantum dot nano-particle.
    Contrast Media Mol. Imaging (IF 1.984) Pub Date : 2011-02-26
    Nobuyuki Kosaka,Makoto Mitsunaga,Sukanta Bhattacharyya,Steven C Miller,Peter L Choyke,Hisataka Kobayashi

    Autofluorescence arising from normal tissues can compromise the sensitivity and specificity of in vivo fluorescence imaging by lowering the target-to-background signal ratio. Since bioluminescence resonance energy transfer quantum dot (BRET-QDot) nano-particles can self-illuminate in near-infrared in the presence of the substrate, coelenterazine, without irradiating excitation lights, imaging using BRET-QDots does not produce any autofluorescence. In this study, we applied this BRET-QDot nano-particle to the in vivo lymphatic imaging in mice in order to compare with BRET, fluorescence or bioluminescence lymphatic imaging. BRET-QDot655, in which QDot655 is contained as a core, was injected at different sites (e.g. chin, ear, forepaws and hind paws) in mice followed by the intravenous coelenterazine injection, and then bioluminescence and fluorescence imaging were serially performed. In all mice, each lymphatic basin was clearly visualized in the BRET imaging with minimal background signals. The BRET signal in the lymph nodes lasted at least 30 min after coelenterazine injections. Furthermore, the BRET signal demonstrated better quantification than the fluorescence signal emitting from QDot655, the core of this BRET particle. These advantages of BRET-QDot allowed us to perform real-time, quantitative lymphatic imaging without image processing. BRET-Qdots have the potential to be a robust nano-material platform for developing optical molecular imaging probes.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Fluorescence lifetime imaging of activatable target specific molecular probes.
    Contrast Media Mol. Imaging (IF 1.984) Pub Date : 2010-01-27
    Raphael Alford,Mikako Ogawa,Moinuddin Hassan,Amir H Gandjbakhche,Peter L Choyke,Hisataka Kobayashi

    In vivo optical imaging using fluorescently labeled self-quenched monoclonal antibodies, activated through binding and internalization within target cells, results in excellent target-to-background ratios. We hypothesized that these molecular probes could be utilized to accurately report on cellular internalization with fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLI). Two imaging probes were synthesized, consisting of the antibody trastuzumab (targeting HER2/neu) conjugated to Alexa Fluor750 in ratios of either 1:8 or 1:1. Fluorescence intensity and lifetime of each conjugate were initially determined at endosomal pHs. Since the 1:8 conjugate is self-quenched, the fluorescence lifetime of each probe was also determined after exposure to the known dequencher SDS. In vitro imaging experiments were performed using 3T3/HER2(+) and BALB/3T3 (HER2(-)) cell lines. Changes in fluorescence lifetime correlated with temperature- and time-dependent cellular internalization. In vivo imaging studies in mice with dual flank tumors [3T3/HER2(+) and BALB/3T3 (HER2(-))] detected a minimal difference in FLI. In conclusion, fluorescence lifetime imaging monitors the internalization of target-specific activatable antibody-fluorophore conjugates in vitro. Challenges remain in adapting this methodology to in vivo imaging.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Manganese cell labeling of murine hepatocytes using manganese(III)-transferrin.
    Contrast Media Mol. Imaging (IF 1.984) Pub Date : 2008-06-12
    Christopher H Sotak,Kathryn Sharer,Alan P Koretsky

    Manganese(III)-transferrin [Mn(III)-Tf] was investigated as a way to accomplish manganese-labeling of murine hepatocytes for MRI contrast. It is postulated that Mn(III)-Tf can exploit the same transferrin-receptor-dependent and -independent metabolic pathways used by hepatocytes to transport the iron analog Fe(III)-Tf. More specifically, it was investigated whether manganese delivered by transferrin could give MRI contrast in hepatocytes. Comparison of the T1 and T2 relaxation times of Mn(III)-Tf and Fe(III)-Tf over the same concentration range showed that the r1 relaxivities of the two metalloproteins are the same in vitro, with little contribution from paramagnetic enhancement. The degree of manganese cell labeling following incubation for 2-7 h in 31.5 microm Mn(III)-Tf was comparable to that of hepatocytes incubated in 500 microm Mn2+ for 1 h. The intrinsic manganese tissue relaxivity between Mn(III)-Tf-labeled and Mn2+-labeled cells was found to be the same, consistent with Mn(III) being released from transferrin and reduced to Mn2+. For both treatment regimens, manganese uptake by hepatocytes appeared to saturate in the first 1-2 h of the incubation period and may explain why the efficiency of hepatocyte cell labeling by the two methods appeared to be comparable in spite of the approximately 16-fold difference in effective manganese concentration. Hepatocytes continuously released manganese, as detected by MRI, and this was the same for both Mn2+- and Mn(III)-Tf-labeled cells. Manganese release may be the result of normal hepatocyte function, much in the same way that hepatocytes excrete manganese into the bile in vivo. This approach exploits a biological process-namely receptor binding, endocytosis and endosomal acidification-to initiate the release of an MRI contrast agent, potentially conferring more specificity to the labeling process. The ubiquitous expression of transferrin receptors by eukaryotic cells should make Mn(III)-Tf particularly useful for manganese labeling of a wide variety of cells both in culture and in vivo.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • A dual CT-MR dendrimer contrast agent as a surrogate marker for convection-enhanced delivery of intracerebral macromolecular therapeutic agents.
    Contrast Media Mol. Imaging (IF 1.984) Pub Date : 2008-03-13
    Celeste Aida S Regino,Stuart Walbridge,Marcelino Bernardo,Karen J Wong,Dennis Johnson,Russell Lonser,Edward H Oldfield,Peter L Choyke,Martin W Brechbiel

    The feasibility of using Gd dendrimer-based macromolecules (Gd-G8 dendrimer) as a dual CT and MR contrast agent for monitoring convection-enhanced delivery of therapy in the brain is evaluated both in vitro and in vivo with optimal dosing established. In vitro CT attenuation values of the Gd-based agents ( approximately 6.0 HU mM(-1)) were approximately 1.6 times greater than iodine-based agents and the attenuation of the Gd-DTPA was comparable to Gd-G8 dendrimer. Visible enhancement was observed on both CT and MR using Gd-G8 dendrimer over a range of 23-78 mM; however, a concentration of at least 47 mM in Gd was required for adequate delineation of the injection site on both CT and MR. MR offers greater sensitivity than CT in estimating the volume of distribution (V(d)) and effectively quantified the agent's concentration and diffusion using T(1) mapping at much lower concentrations of Gd (<10 mM in [Gd]).

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Antibody-mediated cell labeling of peripheral T cells with micron-sized iron oxide particles (MPIOs) allows single cell detection by MRI.
    Contrast Media Mol. Imaging (IF 1.984) Pub Date : 2007-06-02
    Erik M Shapiro,Laura N Medford-Davis,Tarek M Fahmy,Cynthia E Dunbar,Alan P Koretsky

    Labeling cells with iron oxide is a useful tool for MRI based cellular imaging. Here it is demonstrated that peripheral rat T cells can be labeled in whole blood, in vitro, with streptavidin-coated micron-sized iron oxide particles (MPIOs), achieving iron concentrations as high as 60 pg iron per cell. This is 30 times the amount of labeling reported with ultrasmall particles of iron oxide (USPIOs). Labeling was mediated by use of a biotinylated anti-CD5 antibody, which is specific for peripheral T cells. Such labeling allowed the in vitro detection of single lymphocytes by MRI, using conditions well suited for in vivo animal work. Electron microscopic analysis demonstrated that MPIOs remained largely extracellular after labeling, with some evidence of intracellular uptake. Cell viability and early and late cytokine release studies showed no significant differences between labeled and unlabeled cells. Therefore, the use of MPIOs for achieving high iron concentrations for cellular MRI is potentially an effective new modality for non-invasive imaging of lymphocytes.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • 18F-FDG-PET/CT Imaging in Advanced Glottic Cancer: A Tool for Clinical Decision in Comparison with Conventional Imaging.
    Contrast Media Mol. Imaging (IF 1.984) Pub Date : 2019-09-29
    G Paone,F Martucci,V Espeli,L Ceriani,G Treglia,T Ruberto,A Richetti,R Piantanida,L Giovanella

    This study assessed the role of 18F-FDG PET-CT (PET/CT) to detect the cartilage and paraglottic infiltration in advanced glottic cancer comparing the results with those of conventional imaging (CI) (contrast-enhanced computed tomography and/or magnetic resonance). In addition, we assessed the prognostic value of quantitative parameters, measured on baseline PET/CT, in terms of event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS). We retrospectively analyzed 27 patients with glottic squamous cell carcinoma stage III and IVA, treated in our institute between 2010 and 2016, comparing PET/CT, performed for staging and radiotherapy planning, and CI findings. Cohen's K was used to compare concordance between PET/CT and CI. Imaging findings were correlated with endoscopic evaluation and histological reports (gold standard (GS)). All lesions shown by CI were also detected by PET/CT imaging, and in 5 cases, a better definition of local infiltration was achieved with PET/CT than CI (5 CT). Sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of PET/CT and CT were 95%, 86%, and 93% and 70%, 86%, and 74% for, respectively. MRI showed sensitivity and specificity of 100%. One false-negative (FN) cases and 1 false-positive (FP) case were observed with PET/CT with no difference compared to MRI (10 cases). Six FN cases and 1 FP case were observed with CT. Cohen's K was 0.60 (PET vs. CI) and 0.80 (PET vs. GS). Patients were followed-up for at least 24 months to calculate EFS and OS. 13 local recurrence and 7 deaths were recorded. Among quantitative PET parameters, baseline MTV was the most powerful predictor of outcome. Our data suggest a reliable sensitivity and accuracy of PET/CT in the evaluation of local extension, proving a useful method for initial local staging in addition to the well-established role in lymph-node and distant sites assessment. Furthermore, pretreatment MTV provides better prognostic information than other PET/CT parameters.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Pretargeted Nuclear Imaging and Radioimmunotherapy Based on the Inverse Electron-Demand Diels-Alder Reaction and Key Factors in the Pretargeted Synthetic Design.
    Contrast Media Mol. Imaging (IF 1.984) Pub Date : 2019-09-19
    Lin Qiu,Wujian Mao,Hongyan Yin,Hui Tan,Dengfeng Cheng,Hongcheng Shi

    The exceptional speed and biorthogonality of the inverse electron-demand Diels-Alder (IEDDA) click chemistry between 1,2,4,5-tetrazines and strained alkene dienophiles have made it promising in the realm of pretargeted imaging and therapy. During the past 10 years, the IEDDA-pretargeted strategies have been tested and have already proven capable of producing images with high tumor-to-background ratios and improving therapeutic effect. This review will focus on recent applications of click chemistry ligations in the pretargeted imaging studies of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), positron emission tomography (PET), and pretargeted radioimmunotherapy investigations. Additionally, the influence factors of stability, reactivity, and pharmacokinetic properties of TCO tag modified immunoconjugates and radiolabeled Tz derivatives were also summarized in this article, which should be carefully considered in the system design in order to develop a successful pretargeted methodology. We hope that this review will not only equip readers with a knowledge of pretargeted methodology based on IEDDA click chemistry but also inspire synthetic chemists and radiochemists to develop pretargeted radiopharmaceutical components in a more innovative way with various influence factors considered.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The Clinical Impact of Using 18F-FDG-PET/CT in the Diagnosis of Suspected Vasculitis: The Effect of Dose and Timing of Glucocorticoid Treatment.
    Contrast Media Mol. Imaging (IF 1.984) Pub Date : 2019-09-19
    Kirsi Taimen,Soile P Salomäki,Ulla Hohenthal,Markku Mali,Sami Kajander,Marko Seppänen,Pirjo Nuutila,Antti Palomäki,Anne Roivainen,Laura Pirilä,Jukka Kemppainen

    18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose positron-emission tomography (18F-FDG-PET) with computed tomography (CT) is effective for diagnosing large vessel vasculitis, but its usefulness in accurately diagnosing suspected, unselected vasculitis remains unknown. We evaluated the feasibility of 18F-FDG-PET/CT in real-life cohort of patients with suspicion of vasculitis. The effect of the dose and the timing of glucocorticoid (GC) medication on imaging findings were in special interest. 82 patients with suspected vasculitis were evaluated by whole-body 18F-FDG-PET/CT. GC treatment as prednisolone equivalent doses at the scanning moment and before imaging was evaluated. 38/82 patients were diagnosed with vasculitis. Twenty-one out of 38 patients had increased 18F-FDG accumulation in blood vessel walls indicating vasculitis in various sized vessels. Vasculitis patients with a positive vasculitis finding in 18F-FDG-PET/CT had a significantly shorter duration of GC use (median = 4.0 vs 7.0 days, P=0.034), and they used lower GC dose during the PET scan (median dose = 15.0 mg/day vs 40.0 mg/day, p=0.004) compared to 18F-FDG-PET/CT-negative patients. Vasculitis patients with a positive 18F-FDG-PET/CT result had significantly higher C-reactive protein (CRP) than patients with a negative 18F-FDG-PET/CT finding (mean value = 154.5 vs 90.4 mg/L, p=0.018). We found that 18F-FDG-PET/CT positivity was significantly associated with a lower dose and shorter duration of GC medication and higher CRP level in vasculitis patients. 18F-FDG-PET/CT revealed clinically significant information in over half of the patients and was effective in confirming the final diagnosis.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • MRI Tracking of SPIO- and Fth1-Labeled Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stromal Cell Transplantation for Treatment of Stroke.
    Contrast Media Mol. Imaging (IF 1.984) Pub Date : 2019-09-19
    Xiaolei Huang,Yang Xue,Jinliang Wu,Qing Zhan,Jiangmin Zhao

    We aimed to identify a suitable method for long-term monitoring of the migration and proliferation of mesenchymal stromal cells in stroke models of rats using ferritin transgene expression by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (BMSCs) were transduced with a lentivirus containing a shuttle plasmid (pCDH-CMV-MCS-EF1-copGFP) carrying the ferritin heavy chain 1 (Fth1) gene. Ferritin expression in stromal cells was evaluated with western blotting and immunofluorescent staining. The iron uptake of Fth1-BMSCs was measured with Prussian blue staining. Following surgical introduction of middle cerebral artery occlusion, Fth1-BMSCs and superparamagnetic iron oxide- (SPIO-) labeled BMSCs were injected through the internal jugular vein. The imaging and signal intensities were monitored by diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), T2-weighted imaging (T2WI), and susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) in vitro and in vivo. Pathology was performed for comparison. We observed that the MRI signal intensity of SPIO-BMSCs gradually reduced over time. Fth1-BMSCs showed the same signal intensity between 10 and 60 days. SWI showed hypointense lesions in the SPIO-BMSC (traceable for 30 d) and Fth1-BMSC groups. T2WI was not sensitive enough to trace Fth1-BMSCs. After transplantation, Prussian blue-stained cells were observed around the infarction area and in the infarction center in both transplantation models. Fth1-BMSCs transplanted for treating focal cerebral infarction were safe, reliable, and traceable by MRI. Fth1 labeling was more stable and suitable than SPIO labeling for long-term tracking. SWI was more sensitive than T2W1 and suitable as the optimal MRI-tracking sequence.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Medical Image Segmentation Algorithm Based on Feedback Mechanism CNN.
    Contrast Media Mol. Imaging (IF 1.984) Pub Date : 2019-09-05
    Feng-Ping An,Zhi-Wen Liu

    With the development of computer vision and image segmentation technology, medical image segmentation and recognition technology has become an important part of computer-aided diagnosis. The traditional image segmentation method relies on artificial means to extract and select information such as edges, colors, and textures in the image. It not only consumes considerable energy resources and people's time but also requires certain expertise to obtain useful feature information, which no longer meets the practical application requirements of medical image segmentation and recognition. As an efficient image segmentation method, convolutional neural networks (CNNs) have been widely promoted and applied in the field of medical image segmentation. However, CNNs that rely on simple feedforward methods have not met the actual needs of the rapid development of the medical field. Thus, this paper is inspired by the feedback mechanism of the human visual cortex, and an effective feedback mechanism calculation model and operation framework is proposed, and the feedback optimization problem is presented. A new feedback convolutional neural network algorithm based on neuron screening and neuron visual information recovery is constructed. So, a medical image segmentation algorithm based on a feedback mechanism convolutional neural network is proposed. The basic idea is as follows: The model for obtaining an initial region with the segmented medical image classifies the pixel block samples in the segmented image. Then, the initial results are optimized by threshold segmentation and morphological methods to obtain accurate medical image segmentation results. Experiments show that the proposed segmentation method has not only high segmentation accuracy but also extremely high adaptive segmentation ability for various medical images. The research in this paper provides a new perspective for medical image segmentation research. It is a new attempt to explore more advanced intelligent medical image segmentation methods. It also provides technical approaches and methods for further development and improvement of adaptive medical image segmentation technology.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Labelling and Clinical Performance of Human Leukocytes Labelled with 99mTc-HMPAO Using Leukokit® with Gelofusine versus Leukokit® with HES as Sedimentation Agent.
    Contrast Media Mol. Imaging (IF 1.984) Pub Date : 2019-04-26
    S Auletta,D Riolo,M Varani,C Lauri,F Galli,A Signore

    The scintigraphy with radiolabelled autologous leukocytes (WBCs) is considered the gold-standard technique for imaging infections. Leukokit® is a commercially available, disposable, sterile kit for labelling WBCs ex vivo. In this kit, WBCs isolation from red blood cells (RBCs) was performed using poly(O-2-hydroxyethyl)starch (HES) as the RBCs sedimentation agent. Due to its poor availability, HES has been recently replaced by Gelofusine as the RBC sedimentation agent. The aim of this study was to compare the labelling efficiency and the diagnostic accuracy of WBCs labelled with Leukokit® with HES vs Leukokit® with Gelofusine. WBCs were isolated using HES or Gelofusine for 45 minutes and then purified from platelets (PLTs) and labelled with 1.1 ± 0.3 GBq of freshly prepared 99mTc-HMPAO. The following parameters were evaluated: the number and type of recovered WBCs, RBCs contamination, PLTs contamination, vitality of neutrophils, and chemotactic properties of neutrophils. Clinical comparison was performed between 80 patients (33 males; age 67.5 ± 14.2) injected with 99mTc-HMPAO-WBCs, using HES as the sedimentation agent, and 92 patients (38 males; age 68.2 ± 12.8) injected with 99mTc-HMPAO-WBCs using Gelofusine as the sedimentation agent. Patients were affected by prosthetic joint infections, peripheral bone osteomyelitis, or vascular graft infection. We compared radiolabelling efficiency (LE), final recovery yield (RY), and diagnostic outcome based on microbiology or 2-year follow-up. Results showed that HES provides the lowest RBCs and PLTs contamination, but Gelofusine provides the highest WBC recovery. Both agents did not influence the chemotactic properties of WBCs, and no differences were found in terms of LE and RY. Sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were also not significantly different for WBCs labelled with both agents (diagnostic accuracy 90.9%, CI = 74.9-96.1 vs 98.3%, CI = 90.8-100, for HES and Gelofusine, respectively). In conclusion, Gelofusine can be considered a suitable alternative of HES for WBCs separation and labelling.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
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