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  • Exploring preconception health beliefs amongst adults of childbearing age in the UK: a qualitative analysis
    BMC Pregnancy Childbirth (IF 2.413) Pub Date : 2020-01-16
    Laura McGowan; Emer Lennon-Caughey; Cheryl Chun; Michelle C. McKinley; Jayne V. Woodside

    ‘Preconception health’ or ‘pre-pregnancy health’ are terms used to describe the health status of males and females prior to pregnancy. The goal of preconception health strategies is to optimise the health of future offspring via improved parental health, which may result from planned/unplanned pregnancies. Greater emphasis is being placed upon preconception health amongst research and public health, yet there is limited evidence on this topic from the perspective of UK adults. This research explored beliefs, knowledge and attitudes on preconception health amongst adults of childbearing age, drawn from the UK. A descriptive qualitative focus group study was undertaken with healthy males and females of childbearing age (18–45 years) between October 2018 and July 2019. Two groups were held in a rural location (one focus group, one mini focus group) and three groups held in an urban location (two focus groups, one mini focus group), with a range of males and females, with and without children. A semi-structured topic guide was devised based on previous literature. All groups were conducted with two researchers trained in qualitative research methods. Focus groups explored understanding/prior knowledge of preconception health, beliefs and attitudes towards preconception healthcare support and personal health. Focus groups were transcribed verbatim and analysed using thematic analysis. Twenty-one males and females of childbearing age (aged 18 to 45 years) participated in the research. Discussions revealed a lack of comprehensive awareness of the importance of preconception health and a sense of reluctance to visit a doctor regarding the issue, favouring the internet, unless having problems conceiving. Five themes identified included: preconception education, preconception awareness, wider knowledge networks/support, optimal parental health, and attitudes/emotions towards preconception health. The roles of males regarding positive preconception care was not well understood. This study highlighted a lack of detailed awareness surrounding the importance of preconception health per se, despite general agreement that health status should be optimal at this time. It identified a willingness to learn more about preconception health, creating an opportunity to improve preconception healthcare awareness via evidence-based education, social media campaigns, and within healthcare systems in a life course approach.

    更新日期:2020-01-17
  • Self-medication and knowledge among pregnant women attending primary healthcare services in Malang, Indonesia: a cross-sectional study
    BMC Pregnancy Childbirth (IF 2.413) Pub Date : 2020-01-16
    Rizka Novia Atmadani; Owen Nkoka; Sendi Lia Yunita; Yi-Hua Chen

    Self-medication with over-the-counter (OTC) drugs is an important public health concern, especially in the vulnerable population of pregnant women due to potential risks to both the mother and fetus. Few studies have studied how factors, such as knowledge, affect self-medication. This study investigated self-medication and its associated factors among pregnant women attending healthcare services in Malang, Indonesia. A cross-sectional study was conducted from July to September 2018 in five healthcare services. A self-administered questionnaire was used and the data were analyzed using multiple regression models. Of 333 female participants, 39 (11.7%) used OTC medication. Women with a higher level of knowledge of OTC medication were more likely to self-medicate—adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 2.15, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.03–4.46. Compared with those with less knowledge, pregnant women with more correct knowledge of the possible risk of self-medication were less likely to self-medicate—aOR = 0.29; 95% CI = 0.14–0.60. The effect of a higher level of knowledge of OTC medication was significant among women who had middle school and lower education—aOR = 8.18; 95% CI = 1.70–39.35. The effect of correct knowledge on the possible risks of self-medication was significant only among women with high school and higher education—aOR = 0.17; 95% CI = 0.07–0.42. Imparting specific knowledge of the potential risks of using non-prescribed medication during pregnancy may help pregnant women navigate and more safely manage their OTC use. We also suggest further collecting data from more healthcare services, such as hospitals, to obtain more findings generalizable to the Indonesian community.

    更新日期:2020-01-17
  • Factors affecting utilization of health facilities for labour and childbirth: a case study from rural Uganda
    BMC Pregnancy Childbirth (IF 2.413) Pub Date : 2020-01-16
    Jaya A. R. Dantas; Debra Singh; May Lample

    Since 2000 considerable attention has been placed on maternal health outcomes as the 5th Millennium Goal. In Uganda, only 65% of births are delivered by a skilled birth attendant, contributing to the 435 women that die in every 100,000 births from unattended complications. Factors that impact a women’s decision on where to deliver include cost and household barriers, poor health services and lack of education. Insight into factors impacting maternal health decision-making in two villages in South Eastern Uganda, were explored through a cross-sectional study using focus group discussions (FDGs) with men and women and administering a simple questionnaire. For men and women in the villages, cultural and community patterns of behavior have the strongest impact on delivery options. While women with no complications could often find options to deliver safely, lack of emergency obstetric care remains a strong factor in maternal deaths. This article proposes that communities be engaged in identifying and leveraging their strengths to find solutions for challenges facing women in achieving safe deliveries.

    更新日期:2020-01-16
  • Clinical outcomes of prophylactic compression sutures for treatment of uterine atony during the cesarean delivery of twins
    BMC Pregnancy Childbirth (IF 2.413) Pub Date : 2020-01-16
    Mi-La Kim; Yoon-Mi Hur; Hyejin Ryu; Min Jin Lee; Seok Ju Seong; Joong Sik Shin

    Twin pregnancy has a high risk for developing uterine atony (UA). This study aimed to evaluate efficacy and clinical outcomes of prophylactic compression sutures to treat UA during twin cesarean section (CS). All patient records of twin deliveries by CS after gestational age of 24 weeks in a large maternity hospital in South Korea between January 2013 and June 2018 were reviewed. Patients with monochorionic monoamniotic twins were excluded from data analysis. In total, 953 women were eligible for data analysis. Of the 953 patients, compression sutures were applied to 147 cases with postpartum bleeding that were refractory to uterine massage and uterotonics. Out of the 147, two patients (1.4%) proceeded to additional uterine artery ligation to achieve hemostasis, yielding a success rate of 98.6%. The rate of transfusion after the first 24 h of delivery in the suture group was not significantly different from that in the non-suture group, suggesting that both groups achieved hemostasis at an equal rate after the first 24 h of delivery. The difference in the operation time between the two groups was only 8.5 min. The rate of subsequent pregnancy among the patients who received compression sutures was 44.4%. Overall, our findings suggest that with early and fast implementation of compression sutures, UA can be treated in the setting of twin cesarean delivery without significantly increasing maternal morbidity.

    更新日期:2020-01-16
  • Provider volume and maternal complications after Caesarean section: results from a population-based study
    BMC Pregnancy Childbirth (IF 2.413) Pub Date : 2020-01-14
    Philip S. J. Leonard; Dan L. Crouse; Jonathan G. Boudreau; Neeru Gupta; James T. McDonald

    A large literature search suggests a relationship between hospital/surgeon caseload volume and surgical complications. In this study, we describe associations between post-operative maternal complications following Caesarean section and provider caseload volume, provider years since graduation, and provider specialization, while adjusting for hospital volumes and patient characteristics. Our analysis is based on population-based discharge abstract data for the period of April 2004 to March 2014, linked to patient and physician universal coverage registry data. We consider all hospital admissions (N = 20,914) in New Brunswick, Canada, where a Caesarean Section surgery was recorded, as identified by a Canadian Classification of Health Intervention code of 5.MD.60.XX. We ran logistic regression models to identify the odds of occurrence of post-surgical complications during the hospital stay. Roughly 2.6% of admissions had at least one of the following groups of complications: disseminated intravascular coagulation, postpartum sepsis, postpartum hemorrhage, and postpartum infection. The likelihood of complication was negatively associated with provider volume and provider years of experience, and positively associated with having a specialization other than maternal-fetal medicine or obstetrics and gynecology. Our results suggest that measures of physician training and experience are associated with the likelihood of Caesarean Section complications. In the context of a rural province deciding on the number of rural hospitals to keep open, this suggests a trade off between the benefits of increased volume versus the increased travel time for patients.

    更新日期:2020-01-15
  • Maternal age and educational level modify the association between chronic hepatitis B infection and preterm labor
    BMC Pregnancy Childbirth (IF 2.413) Pub Date : 2020-01-14
    Songxu Peng; Hongyan Chen; Xiu Li; Yukai Du; Yong Gan

    Few studies have investigated whether maternal age and education level modify the association of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection with preterm labor. We hypothesized that the association of HBV infection with preterm labor is modified by maternal age and education level. A retrospective cohort study was conducted on the HBsAg-positive and HBsAg-negative pregnant women delivered from June 2012 to August 2017 at Wuhan Medical Care Center for Women and Children, Wuhan, China. A multivariate regression model was used in this study. This study included 2050 HBsAg-positive pregnant women and 2050 HBsAg negative women. In the stratified analyses, positive HBsAg status was associated with the increased risk of preterm labor in women aged < 30 years, having low educational level, with an odds ratio of 1.65(95% CI 1.07–2.54) and 2.59(95% CI 1.41–4.76), respectively. Breslow-Day test showed that there existed significant differences in the ORs for HBsAg carriage across each stratum of maternal age (p = 0.023), educational level (p = 0.002). After adjusting other co-variables, we observed maternal HBV infection (OR 1.60, 95% CI 1.03–2.49) was still associated with risk of preterm labor in pregnancy women with age < 30. Similarly, the significant association of HBV infection (OR 2.49, 95% CI 1.34–4.63) with preterm labor remained in low educated women. Our results indicated that HBV infection was associated with high risk of preterm labor, but maternal age and educational level could modify the association between HBV infection and preterm labor.

    更新日期:2020-01-15
  • Socioeconomic and migration status as predictors of emergency caesarean section: a birth cohort study
    BMC Pregnancy Childbirth (IF 2.413) Pub Date : 2020-01-13
    C. Miani; A. Ludwig; J. Breckenkamp; O. Sauzet; I-M Doyle; C. Hoeller-Holtrichter; J. Spallek; O. Razum

    Women with a migration background are reportedly at a higher risk of emergency caesarean section. There is evidence that this is due in part to suboptimal antenatal care use and quality of care. Despite the fact that migrant women and descendants of migrants are often at risk of socioeconomic disadvantage, there is, in comparison, scarce and incomplete evidence on the role of socioeconomic position as an independent risk factor for emergency caesarean delivery. We therefore investigate whether and how migration background and two markers of socioeconomic position affect the risk of an emergency caesarean section and whether they interact with each other. In 2013–2016, we recruited women during the perinatal period in Bielefeld, Germany, collecting data on health and socioeconomic and migration background, as well as routine perinatal data. We studied associations between migration background (1st generation migrant, 2nd/3rd generation woman, no migration background), socioeconomic status (educational attainment and net monthly household income), and the outcome emergency caesarean section. Of the 881 participants, 21% (n = 185) had an emergency caesarean section. Analyses showed no association between having an emergency caesarean section and migration status or education. Women in the lowest (< 800€/month) and second lowest (between 800 and 1750€/month) income categories were more likely (aOR: 1.96, CI: 1.01–3.81; and aOR: 2.36, CI: 1.27–4.40, respectively) to undergo an emergency caesarean section than women in the higher income groups. Migration status and education did not explain heterogeneity in mode of birth. Having a low household income, however, increased the chances of emergency caesarean section and thereby contributed towards producing health disadvantages. Awareness of these findings and measures to correct these inequalities could help to improve the quality of obstetric care.

    更新日期:2020-01-14
  • Different levels of associations between medical co-morbidities and preterm birth outcomes among racial/ethnic women enrolled in Medicaid 2014–2015: retrospective analysis
    BMC Pregnancy Childbirth (IF 2.413) Pub Date : 2020-01-13
    Hyewon Lee; Ilya Okunev; Eric Tranby; Michael Monopoli

    The causes of preterm birth are multi-dimensional, including delayed and inadequate prenatal services as well as other medical and socioeconomic factors. This study aimed to examine the different levels of association between preterm birth and major medical co-morbidities among various racial/ethnic women enrolled in Medicaid. This is a retrospective analysis of 457,200 women aged between 15 and 44 with a single live birth from the IBM® MarketScan® Multi-State Medicaid Database from 2014 to 2015. Preterm birth, defined by delivery before 37 completed weeks of gestation, was the primary dependent variable. All births were dichotomously categorized as either preterm or full-term birth using the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification codes. Independent variables included race/ethnicity, categorized as non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, Hispanic, or other. Medical co-morbidities included smoking, drug dependence, alcohol dependence, diabetes, and hypertension. Total healthy prenatal visit count and high-risk prenatal visit encounters identified during 30 weeks prior to the delivery date were included in the analysis. A significantly higher preterm birth rate was found in black women after controlled for medical co-morbidities, age, prenatal visit count, and high-risk pregnancy. Different levels of association between preterm birth outcome and major medical co-morbidities were examined among various racial/ethnic women enrolled in Medicaid. Drug dependence was associated with higher odds of preterm birth in black (OR = 2.56, 95% CI [1.92–3.41]) and white women (OR = 2.12, 95% CI [1.91–2.34]), when controlled for other variables. In Hispanic women, diabetes (OR=1.44, 95% CI [1.27, 1.64]) and hypertension (OR=1.98, 95% CI [1.74, 2.26]) were associated with higher odds of preterm birth. White women diagnosed with drug dependence had a 14.0% predicted probability of preterm birth, whereas black women diagnosed with drug dependence had a predicted probability of preterm birth of 21.5%. The associations of medical co-morbidities and preterm births varied across racial and ethnic groups of women enrolled in Medicaid. This report calls for future research on racial/ethnic disparity in preterm birth to apply integrative and qualitative approaches to understand the disparity from a contextual perspective, especially for vulnerable pregnant women like Medicaid enrollees.

    更新日期:2020-01-14
  • A condom uterine balloon device among referral facilities in Dar Es Salaam: an assessment of perceptions, barriers and facilitators one year after implementation
    BMC Pregnancy Childbirth (IF 2.413) Pub Date : 2020-01-13
    Oluwakemi Adegoke; Sandra Danso-Bamfo; Margaret Sheehy; Vincent Tarimo; Thomas F. Burke; Lorraine F. Garg

    Postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) is the leading cause of maternal death in Tanzania. The Every Second Matters for Mothers and Babies- Uterine Balloon Tamponade (ESM-UBT) device was developed to address this problem in women with atonic uterus. The objective of this study was to understand the barriers and facilitators to optimal use of the device, in Dar es Salaam Tanzania 1 year after implementation. Semi-structured interviews of skilled-birth attendants were conducted between May and July 2017. Interviews were recorded, coded and analyzed for emergent themes. Among the participants, overall there was a positive perception of the ESM-UBT device. More than half of participants reported the device was readily available and more than 1/3 described ease and success with initial use. Barriers included fear and lack of refresher training. Finally, participants expressed a need for training and device availability at peripheral hospitals. The implementation and progression to optimal use of the ESM-UBT device in Tanzania is quite complex. Ease of use and the prospect of saving a life/preserving fertility strongly promoted use while fear and lack of high-level buy-in hindered utilization of the device. A thorough understanding and investigation of these facilitators and barriers are required to increase uptake of the ESM-UBT device.

    更新日期:2020-01-14
  • Perinatal outcomes of infants with congenital limb malformations: an observational study from a tertiary referral center in Central Europe
    BMC Pregnancy Childbirth (IF 2.413) Pub Date : 2020-01-13
    Alex Farr; Eva Wachutka; Dieter Bettelheim; Karin Windsperger; Sebastian Farr

    Congenital limb malformations are rare, and their perinatal outcomes are not well described. This study analyzed the perinatal outcomes of infants with congenital limb malformations. All infants with congenital limb malformations who underwent prenatal assessment and delivery at our tertiary referral center from 2004 through 2017 were retrospectively identified. Neonatal outcome parameters were assessed, and the predictors of worse perinatal outcomes were determined. One hundred twenty-four cases of congenital limb malformations were identified, of which 104 (83.9%) were analyzed. The upper limb was affected in 15 patients (14.4%), the lower limb in 49 (47.1%), and both limbs in 40 (38.5%) patients. A fetal syndrome was identified in 66 patients (63.5%); clubfoot and longitudinal reduction defects were the most frequent malformations. In total, 38 patients (36.5%) underwent termination, seven (6.7%) had stillbirth, and 59 (56.7%) had live-born delivery. Rates of preterm delivery and transfer to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit were 42.4 and 25.4%, respectively. Localization of the malformation was a determinant of perinatal outcome (P = .006) and preterm delivery (P = .046). Congenital limb malformations frequently occur bilaterally and are associated with poor perinatal outcomes, including high rates of stillbirth and preterm delivery. Multidisciplinary care and referral to a perinatal center are warranted.

    更新日期:2020-01-14
  • Why do women assume a supine position when giving birth? The perceptions and experiences of postnatal mothers and nurse-midwives in Tanzania
    BMC Pregnancy Childbirth (IF 2.413) Pub Date : 2020-01-13
    Lilian Teddy Mselle; Lucia Eustace

    Before the advent of Western medicine in Tanzania, women gave birth in an upright position either by sitting, squatting or kneeling. Birthing women would hold ropes or trees as a way of gaining strength and stability in order to push the baby with sufficient force. Despite the evidence supporting the upright position as beneficial to the woman and her unborn child, healthcare facilities consistently promote the use of the supine position. The purpose of this study was to explore the perceptions and experiences of mothers and nurse-midwives regarding the use of the supine position during labour and delivery. We used a descriptive qualitative design. We conducted seven semi-structured interviews with nurse-midwives and two focus group discussions with postnatal mothers who were purposively recruited for the study. Qualitative content analysis guided the analysis. Four themes emerged from mothers’ and midwives’ description of their experiences and perceptions of using supine position during childbirth. These were: women adopted the supine position as instructed by midwives; women experience of using alternative birthing positions; midwives commonly decide birthing positions for labouring women and supine position is the best-known birthing position. Women use the supine position during childbirth because they are instructed to do so by the nurse-midwives. Nurse-midwives believe that the supine position is the universally known and practised birthing position, and prefer it because it provides flexibility for them to continuously monitor the progress of labour and assist delivery most efficiently. Mothers in this study had no other choice than to labour and deliver their babies in the supine position as instructed because they trusted midwives as skilled professionals who knew what was best given the condition of the mother and her baby.

    更新日期:2020-01-14
  • Research priorities of women at risk for preterm birth: findings and a call to action
    BMC Pregnancy Childbirth (IF 2.413) Pub Date : 2020-01-13
    Linda S. Franck; Monica R. McLemore; Shanell Williams; Kathryn Millar; Anastasia Y. Gordon; Schyneida Williams; Nakia Woods; Lisa Edwards; Tania Pacheco; Artie Padilla; Fanta Nelson; Larry Rand

    Traditional hierarchical approaches to research give privilege to small groups with decision-making power, without direct input from those with lived experience of illness who bear the burden of disease. A Research Justice framework values the expertise of patients and communities as well as their power in creating knowledge and in decisions about what research is conducted. Preterm birth has persisted at epidemic levels in the United States for decades and disproportionately affects women of color, especially Black women. Women of color have not been included in setting the agenda regarding preterm birth research. We used the Research Priorities of Affected Communities protocol to elicit and prioritize potential research questions and topics directly from women of color living in three communities that experience disproportionately high rates of preterm birth. Women participated in two focus group sessions, first describing their healthcare experiences and generating lists of uncertainties about their health and/or healthcare during pregnancy. Women then participated in consensus activities to achieve ‘top-priority’ research questions and topic lists. The priority research questions and topics produced by each group were examined within and across the three regions for similarities and differences. Fifty-four women participated in seven groups (14 sessions) and generated 375 researchable questions, clustered within 22 topics and four overarching themes: Maternal Health and Care Before, During, and After Pregnancy; Newborn Health and Care of the Preterm Baby; Understanding Stress and Interventions to Prevent or Reduce Stress; and Interpersonal and Structural Health Inequities. The questions and topics represent a wide range of research domains, from basic science, translational, clinical, health and social care delivery to policy and economic research. There were many similarities and some unique differences in the questions, topics and priorities across the regions. These findings can be used to design and fund research addressing unanswered questions that matter most to women at high risk for preterm birth. Investigators and funders are strongly encouraged to incorporate women at the front lines of the preterm birth epidemic in research design and funding decisions, and more broadly, to advance methods to deepen healthcare research partnerships with affected communities.

    更新日期:2020-01-13
  • Correction to: Risk factors of premature rupture of membranes in public hospitals at Mekele city, Tigray, a case control study
    BMC Pregnancy Childbirth (IF 2.413) Pub Date : 2020-01-13
    Natnael Etsay Assefa; Hailemariam Berhe; Fiseha Girma; Kidanemaryam Berhe; Yodit Zewdie Berhe; Gdiom Gebreheat; Weldu Mamu Werid; Almaz Berhe; Hagos B. Rufae; Guesh Welu

    Following publication of the original article [1], we have been notified that the name of one author was spelled incorrectly as Kidanemariam Berhe, when the correct spelling is Kidanemaryam Berhe.

    更新日期:2020-01-13
  • The differences in the consumption of proteins, fats and carbohydrates in the diet of pregnant women diagnosed with arterial hypertension or arterial hypertension and hypothyroidism
    BMC Pregnancy Childbirth (IF 2.413) Pub Date : 2020-01-13
    Wioletta Waksmańska; Rafał Bobiński; Izabela Ulman-Włodarz; Anna Pielesz

    Excessive body weight induces the occurrence of arterial hypertension. The risk associated with irregularities during the perinatal period is increased in women with diagnosed hypothyroidism. Disorders of thyroid functions during pregnancy may cause higher body weight gains. The aim of this project was to determine the differences in the average daily intake of proteins, fats and carbohydrates in women with arterial hypertension and with hypothyroidism. The control group (Group I) included healthy women. In this group, no complications during the course of pregnancy were observed and the delivery was on the due date. Group II was comprised of patients with arterial hypertension. Group III included patients with arterial hypertension, who were diagnosed with hypothyroidism before pregnancy. The women’s eating habits and dietary composition were analyzed based on a dietary assessment. Women with arterial hypertension (Group II) consumed the highest number of calories per day, while women with a normal pregnancy consumed the lowest amount of calories. The daily consumption of vegetable protein was similar in all study groups. The average daily consumption of fat, cholesterol and carbohydrates was the highest among women with diagnosed arterial hypertension. Women with arterial hypertension and hypothyroidism more frequently gave birth before the 38th week of pregnancy. The average daily intake of Arginine, Lysine, Methionine and Tryptophan was lower in the group of women with a normal pregnancy than in the two other groups. Excessive calorie intake causing significant body weight gain fostered the occurrence of arterial hypertension during pregnancy.

    更新日期:2020-01-13
  • Why do women deliver where they had not planned to go? A qualitative study from peri-urban Nairobi Kenya
    BMC Pregnancy Childbirth (IF 2.413) Pub Date : 2020-01-13
    V. Naanyu; V. Mujumdar; C. Ahearn; M. McConnell; J. Cohen

    In urban Kenya, couples face a wide variety of choices for delivery options; however, many women end up delivering in different facilities from those they had intended while pregnant. One potential consequence of this is delivering in facilities that do not meet minimum quality standards and lack the capacity to provide treatment for obstetric and neonatal complications. This study investigated why women in peri-urban Nairobi, Kenya deliver in facilities they had not intended to use. We used 60 in-depth audio-recorded interviews in which mothers shared their experiences 2–6 months after delivery. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize socio-demographic characteristics of participants. Qualitative data were analyzed in three steps i) exploration and generation of initial codes; ii) searching for themes by gathering coded data that addressed specific themes; and iii) defining and naming identified themes. Verbatim excerpts from participants were provided to illustrate study findings. The Health Belief Model was used to shed light on individual-level drivers of delivery location choice. Findings show a confluence of factors that predispose mothers to delivering in unintended facilities. At the individual level, precipitate labor, financial limitations, onset of pain, complications, changes in birth plans, undisclosed birth plans, travel during pregnancy, fear of health facility providers, misconception of onset of labor, wrong estimate of delivery date, and onset of labor at night, contributed to delivery at unplanned locations. On the supply side, the sudden referral to other facilities, poor services, wrong projection of delivery date, and long distance to chosen delivery facility, were factors in changes in delivery location. Lack of transport discouraged delivery at a chosen health facility. Social influences included others’ perspectives on delivery location and lack of aides/escorts. Results from this study suggest that manifold factors contribute to the occurrence of women delivering in facilities that they had not intended during pregnancy. Future studies should consider whether these changes in delivery location late in pregnancy contribute to late facility arrival and the use of lower quality facilities. Deliberate counseling during antenatal care regarding birth plans is likely to encourage timely arrival at facilities consistent with women’s preferences.

    更新日期:2020-01-13
  • Midwives’ engagement in smoking- and alcohol-prevention in prenatal care before and after the introduction of practice guidelines in Switzerland: comparison of survey findings from 2008 and 2018
    BMC Pregnancy Childbirth (IF 2.413) Pub Date : 2020-01-13
    Sakari Lemola; Anna Gkiouleka; Natalie Urfer-Maurer; Alexander Grob; Katharina Tritten Schwarz; Yvonne Meyer-Leu

    Evidence suggests that cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption during pregnancy negatively impacts fetal health. Health agencies across countries have developed specific guidelines for health professionals in perinatal care to strengthen their role in smoking and alcohol use prevention. One such example is the “Guideline on Screening and Counselling for prevention of cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption before, during, and after pregnancy” introduced by the Swiss Midwives Association in 2011. The current study assesses the changes in midwives’ engagement in smoking and alcohol use prevention before (2008) and after the introduction of the Guideline (2018). Further, the current study examines differences across regions (German vs. French speaking regions), graduation years (before and after the introduction of the Guideline) and different work settings (hospital vs. self-employed). Survey data were collected in 2008 (n = 366) and in 2018 (n = 459). Differences in how midwives engaged in smoking and alcohol use prevention between 2008 and 2018 were assessed with chi-square tests, as were differences across German and French speaking regions, graduation years (before and after the introduction of the Guideline) and across different work settings (working in hospitals or as self-employed). An increase in midwives’ awareness of the risks of consuming even small quantities of cigarettes and alcohol for the unborn child between 2008 and 2018 is evident. Explaining the risks to pregnant women who smoke or use alcohol remained the most frequently reported prevention strategy. However, engagement with more extensive smoking and alcohol use preventive strategies across the whole course of pregnancy, such as assisting women in the elaboration of a plan to stop smoking/alcohol use, remained limited. Seven years after its introduction, the effectiveness of the Guideline in increasing midwives’ engagement in smoking and alcohol use prevention appears limited despite midwives’ increased awareness.

    更新日期:2020-01-13
  • Risk factors for spontaneous miscarriage above 12 weeks or premature delivery in patients undergoing cervical polypectomy during pregnancy
    BMC Pregnancy Childbirth (IF 2.413) Pub Date : 2020-01-09
    Kaori Fukuta; Satoshi Yoneda; Noriko Yoneda; Arihiro Shiozaki; Akitoshi Nakashima; Takashi Minamisaka; Johji Imura; Shigeru Saito

    It currently remains unknown whether the resection of cervical polyps during pregnancy leads to miscarriage and/or preterm birth. This study evaluated the risk of spontaneous PTB below 34 or 37 weeks and miscarriage above 12 weeks in patients undergoing cervical polypectomy during pregnancy. This was a retrospective monocentric cohort study of patients undergoing cervical polypectomy for clinical indication. Seventy-three pregnant women who underwent polypectomy were selected, and risk factors associated with miscarriage above 12 weeks or premature delivery below 34 or 37 weeks were investigated. A multivariable regression looking for predictors of spontaneous miscarriage > 12 weeks and PTB < 34 or 37 weeks were performed. Sixteen patients (21.9%, 16/73) had spontaneous delivery at < 34 weeks or miscarriage above 12 weeks. A univariate analysis showed that bleeding before polypectomy [odds ratio (OR) 7.7, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.6–37.3, p = 0.004], polyp width ≥ 12 mm (OR 4.0, 95% CI 1.2–13.1, p = 0.005), the proportion of decidual polyps (OR 8.1, 95% CI 1.00–65.9, p = 0.024), and polypectomy at ≤10 weeks (OR 5.2, 95% CI 1.3–20.3, p = 0.01) were significantly higher in delivery at < 34 weeks than at ≥34 weeks. A logistic regression analysis identified polyp width ≥ 12 mm (OR 11.8, 95% CI 2.8–77.5, p = 0.001), genital bleeding before polypectomy (OR 6.5, 95% CI 1.2–55.7, p = 0.025), and polypectomy at ≤10 weeks (OR 5.9, 95% CI 1.2–45.0, p = 0.028) as independent risk factors for predicting delivery at < 34 weeks. Polyp width ≥ 12 mm and bleeding before polypectomy are risk factors for PTB < 37 wks. Our cohort of patients undergoing polypectomy in pregnancy have high risks of miscarriage or spontaneous premature delivery. It is unclear whether these risks are given by the underlying disease, by surgical treatment or both. This study establishes clinically relevant predictors of PTB are polyp size> 12 mm, bleeding and first trimester polypectomy. PTB risks should be exposed to patients and extensively discussed with balancing against the benefits of intervention in pregnancy.

    更新日期:2020-01-11
  • Men’s grief following pregnancy loss and neonatal loss: a systematic review and emerging theoretical model
    BMC Pregnancy Childbirth (IF 2.413) Pub Date : 2020-01-10
    Kate Louise Obst; Clemence Due; Melissa Oxlad; Philippa Middleton

    Emotional distress following pregnancy loss and neonatal loss is common, with enduring grief occurring for many parents. However, little is known about men’s grief, since the majority of existing literature and subsequent bereavement care guidelines have focused on women. To develop a comprehensive understanding of men’s grief, this systematic review sought to summarise and appraise the literature focusing on men’s grief following pregnancy loss and neonatal loss. A systematic review was undertaken with searches completed across four databases (PubMed, PsycINFO, Embase, and CINAHL). These were guided by two research questions: 1) what are men’s experiences of grief following pregnancy/neonatal loss; and 2) what are the predictors of men’s grief following pregnancy/neonatal loss? Eligible articles were qualitative, quantitative or mixed methods empirical studies including primary data on men’s grief, published between 1998 and October 2018. Eligibility for loss type included miscarriage or stillbirth (by any definition), termination of pregnancy for nonviable foetal anomaly, and neonatal death up to 28 days after a live birth. A final sample of 46 articles were identified, including 26 qualitative, 19 quantitative, and one mixed methods paper. Findings indicate that men’s grief experiences are highly varied, and current grief measures may not capture all of the complexities of grief for men. Qualitative studies identified that in comparison to women, men may face different challenges including expectations to support female partners, and a lack of social recognition for their grief and subsequent needs. Men may face double-disenfranchised grief in relation to the pregnancy/neonatal loss experience. There is a need to increase the accessibility of support services for men following pregnancy/neonatal loss, and to provide recognition and validation of their experiences of grief. Cohort studies are required among varied groups of bereaved men to confirm grief-predictor relationships, and to refine an emerging socio-ecological model of men’s grief. PROSPERO registration number: CRD42018103981

    更新日期:2020-01-11
  • Barriers to provision of respectful maternity care in Zambia: results from a qualitative study through the lens of behavioral science
    BMC Pregnancy Childbirth (IF 2.413) Pub Date : 2020-01-09
    Jana Smith; Rachel Banay; Emily Zimmerman; Vivien Caetano; Maurice Musheke; Ameck Kamanga

    Recently, a growing body of literature has established that disrespect and abuse during delivery is prevalent around the world. This complex issue has not been well studied through the lens of behavioral science, which could shed light on the psychological dimensions of health worker behavior and how their micro-level context may be triggering abuse. Our research focuses on the behavioral drivers of disrespect and abuse in Zambia to develop solutions with health workers and women that improve the experience of care during delivery. A qualitative study based on the behavioral design methodology was conducted in Chipata District, Eastern Province. Study participants included postpartum women, providers (staff who attend deliveries), supervisors and mentors, health volunteers, and birth companions. Observations were conducted of client-provider interactions on labor wards at two urban health centers and a district hospital. In-depth interviews were audio recorded and English interpretation from these recordings was transcribed verbatim. Data was analyzed using thematic analysis and findings were synthesized following the behavioral design methodology. Five key behavioral barriers were identified: 1) providers do not consider the decision to provide respectful care because they believe they are doing what they are expected to do, 2) providers do not consider the decision to provide respectful care explicitly since abuse and violence are normalized and therefore the default, 3) providers may decide that the costs of providing respectful care outweigh the gains, 4) providers believe they do not need to provide respectful care, and 5) providers may change their mind about the quality of care they will provide when they believe that disrespectful care will assist their clinical objectives. We identified features of providers’ context – the environment in which they live and work, and their past experiences – which contribute to each barrier, including supervisory systems, visual cues, social constructs, clinical processes, and other features. Client experience of disrespectful care during labor and delivery in Chipata, Zambia is prevalent. Providers experience several behavioral barriers to providing respectful maternity care. Each of these barriers is triggered by one or more addressable features in a provider’s environment. By applying the behavioral design methodology to the challenge of respectful maternity care, we have identified specific and concrete contextual cues that targeted solutions could address in order to facilitate respectful maternity care.

    更新日期:2020-01-09
  • Pre-conception blood pressure and evidence of placental malperfusion
    BMC Pregnancy Childbirth (IF 2.413) Pub Date : 2020-01-08
    Jacqueline Atlass; Marie Menke; W. Tony Parks; Janet M. Catov

    Evidence of placental maternal vascular malperfusion is associated with significant perinatal outcomes such as preeclampsia, intrauterine growth restriction and preterm birth. Elevations in pre-pregnancy blood pressure increase the risk for poor perinatal outcomes; however, the evidence linking pre-pregnancy blood pressure and placental malperfusion is sparse. We conducted a retrospective case-control study of women with singleton gestations with placental evaluations who delivered at Magee-Womens Hospital in 2012. Charts from 100 deliveries with placental malperfusion lesions (vasculopathy, advanced villous maturation, infarct, or fibrin deposition) and 102 deliveries without placental malperfusion were randomly selected for screening. Blood pressure, demographic, and clinical data were abstracted from pre-pregnancy electronic medical records and compared between women with and without subsequent placental malperfusion lesions. Overall, 48% of women had pre-pregnancy records, and these were similarly available for women with and without placental malperfusion. Women with placental malperfusion demonstrated a reduction in their pre- to early pregnancy decrease in diastolic blood pressure (DBP). Adjusted for race, pre-pregnancy BMI, age, pre-conception interval, and gestational age at the first prenatal visit, the difference in pre- to early pregnancy DBP was significantly less in women with placental malperfusion compared to those without this pathologic finding (− 1.35 mmHg drop vs − 5.6mmg, p < 0.05). A blunted early gestation drop in DBP may be a risk factor for placental malperfusion, perhaps related to early pregnancy vascular maladaptation. The ability of the electronic medical record to provide pre-pregnancy data serves as an underutilized approach to study pre-pregnancy health.

    更新日期:2020-01-08
  • Knowledge on postnatal care among postpartum mothers during discharge in maternity hospitals in Asmara: a cross-sectional study
    BMC Pregnancy Childbirth (IF 2.413) Pub Date : 2020-01-06
    Ghirmay Ghebreigziabher Beraki; Eyasu H. Tesfamariam; Amanuel Gebremichael; Berhanemeskel Yohannes; Kessete Haile; Shewit Tewelde; Simret Goitom

    The early postnatal period is a dangerous time for both mother and baby where morbidity and mortality are highly prevalent if proper care is not done. Post natal care (PNC) knowledge has significant role in reducing such complications. In this study, the knowledge of postpartum mothers on PNC and its determinants were determined. A cross-sectional quantitative study was conducted in postpartum mothers (PpM) who attended all maternal delivery services in Asmara. Data was collected by a structured questionnaire. All (n = 250) PpM who gave birth in December, 2017 were included in the study. Independent samples t-test and one way ANOVA were used to compare the scores in knowledge across categories of background characteristics using SPSS. Bonferroni post-hoc test was performed for variables that were found to be significant while using ANOVA tool. P-values less than 0.05 were considered as significant. The percentage of PpM who cited vaginal bleeding, as a maternal danger sign, and fever, as a baby danger sign, were 83.2 and 58.8%, respectively. The majority (96%) of PpM responded the correct answer on where to go if they note any danger signs. In addition, more than nine tenth of PpM correctly identified injectable contraceptives (92.7%) and oral contraceptive (91.5%). The percentages of knowledge in recognizing the necessary nutrients ranged from 87.6% for carbohydrates to 46% for minerals. The percentages of correct knowledge regarding first baby bath, frequency of breast feeding, umbilical care, duration of exclusive breast feeding, need and purpose of vaccine were 40.1, 81.9, 77.4, 94.8, and 99.2% respectively. The mean PNC knowledge score was 24.89/60. The score of knowledge on postnatal care was found to significantly differ across the categories of residence (p < 0.001) and ethnicity (p = 0.015). An increasing trend of knowledge score was observed with increase in age group (p < 0.001), educational level (p = 0.021), gravida (p < 0.001) and para (p < 0.001). Considerable gaps in knowledge regarding postnatal care among postpartum mothers were evident. Special attention should be laid on rural residents, single/living together, junior/below in educational level, primigravida/para, non-Tigrigna ethnicity, and 17 to 25 years old mothers.

    更新日期:2020-01-07
  • Dietary practices and associated factors among pregnant women in West Gojjam Zone, Northwest Ethiopia
    BMC Pregnancy Childbirth (IF 2.413) Pub Date : 2020-01-06
    Yeshalem Mulugeta Demilew; Getu Degu Alene; Tefera Belachew

    The optimal dietary practice is a critical requisite for maternal nutrition. However, the majority of Ethiopian pregnant women have inadequate nutrient intakes. These may be due to their poor dietary habits. Identifying factors affecting the dietary practices of pregnant women is crucial to design appropriate interventions. In this country, the dietary practices of pregnant women and determinants are not well studied. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess the dietary practices and associated factors among pregnant women in West Gojjam Zone, Northwest Ethiopia. A community-based cross-sectional study was carried out among 712 pregnant women from May to August 2018. Quantitative data complemented with a qualitative method. Pregnant women were selected using a cluster sampling technique. Structured questionnaires were utilized for data collection. Data were entered into Epi-Info version 7.2.2 and exported to SPSS version 23 software for analysis. Data were described using frequencies and mean. A logistic regression analysis was done. Three focus group discussions and 17 key-informant interviews were conducted for the qualitative data. Focus group discussion participants were mothers, husbands, and health professionals. Typical case and homogeneous sampling techniques were used for the key-informant interviews and focus group discussions, respectively. Thematic analysis was used for the qualitative data. Only 19.9% of respondents had appropriate dietary practices. On the multivariable logistic regression analyses, being food secure [AOR = 2.25, 95% CI: (1.1, 4.5)], having high edible crop production [AOR = 2.00, 95% CI: (1.2, 3.2)] and a favorable attitude [AOR = 1.69, 95% CI: (1.1, 2.6)] were significantly associated with the appropriate dietary practices of pregnant women. In the qualitative study, lack of knowledge on maternal diet, cultural prohibition, and knowledge gap of the professionals were barriers that interfere with dietary practices during pregnancy. Pregnant women in the study area are found to have suboptimal dietary practices. Therefore, health professionals should give regular nutrition counseling using cards and role models for promoting diversified food production and consumption.

    更新日期:2020-01-07
  • Impacts of antenatal nursing interventions on mothers’ breastfeeding self-efficacy: an experimental study
    BMC Pregnancy Childbirth (IF 2.413) Pub Date : 2020-01-06
    Safiya Sabri Piro; Hamdia Mirkhan Ahmed

    A considerable amount of research demonstrates how breastfeeding self-efficacy significantly influences breastfeeding outcomes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of nursing intervention on mother’s breastfeeding self-efficacy. In this experimental investigation, 130 pregnant women who attended a primary health care centre were randomly assigned to the experimental (n = 65) or control (n = 65) groups. The experimental group received two 60–90 min group breastfeeding educational sessions based on the breastfeeding self-efficacy theory along with routine care. Mothers’ knowledge, attitudes, prenatal and postnatal self-efficacy towards the breastfeeding were compared between both groups. The Iowa Infant Feeding Attitude Scale measured the attitudes. Prenatal Breastfeeding Self-Efficacy Scale measured the self-efficacy during pregnancy and Breastfeeding Self-Efficacy-Short Form measured the self-efficacy in postnatal period. Breastfeeding self-efficacy during pregnancy and following two months of delivery in the experimental group was significantly higher. The experimental group had a higher level of knowledge and attitude in comparison with subjects in the control group. In addition, the mothers who breastfed exclusively had higher levels of postnatal self-efficacy in both experimental and control groups compared to formula feeding women (52.00 vs. 39.45 in the control and 57.69 vs. 36.00 in the experimental subjects; P < 0.001). The present investigation suggests that antenatal breastfeeding education is an effective way to increase the level of breastfeeding self-efficacy, which increases exclusive breastfeeding practice.

    更新日期:2020-01-07
  • A root cause analysis of sub-optimal uptake and compliance to iron and folic acid supplementation in pregnancy in 7 districts of Zambia
    BMC Pregnancy Childbirth (IF 2.413) Pub Date : 2020-01-06
    Moses C. Simuyemba; Phoebe A. Bwembya; Mumbi Chola; Charles Michelo

    Iron and Folic Acid are two of the micronutrients recommended for pregnant women to support optimal maternal outcomes with regard to preventing anaemia and foetal birth defects. It is difficult to establish if women provided with iron and folic acid supplementation in Zambia benefit from it and how well it is implemented. The overall objective of this study was to determine the levels of uptake and compliance to iron and folic acid in pregnancy among women of child-bearing age in Zambia, with a focus on both supply and demand factors. A cross sectional, mixed method study was done. Data was collected in August and September 2015 from six of the 14 districts in which Scaling Up Nutrition interventions were being undertaken as well as Lusaka district. A household survey covering 402 males and females of child-bearing age, 27 key informant interviews amongst key stakeholders and 12 focus group discussions at community level were conducted. Antenatal clinic attendance was almost universal (98.7%); the majority of both men (92.1%) and women (97.4%) had heard messages about iron and folic acid supplementation; the majority (96.5%) of women reported having taken iron and folic acid tablets during their last pregnancy, with 61.3% starting in the second trimester, 27.2% during the first trimester, and 7.7% in their third trimester. Eighty-five per cent (80.5%) of the women reported that they had taken all the tablets they were given with about 13.4% not taking all the tablets received. Root cause analysis, using both qualitative and quantitative findings, showed that the main challenges faced were long distances to health facilities and high transport costs; some women not being reached with supplementation messaging; lack of formalised and uniform training around delivery of antenatal messages across health care workers; women not attending antenatal monthly to replenish supplements; and forgetfulness to take the drugs daily. While male involvement may be a supportive factor, it sometimes hinders women from accessing antenatal services. Results showed that both uptake and compliance to iron and folic acid supplementation in pregnancy in Zambia were sub-optimal.

    更新日期:2020-01-07
  • Barriers to husbands’ involvement in maternal health care in Sidama zone, Southern Ethiopia: a qualitative study
    BMC Pregnancy Childbirth (IF 2.413) Pub Date : 2020-01-06
    Wondwosen Teklesilasie; Wakgari Deressa

    Husbands’ involvement in maternal care is considered as a crucial step in scaling up women’s utilization of the services. However, the factors related with how husband’s involvement in maternal health care have hardly been studied to date in the study areas. Therefore, this study aimed to explore barriers to husbands’ involvement in maternal health care, in Sidama zone, Southern Ethiopia. The study employed a qualitative method. A pre-tested interview guide questions that prepared in English and translated in to Amharic language were used for data collection. The data were collected using focus group discussions, in-depth interviews and key-informants’ interview in April and May 2015. The data were analyzed thematically. The study identified a range of factors that-deterred husbands to involve in their female partners’ maternal health care. These are childbirth is a natural process, pregnancy and childbirth are women’s business, preference for TBAs’ care and husband’s involvement in pregnancy and birth care is a new idea were identified as barriers for husbands’ involvement in maternal health care, in this study. A range of factors related with clients’ and service delivery factors’ were identified as barriers to husbands’ involvement in maternal health care. Based on the study findings we recommend a contextual based awareness creation programs about husbands’ involvement in maternal health care need to be established.

    更新日期:2020-01-07
  • Increasing utilisation of perinatal services: estimating the impact of community health worker program in Neno, Malawi
    BMC Pregnancy Childbirth (IF 2.413) Pub Date : 2020-01-06
    Chiyembekezo Kachimanga; Elizabeth L. Dunbar; Samuel Watson; Katie Cundale; Henry Makungwa; Emily B. Wroe; Charles Malindi; Lawrence Nazimera; Daniel Palazuelos; Jeanel Drake; Thomas Gates; Thomas van den Akker; Jawaya Shea

    By 2015, Malawi had not achieved Millennium Development Goal 4, reducing maternal mortality by about 35% from 675 to 439 deaths per 100,000 livebirths. Hypothesised reasons included low uptake of antenatal care (ANC), intrapartum care, and postnatal care. Involving community health workers (CHWs) in identification of pregnant women and linking them to perinatal services is a key strategy to reinforce uptake of perinatal care in Neno, Malawi. We evaluated changes in uptake after deployment of CHWs between March 2014 and June 2016. A CHW intervention was implemented in Neno District, Malawi in a designated catchment area of about 3100 women of childbearing age. The pre-intervention period was March 2014 to February 2015, and the post-intervention period was March 2015 to June 2016. A 5-day maternal health training package was delivered to 211 paid and supervised CHWs. CHWs were deployed to identify pregnant women and escort them to perinatal care visits. A synthetic control method, in which a “counterfactual site” was created from six available control facilities in Neno District, was used to evaluate the intervention. Outcomes of interest included uptake of first-time ANC, ANC within the first trimester, four or more ANC visits, intrapartum care, and postnatal care follow-up. Women enrolled in ANC increased by 18% (95% Credible Interval (CrI): 8, 29%) from an average of 83 to 98 per month, the proportion of pregnant women starting ANC in the first trimester increased by 200% (95% CrI: 162, 234%) from 10 to 29% per month, the proportion of women completing four or more ANC visits increased by 37% (95% CrI: 31, 43%) from 28 to 39%, and monthly utilisation of intrapartum care increased by 20% (95% CrI: 13, 28%) from 85 to 102 women per month. There was little evidence that the CHW intervention changed utilisation of postnatal care (− 37, 95% CrI: − 224, 170%). In a rural district in Malawi, uptake of ANC and intrapartum care increased considerably following an intervention using CHWs to identify pregnant women and link them to care.

    更新日期:2020-01-07
  • Prediction of pre-eclampsia in nulliparous women using routinely collected maternal characteristics: a model development and validation study
    BMC Pregnancy Childbirth (IF 2.413) Pub Date : 2020-01-06
    Ziad T. A. Al-Rubaie; H. Malcolm Hudson; Gregory Jenkins; Imad Mahmoud; Joel G. Ray; Lisa M. Askie; Sarah J. Lord

    Guidelines recommend identifying in early pregnancy women at elevated risk of pre-eclampsia. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a pre-eclampsia risk prediction model for nulliparous women attending routine antenatal care “the Western Sydney (WS) model”; and to compare its performance with the National Institute of Health and Care Excellence (NICE) risk factor-list approach for classifying women as high-risk. This retrospective cohort study included all nulliparous women who gave birth in three public hospitals in the Western-Sydney-Local-Health-District, Australia 2011–2014. Using births from 2011 to 2012, multivariable logistic regression incorporated established maternal risk factors to develop and internally validate the WS model. The WS model was then externally validated using births from 2013 to 2014, assessing its discrimination and calibration. We fitted the final WS model for all births from 2011 to 2014, and compared its accuracy in predicting pre-eclampsia with the NICE approach. Among 12,395 births to nulliparous women in 2011–2014, there were 293 (2.4%) pre-eclampsia events. The WS model included: maternal age, body mass index, ethnicity, multiple pregnancy, family history of pre-eclampsia, autoimmune disease, chronic hypertension and chronic renal disease. In the validation sample (6201 births), the model c-statistic was 0.70 (95% confidence interval 0.65–0.75). The observed:expected ratio for pre-eclampsia was 0.91, with a Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit test p-value of 0.20. In the entire study sample of 12,395 births, 374 (3.0%) women had a WS model-estimated pre-eclampsia risk ≥8%, the pre-specified risk-threshold for considering aspirin prophylaxis. Of these, 54 (14.4%) developed pre-eclampsia (sensitivity 18% (14–23), specificity 97% (97–98)). Using the NICE approach, 1173 (9.5%) women were classified as high-risk, of which 107 (9.1%) developed pre-eclampsia (sensitivity 37% (31–42), specificity 91% (91–92)). The final model showed similar accuracy to the NICE approach when using lower risk-threshold of ≥4% to classify women as high-risk for pre-eclampsia. The WS risk model that combines readily-available maternal characteristics achieved modest performance for prediction of pre-eclampsia in nulliparous women. The model did not outperform the NICE approach, but has the advantage of providing individualised absolute risk estimates, to assist with counselling, inform decisions for further testing, and consideration of aspirin prophylaxis.

    更新日期:2020-01-07
  • Study Protocol effectiveness of a nutritional intervention based on encouraging the consumption of unprocessed and minimally processed foods and the practice of physical activities for appropriate weight gain in overweight, adult, pregnant women: a randomized controlled trial
    BMC Pregnancy Childbirth (IF 2.413) Pub Date : 2020-01-07
    Daniela Saes Sartorelli; Lívia Castro Crivellenti; Marina Garcia Manochio-Pina; Naiara Franco Baroni; Mariana Rinaldi Carvalho; Rosa Wanda Diez-Garcia; Laércio Joel Franco

    Evidence from observational studies suggests that a greater intake of ultra-processed foods during pregnancy is associated with a higher chance of obesity, increased gestational weight gain, and neonatal adiposity. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the effectiveness of a nutritional intervention based on encouraging the consumption of unprocessed and minimally processed foods and the practice of physical activities for appropriate weight gain in overweight, adult, pregnant women. Additionally, the effect of the intervention on pregnancy outcomes, neonatal adiposity, and the child’s weight and height will be investigated. This is a two-armed parallel randomized controlled trial that will be conducted at primary health units in Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil. Adult pregnant women who are overweight and receiving prenatal care in the public health system will be included. The women will be randomly allocated into control (standard care) or intervention groups. Those enrolled in the intervention group will participate in three individualized nutritional counselling sessions based on encouraging the consumption of unprocessed and minimally processed foods and the practice of physical activities. The recruitment of the participants will be carried out at seven health facilities over 12 months, with a sample of 300 women expected. Maternal anthropometric, sociodemographic, blood pressure, biochemical, and lifestyle data will be obtained at baseline (up to the 16th week of gestation), and during a second assessment (34th to 36th gestational week). The neonate body composition will be estimated after birth, and data on pregnancy outcomes, weight and height of children at 6, 12 and 24 months of age will be further obtained from medical records. This will be the first randomized controlled trial to test the effectiveness of a nutritional intervention based on encouraging the consumption of unprocessed and minimally processed foods and the practice of physical activities for appropriate weight gain in adult, overweight, pregnant women. Furthermore, the effect of the intervention on pregnancy outcomes, neonatal adiposity and the child’s weight and height will be evaluated. Registro Brasileiro de Ensaios Clínicos (Rebec) RBR-2w9bhc July 30th 2018 (http://www.ensaiosclinicos.gov.br/rg/?q=RBR-2w9bhc+), and RBR-7yx36h June 4th 2019 (http://www.ensaiosclinicos.gov.br/rg/?q=RBR-7yx36h+0.

    更新日期:2020-01-07
  • Major obstetric haemorrhage in Metro East, Cape Town, South Africa: a population-based cohort study using the maternal near-miss approach
    BMC Pregnancy Childbirth (IF 2.413) Pub Date : 2020-01-06
    Anke Heitkamp; Simcha Lot Aronson; Thomas van den Akker; Linda Vollmer; Stefan Gebhardt; Jos van Roosmalen; Johanna I. de Vries; Gerhard Theron

    Major obstetric haemorrhage is a leading cause of maternal mortality and accounts for one-third of maternal deaths in of Africa. This study aimed to assess the population-based incidence, causes, management and outcomes of major obstetric haemorrhage and risk factors associated with poor maternal outcome. Women with major obstetric haemorrhage who met the WHO maternal near-miss criteria or died in the Metro East region, Cape Town, South Africa, were evaluated from November 2014–November 2015. Major obstetric haemorrhage was defined as haemorrhage in pregnancies of at least 20 weeks’ gestation or occurring up to 42 days after birth, and leading to hysterectomy, hypovolaemic shock or blood transfusion of ≥5 units of Packed Red Blood Cells. A logistic regression model was used to analyse associations with poor outcome, defined as major obstetric haemorrhage leading to massive transfusion of ≥8 units of packed red blood cells, hysterectomy or death. The incidence of major obstetric haemorrhage was 3/1000 births, and the incidence of massive transfusion was 4/10.000 births in the Metro East region (32.862 births occurred during the studied time period). Leading causes of haemorrhage were placental abruption 45/119 (37.8%), complications of caesarean section 29/119 (24.4%) and uterine atony 13/119 (10.9%). Therapeutic oxytocin was administered in 98/119 (82.4%) women and hysterectomy performed in 33/119 (27.7%). The median numbers of packed red blood cells and units of Fresh Frozen Plasma transfused were 6 (interquartile range 4–7) and 3 (interquartile range 2–4), ratio 1.7:1. Caesarean section was independently associated with poor maternal outcome: adjusted OR 4.01 [95% CI 1.58, 10.14]. Assessment of major obstetric haemorrhage using the Maternal Near Miss approach revealed that placental abruption and complications of caesarean section were the major causes of major obstetric haemorrhage. Caesarean section was associated with poor outcome.

    更新日期:2020-01-06
  • “I wouldn’t have hit you, but you would have killed your baby:” exploring midwives’ perspectives on disrespect and abusive Care in Ghana
    BMC Pregnancy Childbirth (IF 2.413) Pub Date : 2020-01-06
    Veronica Millicent Dzomeku; Adwoa Bemah Boamah Mensah; Emmanuel Kweku Nakua; Pascal Agbadi; Jody R. Lori; Peter Donkor

    Quality maternal health reduces maternal and neonatal mortality and morbidity. Healthcare professionals, including midwives, are significant agents for the promotion of quality maternal health. Frequents reports of disrespect and abuse of childbearing women by midwives during intrapartum care are becoming common, suggesting that many of these agents are engaging in care practices that compromise quality maternal health. Thus, understanding midwives’ descriptions and experiences of the phenomenon is critical to addressing the threat. This paper, therefore, explored the understanding of midwives on D&AC and their occurrence in professional practice in a tertiary health facility in Kumasi, Ghana. An exploratory descriptive qualitative research design using an interpretative approach was employed in the study. Data were generated through individual in-depth interviews. Data saturation was reached with fifteen interviews. The interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Open Code 4.03 was used to manage and analyse the data. The midwives understood D&AC. They also confirmed meting out or witnessing colleagues engage in D&AC in their professional practice. The midwives described D&AC as the provision of inadequate care and the overlooking of patient-centred care, and verbal, physical, and psychological abuse. The themes revealed that socio-economic inequalities, provider perception and victim-blaming, and health system-related factors facilitate D&AC. It emerged that the following marginalized groups were at high risk for D&AC: the non-compliant, mentally ill, HIV/AIDs+, teenagers, poor, and childbearing women on admission at the general labour ward. The midwives understood D&AC and revealed that it frequently occurred in their professional practice. Frequent in-service training on respectful maternity care and monitoring of care provision in healthcare facilities are needed to eliminate the incidence of D&AC.

    更新日期:2020-01-06
  • Risk factors associated with hypertensive disorders in pregnancy in Nekemte referral hospital, from July 2015 to June 2017, Ethiopia: case-control study
    BMC Pregnancy Childbirth (IF 2.413) Pub Date : 2020-01-06
    Leta Hinkosa; Almaz Tamene; Negeso Gebeyehu

    Hypertension is the most common medical problem encountered in pregnancy and is a leading cause of perinatal and maternal morbidity and mortality. However, its magnitude and risk factors yet not adequately assessed at the study area. Facility-based retrospective unmatched case-control study was conducted to identify risk factors associated with Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy in Nekemte Referral Hospital just two years back from study period July 1, 2015, to June 30, 2017. Bivariate logistic regression was considered for inclusion in to the multivariate logistic regression. Finally, multi varaite analysis were done to identify risk factors of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. Among 6826 total delivery records from July 2015 –June 2017, 199 women developed hypertension during pregnancy. Among 199 women 153(76.9%) were pre-eclampsia/eclampsia,28(14.1%) were gestational hypertension, 14(0.7%) were superimposed hypertension and 4 (2.9%) were chronic hypertension. Age ≥ 35 (AOR: 2.51, 95% CI: 1.08, 5.83), rural residential area (AOR: 1.79, 95% CI: 1.150, 2.799), prim gravida (AOR: 3.39, 95% CI: 2.16, 5.33), null parity (AOR: 4.35, 95% CI: 2.36, 8.03), positive history of abortion (AOR: 4.39, 95% CI: 1.64, 11.76), twin pregnancy (AOR: 3.78, 95% CI: 1.52, 9.39), lack of ANC follow up (AOR: 3.05, 95% CI: 1.56, 5.96) as well as positive pre-existing hypertension (AOR: 3.81, 95% CI: 1.69, 8.58), positive family history of hypertension (AOR: 5.04, 95% CI: 2.66, 9.56) and positive history of diabetes mellitus (AOR: 5.03, 95% CI: 1.59, 15.89) were risk factors for hypertensive disorders during pregnancy. This study found that Women with hypertension during pregnancy have a greater risk of developing adverse pregnancy outcome as compared to normotensive pregnant women. so, identification of these risk factors would be useful for early diagnosis of hypertension disorders during pregnancy to give appropriate clinical monitoring and treatments and timely managing maternal and perinatal complications.

    更新日期:2020-01-06
  • Case report of amniotic fluid embolism coagulopathy following abortion; use of viscoelastic point-of-care analysis
    BMC Pregnancy Childbirth (IF 2.413) Pub Date : 2020-01-03
    Halley P. Crissman; Charisse Loder; Carlo Pancaro; Jason Bell

    Amniotic fluid embolism (AFE) is a rare, life threatening obstetric complication, often associated with severe coagulopathy. Induced abortions are extremely safe procedures however complications including AFE can occur. A 29-year-old previously healthy woman, gravida 1 para 0, presented for a scheduled second trimester induced abortion via dilation and evacuation at 22-weeks gestation. The case was complicated by a suspected AFE with associated profound coagulopathy. Viscoelastic point-of-care coagulation analysis was used to successfully and swiftly guide management of her coagulopathy. AFE can occur in the setting of induced abortion. This case report suggests viscoelastic point-of-care coagulation analyzers may aid in the management of pregnancy-related coagulopathy by providing faster coagulation assessment than laboratory testing, and facilitating timely, targeted management of coagulopathy.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Glycated albumin in pregnancy: reference intervals establishment and its predictive value in adverse pregnancy outcomes
    BMC Pregnancy Childbirth (IF 2.413) Pub Date : 2020-01-03
    Ying Dong; Yanhong Zhai; Jing Wang; Yi Chen; Xin Xie; Chunhong Zhang; Jingrui Liu; Yifan Lu; Guodong Tang; Lican Han; Lin Li; Zheng Cao

    Many efforts have been focused on the alternative glycemic marker glycated albumin (GlyA) and its application in pregnancy during which profound physiological changes take place. Our objective was to determine the reference intervals (RIs) of GlyA in healthy Chinese pregnant women and to assess the predictive value of serum GlyA in adverse pregnancy outcomes. Totally 421 healthy subjects including 137 in the first trimester, 152 in the second trimester, and 132 in the third trimester were enrolled from March to July 2019, for the purpose of establishing the trimester-specific RIs of GlyA. In addition, 67 pregnant women diagnosed with GDM were enrolled at 24–28 weeks of gestation. The diagnostic value of GlyA for GDM patients was evaluated and compared with that of fasting plasma glucose (FPG) at 24–28 weeks of gestation. The association between GlyA in the late pregnancy and the adverse pregnancy outcomes was analyzed with the data collected from January to June 2018 at our hospital. The estimated RIs of GlyA in present study were 11.26–15.10%, 10.04–13.50%, and 9.76–13.09% in the first, second, and third trimesters respectively. The areas under receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were 0.503 for GlyA and 0.705 for FPG. More importantly, the GlyA level in the third trimester was not more elevated in the patients with adverse pregnancy outcomes including large for gestational age (LGA), preterm delivery, hypertension and preeclampsia (PE). The exception was made with the GDM patients who suffered from postpartum hemorrhage and had significantly higher GlyA levels than the control group. Our results showed that the GlyA was continuously decreased as the gestational age went up. The GlyA testing has limited value in diagnosing GDM and predicting adverse pregnancy outcomes.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • The postpartum depression literacy scale (PoDLiS): development and psychometric properties
    BMC Pregnancy Childbirth (IF 2.413) Pub Date : 2020-01-03
    Fatemeh Mirsalimi; Fazlollah Ghofranipour; Azita Noroozi; Ali Montazeri

    Maternal mental health including postpartum mental health is essential to women’s health. This study aimed to develop a specific measure for assessing postpartum depression literacy and consequently evaluate its psychometric properties among a sample of perinatal women. This investigation was composed of two studies: developing the measure, and evaluating of psychometric properties of the developed questionnaire. In development stage an item pool was created. Then, based on definition of mental health literacy and preliminary screening, an initial questionnaire was developed. The content and face validity of the questionnaire were then assessed. In the second study psychometric properties of the questionnaire were examined. Overall 692 perinatal women with the mean age of 27.63 years (ranging from 17 to 43) participated in the study. In all an item pool of 86 items was generated. Of these, 31 items were removed and the remaining 55 items subjected to content and face validity and further 16 items removed. In the second stage a 39-item questionnaire namely the Postpartum Depression Literacy Scale (PoDLis) was evaluated. In principal component factor analysis, 31 items were loaded indicating a 7-factor solution for the questionnaire. The factors designated the following constructs: ability to recognize postpartum depression, knowledge of risk factors and causes, knowledge and belief of self-care activities, knowledge about professional help available, beliefs about professional help available, attitudes which facilitate recognition of postpartum depression and appropriate help-seeking, and knowledge of how to seek information related to postpartum depression. Finally performing the confirmatory factor analysis, the Postpartum Depression Literacy Scale with 31 items was supported for the structures suggested by theoretical model and findings from the exploratory factor analysis. The Cronbach’s alpha coefficient for the scale was .78 and it ranged from .70 to .83 for each factor lending support to the internal consistency of the questionnaire. The findings suggest that the Postpartum Depression Literacy Scale (PoDLiS) is a reliable and valid instrument for measuring the postpartum depression literacy and now can be used in studies of mental health literacy in women.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Women’s experiences of midwifery care immediately before and after caesarean section deliveries at a public Hospital in the Western Region of Ghana
    BMC Pregnancy Childbirth (IF 2.413) Pub Date : 2020-01-02
    Agani Afaya; Veronica Millicent Dzomeku; Elizabeth A. Baku; Richard Adongo Afaya; Mavis Ofori; Samuel Agyeibi; Frederick Boateng; Rosemond Ohwui Gamor; Elsie Gyasi-Kwofie; Prudence P. Mwini Nyaledzigbor

    Childbirth remains a uniquely multifaceted, mental-cognitive and a major life experience to women. It is composed of a variety of psycho social and emotional aspects and creates memories, sometimes bad experiences and unmet expectations which leaves the mother with lasting scars. Therefore, this study aimed at exploring post-caesarean section delivered mothers experiences of midwifery care in a public hospital in Ghana. This descriptive exploratory qualitative research used an interpretative approach to explore mothers’ experiences of midwifery care immediately before and after caesarean section (CS). The study employed a purposive sampling technique in recruiting 22 participants who had knowledge of the phenomenon under study. Data collection was guided by an interview guide, which involved face to face individual interviews and focus group discussion at the postnatal ward and clinic. All interviews were audio-recorded and lasted 30–40 min. Audio recordings were transcribed verbatim and inductive thematic data analysis employed. Four major themes emerged from the analysis of participants’ transcripts: Support by Midwives (physical and psychological, and attitude towards patients’ pain management); Protection of mothers (provision of privacy, confidentiality and physical environment); Provision of information/communication (before caesarean section, and before a minor task) and midwives’ attitude (attitude towards delivery care). Mothers delivered by caesarean section had varied experiences of midwifery care which were both positive and negative ones. Provision of psychological support and adequate pain management were positive experiences. The challenges experienced were related to provision of information, privacy, and physical support. Participants, who underwent emergency CS in particular, were dissatisfied with the provision of information concerning the surgical procedure. Provision of privacy and physical support were also issues of great concern. We therefore, recommend supportive and sensitive midwifery care particularly for mothers undergoing emergency CS. Documenting women’s diverse experiences of midwifery care before and after CS delivery is important to healthcare providers, hospital managers and policy makers as the feedback garnered can be used to improve maternity services and inform decisions on midwifery care.

    更新日期:2020-01-02
  • Mass incarceration and public health: the association between black jail incarceration and adverse birth outcomes among black women in Louisiana
    BMC Pregnancy Childbirth (IF 2.413) Pub Date : 2019-12-27
    Lauren Dyer; Rachel Hardeman; Dovile Vilda; Katherine Theall; Maeve Wallace

    A growing body of evidence is beginning to highlight how mass incarceration shapes inequalities in population health. Non-Hispanic blacks are disproportionately affected by incarceration and criminal law enforcement, an enduring legacy of a racially-biased criminal justice system with broad health implications for black families and communities. Louisiana has consistently maintained one of the highest rates of black incarceration in the nation. Concurrently, large racial disparities in population health persist. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of all births among non-Hispanic black women in Louisiana in 2014 to identify associations between parish-level (county equivalent) prevalence of jail incarceration within the black population and adverse birth outcomes (N = 23,954). We fit a log-Poisson model with generalized estimating equations to approximate the relative risk of preterm birth and low birth weight associated with an interquartile range increase in incarceration, controlling for confounders. In sensitivity analyses, we additionally adjusted for the parish-level index crime prevalence and analyzed regression models wherein white incarceration was used to predict the risk of adverse birth outcomes in order to quantify the degree to which mass incarceration may harm health above and beyond living in a high crime area. There was a significant 3% higher risk of preterm birth among black women associated with an interquartile range increase in the parish-level incarceration prevalence of black individuals, independent of other factors. Adjusting for the prevalence of index crimes did not substantively change the results of the models. Due to the positive significant associations between the prevalence of black individuals incarcerated in Louisiana jails and estimated risk of preterm birth, mass incarceration may be an underlying cause of the persistent inequities in reproductive health outcomes experienced by black women in Louisiana. Not only are there economic and social impacts stemming from mass incarceration, but there may also be implications for population health and health inequities, including the persistence of racial disparities in preterm birth and low birth weight.

    更新日期:2019-12-31
  • Clinical interventions that influence vaginal birth after cesarean delivery rates: Systematic Review & Meta-Analysis
    BMC Pregnancy Childbirth (IF 2.413) Pub Date : 2019-12-30
    Aireen Wingert; Lisa Hartling; Meghan Sebastianski; Cydney Johnson; Robin Featherstone; Ben Vandermeer; R. Douglas Wilson

    To systematically review the literature on clinical interventions that influence vaginal birth after cesarean (VBAC) rates. We searched Ovid Medline, Ovid Embase, Wiley Cochrane Library, CINAHL via EBSCOhost; and Ovid PsycINFO. Additional studies were identified by searching for clinical trial records, conference proceedings and dissertations. Limits were applied for language (English and French) and year of publication (1985 to present). Two reviewers independently screened comparative studies (randomized or non-randomized controlled trials, and observational designs) according to a priori eligibility criteria: women with prior cesarean sections; any clinical intervention or exposure intended to increase the VBAC rate; any comparator; and, outcomes reporting VBAC, uterine rupture and uterine dehiscence rates. One reviewer extracted data and a second reviewer verified for accuracy. Meta-analysis was conducted using Mantel-Haenszel (random effects model) relative risks (VBAC rate) and risk differences (uterine rupture and dehiscence). Two reviewers independently conducted methodological quality assessments using the Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool (MMAT). Twenty-nine studies (six trials and 23 cohorts) examined different clinical interventions affecting rates of vaginal deliveries among women with a prior cesarean delivery (CD). Methodological quality was good overall for the trials; however, concerns among the cohort studies regarding selection bias, comparability of groups and outcome measurement resulted in higher risk of bias. Interventions for labor induction, with or without cervical ripening, included pharmacologic (oxytocin, prostaglandins, misoprostol, mifepristone, epidural analgesia), non-pharmacologic (membrane sweep, amniotomy, balloon devices), and combined (pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic). Single studies with small sample sizes and event rates contributed to most comparisons, with no clear differences between groups on rates of VBAC, uterine rupture and uterine dehiscence. This systematic review evaluated clinical interventions directed at increasing the rate of vaginal delivery among women with a prior CD and found low to very low certainty in the body of evidence for cervical ripening and/or labor induction techniques. There is insufficient high-quality evidence to inform optimal clinical interventions among women attempting a trial of labor after a prior CD.

    更新日期:2019-12-31
  • Risk factors and racial disparities related to low maternal birth satisfaction with labor induction: a prospective, cohort study
    BMC Pregnancy Childbirth (IF 2.413) Pub Date : 2019-12-30
    Rebecca F. Hamm; Sindhu K. Srinivas; Lisa D. Levine

    Decreased birth satisfaction has been associated with labor induction. Yet, there is a paucity of data evaluating risk factors for decreased satisfaction associated with labor induction. We aimed to determine what factors impact low birth satisfaction in labor induction and evaluate racial disparities in birth satisfaction. We performed a prospective cohort study of women with term, singleton gestations undergoing labor induction at our institution from Jan 2018 to Jun 2018. Women completed the validated Birth Satisfaction Scale-Revised postpartum, which is subdivided into 3 domains: (1) quality of care provision, (2) women’s personal attributes, and (3) stress experienced during labor. A total satisfaction score above the mean was classified as “satisfied”, and below as “unsatisfied.” Domain and item scores were compared by race. Three hundred thirty of 414 (79.7%) eligible women were included. There was no significant difference in birth satisfaction by age, body mass index, Bishop score, or labor induction agent. Black women were 75% more likely to be unsatisfied than non-Black women (54.0% vs. 37.2%, OR 1.75 [95% CI 1.11–2.76], p = 0.037), nulliparas were 71% more likely to be unsatisfied than multiparas (54.2% vs. 40.9%, OR 1.71 [95% CI 1.09–2.67], p = 0.019), and women whose labor resulted in cesarean birth were almost 3 times more likely to be unsatisfied than women with a vaginal birth (67.4% vs. 42.3%, OR 2.82 [95% CI 1.69–4.70], p < 0.001). Additionally, increased labor length quartile was associated with decreased satisfaction >(p = 0.003). By race, domain 3 scores, which reflect preparedness for labor, were lower for Black women. No differences were seen for domain 1 or 2. Black race, cesarean birth, and increasing labor length were identified as risk factors for low birth satisfaction among women who underwent labor induction. Further studies should explore interventions to target women at risk for low birth satisfaction.

    更新日期:2019-12-31
  • Can introvoxel incoherent motion MRI be used to differentiate patients with placenta accreta spectrum disorders?
    BMC Pregnancy Childbirth (IF 2.413) Pub Date : 2019-12-30
    Tao Lu; Hong Pu; Kui-de Li; Jie Mei; Meng-wei Huang; Shao-yu Wang

    The incidence of PAS disorders increased rapidly in recent years, and introvoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) MRI has been applied in the assessment of placenta. The study aims to investigate whether the parameters from IVIM can be used to differentiate patients with PAS disorders complicating placenta previa and secondly to differentiate different categories of PAS disorders. The study participants were comprised of 99 patients with placenta previa, including 16 patients with placenta accreta, 51 patients with increta, 8 patients with percreta and 24 patients without PAS disorders between 28 + 0 and 39 + 6 weeks. IVIM MRI was performed on a 1.5 T scanner. Perfusion fraction (f), pseudodiffusion coefficient (D*) and diffusion coefficient (D) were calculated. Women with PAS disorders had a higher perfusion fraction (p = 0.019) than women without the disease. Multiple comparisons showed perfusion fraction in patients without PAS disorders was significantly lower than in patients with placenta accreta and percreta(P = 0.018 and 0.033 respectively), but was not lower than in patients with increta(p = 1). Patients with placenta accreta and percreta differed in placental perfusion fraction from women with increta and without PAS disorders.

    更新日期:2019-12-31
  • Group B Streptococcus detection in pregnant women: comparison of qPCR assay, culture, and the Xpert GBS rapid test
    BMC Pregnancy Childbirth (IF 2.413) Pub Date : 2019-12-30
    Laura L. Vieira; Amanda V. Perez; Monique M. Machado; Michele L. Kayser; Daniela V. Vettori; Ana Paula Alegretti; Charles F. Ferreira; Janete Vettorazzi; Edimárlei G. Valério

    Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is one of the most important causative agents of neonatal sepsis. As administration of prophylactic antibiotics during labor can prevent GBS infection, routine screening for this bacterium in prenatal care before the onset of labor is recommended. However, many women present in labor without having undergone such testing during antenatal care, and the turnaround time of detection methods is insufficient for results to be obtained before delivery. Vaginal and anorectal specimens were collected from 270 pregnant women. Each sample was tested by Xpert GBS, qPCR, and culture for GBS detection. The overall prevalence of maternal GBS colonization was 30.7% according to Xpert GBS, 51.1% according to qPCR, and 14.3% according to cultures. Considering the qPCR method as the reference, the Xpert GBS had a sensitivity of 53% and specificity of 93%. Positive Xpert GBS results were correlated to marital status (married or cohabitating) and with prematurity as a cause of neonatal hospitalization. Positive cultures were related with ischemic–hypoxic encephalopathy requiring therapeutic hypothermia. Combined enrichment/qPCR and the Xpert GBS rapid test found a high prevalence of GBS colonization. The Xpert GBS technique gives faster results and could be useful for evaluating mothers who present without antenatal GBS screening results and are at risk of preterm labor, thus allowing institution of prophylactic antibiotic therapy.

    更新日期:2019-12-31
  • Prevalence and determinants of stillbirth in Nigerian referral hospitals: a multicentre study
    BMC Pregnancy Childbirth (IF 2.413) Pub Date : 2019-12-30
    Friday E. Okonofua; Lorretta Favour C. Ntoimo; Rosemary Ogu; Hadiza Galadanci; Gana Mohammed; Durodola Adetoye; Eghe Abe; Ola Okike; Kingsley Agholor; Rukiyat Abdus-salam; Abdullahi Randawa

    In 2015, Nigeria’s estimated 317,700 stillbirths accounted for 12.2% of the 2.6 million estimated global stillbirths. This suggests that Nigeria still makes substantial contribution to the global burden of stillbirths. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence and identify the causes and factors associated with stillbirth in eight referral hospitals in Nigeria. This was a cross-sectional study of all deliveries over a period of 6 months in six general hospitals (4 in the south and 2 in the north), and two teaching hospitals (both in the north) in Nigeria. The study population was women delivering in the hospitals during the study period. A pre-tested study protocol was used to obtain clinical data on pregnancies, live births and stillbirths in the hospitals over a 6 months period. Data were analyzed centrally using univariate, bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses. The main outcome measure was stillbirth rate in the hospitals (individually and overall). There were 4416 single births and 175 stillbirths, and a mean stillbirth rate of 39.6 per 1000 births (range: 12.7 to 67.3/1000 births) in the hospitals. Antepartum (macerated) constituted 22.3% of the stillbirths; 47.4% were intrapartum (fresh stillbirths); while 30.3% was unclassified. Acute hypoxia accounted for 32.6% of the stillbirths. Other causes were maternal hypertensive disease (6.9%), and intrapartum unexplained (5.7%) among others. After adjusting for confounding variables, significant predictors of stillbirth were referral status, parity, past experience of stillbirth, birth weight, gestational age at delivery and mode of delivery. We conclude that the rate of stillbirth is high in Nigeria’s referral hospitals largely because of patients’ related factors and the high rates of pregnancy complications. Efforts to address these factors through improved patients’ education and emergency obstetric care would reduce the rate of stillbirth in the country. Trial Registration Number NCTR91540209. Nigeria Clinical Trials Registry. http://www.nctr.nhrec.net/ Registered April 14th 2016.

    更新日期:2019-12-31
  • The effect of distraction techniques on pain and stress during labor: a randomized controlled clinical trial
    BMC Pregnancy Childbirth (IF 2.413) Pub Date : 2019-12-30
    Paria Amiri; Mojgan Mirghafourvand; Khalil Esmaeilpour; Mahin Kamalifard; Reyhaneh Ivanbagha

    Pain control and the stress associated with labor and delivery are among the most important issues of health care system. Use of distraction techniques during childbirth is reported to reduce pain and stress of labor. However, there is a limited publication that looked on the effect of distraction techniques on labor pain and stress. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine the effect of distraction techniques on labor pain and stress (primary outcomes), fear of childbirth, length of delivery stages, first minute Apgar score and oxytocin consumption (secondary outcomes). A randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted on 68 pregnant women. Participants were allocated into two groups (intervention and control groups) by blocked randomization. Participants in the intervention group received distraction techniques in four sessions. Questionnaires of Fear of Childbirth (W-DEQ version A) and PSS once were completed before intervention and again at the 36th week for the W-DEQ and in the active phase for the PSS through interviews. The pain was assessed through VAS during active phase per hour. The length of delivery stages was recorded in the partograph chart. Data were analyzed by independent t-test and ANCOVA. The mean of perceived stress during labor in the intervention group was significantly less than that of the control group (AMD: -3.2; 95% CI: − 0.8 to − 6.0; P = 0.01). The mean (SD) of pain intensity during labor was less than in the intervention and control groups compare to the control group (6.2 vs 7.5; P < 0.001). There was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of fear of childbirth score (AMD: 5.3; 95% CI: 13.0 to − 6.0; P = − 2.3). Moreover, there was no statistically significant difference between the two groups in terms of the active phase of labor (P = 0.504), second stage of delivery (P = 0.928), total length of delivery (P = 0.520), Apgar score (P = 1.000) and frequency of oxytocin consumption (P = 0.622). According to the results, distraction techniques can reduce the pain and stress of labor, but further studies by using the distraction techniques are needed to reach a decisive conclusion. IRCT2017042910324N39; Name of registry: Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials; Registered 11 September 2017. URL of registry: https://fa.irct.ir/user/trial/10814/view. Date of enrolment of the first participant to the trial: September 2017.

    更新日期:2019-12-31
  • Women’s psychosocial outcomes following an emergency caesarean section: A systematic literature review
    BMC Pregnancy Childbirth (IF 2.413) Pub Date : 2019-12-30
    Madeleine Benton; Amy Salter; Nicole Tape; Chris Wilkinson; Deborah Turnbull

    Given the sudden and unexpected nature of an emergency caesarean section (EmCS) coupled with an increased risk of psychological distress, it is particularly important to understand the psychosocial outcomes for women. The aim of this systematic literature review was to identify, collate and examine the evidence surrounding women’s psychosocial outcomes of EmCS worldwide. The electronic databases of EMBASE, PubMed, Scopus, and PsycINFO were searched between November 2017 and March 2018. To ensure articles were reflective of original and recently published research, the search criteria included peer-reviewed research articles published within the last 20 years (1998 to 2018). All study designs were included if they incorporated an examination of women’s psychosocial outcomes after EmCS. Due to inherent heterogeneity of study data, extraction and synthesis of both qualitative and quantitative data pertaining to key psychosocial outcomes were organised into coherent themes and analysis was attempted. In total 17,189 articles were identified. Of these, 208 full text articles were assessed for eligibility. One hundred forty-nine articles were further excluded, resulting in the inclusion of 66 articles in the current systematic literature review. While meta-analyses were not possible due to the nature of the heterogeneity, key psychosocial outcomes identified that were negatively impacted by EmCS included post-traumatic stress, health-related quality of life, experiences, infant-feeding, satisfaction, and self-esteem. Post-traumatic stress was one of the most commonly examined psychosocial outcomes, with a strong consensus that EmCS contributes to both symptoms and diagnosis. EmCS was found to negatively impact several psychosocial outcomes for women in particular post-traumatic stress. While investment in technologies and clinical practice to minimise the number of EmCSs is crucial, further investigations are needed to develop effective strategies to prepare and support women who experience this type of birth.

    更新日期:2019-12-31
  • Prevalence and contributing factors of birth asphyxia among the neonates delivered at Nigist Eleni Mohammed memorial teaching hospital, Southern Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study
    BMC Pregnancy Childbirth (IF 2.413) Pub Date : 2019-12-30
    Ritbano Ahmed Abdo; Hassen Mosa Halil; Biruk Assefa Kebede; Abebe Alemu Anshebo; Negeso Gebeyehu Gejo

    Birth asphyxia is a major contributor to neonatal mortality worldwide. In Ethiopia, birth asphyxia remains a severe condition that leads to significant mortality and morbidity. This study aims to assess the prevalence and contributing factors of birth asphyxia among the neonates delivered at the Nigist Eleni Mohammed Memorial Teaching Hospital, Southern Ethiopia. This hospital-based cross-sectional study was carried out on 279 participants using the systematic sampling method during June 1–30, 2019. Data were collected using a pretested structured interviewer administered questionnaire, check list and chart review, which was used to retrieve medical information and mother’s test results that could not be captured by the interview. Data were entered into EpiData (version 3.1) and analyzed using SPSS software (version 24). Multivariable regression analysis was used to identify the association between the independent variables and outcome variable with a 95% confidence interval (CI). The overall prevalence of birth asphyxia among newborns was found to be 15.1%. Factors that were significantly associated with birth asphyxia included mothers aged ≥35 (AOR = 6.4; 95% CI = 2.0–20.5), primigravida (AOR = 5.1; 95% CI =2.0–13.3), prolonged second stage of labor (AOR = 4.6; 95%CI =1.6–13.3), preterm birth (AOR = 4.7; 95% CI =1.5–14.1), meconium stained amniotic fluid (AOR = 7.5; 95% CI =2.5–21.4) and tight nuchal (AOR = 3.1; 95% CI =1.2–9.3). Birth asphyxia is still prevalent in the study setting. The obtained findings indicated that the mothers aged ≥35, being primigravida, preterm birth, meconium stained amniotic fluid and tight nuchal were the factors associated with birth asphyxia. The results of this study show the need for better maternal care, creating awareness about contributing factors of birth asphyxia to the maternity health professionals, careful monitoring of labor, and identifying and taking proper measures that could help in reducing the occurrence of birth asphyxia.

    更新日期:2019-12-31
  • Urinary tract infections in pregnancy in a rural population of Bangladesh: population-based prevalence, risk factors, etiology, and antibiotic resistance
    BMC Pregnancy Childbirth (IF 2.413) Pub Date : 2019-12-31
    Anne CC Lee; Luke C. Mullany; Alain K. Koffi; Iftekhar Rafiqullah; Rasheda Khanam; Lian V. Folger; Mahmoodur Rahman; Dipak K. Mitra; Alain Labrique; Parul Christian; Jamal Uddin; Parvez Ahmed; Salahuddin Ahmed; Arif Mahmud; Sushil K. DasGupta; Nazma Begum; Mohammad A. Quaiyum; Samir K. Saha; Abdullah H. Baqui

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) in pregnancy, including asymptomatic bacteriuria, is associated with maternal morbidity and adverse pregnancy outcomes, including preterm birth and low birthweight. In low-middle income countries (LMICs), the capacity for screening and treatment of UTIs is limited. The objective of this study was to describe the population-based prevalence, risk factors, etiology and antimicrobial resistance patterns of UTIs in pregnancy in Bangladesh. In a community-based cohort in Sylhet district, Bangladesh, urine specimens were collected at the household level in 4242 pregnant women (< 20 weeks gestation) for culture and antibiotic susceptibility testing. Basic descriptive analysis was performed, as well as logistic regression to calculate adjusted odds ratios (aOR) for UTI risk factors. The prevalence of UTI was 8.9% (4.4% symptomatic UTI, 4.5% asymptomatic bacteriuria). Risk factors for UTI in this population included maternal undernutrition (mid-upper arm circumference <23 cm: aOR= 1.29, 95% CI: 1.03–1.61), primiparity (aOR= 1.45, 95% CI: 1.15–1.84), and low paternal education (no education: aOR= 1.56, 95% CI: 1.09–2.22). The predominant uro-pathogens were E. coli (38% of isolates), Klebsiella (12%), and staphyloccocal species (23%). Group B streptococcus accounted for 5.3% of uro-pathogens. Rates of antibiotic resistance were high, with only two-thirds of E. coli susceptible to 3rd generation cephalosporins. In Sylhet, Bangladesh, one in 11 women had a UTI in pregnancy, and approximately half of cases were asymptomatic. There is a need for low-cost and accurate methods for UTI screening in pregnancy and efforts to address increasing rates of antibiotic resistance in LMIC.

    更新日期:2019-12-31
  • Perinatal outcomes in Finnish twins: a retrospective study
    BMC Pregnancy Childbirth (IF 2.413) Pub Date : 2019-12-31
    Annu-Riikka Susanna Rissanen; Riina Maria Jernman; Mika Gissler; Irmeli Katriina Nupponen; Mika Erkki Nuutila

    To establish the changes in perinatal morbidity and mortality in twin pregnancies in Finland, a retrospective register research was conducted. Our extensive data from a 28-year study period provide important information on the outcome of twin pregnancies in Finland that has previously not been reported to this extent. All 23,498 twin pregnancies with 46,996 children born in Finland during 1987–2014 were included in the study. Data were gathered from the Medical Birth Register and the Hospital Discharge Register (Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare, Finland) regarding perinatal mortality (PNM) and morbidity. For statistical analysis, binomial regression analysis and crosstabs were performed. The results are expressed in means, percentages and ranges with comparison to singletons when appropriate. Odds ratios from binomial regression analysis are reported. A p-value <0.05 was considered statistically significant. There were 46,363 liveborn and 633 stillborn twins in Finland during 1987–2014. Perinatal mortality decreased markedly, from 45.1 to 6.5 per 1000 for twin A and from 54.1 to 11.9 per 1000 for twin B during the study period. Yet, the PNM difference between twin A and B remained. Early neonatal mortality did not differ between twins, but has decreased in both. Asphyxia, respiratory distress syndrome, need for antibiotics and Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) stay were markedly more common in twin B. In Finland, PNM and early neonatal mortality in twins decreased significantly during 1987–2014 and are nowadays very low. However, twin B still faces more complications. The outline provided may be used to further improve the monitoring and thus perinatal outcome of twins, especially twin B.

    更新日期:2019-12-31
  • Association between vitamin D plasma concentrations and VDR gene variants and the risk of premature birth
    BMC Pregnancy Childbirth (IF 2.413) Pub Date : 2019-12-31
    Letícia Veríssimo Dutra; Fernando Alves Affonso-Kaufman; Fernanda Ramires Cafeo; Milene Saori Kassai; Caio Parente Barbosa; Francisco Winter Santos Figueiredo; Fabíola Isabel Suano-Souza; Bianca Bianco

    Premature birth is the main cause of mortality in children under 1 year, and vitamin D deficiency during gestation is associated with prematurity. The effects of vitamin D are mediated by its receptor, which is encoded by the VDR gene. VDR variants—such as single nucleotide variation (SNV)—are associated with increased risk of prematurity, but there are conflicting results. We evaluated serum vitamin D concentrations and the frequency of TaqI/A > G, BsmI/C > T, ApaI/C > A, and FokI/A > T VDR variants in mothers and preterm (PTN) and full-term (FTN) newborns. We conducted a case-control study comprising 40 pairs of mothers and their PTNs (gestational age < 32 weeks and/or weight < 1500 g), and 92 pairs of mothers and FTNs as controls. Genotyping was performed by real-time PCR, and plasma vitamin D concentrations were measured by electrochemiluminescence. Vitamin D levels were significantly lower in PTN mothers. Genotypes TaqI/GG and BsmI/TT, and haplotypes AAG (TaqI/A-ApaI/A-FokI/G) and GCA (TaqI/G-ApaI/C-FokI/A) were significantly more frequent in PTN mothers, and genotypes TaqI/AG, ApaI/AA, and FokI/AG resulted in significantly lower vitamin D levels. Genotypes BsmI/TT and ApaI/AA were associated with vitamin D deficiency and 2.36 and 7.99 times greater likelihood of PTB, respectively. Vitamin D levels were also lower in PTNs, although it was not statistically significant. Genotypes BsmI/TT, ApaI/AA, and FokI/GG, and haplotype GAG (TaqI/G-ApaI/A-FokI/G) were significantly more frequent in PTNs. Those with FokI/GG genotypes had significantly lower vitamin D levels. VDR variants contribute to variations in vitamin D concentrations and the increased risk of prematurity.

    更新日期:2019-12-31
  • Parental attachment and depressive symptoms in pregnancies complicated by twin-twin transfusion syndrome: a cohort study
    BMC Pregnancy Childbirth (IF 2.413) Pub Date : 2019-12-31
    Fiona L. Mackie; Helen Pattison; Jelena Jankovic; R. Katie Morris; Mark D. Kilby

    Twin-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS) is a highly morbid condition in which treatment exists, but the pregnancy remains high-risk until delivery. It may have serious sequelae, including fetal death, and in the longer term, neurodevelopmental problems. The aim of this study is to assess antenatal and postnatal parental attachment and depressive symptoms in those with pregnancies affected by TTTS. Couples attending for fetoscopic laser ablation treatment of TTTS were asked to complete Condon’s Maternal/Paternal Antenatal/Postnatal Attachment Scale as appropriate, and the Edinburgh Depression Scale the day before ablation, 4 weeks post-ablation, and 6–10 weeks postnatally. 25/27 couples completed the pre-ablation questionnaire (median gestational age 19 + 3 weeks [interquartile range 18 + 2–20 + 6]). 8/18 eligible couples returned the post-ablation questionnaire. 5/17 eligible couples returned the postnatal questionnaire. There was no significant difference in parento-fetal attachment when mothers were compared to fathers at each time point, however parento-fetal attachment did increase over time in mothers (p = 0.004), but not fathers. Mothers reported more depressive symptoms antenatally compared to fathers (p < 0.02), but there was no difference postnatally. 50% women reported Edinburgh Depression Scale scores above the cut-off (≥15) 4 weeks post-ablation. Over time maternal depressive symptoms decreased (p = 0.006), however paternal depressive symptoms remained the same. This is the first attachment and depression study in a UK cohort of parents with pregnancies affected by TTTS. Although this was a small cohort and the questionnaires used had not been validated in these circumstances, the results suggest that centres caring for these couples should be aware of the risk of maternal and paternal antenatal depression, and screen and refer for additional psychological support. Further work is needed in larger cohorts. ISRCTN 13114861 (retrospectively registered).

    更新日期:2019-12-31
  • The experiences of early postpartum Shenzhen mothers and their need for home visit services: a qualitative exploratory study
    BMC Pregnancy Childbirth (IF 2.413) Pub Date : 2019-12-31
    Xiao Xiao; Fei-wan Ngai; She-ning Zhu; Alice Yuen Loke

    The early postpartum period is the most stressful period for a new mother, who is assuming new roles and responsibilities in life, and must deal with the demands from her newborn baby and her own care needs. Little is known about whether the current postnatal care services provided by hospitals and community centers meet the needs of women. The aim of this study was to identify the experiences of women in Shenzhen and the problems that they encountered during the first 6 weeks after giving birth; and to explore their expressed needs with regard to postnatal care services. This is a qualitative exploratory study. Data were collected in November 2018 through in-depth, semi-structured, face-to-face interviews. A purposive sample was recruited from a tertiary maternal hospital in Shenzhen, China. The dataset was analyzed using content analysis. Twenty-two mothers were interviewed during their postpartum body check on the 30th or 42nd day after giving birth. Six themes were identified: “the self-care needs of women,” “proficiency in infant care,” “involvement of family in postpartum and infant care,” “family conflicts over postpartum and infant care,” “preparing for the transition to parenthood / grandparenthood,” and “the need for comprehensive postpartum home visit services.” The concerns expressed by the women during the postpartum period were related to their need to recover physically and to their desire to be perceived as proficient in infant care. Support from husbands and grandmothers could facilitate or impede a woman’s transition to motherhood, and the family’s transition to parenthood / grandparenthood. There were disagreements arising from intergenerational beliefs about postpartum and child care. In providing postpartum care services to women in situations where the family is involved in their care, health professionals should consider the family as a whole.

    更新日期:2019-12-31
  • The ED50 and ED95 of oxytocin infusion rate for maintaining uterine tone during elective caesarean delivery: a dose-finding study
    BMC Pregnancy Childbirth (IF 2.413) Pub Date : 2019-12-31
    Xiao Wei Qian; Dan M. Drzymalski; Chang Cheng Lv; Fei He Guo; Lu Yang Wang; Xin Zhong Chen

    The 90% effective dose (ED90) of oxytocin infusion has been previously estimated to be 16.2 IU h− 1. However, bolus administration of oxytocin prior to the infusion may decrease the infusion dose required. The aim of this study was to estimate the ED95 for oxytocin infusion after a bolus at elective caesarean delivery (CD) in nonlaboring parturients. We performed a randomized, triple blinded study in 150 healthy termparturients scheduled for elective CD under epidural anaesthesia. After delivery of the infant and i.v. administration of 1 IU oxytocin as a bolus, Participants were randomized to receive oxytocin infusion at a rate of 0, 1, 2, 3, 5, or 8 IU h− 1, to be given for a total of 1 h. Uterine tone assessed by the blinded obstetrician as either adequate or inadequate. Secondary outcomes included estimated blood loss (EBL), requirement for supplemental uterotonic agents, and development of side effects. The 95% effective dose (ED95) of oxytocin infusion was estimated to be 7.72 IU h− 1 (95% confidence interval 5.80–12.67 IU h− 1). With increasing oxytocin infusion rate, the proportion of parturients who needed rescue oxytocin bolus or secondary uterotonic agents decreased. No significant among-group differences in the EBL and oxytocin-related side effects were observed. In parturients who receive a 1 IU bolus of oxytocin during elective cesarean delivery, an infusion rate of oxytocin at 7.72 IU h− 1 will produce adequate uterine tone in 95% of parturients. These results suggest that the total dose of oxytocin administered in the postpartum period can be decreased when administered as an infusion after oxytocin bolus.

    更新日期:2019-12-31
  • Effect of pregnancy induced hypertension on adverse perinatal outcomes in Tigray regional state, Ethiopia: a prospective cohort study
    BMC Pregnancy Childbirth (IF 2.413) Pub Date : 2019-12-31
    Abadi Kidanemariam Berhe; Abiodun O. Ilesanmi; Christopher O. Aimakhu; Afework Mulugeta

    The prevalence of pregnancy-induced hypertension in Ethiopia ranges from 2.2 to 18.3%. However, so far little is known about the adverse perinatal outcomes of pregnancy-induced hypertension in Tigray regional state, Ethiopia. Therefore, the objective of this study was to assess the effect of pregnancy-induced hypertension on adverse perinatal outcomes in Tigray Regional State, Ethiopia. a prospective cohort study was conducted on a total sample of 782 pregnant women attending antenatal care in hospitals of Tigray regional state, Ethiopia. Pregnant mothers diagnosed with PIH during the data collection period in the selected hospitals were included as exposed group and normotensive women were also enrolled as a control group. This study addresses women diagnosed with preeclampsia, eclampsia and gestational hypertension between 28 and 35 weeks of gestation. Data were collected using an interviewer-administered questionnaire and review of their medical records from February 2018, to February 2019. The adverse perinatal outcome event includes low birth weight, birth asphyxia, small for gestational age, preterm delivery, admission to neonatal intensive care unit and perinatal death. A modified Poisson regression model with robust standard errors was used to analyze relative risk. In this study, the overall incidence of adverse perinatal outcome was higher among women with pregnancy-induced hypertension than normotensive women (66.4% vs 22.2%). After adjusted for confounders women with pregnancy-induced hypertension were born babies with a higher risk of low birth weight (adjusted RR (95%CI) = 5.1(3.4,7.8)), birth asphyxia (aRR = 2.6(1.9,3.8)), small for gestational age (aRR = 3.3(2.3,4.6)), preterm delivery (aRR = 5.2(3.4,7.9)), stillbirth (aRR = 3.46(1.40,8.54)), admission to neonatal intensive care unit (aRR = 5.1(3.1,8.4)) and perinatal death (aRR = 3.6(1.8,7.4)) compared to normotensive pregnant women. Higher incidences of adverse perinatal outcomes occurred among women pregnancy-induced hypertension in Tigray regional state, Ethiopia. Hence, health care providers should strengthen prevention, early diagnosis and prompt management of pregnancy-induced hypertension to reduce adverse perinatal outcomes of pregnancy-induced hypertension.

    更新日期:2019-12-31
  • Normal fetal cardiac deformation values in pregnancy; a prospective cohort study protocol
    BMC Pregnancy Childbirth (IF 2.413) Pub Date : 2019-12-27
    Noortje H. M. van Oostrum; S. Guid Oei; Judith O. E. H. van Laar

    Myocardial deformation imaging offers the potential to measure myocardial function. Remodelling, the change in size, shape and function, appears as a result of pressure or volume changes and is thought to be the first sign of fetal adaptation to placental dysfunction. Deformation can be measured using speckle tracking echocardiography (STE). STE in the fetus might be useful for detection and follow up of the fetus endangered by placental dysfunction. Reference values for fetal myocardial deformation during gestation have not been comprehensively described and need further investigation before STE can be introduced in daily clinical practice. The aim of this study is to determine reference values for fetal myocardial deformation throughout gestation in uncomplicated pregnancies. A longitudinal cohort will be performed. 150 Women, pregnant from a non-anomalous singleton, will be included from 19 to 21 + 6 weeks gestational age. Thereafter, fetal heart ultrasounds will be performed 4 weekly, until 41 weeks gestational age or delivery. Ultrasound data will be analysed using STE software to determine reference values for fetal cardiac deformation during gestation. Measuring cardiac deformation changes in pregnancy can be a promising tool to detect preclinical cardiac adaptation to placental dysfunction. However, previous studies used different ultrasound scans and STE software resulting in incomparable and contradictory results on deformation values. In this prospective study reference values during pregnancy, cardiac deformation values will be assessed with the same ultrasound and software package in 150 uncomplicated pregnancies. National Trial Register number: NTR7132. Date of inclusion: 2018/04/06.

    更新日期:2019-12-30
  • Sudden intrauterine unexplained death: time to adopt uniform postmortem investigative guidelines?
    BMC Pregnancy Childbirth (IF 2.413) Pub Date : 2019-12-30
    Anna M. Lavezzi; Francesco Piscioli; Teresa Pusiol; Gianfranco Jorizzo; Stefano Ferrero

    Worldwide approximately 2.6 million are stillborn, mostly occurring in developing countries. In the great part these deaths are inexplicable. The evenness and standardisation of the diagnostic criteria are prerequisites to understand their pathogenesis. The core goal of this article is to propose new evidence based investigative post-mortem guidelines that should be adopted in all the Institutions especially when a fetal death, after a routine autopsy procedure, is diagnosed as “unexplained”. The proposed protocol is mainly focused on the anatomopathological examination of the autonomic nervous system and in particular of the brainstem where the main centers that control vital functions are located. Updated investigative guidelines for the examination of unexplained stillbirths, prevalently focused on the histological examination of the brainstem, where the main centers that are involved in monitoring the vital functions are located, are here presented. A section of this protocol concerns the Immunohistochemical evaluation of specific functional markers such as the neuronal nuclear antigen, nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, serotonin, orexin, apoptosis and gliosis. The important role of risk factors, having regard in particular to maternal smoking and air pollution is also contemplated in these guidelines. Specific morphological and/or functional alterations of vital brainstem structures have been found with high incidence in over 100 cases of unexplained fetal death sent to the “Lino Rossi Research Center” of the Milan University according to the Italian law. These alterations were rarely detected in a group of control cases. We hope this protocol can be adopted in all the Institutions notably for the examination of unexplained fetal deaths, in order to make uniform investigations. This will lead to identify a plausible explanation of the pathogenetic mechanism behind the unexplained fetal deaths and to design preventive strategies to decrease the incidence of these very distressing events for both parents and clinicians. not applicable for this study.

    更新日期:2019-12-30
  • Prevalence, risk factors and antifungal susceptibility pattern of Candida species among pregnant women at Debre Markos Referral Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia
    BMC Pregnancy Childbirth (IF 2.413) Pub Date : 2019-12-30
    Alem Tsega; Feleke Mekonnen

    Candida is the commonest opportunistic fungi in human. Candida species cause diverse types of diseases. Vaginal candidiasis has been reported as one of the most common type of fungal diseases among pregnant women. However; In Ethiopia, due to scarcity of data, much has not been documented regarding the prevalence of Candida among pregnant women. This study aimed to determine the prevalence, possible risk factors and antifungal susceptibility profile of Candida species among pregnant women attending Debre Markos Referral Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study was conducted from February to May 2017. A total of 384 pregnant women were included using a systematic random sampling technique. Vaginal specimens were collected, inoculated on Candida HiV eg culture Medium and incubated at 37 °C for 24 h.Colonies were identified using standard microbiological methods and selected for further Candida Species identification using Hi Chrome agar and germ tube test. Fungal suspensions were made and adjusted at 0.5% MacFarland standard. Modified Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion technique was used for antifungal susceptibility. Data was entered, cleaned using Ep info version 7.1and transported to Statistical Packages for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 21 for analysis. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression were performed. P. value < 0.05 at 95% confidence interval was considered as statistically significant. From a total of 384 study participants, 96 (25%) were positive for Candida species. The predominant Candida species was Candida albicans 54(56.25%) followed by Candida krusei 21(21.9%), Candida glabrata 17(17.7%), Candida tropicalis 1(1%) and 3(3.1%) were other Candida species. Contraceptive use (AOR: 0.394; 95% CI = 0.20–0.74) and prolonged antibiotic uses (AOR: 0.393; 95% CI = 0.21–0.72) were risk factors. All isolates except Candida krusei were 100% susceptible to amphotericin-B. Resistance rate was high against itraconazole and Ketoconazole 55(57.3%). The prevalence of Candida species among symptomatic pregnant women was significantly higher than asymptomatic pregnant women. Age group between 26 and 40 years was significantly associated with Candida infection. Amphotericin B was the most sensitive antifungal drug. High rate of multiple drugs resistant Candida species was detected. Therefore Symptomatic women should be routinely screened and treated.

    更新日期:2019-12-30
  • Top research priorities for preterm birth: results of a prioritisation partnership between people affected by preterm birth and healthcare professionals
    BMC Pregnancy Childbirth (IF 2.413) Pub Date : 2019-12-30
    Sandy Oliver; Seilin Uhm; Lelia Duley; Sally Crowe; Anna L. David; Catherine P. James; Zoe Chivers; Gill Gyte; Chris Gale; Mark Turner; Bev Chambers; Irene Dowling; Jenny McNeill; Fiona Alderdice; Andrew Shennan; Sanjeev Deshpande

    We report a process to identify and prioritise research questions in preterm birth that are most important to people affected by preterm birth and healthcare practitioners in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland. Using consensus development methods established by the James Lind Alliance, unanswered research questions were identified using an online survey, a paper survey distributed in NHS preterm birth clinics and neonatal units, and through searching published systematic reviews and guidelines. Prioritisation of these questions was by online voting, with paper copies at the same NHS clinics and units, followed by a decision-making workshop of people affected by preterm birth and healthcare professionals. Overall 26 organisations participated. Three hundred and eighty six people responded to the survey, and 636 systematic reviews and 12 clinical guidelines were inspected for research recommendations. From this, a list of 122 uncertainties about the effects of treatment was collated: 70 from the survey, 28 from systematic reviews, and 24 from guidelines. After removing 18 duplicates, the 104 remaining questions went to a public online vote on the top 10. Five hundred and seven people voted; 231 (45%) people affected by preterm birth, 216 (43%) health professionals, and 55 (11%) affected by preterm birth who were also a health professional. Although the top priority was the same for all types of voter, there was variation in how other questions were ranked. Following review by the Steering Group, the top 30 questions were then taken to the prioritisation workshop. A list of top 15 questions was agreed, but with some clear differences in priorities between people affected by preterm birth and healthcare professionals. These research questions prioritised by a partnership process between service users and healthcare professionals should inform the decisions of those who plan to fund research. Priorities of people affected by preterm birth were sometimes different from those of healthcare professionals, and future priority setting partnerships should consider reporting these separately, as well as in total.

    更新日期:2019-12-30
  • The study of Wilson disease in pregnancy management
    BMC Pregnancy Childbirth (IF 2.413) Pub Date : 2019-12-26
    Xu-En Yu; Min Pan; Yong-Zhu Han; Ren-Min Yang; Juan Wang; Shan Gao

    Pregnancy management in women with Wilson disease (WD) remains an important clinical problem. This research was conducted to investigate how to avoid worsening of WD symptoms during pregnancy and increase pregnancy success in women with WD by identifying the best pregnancy management approaches in these patients. The clinical data of 117 pregnancies among 75 women with WD were retrospectively analyzed. Related information of the fetus was also recorded and analyzed. At the same time, regression analysis was performed for data of 22 pregnant women without WD, as normal controls. Of a total of 117 pregnancies among the 75 women with WD and 31 pregnancies among the 22 control womenincluded in this study, there were 108 successful pregnancies and 9 spontaneous abortions. Among the 108 successful pregnancies, 97 women a history of copper chelation therapy before pregnancy; all 97 women stopped anti-copper therapy during pregnancy. The nine women with spontaneous abortion had no pre-pregnancy history of copper displacement therapy. The incidence of lower limb edema was higher in the WD group than in normal controls (P = 0.036). Compared with the control group, there was a higher proportion in the WD group of male infants (P = 0.022) and lower average infant birth weight (t = 3.514, P = 0.001). It is relatively safe for women with WD patients to become pregnant. The best management method for pregnancy in women with WD may be intensive pre-pregnancy copper chelation therapy and no anti-copper treatment during pregnancy.

    更新日期:2019-12-27
  • Diagnosis and management of a giant ovarian cyst in the gravid-puerperium period: a case report
    BMC Pregnancy Childbirth (IF 2.413) Pub Date : 2019-12-26
    Sibraogo Kiemtoré; Hyacinthe Zamané; Yobi Alexis Sawadogo; Rodrigue Sansan Sib; Evelyne Komboigo; Ali Ouédraogo; Blandine Bonané

    Giant ovarian cyst is very rare in gravid-puerperium period. It is a cause of a maternal-fetal morbidity. We report a case of a giant benign ovarian cyst in gravid-puerperium period which was diagnosed and managed in a hospital of a low-resource country. Data were collected by historical review, clinical examination, laboratory investigations, imaging examination, and by histopathological study of the excised surgical specimen. It is the case of a 25-year-old woman who was third gravida and third para with unknown pathological history. After she had given birth through vagina, a giant ovarian cyst, unknown during pregnancy, was diagnosed. A left oophorectomy carrying the cyst was performed after laparotomy in Yalgado Ouedraogo University Hospital Center of Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso). The cyst was 42 cm long and weighed 19.7 kg. The histology of the operative specimen revealed serous cystadenoma of the ovary. The postoperative course was uneventful. This case reports that vaginal delivery is possible with a giant ovarian cyst associated with pregnancy. Surgical management of the cyst can be performed in the postpartum with satisfaction.

    更新日期:2019-12-27
  • Is there respectful maternity care in Poland? Women’s views about care during labor and birth
    BMC Pregnancy Childbirth (IF 2.413) Pub Date : 2019-12-23
    Barbara Baranowska; Antonina Doroszewska; Urszula Kubicka-Kraszyńska; Joanna Pietrusiewicz; Iwona Adamska-Sala; Anna Kajdy; Dorota Sys; Urszula Tataj-Puzyna; Grażyna Bączek; Susan Crowther

    Abuse against women in labor starts with subtle forms of discrimination that can turn into overt violence. Therefore it is crucial to work towards prevention and elimination of disrespect and ill-treatment in medical facility perinatal care in which staff allows such abuse. The aim of the study was to analyze the experiences of women related to perinatal care. Special emphasis was put on experiences that had traits indicating disrespectful and offensive care during childbirth in medical facilities providing perinatal care. This was a cross-sectional survey. A questionnaire was prepared for respondents who gave birth in medical facilities. Information about the study was posted on the website of a non-governmental foundation dealing with projects aimed at improving perinatal care. The respondents gave online consent for processing the submitted data. 8378 questionnaires were submitted. The study was carried out between February 06 and March 20, 2018. The results were analyzed using the Chi-square independence test. The analysis was carried out at the significance level of 0.05 in Excel, R and SPSS. During their hospital stay, 81% of women in the study experienced violence or abuse from medical staff on at least one occasion. The most common abuse was having medical procedures without prior consent. Inappropriate comments made by staff related to their own or a woman’s situation were reported in 25% of situations, whilst 20% of women experienced nonchalant treatment. In the study 19.3% of women reported that the staff did not properly care for their intimacy and 1.7% of the respondents said that the worst treatment was related to feeling anonymous in the hospital. The study shows that during Polish perinatal care women experience disrespectful and abusive care. Most abuse and disrespect involved violation of the right to privacy, the right to information, the right to equal treatment, and the right to freedom from violence. The low awareness of abuses and complaints reported in the study may result from women’s ignorance about relevant laws related to human rights.

    更新日期:2019-12-25
  • Correction to: Fetal macrosomia and its associated factors among singleton live-births in private clinics in Mekelle city, Tigray, Ethiopia
    BMC Pregnancy Childbirth (IF 2.413) Pub Date : 2019-12-24
    Freweini Gebrearegay Tela; Afework Mulugeta Bezabih; Amaha Kahsay Adhanu; Kidanemaryam Berhe Tekola

    Following publication of the original article [1], we have been notified that the name of one author was spelled incorrectly as Kidanemariam Berhe Tekola, when the correct spelling is Kidanemaryam Berhe Tekola.

    更新日期:2019-12-25
  • Factors associated with dietary practice and nutritional status of pregnant women in Dessie town, northeastern Ethiopia: a community-based cross-sectional study
    BMC Pregnancy Childbirth (IF 2.413) Pub Date : 2019-12-23
    Tona Zema Diddana

    Maternal undernutrition is highly prevalent in resource-poor settings. Hence, this study was intended to determine factors associated with the dietary practice and nutritional status of pregnant women in Dessie town, northeastern Ethiopia. Community-based cross-sectional study design was employed. Six hundred four (604) pregnant women have participated. A two-stage sampling method was applied to select participants. Socio-demographic and socio-economic data were collected using a structured interviewer-administered questionnaire. The dietary practice was measured using 13 dietary practice questions. Mid upper arm circumference (MUAC) was measured by standard nonstretchable MUAC tape. Data were entered into Epi-Info 7 and exported to SPSS version 20. Binary and multiple logistic regression analysis was conducted. Variables with P < 0.2 in bivariate analysis were entered for multiple logistic regression. At a 95% confidence interval, variable with 푃< 0.05 in multiple logistic regression analysis was considered statistically significant. About 54.8% of the pregnant women had poor dietary practice and 19.5% were undernourished. First trimester of pregnancy (AOR = 0.46; 95% CI: 0.26, 0.80), no history of illness 2 weeks before data collection date (AOR = 0.42; 95% CI: 0.22, 0.80), poor perceived severity (AOR = 1.64; 95% CI: 1.15, 2.33), poor perceived benefits (AOR = 1.63; 95% CI: 1.14, 2.32) and poor self efficacy (AOR = 4.74; 95% CI: 2.94, 7.65) were significantly associated with poor dietary practice. Not attending antenatal care (ANC) (AOR = 3.46; 95% CI: 2.07, 5.78), illness (AOR = 1.93; 95% CI: 1.10, 3.5), poor dietary diversity (AOR = 5.92; 95% CI: 3.59, 9.76), poor nutrition knowledge (AOR = 3.03; 95% CI: 1.87, 4.92), poor dietary practice (AOR = 3.25; 95% CI: 1.91, 5.54) and poor perceived self efficacy (AOR = 5.59; 95% CI: 3.56, 8.79) were significantly associated (P < 0.05) with undernutrition. The dietary practice of pregnant women was suboptimal and nutritional status was relatively high. Being in the first trimester of pregnancy and no history illness were negatively associated while poorly perceived severity to malnutrition, poor perceived benefits, and poor self-efficacy were positively associated with the poor dietary practice. Not attending ANC, history of illness, poor dietary diversity, poor nutritional knowledge, poor dietary practice, poorly perceived self-efficacy were positively associated with undernutrition. Government, health extension workers and other concerned bodies should encourage pregnant women to attend ANC, promote health during pregnancy, strength and counsel to improve dietary diversity and practice of good nutrition. They should focus on the perceived belief of dietary behaviors.

    更新日期:2019-12-23
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