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  • Neonatal Neurocritical Care: Providing Brain-Focused Care for All at Risk Neonates
    Semin. Pediatr. Neurol. (IF 1.506) Pub Date : 2019-08-09
    Sonia L. Bonifacio; Krisa Van Meurs

    Neonatal neurocritical care is an evolving subsubspecialty whose goal is to implement neuroprotective care strategies, continuous bedside monitoring of neurologic function, and therapies in order to reduce the risk of neurologic injury and improve long-term neurodevelopmental outcomes in neonates who require intensive care. The provision of neonatal neurocritical care requires a culture change across

    更新日期:2020-04-18
  • Imaging of the Newborn Brain
    Semin. Pediatr. Neurol. (IF 1.506) Pub Date : 2019-09-06
    A. James Barkovich

    Neuroimaging enables the evaluation of many aspects of brain maturation, and detection of abnormalities such as malformation and injury. MRI is integral to the diagnostic work-up of congenital and acquired disorders of the central nervous system in newborns, and imaging findings are central to prognostication. This paper reviews techniques to optimize assessment of maturity of the neonatal brain, as

    更新日期:2020-04-18
  • Perinatal Stroke
    Semin. Pediatr. Neurol. (IF 1.506) Pub Date : 2019-08-07
    Mary Dunbar; Adam Kirton

    Perinatal strokes are a diverse but specific group of focal cerebrovascular injuries that occur early in brain development and affect an estimated 5 million people worldwide. The objective of this review is to describe the epidemiology, clinical presentations, pathophysiology, outcomes, and management for the 6 subtypes of perinatal stroke. Some perinatal strokes are symptomatic in the first days of

    更新日期:2020-04-18
  • Acute Symptomatic Seizures in Neonates
    Semin. Pediatr. Neurol. (IF 1.506) Pub Date : 2019-08-29
    Hannah C. Glass; Renée A. Shellhaas

    Seizures are an important sign of neurologic dysfunction in neonates, and they most often represent acute brain injury such as hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy, stroke, or intracranial hemorrhage (acute symptomatic seizures). Clinical identification of seizures is not reliable since seizures in neonates often do not have an apparent clinical correlate; therefore, electroencephalography should be used

    更新日期:2020-04-18
  • Viral Infections and the Neonatal Brain
    Semin. Pediatr. Neurol. (IF 1.506) Pub Date : 2019-08-07
    Linda S. de Vries

    This review includes the congenital infections best known by the acronym TORCH (Toxoplasma gondii, rubella virus, cytomegalovirus, and herpes virus), as well as Zika virus infection and perinatally acquired infections (enterovirus, parechovirus, rotavirus, parvovirus). Congenital infections are due to pathogens that can cross the placenta and are more likely to injure the brain when the infection occurs

    更新日期:2020-04-18
  • Neonatal Developmental and Epileptic Encephalopathies
    Semin. Pediatr. Neurol. (IF 1.506) Pub Date : 2019-09-11
    Charbel El Kosseifi; Marie-Coralie Cornet; Maria Roberta Cilio

    The new concept of developmental and epileptic encephalopathy is based on the understanding that many genetic epilepsies are associated with developmental impairment as a direct consequence of the genetic mutation, in addition to the effect of the frequent epileptic activity on brain development. As an example, in infants with KCNQ2 or STXBP1 encephalopathy, seizures may be controlled early after onset

    更新日期:2020-04-18
  • Neuromuscular Diseases of the Newborn
    Semin. Pediatr. Neurol. (IF 1.506) Pub Date : 2019-09-05
    Alex J. Fay

    The peripheral nervous system (PNS) is composed of motor neurons, nerve roots, plexuses, peripheral nerves (motor, sensory and autonomic), neuromuscular junction, and skeletal muscles. Disorders of the PNS in neonates most frequently cause weakness, hypotonia, and contractures, which may be generalized or focal. Since these findings may also occur with brain and spinal cord lesions, key features of

    更新日期:2020-04-18
  • Neuroprotection Strategies in Preterm Encephalopathy
    Semin. Pediatr. Neurol. (IF 1.506) Pub Date : 2019-08-09
    Pratik Parikh; Sandra E. Juul

    Advances in neonatology have led to unprecedented improvements in neonatal survival such that those born as early as 22 weeks of gestation now have some chance of survival, and over 70% of those born at 24 weeks of gestation survive. Up to 50% of infants born extremely preterm develop poor outcomes involving long-term neurodevelopmental impairments affecting cognition and learning, or motor problems

    更新日期:2020-04-18
  • Neuroprotection Strategies for Term Encephalopathy
    Semin. Pediatr. Neurol. (IF 1.506) Pub Date : 2019-08-07
    Fernando F. Gonzalez

    Brain injury in the full-term and near-term neonates is a significant cause of mortality and long-term morbidity, resulting in injury patterns distinct from that seen in premature infants and older patients. Therapeutic hypothermia improves long-term outcomes for many of these infants, but there is a continued search for therapies to enhance the plasticity of the newborn brain, resulting in long-term

    更新日期:2020-04-18
  • Endocrinological Abnormalities in Autism
    Semin. Pediatr. Neurol. (IF 1.506) Pub Date : 2016-04-16
    Francesco De Luca

    A number of chemical messengers, such as various hormones and hormone-like substances, along with neurotransmitters, such as serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine, are directly or indirectly linked with the encoding of social behavior via their action at the amygdala, hippocampus, and other related brain structures known to be involved in different aspects of social development. It is thought that

    更新日期:2020-04-18