• J. Headache Pain (IF 3.918) Pub Date : 2020-01-16
Ilenia Corbelli; Francesca De Maria; Paolo Eusebi; Michele Romoli; Gabriela Cardaioli; Mohammed Hamam; Piero Floridi; Letizia Maria Cupini; Paola Sarchielli; Paolo Calabresi

Dural arteriovenous fistulas are intracranial vascular malformations, fed by dural arteries and draining venous sinuses or meningeal veins. Clinical course varies widely and ranges from benign with spontaneous remission to fatal, due to cerebral hemorrhage. In a 10-year single institution experience, clinical presentation of dural arteriovenous fistulas, and in particular headache and angiographic features, as well as long-term outcome were analyzed. Data of 42 intracranial dural arteriovenous fistulas of 40 patients concerning demographic characteristics, medical history and risk factors, clinical presentation and headache features, location and neuroimaging findings, as well as treatment and outcome, were collected. Furthermore, we used the modified-Rankin Scale to assess the long-term outcome, by telephone contact with patients and/or their relatives. Patients aged between 25 and 89 years (mean age 55.8 ± 15.5). According to different clinical presentation and evolution, related to their unique drainage pattern into the cavernous sinus, we examined the carotid-cavernous fistulas separately from other dural arteriovenous fistulas. Interestingly, we found that the migraine-like headache was the major onset symptom of dural arteriovenous fistulas different from carotid-cavernous fistulas (p = 0.036). On the other hand, non-migraine-like headache was a typical characteristic of carotid-cavernous fistulas (p = 0.003). Moreover, ocular symptoms were more frequently observed in carotid-cavernous fistulas (92.9% p < 0.001). Seventy percent of patients did not report any impact on quality of life (mRS 0 or 1) at follow-up. These findings suggest a link between the site of lesion and clinical features of the headache, a symptom that usually leads to hospitalization. In particular, ocular symptoms accompanying non-migraine-like headache should be promptly recognized and raise the suspicion of a carotid-cavernous fistula, while migraine-like headache may suggests other dural arteriovenous fistulas. This study provides new significant insights on headache and its characteristics as a presentation symptom in dural arteriovenous fistulas.

更新日期：2020-01-17
• J. Headache Pain (IF 3.918) Pub Date : 2020-01-14
Ting Long; Wei He; Qi Pan; Shanshan Zhang; Dunke Zhang; Guangcheng Qin; Lixue Chen; Jiying Zhou

According to our previous study, microglia P2X4 receptors (P2X4Rs) play a pivotal role in the central sensitization of chronic migraine (CM). However, the molecular mechanism that underlies the crosstalk between microglia P2X4Rs and neurons of the trigeminal nucleus caudalis (TNC) is not fully understood. Therefore, the aim of this study is to examine the exact P2X4Rs signalling pathway in the development of central sensitization in a CM animal model. We used an animal model with recurrent intermittent administration of nitroglycerin (NTG), which closely mimics CM. NTG-induced basal mechanical and thermal hypersensitivity were evaluated using a von Frey filament test and an increasing-temperature hot plate apparatus (IITC). We detected P2X4Rs, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and phosphorylated p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p-p38-MAPK) expression profiles in the TNC. We investigated the effects of a P2X4R inhibitor (5-BDBD) and an agonist (IVM) on NTG-induced hyperalgesia and neurochemical changes as well as on the expression of p-p38-MAPK and BDNF. We also detected the effects of a tropomyosin-related kinase B (TrkB) inhibitor (ANA-12) on the CM animal model in vivo. Then, we evaluated the effect of 5-BDBD and SB203580 (a p38-MAPK inhibitors) on the release and synthesis of BDNF in BV2 microglia cells treated with 50 μM adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Chronic intermittent administration of NTG resulted in chronic mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia, accompanied by the upregulation of P2X4Rs and BDNF expression. 5-BDBD or ANA-12 prevented hyperalgesia induced by NTG, which was associated with a significant inhibition of the NTG-induced increase in phosphorylated extracellular regulated protein kinases (p-ERK) and calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP) release in the TNC. Repeated administration of IVM produced sustained hyperalgesia and significantly increased the levels of p-ERK and CGRP release in the TNC. Activating P2X4Rs with ATP triggered BDNF release and increased BDNF synthesis in BV2 microglia, and these results were then reduced by 5-BDBD or SB203580. Our results indicated that the P2X4R contributes to the central sensitization of CM by releasing BDNF and promoting TNC neuronal hyper-excitability. Blocking microglia P2X4R-BDNF signalling may have an effect on the prevention of migraine chronification.

更新日期：2020-01-15
• J. Headache Pain (IF 3.918) Pub Date : 2020-01-14
Wei Xie; Ruibing Li; Mianwang He; Fang Cui; Tingting Sun; Jianmei Xiong; Dengfa Zhao; Weinan Na; Ruozhuo Liu; Shengyuan Yu

更新日期：2020-01-15
• J. Headache Pain (IF 3.918) Pub Date : 2020-01-10
Bereket Duko; Mohammed Ayalew; Alemayehu Toma

更新日期：2020-01-11
• J. Headache Pain (IF 3.918) Pub Date : 2020-01-07
Carl H. Göbel; Sarah C. Karstedt; Thomas F. Münte; Hartmut Göbel; Sebastian Wolfrum; Elena R. Lebedeva; Jes Olesen; Georg Royl

In the emergency room, distinguishing between a migraine with aura and a transient ischemic attack (TIA) is often not straightforward and mistakes can be harmful to both the patient and to society. To account for this difficulty, the third edition of the International Classification of Headache disorders (ICHD-3) changed the diagnostic criteria of migraine with aura. One hundred twenty-eight patients referred to the emergency room at the University Hospital of Lübeck, Germany with a suspected TIA were prospectively interviewed about their symptoms leading to admission shortly after initial presentation. The diagnosis that resulted from applying the ICHD-3 and ICHD-3 beta diagnostic criteria was compared to the diagnosis made independently by the treating physicians performing the usual diagnostic work-up. The new ICHD-3 diagnostic criteria for migraine with aura and migraine with typical aura display an excellent specificity (96 and 98% respectively), and are significantly more specific than the previous ICHD-3 beta classification system when it comes to diagnosing a first single attack (probable migraine with aura and probable migraine with typical aura). The ICHD-3 is a highly useful tool for the clinical neurologist in order to distinguish between a migraine with aura and a TIA, already at the first point of patient contact, such as in the emergency department or a TIA clinic.

更新日期：2020-01-07
• J. Headache Pain (IF 3.918) Pub Date : 2020-01-02
Álvaro Planchuelo-Gómez; David García-Azorín; Ángel L. Guerrero; Santiago Aja-Fernández; Margarita Rodríguez; Rodrigo de Luis-García

White matter alterations have been observed in patients with migraine. However, no microstructural white matter alterations have been found particularly in episodic or chronic migraine patients, and there is limited research focused on the comparison between these two groups of migraine patients. Fifty-one healthy controls, 55 episodic migraine patients and 57 chronic migraine patients were recruited and underwent brain T1-weighted and diffusion-weighted MRI acquisition. Using Tract-Based Spatial Statistics (TBSS), fractional anisotropy, mean diffusivity, radial diffusivity and axial diffusivity were compared between the different groups. On the one hand, all migraine patients were compared against healthy controls. On the other hand, patients from each migraine group were compared between them and also against healthy controls. Correlation analysis between clinical features (duration of migraine in years, time from onset of chronic migraine in months, where applicable, and headache and migraine frequency, where applicable) and Diffusion Tensor Imaging measures was performed. Fifty healthy controls, 54 episodic migraine and 56 chronic migraine patients were finally included in the analysis. Significant decreased axial diffusivity (p < .05 false discovery rate and by number of contrasts corrected) was found in chronic migraine compared to episodic migraine in 38 white matter regions from the Johns Hopkins University ICBM-DTI-81 White-Matter Atlas. Significant positive correlation was found between time from onset of chronic migraine and mean fractional anisotropy in the bilateral external capsule, and negative correlation between time from onset of chronic migraine and mean radial diffusivity in the bilateral external capsule. These findings suggest global white matter structural differences between episodic migraine and chronic migraine. Patients with chronic migraine could present axonal integrity impairment in the first months of chronic migraine with respect to episodic migraine patients. White matter changes after the onset of chronic migraine might reflect a set of maladaptive plastic changes.

更新日期：2020-01-02
• J. Headache Pain (IF 3.918) Pub Date : 2019-12-27
Astrid Bjørke Jenssen; Lars Jacob Stovner; Erling Tronvik; Trond Sand; Grethe Helde; Gøril Bruvik Gravdahl; Knut Hagen

To evaluate the crossover design in migraine preventive treatment trials by assessing dropout rate, and potential period and carryover effect in four placebo-controlled randomized controlled trials (RCTs). In order to increase statistical power, the study combined data from four different RCTs performed from 1998 to 2015 at St. Olavs Hospital, Norway. Among 264 randomized patients, 120 received placebo treatment before and 144 after active treatment. Only 26 (10%) dropped out during the follow-up period of 30–48 weeks, the majority (n = 19) in the first 12 weeks. No period effect was found, since the treatment sequence did not influence the responder rate after placebo treatment, being respectively for migraine 30.5% vs. 27.4% (p = 0.59) and for headache 25.0% vs. 24.8% (p = 0.97, Chi-square test) when placebo occurred early or late. Furthermore, no carryover effect was identified, since the treatment sequence did not influence the treatment effect (difference between placebo and active treatment). There was no significant difference between those who received active treatment first and those who received placebo first with respect to change in number of days per 4 week of headache (− 0.9 vs. -1.3, p = 0.46) and migraine (− 1.2 vs. -0.9, p = 0.35, Student’s t-test). Summary data from four crossover trials evaluating preventive treatment in adult migraine showed that few dropped out after the first period. No period or carryover effect was found. RCT studies with crossover design can be recommended as an efficient and cost-saving way to evaluate potential new preventive medicines for migraine in adults.

更新日期：2019-12-30
• J. Headache Pain (IF 3.918) Pub Date : 2019-12-30
Andrea Negro; Paolo Sciattella; Daniele Rossi; Martina Guglielmetti; Paolo Martelletti; Francesco Saverio Mennini

Migraine is one of the most common neurological diseases and an estimated 1.04 billion people worldwide have been diagnosed with migraine. Available data suggest that migraine is world widely associated with a high economic burden, but there is great variability in estimated costs that depends on the geographical, methodological and temporal differences between the studies. The purpose of this study was to quantify the annual direct cost of episodic migraine (EM) and chronic migraine (CM), both for the patient and for the National Health System (NHS), using data from subjects who attended an Italian tertiary headache centre. Furthermore, we evaluated comparatively the impact of gender and age on the economic burden of migraine. We conducted a retrospective and non-interventional observational analysis of the electronic medical records of subjects with EM and CM who consecutively attended the Regional Referral Headache Centre of Rome and undergoing continuous treatment in the 2 years prior to 31 January 2019. This approach was intended to prevent distorsions due to natural fluctuations in migraine status over time. The collected data included demographic characteristics, number of specialist visits, consumption of medications, diagnostic tests, accesses in the emergency department (ED) and days of hospitalization due to the pathology. Our sample consisted of 548 patients (85.4% women and 14.6% men): 65.5% had CM and 34.5% had EM. The average annual expenditure per patient was €1482. 82.8% of the total cost (€1227) was covered by the NHS. The main item of expenditure were medications that represented 86.8% (€1286), followed by specialist visits (10.2%), hospitalizations for (1.9%), diagnostic tests for (1%) and ED visits for (0.1%). Costs were significantly higher for women than men (€1517 vs. €1274, p = 0.013) and increased with age (p = 0.002). The annual direct cost of CM was 4.8-fold higher than that of EM (€2037 vs. €427, p = 0.001). Our results provide a valuable estimate of the annual direct cost of CM and EM patients in the specific setting of a tertiary headache centre and confirm the high economic impact of migraine on both the NHS and patients.

更新日期：2019-12-30
• J. Headache Pain (IF 3.918) Pub Date : 2019-12-27
Stephen D. Silberstein; Virginia L. Stauffer; Katie A. Day; Sarah Lipsius; Maria-Carmen Wilson

After publication of our article [1] we were notified that the data presented in the upper row of Fig. 7 was inadvertently the least square mean change from baseline (standard error) at Month 6 rather than the overall average of Month 3 and Month 6. The figure legend and discussion of the data in the text were and are correct. The error was only in the upper row of Fig. 7. The legend for Fig. 7 did not require revision.

更新日期：2019-12-27
• J. Headache Pain (IF 3.918) Pub Date : 2019-12-23
Anna P. Andreou; Lars Edvinsson

Understanding the mechanisms of migraine remains challenging as migraine is not a static disorder, and even in its episodic form migraine remains an “evolutive” chronic condition. Considerable progress has been made in elucidating the pathophysiological mechanisms of migraine, associated genetic factors that may influence susceptibility to the disease, and functional and anatomical changes during the progression of a migraine attack or the transformation of episodic to chronic migraine. Migraine is a life span neurological disorder that follows an evolutive age-dependent change in its prevalence and even clinical presentations. As a disorder, migraine involves recurrent intense head pain and associated unpleasant symptoms. Migraine attacks evolve over different phases with specific neural mechanisms and symptoms being involved during each phase. In some patients, migraine can be transformed into a chronic form with daily or almost daily headaches. The mechanisms behind this evolutive process remain unknown, but genetic and epigenetic factors, inflammatory processes and central sensitization may play an important role.

更新日期：2019-12-23
• J. Headache Pain (IF 3.918) Pub Date : 2019-12-19
Heng-Le Wei; Xin Zhou; Yu-Chen Chen; Yu-Sheng Yu; Xi Guo; Gang-Ping Zhou; Qing-Qing Zhou; Li-Jie Qu; Xindao Yin; Junrong Li; Hong Zhang

Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has confirmed disrupted visual network connectivity in migraine without aura (MwoA). The thalamus plays a pivotal role in a number of pain conditions, including migraine. However, the significance of altered thalamo-visual functional connectivity (FC) in migraine remains unknown. The goal of this study was to explore thalamo-visual FC integrity in patients with MwoA and investigate its clinical significance. Resting-state fMRI data were acquired from 33 patients with MwoA and 22 well-matched healthy controls. After identifying the visual network by independent component analysis, we compared neural activation in the visual network and thalamo-visual FC and assessed whether these changes were linked to clinical characteristics. We used voxel-based morphometry to determine whether functional differences were dependent on structural differences. The visual network exhibited significant differences in regions (bilateral cunei, right lingual gyrus and left calcarine sulcus) by inter-group comparison. The patients with MwoA showed significantly increased FC between the left thalami and bilateral cunei and between the right thalamus and the contralateral calcarine sulcus and right cuneus. Furthermore, the neural activation of the left calcarine sulcus was positively correlated with visual analogue scale scores (r = 0.319, p = 0.043), and enhanced FC between the left thalamus and right cuneus in migraine patients was negatively correlated with Generalized Anxiety Disorder scores (r = − 0.617, p = 0.005). Our data suggest that migraine distress is exacerbated by aberrant feedback projections to the visual network, playing a crucial role in migraine physiological mechanisms. The current study provides further insights into the complex scenario of migraine mechanisms.

更新日期：2019-12-20
• J. Headache Pain (IF 3.918) Pub Date : 2019-12-13
Evangelos Kouremenos; Chrysa Arvaniti; Theodoros S. Constantinidis; Ermioni Giannouli; Nikolaos Fakas; Themistoklis Kalamatas; Evangelia Kararizou; Dimitrios Naoumis; Dimos D. Mitsikostas

More than 0.6 million people suffer from disabling migraines in Greece causing a dramatic work loss, but only a small proportion of migraineurs attend headache centres, most of them being treated by non-experts. On behalf of the Hellenic Headache Society, we report here a consensus on the diagnosis and treatment of adult migraine that is based on the recent guidelines of the European Headache Federation, on the principles of Good Clinical Practice and on the Greek regulatory affairs. The purposes are three-fold: (1) to increase awareness for migraine in Greece; (2) to support Greek practitioners who are treating migraineurs; and (3) to help Greek migraineurs to get the most appropriate treatment. For mild migraine, symptomatic treatment with high dose simple analgesics is suggested, while for moderate to severe migraines triptans or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, or both, should be administered following an individually tailored therapeutic strategy. A rescue acute treatment option should always be advised. For episodic migraine prevention, metoprolol (50–200 mg/d), propranolol (40–240 mg/d), flunarizine (5–10 mg/d), valproate (500–1800 mg/d), topiramate (25–100 mg/d) and candesartan (16–32 mg/d) are the drugs of first choice. For chronic migraine prevention topiramate (100-200 mg/d), valproate (500–1800 mg/d), flunarizine (5–10 mg/d) and venlafaxine (150 mg/d) may be used, but the evidence is very limited. Botulinum toxin type A and monoclonal antibodies targeting the CGRP pathway (anti-CGRP mAbs) are recommended for patients suffering from chronic migraine (with or without medication overuse) who failed or did not tolerate two previous treatments. Anti-CGRP mAbs are also suggested for patients suffering from high frequency episodic migraine (≥8 migraine days per month and less than 14) who failed or did not tolerate two previous treatments.

更新日期：2019-12-17
• J. Headache Pain (IF 3.918) Pub Date : 2019-12-16
Otgonbayar Luvsannorov; Byambasuren Tsenddorj; Dorjkhand Baldorj; Selenge Enkhtuya; Delgermaa Purev; Hallie Thomas; Timothy J. Steiner

更新日期：2019-12-17
• J. Headache Pain (IF 3.918) Pub Date : 2019-12-16
Yu-Hsiang Ling; Shih-Pin Chen; Cathy Shen-Jang Fann; Shuu-Jiun Wang; Yen-Feng Wang

Many single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been reported to be associated with migraine susceptibility. However, evidences for their associations with migraine endophenotypes or subtypes are scarce. We aimed to investigate the associations of pre-identified migraine susceptibility loci in Taiwanese with migraine endophenotypes or subtypes, including chronic migraine and allodynia. The associations of six SNPs identified from our previous study, including TRPM8 rs10166942, LRP1 rs1172113, DLG2 rs655484, GFRA1 rs3781545, UPP2 rs7565931, and GPR39 rs10803531, and migraine endophenotypes, including chronic migraine and allodynia were tested. Significant associations in the discovery cohort were validated in the replication cohort. The adjusted odds ratios (aOR) were calculated after controlling for confounders. In total, 1904 patients (mean age 37.5 ± 12.2 years old, female ratio: 77.7%) including 1077 in the discovery cohort and 827 in the replication cohort were recruited. Of them, 584 (30.7%) had chronic migraine. Of the 6 investigated SNPs, TRPM8 rs10166942 T allele-carrying patients were more likely to have chronic migraine than non-T allele carriers in both discovery and replication cohorts and combined samples (33.7% vs. 25.8%, p = 0.004, aOR = 1.62). In addition, T allele carriers reported more allodynic symptoms than non-T allele carriers (3.5 ± 3.7 vs. 2.6 ± 2.8, p < 0.001). However, allodynia severity did not differ between episodic and chronic migraine patients. No further correlations between genetic variants and endophenotypes were noted for the other SNPs. TRPM8 may contribute to the pathogenesis of chronic migraine. However, our study did not support allodynia as a link between them. The underlying mechanisms deserve further investigations.

更新日期：2019-12-17
• J. Headache Pain (IF 3.918) Pub Date : 2019-12-05
Takao Takeshima; Qi Wan; Yanlei Zhang; Mika Komori; Serina Stretton; Narayan Rajan; Tamas Treuer; Kaname Ueda

更新日期：2019-12-05
• J. Headache Pain (IF 3.918) Pub Date : 2019-05-23
Jan Hoffmann; Katharina Maria Kreutz; Christoph Csapó-Schmidt; Nils Becker; Hagen Kunte; Lucius Samo Fekonja; Anas Jadan; Edzard Wiener

Elevation of intracranial pressure in idiopathic intracranial hypertension induces an edema of the prelaminar section of the optic nerve (papilledema). Beside the commonly observed optic nerve sheath distention, information on a potential pathology of the retrolaminar section of the optic nerve and the short-term effect of normalization of intracranial pressure on these abnormalities remains scarce. In this exploratory study 8 patients diagnosed with idiopathic intracranial hypertension underwent a MRI scan (T2 mapping) as well as a diffusion tensor imaging analysis (fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity). In addition, the clinical presentation of headache and its accompanying symptoms were assessed. Intracranial pressure was then normalized by lumbar puncture and the initial parameters (MRI and clinical features) were re-assessed within 26 h. After normalization of CSF pressure, the morphometric MRI scans of the optic nerve and optic nerve sheath remained unchanged. In the diffusion tensor imaging, the fractional anisotropy value was reduced suggesting a tissue decompression of the optic nerve after lumbar puncture. In line with these finding, headache and most of the accompanying symptoms also improved or remitted within that short time frame. The findings support the hypothesis that the elevation of intracranial pressure induces a microstructural compression of the optic nerve impairing axoplasmic flow and thereby causing the prelaminar papilledema. The microstructural compression of the optic nerve as well as the clinical symptoms improve within hours of normalization of intracranial pressure.

更新日期：2019-11-28
• J. Headache Pain (IF 3.918) Pub Date : 2019-05-23
Paolo Martelletti; Lars Edvinsson; Messoud Ashina

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更新日期：2019-11-28
• J. Headache Pain (IF 3.918) Pub Date : 2019-05-27
Angela Koverech; Claudia Cicione; Luana Lionetto; Marta Maestri; Francesco Passariello; Elisabetta Sabbatini; Matilde Capi; Cristiano Maria De Marco; Martina Guglielmetti; Andrea Negro; Luisa Di Menna; Maurizio Simmaco; Ferdinando Nicoletti; Paolo Martelletti

Perturbation of neuronal excitability contributes to migraine. Neurosteroids modulate the activity of γ-aminobutyric acid A and N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors, and might be involved in the pathogenesis of migraine. Here, we measured plasma levels of four neurosteroids, i.e., allopregnanolone, epiallopregnanolone, dehydroepiandrosterone and deydroepiandrosterone sulfate, in patients affected by episodic migraine, chronic migraine, or cluster headache. Nineteen female patients affected by episodic migraine, 51 female patients affected by chronic migraine, and 18 male patients affected by cluster headache were recruited to the study. Sex- and age-matched healthy control subjects (31 females and 16 males) were also recruited. Patients were clinically characterized by using validated questionnaires. Plasma neurosteroid levels were measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. We found disease-specific changes in neurosteroid levels in our study groups. For example, allopregnanolone levels were significantly increased in episodic migraine and chronic migraine patients than in control subjects, whereas they were reduced in patients affected by cluster headache. Dehydroepiandrosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate levels were reduced in patients affected by chronic migraine, but did not change in patients affected by cluster headache. We have shown for the first time that large and disease-specific changes in circulating neurosteroid levels are associated with chronic headache disorders, raising the interesting possibility that fluctuations of neurosteroids at their site of action might shape the natural course of migraine and cluster headache. Whether the observed changes in neurosteroids are genetically determined or rather result from exposure to environmental or intrinsic stressors is unknown. This might also be matter for further investigation because stress is a known triggering factor for headache attacks in both migraineurs and cluster headache patients.

更新日期：2019-11-28
• J. Headache Pain (IF 3.918) Pub Date : 2019-05-28
Casper Emil Christensen; Samaira Younis; Ulrich Lindberg; Vincent Oltman Boer; Patrick de Koning; Esben Thade Petersen; Olaf Bjarne Paulson; Henrik Bo Wiberg Larsson; Faisal Mohammad Amin; Messoud Ashina

After publication of the original article [1], the authors have notified us that an updated version of Figures 1, 2 and 3 should have been published. The incorrect and revised figures can be found below.

更新日期：2019-11-28
• J. Headache Pain (IF 3.918) Pub Date : 2019-05-29
Muge Yemisci; Katharina Eikermann-Haerter

Population-based studies have highlighted a close relationship between migraine and stroke. Migraine, especially with aura, is a risk factor for both ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke. Interestingly, stroke risk is highest for migraineurs who are young and otherwise healthy. Preclinical models have provided us with possible mechanisms to explain the increased vulnerability of migraineurs’ brains towards ischemia and suggest a key role for enhanced cerebral excitability and increased incidence of microembolic events. Spreading depolarization (SD), a slowly propagating wave of neuronal depolarization, is the electrophysiologic event underlying migraine aura and a known headache trigger. Increased SD susceptibility has been demonstrated in migraine animal models, including transgenic mice carrying human mutations for the migraine-associated syndrome CADASIL and familial hemiplegic migraine (type 1 and 2). Upon experimentally induced SD, these mice develop aura-like neurological symptoms, akin to patients with the respective mutations. Migraine mutant mice also exhibit an increased frequency of ischemia-triggered SDs upon experimental stroke, associated with accelerated infarct growth and worse outcomes. The severe stroke phenotype can be explained by SD-related downstream events that exacerbate the metabolic mismatch, including pericyte contraction and neuroglial inflammation. Pharmacological suppression of the genetically enhanced SD susceptibility normalizes the stroke phenotype in familial hemiplegic migraine mutant mice. Recent epidemiologic and imaging studies suggest that these preclinical findings can be extrapolated to migraine patients. Migraine patients are at risk for particularly cardioembolic stroke. At the same time, studies suggest an increased incidence of coagulopathy, atrial fibrillation and patent foramen ovale among migraineurs, providing a possible path for microembolic induction of SD and, in rare instances, stroke in hyperexcitable brains. Indeed, recent imaging studies document an accelerated infarct progression with only little potentially salvageable brain tissue in acute stroke patients with a migraine history, suggesting an increased vulnerability towards cerebral ischemia. Preclinical models suggest a key role for enhanced SD susceptibility and microembolization to explain both the occurrence of migraine attacks and the increased stroke risk in migraineurs. Therapeutic targeting of SD and microembolic events, or potential causes thereof, will be promising for treatment of aura and may also prevent ischemic infarction in vulnerable brains.

更新日期：2019-11-28
• J. Headache Pain (IF 3.918) Pub Date : 2019-05-30
Michele Viana; Erling Andreas Tronvik; Thien Phu Do; Chiara Zecca; Anders Hougaard

Migraine aura (MA) is a common and disabling neurological condition, characterized by transient visual, and less frequently sensory and dysphasic aura disturbances. MA is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disorders and is often clinically difficult to distinguish from other serious neurological disorders such as transient ischemic attacks and epilepsy. Optimal clinical classification of MA symptoms is important for more accurate diagnosis and improved understanding of the pathophysiology of MA through clinical studies. A systematic review of previous prospective and retrospective systematic recordings of visual aura symptoms (VASs) was performed to provide an overview of the different types of visual phenomena occurring during MA and their respective frequencies in patients. We found 11 retrospective studies and three prospective studies systematically describing VASs. The number of different types of VASs reported by patients in the studies ranged from two to 23. The most common were flashes of bright light, “foggy” vision, zigzag lines, scotoma, small bright dots and ‘like looking through heat waves or water’. We created a comprehensive list of VAS types reported by migraine patients based on all currently available data from clinical studies, which can be used for testing and validation in future studies. We propose that, based on this work, an official list of VAS types should be developed, preferably within the context of the International Classification of Headache Disorders of the International Headache Society.

更新日期：2019-11-28
• J. Headache Pain (IF 3.918) Pub Date : 2019-05-31
Frida Hjalte; Sara Olofsson; Ulf Persson; Mattias Linde

Migraine is a disabling, chronic neurological disease leading to severe headache episodes affecting 13.2% of the Swedish population. Migraine leads to an extensive socio-economic burden in terms of healthcare costs, reduced workforce and quality of life (QoL) but studies of the health-economic consequences in a Swedish context are lacking. The objective of this study is to map the health-economic consequences of migraine in a defined patient population in terms of healthcare consumption, production loss and QoL in Sweden. The study is based on data from a web-based survey to members in the Swedish patients’ association suffering from migraine. The survey was conducted in May 2018 and included people with migraine aged 18 years or older. The survey included questions on health resource consumption, lost production resulting from migraine-related absenteeism and presenteeism, and QoL as measured by the EuroQol 5 dimensions questionnaire (EQ-5D-5 L) and the Headache Impact Test (HIT-6). The results are presented in yearly costs per patient and losses in quality adjusted life years (QALYs). The results are based on answers from 630 individuals with migraine and are presented by number of migraine days per month. The total cost per patient and year increased with the number of migraine days per month (p < 0.001) and varied between approximately €5000 for those with less than 3 migraine days per month and €24,000 per year for those with 21–28 migraine days per month. Production loss represented the main part of the costs, approximately 80%. The average loss in QALYs per year also increased with the monthly number of migraine days (p = 0.023). Migraine leads to significant societal costs and loss of quality of life. There appears to be an unmet need and a potential for both cost savings and QoL benefits connected with a reduction in the number of migraine days.

更新日期：2019-11-28
• J. Headache Pain (IF 3.918) Pub Date : 2019-06-03
Bianca Raffaelli; Valeria Mussetto; Heike Israel; Lars Neeb; Uwe Reuter

Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) targeting the CGRP pathway are safe and efficacious therapies for the prevention of migraine. In this study we assessed the effects of discontinuation of preventive erenumab and galcanezumab treatment in patients with chronic migraine. This retrospective pooled analysis included completers of the open-label extension study phase for the preventive treatment of chronic migraine with galcanezumab (NCT02614261; 9 months) and erenumab (NCT02174861; 12 months) in a single headache center. We compare migraine data until week 12 after open-label treatment completion, when patients did not have any pharmacological preventive medication, to study baseline values of the double-blind trial period, and to the last 4 weeks of the open-label extension. The assessment included changes in monthly migraine days, headache hours, days with severe headache and acute headache medication use. Data from 16 patients after galcanezumab (n = 9) and erenumab (n = 7) open-label treatment completion were analyzed. The mean number of monthly migraine days was 18.38 ± 3.74 at baseline, and 12.19 ± 4.53 in the last 4 weeks of the open-label extension (p < 0.001). Monthly migraine days remained significantly reduced compared to baseline during the entire 12-week observation period after open-label termination (p = 0.002), with a reduction of 5.38 ± 4.92 in weeks 1–4 (p = 0.001), 4.75 ± 4.15 in weeks 5–8 (p = 0.001), and 3.93 ± 5.45 in weeks 9–12 (p = 0.014). There was no significant difference in monthly migraine days between the 12 weeks after open-label termination and the last 4 weeks of the open-label phase (p = 0.228). All other analyses revealed numerical improvement through week 12 in comparison to baseline. In this small, self-selected cohort, the results indicate a therapeutic effect of monoclonal antibodies targeting the CRGP pathway in chronic migraine prevention after treatment termination up to 12 weeks.

更新日期：2019-11-28
• J. Headache Pain (IF 3.918) Pub Date : 2019-06-04
Daniel D. Mikol; Josefin Snellman

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更新日期：2019-11-28
• J. Headache Pain (IF 3.918) Pub Date : 2019-06-07
Kaname Ueda; Wenyu Ye; Louise Lombard; Atsushi Kuga; Yongin Kim; Sarah Cotton; James Jackson; Tamas Treuer

In Japan, detailed information on the characteristics, disease burden, and treatment patterns of people living with migraine is limited. The aim of this study was to compare clinical characteristics, disease burden, and treatment patterns in people with episodic migraine (EM) or chronic migraine (CM) using real-world data from clinical practice in Japan. This was an analysis of data collected in 2014 by the Adelphi Migraine Disease Specific Programme, a cross-sectional survey of physicians and their consulting adult patients in Japan, using physician and patient questionnaires. We report patient demographics, prescribed treatment, work productivity, and quality-of-life data for people with CM (≥15 headache days/month) or EM (not fulfilling CM criteria). In descriptive analyses, continuous and categorical measures were assessed using t-tests and Chi-squared tests, respectively. Physicians provided data for 977 patients (mean age 44.5 years; 77.2% female; 94.5% with EM, 5.5% with CM). A total of 634/977 (64.9%) invited patients (600 with EM; 34 with CM) also provided data. Acute therapy was currently being prescribed in 93.7% and 100% of patients with EM and CM, respectively (p = 0.069); corresponding percentages for current preventive therapy prescriptions were 40.5% and 68.5% (p < 0.001). According to physicians who provided data, preventive therapy was used at least once by significantly fewer patients with EM than with CM (42.3% vs. 68.5%, respectively; p < 0.001). Among patients who provided physicians with information on issues with their current therapy (acute therapy: n = 668 with EM, n = 38 with CM; preventive therapy: n = 295 with EM, n = 21 with CM), lack of efficacy was the most frequently identified problem (acute therapy: EM 35.3%, CM 39.5% [p = 0.833]; preventive therapy: EM 35.3%, CM 52.4% [p = 0.131]). Moderate-to-severe headache-related disability (Migraine Disability Assessment total score ≥ 11) was reported by significantly fewer patients with EM than with CM (21.0% vs. 60.0%, respectively; p < 0.001) among patients who provided data. Preventive treatment patterns in people with EM versus CM differ in Japan, with both types of migraine posing notable disease burdens. Our findings demonstrate that more effective migraine therapies are required to reduce the burden of the disease.

更新日期：2019-11-28
• J. Headache Pain (IF 3.918) Pub Date : 2019-06-11
D. Y. Wei; D. Moreno-Ajona; T. Renton; P. J. Goadsby

Orofacial pain may have a variety of causes and offers a significant clinical challenge for its diagnosis and management. To assess the headache disorders presenting in a tertiary multidisciplinary orofacial pain clinic, after dental causes have been excluded. Clinic letters from the initial consultation and subsequent follow up reviews of the 142 patients, who were seen in the tertiary Multidisciplinary Orofacial Pain clinic between January 2015 until January 2018 were reviewed as a clinical audit. The most common diagnoses were possible trigeminal autonomic cephalalgia (n = 62, 44%), migraine (n = 38, 27%) and painful post-traumatic trigeminal neuropathy (n = 17, 12%). The most common trigeminal autonomic cephalalgia diagnosis was hemicrania continua (n = 13, 9%), which is higher than the reported prevalence in neurology and headache clinics. This study demonstrates the importance of a multidisciplinary approach to diagnosing complex orofacial pain patients and the importance of awareness of primary headache disorders, in particular trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias, thereby reducing unnecessary diagnostic delays or procedures.

更新日期：2019-11-28
• J. Headache Pain (IF 3.918) Pub Date : 2019-06-13
Knut Hagen; Anders Nikolai Åsberg; Benjamin L. Uhlig; Erling Tronvik; Eiliv Brenner; Trond Sand

更新日期：2019-11-28
• J. Headache Pain (IF 3.918) Pub Date : 2019-06-19
Andreas Straube; Anna P. Andreou

Following publication of the original article [1], we have been notified that one of the author names was incompletely presented.

更新日期：2019-11-28
• J. Headache Pain (IF 3.918) Pub Date : 2019-06-21
Heidi G. Sutherland; Cassie L. Albury; Lyn R. Griffiths

Migraine is a complex neurovascular disorder with a strong genetic component. There are rare monogenic forms of migraine, as well as more common polygenic forms; research into the genes involved in both types has provided insights into the many contributing genetic factors. This review summarises advances that have been made in the knowledge and understanding of the genes and genetic variations implicated in migraine etiology. Migraine is characterised into two main types, migraine without aura (MO) and migraine with aura (MA). Hemiplegic migraine is a rare monogenic MA subtype caused by mutations in three main genes - CACNA1A, ATP1A2 and SCN1A - which encode ion channel and transport proteins. Functional studies in cellular and animal models show that, in general, mutations result in impaired glutamatergic neurotransmission and cortical hyperexcitability, which make the brain more susceptible to cortical spreading depression, a phenomenon thought to coincide with aura symptoms. Variants in other genes encoding ion channels and solute carriers, or with roles in regulating neurotransmitters at neuronal synapses, or in vascular function, can also cause monogenic migraine, hemiplegic migraine and related disorders with overlapping symptoms. Next-generation sequencing will accelerate the finding of new potentially causal variants and genes, with high-throughput bioinformatics analysis methods and functional analysis pipelines important in prioritising, confirming and understanding the mechanisms of disease-causing variants. With respect to common migraine forms, large genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have greatly expanded our knowledge of the genes involved, emphasizing the role of both neuronal and vascular pathways. Dissecting the genetic architecture of migraine leads to greater understanding of what underpins relationships between subtypes and comorbid disorders, and may have utility in diagnosis or tailoring treatments. Further work is required to identify causal polymorphisms and the mechanism of their effect, and studies of gene expression and epigenetic factors will help bridge the genetics with migraine pathophysiology. The complexity of migraine disorders is mirrored by their genetic complexity. A comprehensive knowledge of the genetic factors underpinning migraine will lead to improved understanding of molecular mechanisms and pathogenesis, to enable better diagnosis and treatments for migraine sufferers.

更新日期：2019-11-28
• J. Headache Pain (IF 3.918) Pub Date : 2019-06-25
Patricia Pozo-Rosich; Alba Martínez-García; Julio Pascual; Emilio Ignacio; Ángel L. Guerrero-Peral; José Balseiro-Gómez; Jesús Porta-Etessam; Germán Latorre-González; Almudena Layos-Romero; César Lucas; José J. Mira

To assess the quality of the therapeutic approach in Specialized Headache Units in Spain. An observational (prospective) study was conducted. Anonymized data of 313 consecutive patients during a defined period of time were analyzed and a comparison of performance in 13 consensual quality indicators between Specialized Headache Units and neurology consultations was calculated. Specialized Units and neurology consultations represented the type of provision that Spaniards receive in hospitals. The consensus benchmark standard was reached for 8/13 (61%) indicators. Specialized Headache Units performed better in the indicators, specifically in relation to accessibility, equity, safety, and patient satisfaction. Patients attended in Specialized Headache Units had more complex conditions. Although there is variability among Specialized Headache Units, the overall quality was generally better than in traditional neurology consultations in Spain.

更新日期：2019-11-28
• J. Headache Pain (IF 3.918) Pub Date : 2019-06-27
Carlo Piccinni; Sabina Cevoli; Giulia Ronconi; Letizia Dondi; Silvia Calabria; Antonella Pedrini; Immacolata Esposito; Valentina Favoni; Giulia Pierangeli; Pietro Cortelli; Nello Martini

Although migraine is a disabling neurological condition that causes important disability, it remains an area of underdiagnosis and undertreatment worldwide. The aim of this study was to depict the burden of the unmet medical needs in migraine treated with triptans in a large Italian population. A 2-year longitudinal analysis of migraineurs with unmet medical needs on treatment with triptans was performed. The studied cohort consisted of subjects with ≥4 triptan dose units per month, selected from the general population These patients were stratified into: possible Low-Frequency Episodic Migraine (pLF-EM: 4–9 triptan dose units per month), possible High-Frequency Episodic Migraine (pHF-EM: 10–14 triptan dose units per month) and possible Chronic Migraine (pCM:> 14 triptan dose units per month). The first follow-up year was analysed to describe the use of preventive therapies, the second year to describe the ≥50% reduction in triptan use. Of 10,270,683 adults, 8.0 per 1000 were triptan users and, of these, 38.2% were migraineurs with unmet medical needs, corresponding to 3.1 per 1000 adults. By stratifying for the number of triptan dose units per month, 72.3% were affected by pLF-EM, 17.4% by pHF-EM, and 10.3% by pCM. In this cohort, 19.1% of individuals used oral preventive drugs and 0.1% botulinum toxin. Triptan use reduction was found in 22.3% individuals of the cohort, decreasing with the intensification of need levels (25.8% pLF-EM, 13.6% pHF-EM, 12.0% pCM). This real-life analysis underlined that the unmet medical needs concern a large part of patients treated with triptans and there is an undertreatment with preventive therapies whose benefit is insufficient, which may be due to the lack of effective preventive strategies, probably still reserved to severe patients. This study allows forecasting the actual impact of newest therapeutic strategies aimed to fill this gap.

更新日期：2019-11-28
• J. Headache Pain (IF 3.918) Pub Date : 2019-06-28
Stephen D. Silberstein; Virginia L. Stauffer; Katie A. Day; Sarah Lipsius; Maria-Carmen Wilson

Patients with high-frequency episodic migraine (HFEM) have a greater disease burden than those with low-frequency episodic migraine (LFEM). Acute treatment overuse increases the risk of migraine chronification in patients with HFEM. Galcanezumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody binding calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), is effective for migraine prevention with a favorable safety profile. Here, we investigate whether there are differences in galcanezumab efficacy in patients with LFEM or with HFEM. Data were pooled from two double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 3 trials; EVOLVE-1 and EVOLVE-2. Patients were 18–65 years old, experienced 4–14 monthly migraine headache days (MHDs) for ≥1 year prior, with onset at < 50 years of age. Migraine headaches were tracked via electronic patient-reported outcome system and randomization was stratified by low (LFEM; 4–7 monthly MHDs) or high (HFEM; 8–14 monthly MHDs) frequency. Subgroup analysis compared the HFEM and LFEM subgroups with a linear or generalized linear mixed model repeated measures approach. The intent-to-treat patients (N = 1773) had a mean age of 41.3 years, were mostly white (75%), female (85%), and 66% of patients had HFEM. In both the LFEM and HFEM subgroups, the overall (Months 1–6) and monthly changes from baseline in monthly MHDs and monthly MHDs with acute medication use compared with placebo were statistically significantly reduced for galcanezumab 120-mg and 240-mg. Galcanezumab (120-mg and 240-mg) significantly decreased the overall and monthly MHDs with nausea and/or vomiting, and with photophobia and phonophobia versus placebo in patients with LFEM or HFEM. In both subgroups, the mean overall (Months 1–6) and monthly percentages of patients with ≥50%, ≥75%, and 100% reduction in monthly MHDs from baseline were statistically significantly greater in patients receiving either dose of galcanezumab versus placebo. Galcanezumab (120-mg and 240-mg) significantly improved the Migraine-Specific Quality of Life Questionnaire role function-restrictive domain score as well as the Migraine Disability Assessment total score versus placebo for patients with LFEM or HFEM. There were no significant subgroup-by-treatment interactions. Galcanezumab was as effective in patients with HFEM as in those with LFEM. Associated symptoms, quality of life, and disability were similarly improved in patients with HFEM or LFEM. NCT02614183 , NCT02614196 .

更新日期：2019-11-28
• J. Headache Pain (IF 3.918) Pub Date : 2019-07-02
Pamela Blake; Rami Burstein

更新日期：2019-11-28
• J. Headache Pain (IF 3.918) Pub Date : 2019-07-09
Martin Syvertsen Mykland; Marte Helene Bjørk; Marit Stjern; Petter Moe Omland; Martin Uglem; Trond Sand

The migraine brain seems to undergo cyclic fluctuations of sensory processing. For instance, during the preictal phase, migraineurs experience symptoms and signs of altered pain perception as well as other well-known premonitory CNS-symptoms. In the present study we measured EEG-activation to non-painful motor and sensorimotor tasks in the different phases of the migraine cycle by longitudinal measurements of beta event related desynchronization (beta-ERD). We recorded electroencephalography (EEG) of 41 migraine patients and 31 healthy controls. Each subject underwent three EEG recordings on three different days with classification of each EEG recording according to the actual migraine phase. During each recording, subjects performed one motor and one sensorimotor task with the flexion-extension movement of the right wrist. Migraine patients had significantly increased beta-ERD and higher baseline beta power at the contralateral C3 electrode overlying the primary sensorimotor cortex in the preictal phase compared to the interictal phase. We found no significant differences in beta-ERD or baseline beta power between interictal migraineurs and controls. Increased preictal baseline beta activity may reflect a decrease in pre-activation in the sensorimotor cortex. Altered pre-activation may lead to changes in thresholds for inhibitory responses and increased beta-ERD response, possibly reflecting a generally increased preictal cortical responsivity in migraine. Cyclic fluctuations in the activity of second- and third-order afferent somatosensory neurons, and their associated cortical and/or thalamic interneurons, may accordingly also be a central part of the migraine pathophysiology.

更新日期：2019-11-28
• J. Headache Pain (IF 3.918) Pub Date : 2019-07-10
Andreas Kattem Husøy; Live Eikenes; Asta K. Håberg; Knut Hagen; Lars Jacob Stovner

更新日期：2019-11-28
• J. Headache Pain (IF 3.918) Pub Date : 2019-07-12
Daniela Pietrobon; K. C. Brennan

Mouse models of rare monogenic forms of migraine provide a unique experimental system to study the cellular and circuit mechanisms of the primary brain dysfunctions causing a migraine disorder. Here, we discuss the migraine-relevant phenotypes and the migraine-relevant functional alterations in the brain of five genetic mouse models of migraine, four of which carry mutations derived from patients with familial hemiplegic migraine (FHM) and the fifth carry a mutation from patients with both phenotypically normal MA and familial advanced sleep phase syndrome (FASPS). We focus on the latter mouse model, in which a ubiquitous serine-threonine kinase is mutated, and on two mouse models of pure FHM, in which a voltage-gated calcium channel controlling neurotransmitter release at most brain synapses and a Na/K ATPase that is expressed mainly in astrocytes in the adult brain are mutated, respectively. First, we describe the behavioral phenotypes of the genetic animal models and review the evidence that an increased susceptibility to experimentally induced cortical spreading depression (CSD) is a key migraine-relevant phenotype common to the five models. Second, we review the synaptic alterations in the cerebral cortex of the genetic models of migraine and discuss the mechanisms underlying their increased susceptibility to CSD. Third, we review the alterations in the trigeminovascular pain pathway and discuss possible implications for migraine pain mechanisms. Finally, we discuss the insights into migraine pathophysiology obtained from the genetic models of migraine, in particular regarding the mechanisms that make the brain of migraineurs susceptible to the ignition of “spontaneous” CSDs. Although the reviewed functional studies support the view of migraine as a disorder of the brain characterized by dysfunctional regulation of the excitatory/inhibitory balance in specific neuronal circuits, much work remains to be done in the genetic mouse models e.g. to identfy the relevant dysfunctional circuits and to establish whether and how the alterations in the function of specific circuits (in the cerebral cortex and/or other brain areas) are state-dependent and may, in certain conditions, favor CSD ignition and the migraine attack.

更新日期：2019-11-28
• J. Headache Pain (IF 3.918) Pub Date : 2019-07-15
Nooshin Yamani; Jes Olesen

New daily persistent headache (NDPH) presents with a sudden onset headache which continues without remission within 24 h. Although rare, NDPH is important because it is one of the most treatment refractory primary headache disorders and can be highly disabling to the individuals. In this structured review, we describe the current knowledge of epidemiology, clinical features, trigger factors, pathophysiology, diagnosis and therapeutic options of NDPH to better understand this enigmatic disorder. The prevalence of NDPH estimated to be 0.03% to 0.1% in the general population and is higher in children and adolescents than in adults. Individuals with NDPH can pinpoint the exact date their headache started. The pain is constant and lacks special characteristics but in some has migraine features. The exact pathogenic mechanism of NDPH is unknown, however pro-inflammatory cytokines and cervicogenic problems might play a role in its development. The diagnosis of NDPH is mainly clinical and based on a typical history, but proper laboratory investigation is needed to exclude secondary causes of headache. Regarding treatment strategy, controlled drug trials are absent. It is probably best to treat NDPH based upon the predominant headache phenotype. For patients who do not respond to common prophylactic drugs, ketamine infusion, onabotulinum toxin type A, intravenous (IV) lidocaine, IV methylprednisolone and nerve blockade are possible treatment options, but even aggressive treatment is usually ineffective. NDPH remains poorly understood but very burdensome for the individual. Multi-center randomized controlled trials are recommended to gain better understanding of NDPH and to establish evidence based treatments.

更新日期：2019-11-28
• J. Headache Pain (IF 3.918) Pub Date : 2019-07-15
Catherine Stark; Richard Stark; Nicole Limberg; Julian Rodrigues; Dennis Cordato; Raymond Schwartz; Robert Jukic

更新日期：2019-11-28
• J. Headache Pain (IF 3.918) Pub Date : 2019-07-15
Arani Vivekanantham; Claire Edwin; Tamar Pincus; Manjit Matharu; Helen Parsons; Martin Underwood

更新日期：2019-11-28
• J. Headache Pain (IF 3.918) Pub Date : 2019-07-22
Alan M. Rapoport; Jo H. Bonner; Tamar Lin; Dagan Harris; Yaron Gruper; Alon Ironi; Robert P. Cowan

There is a significant unmet need for new, effective and well tolerated acute migraine treatments. A recent study has demonstrated that a novel remote electrical neuromodulation (REN) treatment provides superior clinically meaningful pain relief with a low rate of device-related adverse events. The results reported herein compare the efficacy of REN with current standard of care in the acute treatments of migraine. We performed a post-hoc analysis on a subgroup of participants with migraine from a randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, sham-controlled, multicenter study on acute care. The original study included a 2–4 weeks run-in phase, in which migraine attacks were treated according to patient preference (i.e., usual care) and reported in an electronic diary; next, participants entered a double-blind treatment phase in which they treated the attacks with an active or sham device. The efficacy of REN was compared to the efficacy of usual care or pharmacological treatments in the run-in phase in a within-subject design that included participants who treated at least one attack with the active REN device and reported pain intensity at 2 h post-treatment. Of the 252 patients randomized, there were 99 participants available for analysis. At 2 h post-treatment, pain relief was achieved in 66.7% of the participants using REN versus 52.5% participants with usual care (p < 0.05). Pain relief at 2 h in at least one of two attacks was achieved by 84.4% of participants versus 68.9% in usual care (p < 0.05). REN and usual care were similarly effective for pain-free status at 2 h. The results also demonstrate the non-inferiority of REN compared with acute pharmacological treatments and its non-dependency on preventive medication use. REN is an effective acute treatment for migraine with non-inferior efficacy compared to current acute migraine therapies. Together with a very favorable safety profile, these findings suggest that REN may offer a promising alternative for the acute treatment of migraine and could be considered first line treatment in some patients. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03361423 . Registered 18 November 2017.

更新日期：2019-11-28
• J. Headache Pain (IF 3.918) Pub Date : 2019-07-24
Li Shen Loo; Jessica Ailani; Jack Schim; Simin Baygani; Hans-Peter Hundemer; Martha Port; John H. Krege

To study the efficacy and safety of lasmiditan for acute treatment of migraine in patients using migraine preventive medications. While lasmiditan has been proven to be an effective acute treatment for migraine, its effectiveness has not been examined when used concurrently with migraine preventives. SAMURAI and SPARTAN were similarly designed, double-blind, phase 3, placebo-controlled studies of patients 18 years or older with 3 to 8 migraine attacks per month. Patients were randomized to treat a migraine attack with oral lasmiditan 50 mg (SPARTAN only), 100 mg, 200 mg, or placebo. Migraine preventives were allowed as long as doses were stable for 3 months prior to screening and were unchanged during the study. Preventive medications with established or probable efficacy, as recommended by the American Academy of Neurology, the American Headache Society, and the European Headache Federation, plus botulinum toxin type A and candesartan, were included. Within the subgroups of patients using and not using preventive therapies, lasmiditan and placebo groups were analyzed for the outcome of pain-free at 2 h and other efficacy outcomes. The subgroups of patients using and not using preventive therapies were compared and interaction p-values were calculated for safety and efficacy outcomes. In these trials, 698 of 3981 patients (17.5%) used migraine preventive treatments. Among patients using preventives, all lasmiditan doses resulted in significantly more patients being pain-free at 2 h, compared to placebo (p < 0.05). Primary efficacy outcome (pain-free at 2 h), key secondary outcome (most bothersome symptom-free at 2 h) and all other efficacy outcomes were not significantly different between patients using or not using migraine preventives (all interaction p-values ≥0.1). Rates of adverse events were similar for patients using and not using preventive medications. Lasmiditan was more effective than placebo for the acute treatment of migraine in patients concurrently using migraine preventive medications. Lasmiditan efficacy and safety measures were similar for patients using and not using preventive medications. SAMURAI (NCT02439320) and SPARTAN (NCT02605174). Registered 18 March 2015.

更新日期：2019-11-28
• J. Headache Pain (IF 3.918) Pub Date : 2019-08-01
Mario Fernando Prieto Peres; Luiz Paulo Queiroz; Pedro Sampaio Rocha-Filho; Elder Machado Sarmento; Zaza Katsarava; Timothy J. Steiner

Even though migraine and other primary headache disorders are common and debilitating, major health surveys in Brazil have not included them. We repair this omission by combining data on non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in the Brazilian National Health Survey (PNS) 2013 with epidemiological data on migraine prevalence and severity in Brazil. The purpose is to rank migraine and its impact on public healthh among NCDs in order to support public-health policy toward better care for migraine in Brazil. Data from PNS, a cross-sectional population-based study, were merged with estimates made by the Brazilian Headache Epidemiology Study (BHES) of migraine prevalence (numbers of people affected and of candidates for migraine preventative therapy) and migraine-attributed disability. Migraine ranked second in prevalence among the NCDs, and as the highest cause of disability among adults in Brazil. Probable migraine accounted for substantial additional disability. An estimated total of 5.5 million people in Brazil (or 9.5 million with probable migraine included) were in need of preventative therapy. On this evidence, migraine should be included in the next health surveys in Brazil. Public-health policy should recognize the burden of migraine expressed in public ill health, and promote health services offering better diagnosis and treatment.

更新日期：2019-11-28
• J. Headache Pain (IF 3.918) Pub Date : 2019-08-01
Christian Ziegeler; Greta Brauns; Tim P. Jürgens; Arne May

更新日期：2019-11-28
• J. Headache Pain (IF 3.918) Pub Date : 2019-08-02
Junping Cao; Yuan Zhang; Lei Wu; Lidong Shan; Yufang Sun; Xinghong Jiang; Jin Tao

Migraine is a debilitating neurological disorder involving abnormal trigeminovascular activation and sensitization. However, the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms remain unclear. A rat model of conscious migraine was established through the electrical stimulation (ES) of the dural mater surrounding the superior sagittal sinus. Using patch clamp recording, immunofluorescent labelling, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and western blot analysis, we studied the effects of ES on sensory neuronal excitability and elucidated the underlying mechanisms mediated by voltage-gated ion channels. The calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) level in the jugular vein blood and the number of CGRP-positive neurons in the trigeminal ganglia (TGs) were significantly increased in rats with ES-induced migraine. The application of ES increased actional potential firing in both small-sized IB4-negative (IB4−) and IB4+ TG neurons. No significant changes in voltage-gated Na+ currents were observed in the ES-treated groups. ES robustly suppressed the transient outward K+ current (IA) in both types of TG neurons, while the delayed rectifier K+ current remained unchanged. Immunoblot analysis revealed that the protein expression of Kv4.3 was significantly decreased in the ES-treated groups, while Kv1.4 remained unaffected. Interestingly, ES increased the P/Q-type and T-type Ca2+ currents in small-sized IB4− TG neurons, while there were no significant changes in the IB4+ subpopulation of neurons. These results suggest that ES decreases the IA in small-sized TG neurons and increases P/Q- and T-type Ca2+ currents in the IB4− subpopulation of TG neurons, which might contribute to neuronal hyperexcitability in a rat model of ES-induced migraine.

更新日期：2019-11-28
• J. Headache Pain (IF 3.918) Pub Date : 2019-08-15
Mario Fernando Prieto Peres; Diego Belandrino Swerts; Arão Belitardo de Oliveira; Raimundo Pereira Silva-Neto

Migraine diagnosis is based on clinical aspects and is dependent on the experience of the attending physician. This study aimed to describe the patients journey profile until they start their experience in a tertiary headache center. In a cross-sectional study, medical charts from migraine patients were reviewed to describe which treatments, procedures and follow-up strategies are performed until the first appointment with a headache specialist. Patients from both sexes, ≥18 years old, which came to their first visit from March to July 2017 were included. Sociodemographic information, headache characteristics, diagnostic methods previously used, clinical history, family history and the treatments previously used were assessed in the first appointment with a specialist. Patient Health Questionnaire-9 and General Anxiety Disorder-7 were also applied. Descriptive analyses were performed to describe the sample profile and statistical tests were used to evaluate factors associated with the type of migraine (chronic or episodic). The sample consisted of 465 patients. On average, the pain started 17.1 (SD = 11.4) years before the first appointment with a headache specialist. Most of patients were classified as having chronic migraine (51.7%), with an average frequency of 15.5 (SD = 9.9) days per month. Regarding patients’ journey until a specialist, most patients were submitted to laboratory tests (74.0%), cranial tomography (66.8%) and magnetic resonance imaging (66.8%) as diagnostic methods, and preventive drugs (70.2%) and acupuncture (61.0%) as treatments. After stratification by migraine type as episodic or chronic, patients with chronic migraine were submitted to more magnetic resonance imaging test, acupuncture, psychotherapy, used preventive drugs, and reported to have used topiramate without beneficial effects. Brazilian patients with migraine experiment a long journey until getting to a headache specialist and are submitted to a great number of unnecessary exams, especially those with chronic migraine.

更新日期：2019-11-28
• J. Headache Pain (IF 3.918) Pub Date : 2019-08-23
Linda D’Antona; Manjit Matharu

The term refractory migraine has been used to describe persistent headache that is difficult to treat or fails to respond to standard and/or aggressive treatments. This subgroup of migraine patients are generally highly disabled and experience impaired quality of life, despite optimal treatments. Several definitions and criteria for refractory migraine have been published, but as yet, an accepted or established definition is not available. This article reviews the published criteria and proposes a new set of criteria. The epidemiology, pathophysiology and management options are also reviewed.

更新日期：2019-11-28
• J. Headache Pain (IF 3.918) Pub Date : 2019-08-29
Robert E. Shapiro; Helen M. Hochstetler; Ellen B. Dennehy; Rashna Khanna; Erin Gautier Doty; Paul H. Berg; Amaal J. Starling

In addition to the increased risk for cardiovascular (CV) disease and CV events associated with migraine, patients with migraine can also present with a number of CV risk factors (CVRFs). Existing treatment options can be limited due to contraindications, increased burden associated with monitoring, or patient avoidance of side effects. Safe and effective migraine treatment options are needed for patients with migraine and a history of CV or cerebrovascular disease or with increased risk for CV events. This analysis was designed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of oral lasmiditan, a selective serotonin 5-hydroxytryptamine 1F receptor agonist, in acute treatment of migraine attacks in patients with CVRFs. SAMURAI and SPARTAN were similarly designed, Phase 3, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials in adults treating a single migraine attack with lasmiditan 50, 100, or 200 mg. Both studies included patients with CVRFs, and SPARTAN allowed patients with coronary artery disease, clinically significant arrhythmia, or uncontrolled hypertension. Efficacy and safety of lasmiditan in subgroups of patients with differing levels of CVRFs are reported. For efficacy analyses, logistic regression was used to assess treatment-by-subgroup interactions. For safety analyses, Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel test of general association evaluated treatment comparisons; Mantel-Haenszel odds ratio assessed significant treatment effects. In this pooled analysis, a total of 4439 patients received ≥1 dose of study drug. A total of 3500 patients (78.8%) had ≥1 CVRF, and 1833 patients (41.3%) had ≥2 CVRFs at baseline. Both trials met the primary endpoints of headache pain freedom and most bothersome symptom freedom at 2 h. The presence of CVRFs did not affect efficacy results. There was a low frequency of likely CV treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) overall (lasmiditan, 30 [0.9%]; placebo, 5 [0.4%]). There was no statistical difference in the frequency of likely CV TEAEs in either the absence or presence of any CVRFs. The only likely CV TEAE seen across patients with ≥1, ≥ 2, ≥ 3, or ≥ 4 CVRFs was palpitations. When analyzed by the presence of CVRFs, there was no statistical difference in lasmiditan efficacy or the frequency of likely CV TEAEs. Despite the analysis being limited by a single-migraine-attack design, the lack of differences in efficacy and safety with increasing numbers of CVRFs indicates that lasmiditan might be considered in the treatment algorithm for patients with CVRFs. Future studies are needed to assess long-term efficacy and safety. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02439320 (SAMURAI), registered 18 March 2015 and ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02605174 (SPARTAN), registered 11 November 2015.

更新日期：2019-11-28
• J. Headache Pain (IF 3.918) Pub Date : 2019-08-29
Andrea M. Harriott; Lauren C. Strother; Marta Vila-Pueyo; Philip R. Holland

更新日期：2019-11-28
• J. Headache Pain (IF 3.918) Pub Date : 2019-08-30
Elio Clemente Agostoni; Piero Barbanti; Paolo Calabresi; Bruno Colombo; Pietro Cortelli; Fabio Frediani; Pietrangelo Geppetti; Licia Grazzi; Massimo Leone; Paolo Martelletti; Luigi Alberto Pini; Maria Pia Prudenzano; Paola Sarchielli; Gioacchino Tedeschi; Antonio Russo

Chronic migraine is a disabling condition that is currently underdiagnosed and undertreated. In this narrative review, we discuss the future of chronic migraine management in relation to recent progress in evidence-based pharmacological treatment. Patients with chronic migraine require prophylactic therapy to reduce the frequency of migraine attacks, but the only currently available evidence-based prophylactic treatment options for chronic migraine are topiramate and onabotulinumtoxinA. Improved prophylactic therapy is needed to reduce the high burden of chronic migraine in Italy. Monoclonal antibodies that target the calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) pathway of migraine pathogenesis have been specifically developed for the prophylactic treatment of chronic migraine. These anti-CGRP/R monoclonal antibodies have demonstrated good efficacy and excellent tolerability in phase II and III clinical trials, and offer new hope to patients who are currently not taking any prophylactic therapy or not benefitting from their current treatment. Treatment of chronic migraine is a dynamic and rapidly advancing area of research. New developments in this field have the potential to improve the diagnosis and provide more individualised treatments for this condition. Establishing a culture of prevention is essential for reducing the personal, social and economic burden of chronic migraine.

更新日期：2019-11-28
• J. Headache Pain (IF 3.918) Pub Date : 2019-09-02
Zhaoxia Qin; Xin-Wei He; Jilei Zhang; Shuai Xu; Ge-Fei Li; Jingjing Su; Yan-Hui Shi; Shiyu Ban; Yue Hu; Yi-Sheng Liu; Mei-Ting Zhuang; Rong Zhao; Xiao-Lei Shen; Jianqi Li; Jian-Ren Liu; Xiaoxia Du

Increasing evidence has suggested that the cerebellum is associated with pain and migraine. In addition, the descending pain system of the brainstem is the major site of trigeminal pain processing and modulation and has been discussed as a main player in the pathophysiology of migraine. Cerebellar and brainstem structural changes associated with migraineurs remain to be further investigated. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) (50 controls, 50 migraineurs without aura (MWoAs)) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) (46 controls, 46 MWoAs) were used to assess cerebellum and brainstem anatomical alterations associated with MWoAs. We utilized a spatially unbiased infratentorial template toolbox (SUIT) to perform cerebellum and brainstem optimized VBM and DTI analysis. We extracted the average diffusion values from a probabilistic cerebellar white matter atlas to investigate whether MWoAs exhibited microstructure alterations in the cerebellar peduncle tracts. MWoAs showed decreased fractional anisotropy (FA) in the vermis VI extending to the bilateral lobules V and VI of the cerebellum. We also found higher axial diffusivity (AD), mean diffusivity (MD), and radial diffusivity (RD) in the right inferior cerebellum peduncle tract in MWoAs. MWoAs exhibited both reduced gray matter volume and increased AD, MD and RD in the spinal trigeminal nucleus (SpV). MWoAs exhibited microstructural changes in the cerebellum and the local brainstem. These structural differences might contribute to dysfunction of the transmission and modulation of noxious information, trigeminal nociception, and conduction and integration of multimodal information in MWoAs. These findings further suggest involvement of the cerebellum and the brainstem in the pathology of migraine without aura.

更新日期：2019-11-28
• J. Headache Pain (IF 3.918) Pub Date : 2019-09-03
Hayrunnisa Bolay; Doga Vuralli; Peter J. Goadsby

Migraine is a complex brain disorder and initiating events for acute attacks still remain unclear. It seems difficult to explain the development of migraine headache with one mechanism and/or a single anatomical location. Cortical spreading depression (CSD) is recognized as the biological substrate of migraine aura and experimental animal studies have provided mechanisms that possibly link CSD to the activation of trigeminal neurons mediating lateralized head pain. However, some CSD features do not match the clinical features of migraine headache and there are gaps in translating CSD to migraine with aura. Clinical features of migraine headache and results from research are critically evaluated; and consistent and inconsistent findings are discussed according to the known basic features of canonical CSD: typical SD limited to the cerebral cortex as it was originally defined. Alternatively, arguments related to the emergence of SD in other brain structures in addition to the cerebral cortex or CSD initiated dysfunction in the thalamocortical network are proposed. Accordingly, including thalamus, particularly reticular nucleus and higher order thalamic nuclei, which functions as a hub connecting the visual, somatosensory, language and motor cortical areas and subjects to modulation by brain stem projections into the CSD theory, would greatly improve our current understanding of migraine.

更新日期：2019-11-28
• J. Headache Pain (IF 3.918) Pub Date : 2019-09-06
Mathias Barra; Fredrik A. Dahl; E. Anne MacGregor; Kjersti Grøtta Vetvik

To develop a robust statistical tool for the diagnosis of menstrually related migraine. The International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD) has diagnostic criteria for menstrual migraine within the appendix. These include the requirement for menstrual attacks to occur within a 5-day window in at least $\frac {2}{3}$ menstrual cycles ( $\frac {2}{3}$ -criterion). While this criterion has been shown to be sensitive, it is not specific. Yet in some circumstances, for example to establish the underlying pathophysiology of menstrual attacks, specificity is also important, to ensure that only women in whom the relationship between migraine and menstruation is more than a chance occurrence are recruited. Using a simple mathematical model, a Markov chain, to model migraine attacks we developed a statistical criterion to diagnose menstrual migraine (sMM). We then analysed a data set of migraine diaries using both the $\frac {2}{3}$ -criterion and the sMM. sMM was superior to the $\frac {2}{3}$ -criterion for varying numbers of menstrual cycles and increased in accuracy with more cycle data. In contrast, the $\frac {2}{3}$ -criterion showed maximum sensitivity only for three cycles, although specificity increased with more cycle data. While the ICHD $\frac {2}{3}$ -criterion is a simple screening tool for menstrual migraine, the sMM provides a more specific diagnosis and can be applied irrespective of the number of menstrual cycles recorded. It is particularly useful for clinical trials of menstrual migraine where a chance association between migraine and menstruation must be excluded.

更新日期：2019-11-28
• J. Headache Pain (IF 3.918) Pub Date : 2019-09-06
Jakob Møller Hansen; Andrew Charles

Migraine is a major public health problem afflicting approximately 10% of the general population and is a leading cause of disability worldwide, yet our understanding of the basis mechanisms of migraine remains incomplete. About a third of migraine patients have attacks with aura, consisting of transient neurological symptoms that precede or accompany headache, or occur without headache. For patients, aura symptoms are alarming and may be transiently disabling. For clinicians and scientists, aura represents an intriguing neurophysiological event that may provide important insight into basic mechanisms of migraine. Several observations point toward important differences between migraine with and without aura. Compared with migraine without aura, migraine with aura has different heritability, greater association with different conditions including stroke, different alterations of brain structure and function as revealed by imaging studies. A number of studies also indicate that migraine with aura may respond differently to acute and preventive therapies as compared to migraine without aura. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of these differences in treatment responses, and to discuss the possibility of different therapeutic strategies for migraine with vs. without aura.

更新日期：2019-11-28
• J. Headache Pain (IF 3.918) Pub Date : 2019-09-06
Elena R. Lebedeva; Natalia M. Gurary; Jes Olesen

更新日期：2019-11-28
• J. Headache Pain (IF 3.918) Pub Date : 2019-10-21
Eigil Lindekilde Larsen; Håkan Ashina; Afrim Iljazi; Haidar Muhsen Al-Khazali; Kristoffer Seem; Messoud Ashina; Sait Ashina; Henrik Winther Schytz

Post-traumatic headache (PTH) is associated with considerable disability and reduced health-related quality of life. Despite the very high prevalence of PTH, there are no evidence-based guidelines for PTH treatment. Thus, we found it timely to provide a systematic review of the current literature on acute and preventive pharmacological treatment of PTH using PubMed and Embase databases. Included studies involved acute and preventive pharmacological treatment of headache attributed to traumatic injury to the head in adherence to the International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD) criteria. Of 1424 potentially relevant articles identified, 63 were retrieved for detailed evaluation and seven studies (one prospective and six retrospective) met the inclusion criteria. None of the seven included studies were randomized clinical trials (RCTs) or used a placebo-controlled study design. We found that there is a lack of high-quality evidence-based studies on the pharmacological treatment of PTH. Future studies are highly needed and must emphasize open-label studies with rigorous methodology or RCTs with a placebo-controlled design.

更新日期：2019-11-28
• J. Headache Pain (IF 3.918) Pub Date : 2019-10-30
Raffaele Ornello; Cindy Tiseo; Ilaria Frattale; Giulia Perrotta; Carmine Marini; Francesca Pistoia; Simona Sacco

Erenumab, a fully human monoclonal antibody directed against the calcitonin gene-related peptide receptor, was approved for the prevention of episodic (EM) or chronic migraine (CM) at the monthly dose of 70 mg or 140 mg. We reviewed the available literature to understand if patients with prior preventive treatment failures benefit more from the 140 mg dose than the 70 mg. We searched papers indexed in PubMed and conference abstracts published in the last 2 years which assessed the safety and efficacy of erenumab in patients with prior preventive treatment failures. We reviewed the results of 3 randomized controlled trials and their subgroup analyses and open-label extensions. The 140 mg monthly dose of erenumab had a numerical advantage over the 70 mg monthly dose in patients with prior preventive treatment failures, both in EM and CM (with or without medication overuse) during the double blind phases of the trials and their open-label extensions. The numerical difference between the two doses increased with the increase in the number of prior preventive treatment failures. The available data suggest that erenumab 140 mg monthly might be preferred over the 70 mg monthly dose in patients with EM or CM and prior preventive treatment failures. Further data are needed to assess the long-term efficacy in clinical practice of the two doses of erenumab, while their safety profile is comparable.

更新日期：2019-11-28
• J. Headache Pain (IF 3.918) Pub Date : 2019-11-05
Alberto Doretti; Irina Shestaritc; Daniela Ungaro; John-Ih Lee; Loukas Lymperopoulos; Lili Kokoti; Martina Guglielmetti; Dimos Dimitrios Mitsikostas; Christian Lampl

更新日期：2019-11-28
• J. Headache Pain (IF 3.918) Pub Date : 2019-11-06
Julia Philipp; Michael Zeiler; Christian Wöber; Gudrun Wagner; Andreas F. K. Karwautz; Timothy J. Steiner; Çiçek Wöber-Bingöl

更新日期：2019-11-28
• J. Headache Pain (IF 3.918) Pub Date : 2019-11-07
Chengye Yao; Yu Wang; Lijun Wang; Yunning Liu; Jiangmei Liu; Jinlei Qi; Yun Lin; Peng Yin; Maigeng Zhou