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  • Dural arteriovenous fistulas and headache features: an observational study
    J. Headache Pain (IF 3.918) Pub Date : 2020-01-16
    Ilenia Corbelli; Francesca De Maria; Paolo Eusebi; Michele Romoli; Gabriela Cardaioli; Mohammed Hamam; Piero Floridi; Letizia Maria Cupini; Paola Sarchielli; Paolo Calabresi

    Dural arteriovenous fistulas are intracranial vascular malformations, fed by dural arteries and draining venous sinuses or meningeal veins. Clinical course varies widely and ranges from benign with spontaneous remission to fatal, due to cerebral hemorrhage. In a 10-year single institution experience, clinical presentation of dural arteriovenous fistulas, and in particular headache and angiographic features, as well as long-term outcome were analyzed. Data of 42 intracranial dural arteriovenous fistulas of 40 patients concerning demographic characteristics, medical history and risk factors, clinical presentation and headache features, location and neuroimaging findings, as well as treatment and outcome, were collected. Furthermore, we used the modified-Rankin Scale to assess the long-term outcome, by telephone contact with patients and/or their relatives. Patients aged between 25 and 89 years (mean age 55.8 ± 15.5). According to different clinical presentation and evolution, related to their unique drainage pattern into the cavernous sinus, we examined the carotid-cavernous fistulas separately from other dural arteriovenous fistulas. Interestingly, we found that the migraine-like headache was the major onset symptom of dural arteriovenous fistulas different from carotid-cavernous fistulas (p = 0.036). On the other hand, non-migraine-like headache was a typical characteristic of carotid-cavernous fistulas (p = 0.003). Moreover, ocular symptoms were more frequently observed in carotid-cavernous fistulas (92.9% p < 0.001). Seventy percent of patients did not report any impact on quality of life (mRS 0 or 1) at follow-up. These findings suggest a link between the site of lesion and clinical features of the headache, a symptom that usually leads to hospitalization. In particular, ocular symptoms accompanying non-migraine-like headache should be promptly recognized and raise the suspicion of a carotid-cavernous fistula, while migraine-like headache may suggests other dural arteriovenous fistulas. This study provides new significant insights on headache and its characteristics as a presentation symptom in dural arteriovenous fistulas.

  • Microglia P2X4R-BDNF signalling contributes to central sensitization in a recurrent nitroglycerin-induced chronic migraine model
    J. Headache Pain (IF 3.918) Pub Date : 2020-01-14
    Ting Long; Wei He; Qi Pan; Shanshan Zhang; Dunke Zhang; Guangcheng Qin; Lixue Chen; Jiying Zhou

    According to our previous study, microglia P2X4 receptors (P2X4Rs) play a pivotal role in the central sensitization of chronic migraine (CM). However, the molecular mechanism that underlies the crosstalk between microglia P2X4Rs and neurons of the trigeminal nucleus caudalis (TNC) is not fully understood. Therefore, the aim of this study is to examine the exact P2X4Rs signalling pathway in the development of central sensitization in a CM animal model. We used an animal model with recurrent intermittent administration of nitroglycerin (NTG), which closely mimics CM. NTG-induced basal mechanical and thermal hypersensitivity were evaluated using a von Frey filament test and an increasing-temperature hot plate apparatus (IITC). We detected P2X4Rs, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and phosphorylated p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p-p38-MAPK) expression profiles in the TNC. We investigated the effects of a P2X4R inhibitor (5-BDBD) and an agonist (IVM) on NTG-induced hyperalgesia and neurochemical changes as well as on the expression of p-p38-MAPK and BDNF. We also detected the effects of a tropomyosin-related kinase B (TrkB) inhibitor (ANA-12) on the CM animal model in vivo. Then, we evaluated the effect of 5-BDBD and SB203580 (a p38-MAPK inhibitors) on the release and synthesis of BDNF in BV2 microglia cells treated with 50 μM adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Chronic intermittent administration of NTG resulted in chronic mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia, accompanied by the upregulation of P2X4Rs and BDNF expression. 5-BDBD or ANA-12 prevented hyperalgesia induced by NTG, which was associated with a significant inhibition of the NTG-induced increase in phosphorylated extracellular regulated protein kinases (p-ERK) and calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP) release in the TNC. Repeated administration of IVM produced sustained hyperalgesia and significantly increased the levels of p-ERK and CGRP release in the TNC. Activating P2X4Rs with ATP triggered BDNF release and increased BDNF synthesis in BV2 microglia, and these results were then reduced by 5-BDBD or SB203580. Our results indicated that the P2X4R contributes to the central sensitization of CM by releasing BDNF and promoting TNC neuronal hyper-excitability. Blocking microglia P2X4R-BDNF signalling may have an effect on the prevention of migraine chronification.

  • Prevalence and risk factors associated with headache amongst medical staff in South China
    J. Headache Pain (IF 3.918) Pub Date : 2020-01-14
    Wei Xie; Ruibing Li; Mianwang He; Fang Cui; Tingting Sun; Jianmei Xiong; Dengfa Zhao; Weinan Na; Ruozhuo Liu; Shengyuan Yu

    A previous study by our team reported the prevalence of primary headache disorders and factors associated with headache among nurses in three hospitals in North China. The aim of this cross-sectional survey was to learn more about how medical nurses in South China were affected by headache. Additionally, we determined the prevalence of headache and measured the impact of headache among doctors in mainland China for the first time. Stratified random cluster sampling was used to select 280 physicians and 365 nurses from various departments in four hospitals in Sanya, which is one of southernmost cities in China. Information was collected on demographic data, occupational factors and headache characteristics by using a structured questionnaire. Among 645 medical staff, 548 (85%) responded (doctors = 240, nurses = 308). Among the medical staff, the 1-year prevalence of primary headache disorders was 50%, with 25.9% experiencing migraine and 24.1% experiencing tension-type headache (TTH). The prevalence of migraine in female doctors was higher than that in female nurses, although this difference was not significant (32.4% vs. 29.8%, P = 0.628). Multivariate analysis showed that being female and working in other specialties (Emergency Department & Radiology Department) remained independent risk factors for migraine in doctors (OR 2.314 and 3.223). In nurses, being married was a risk factor for migraine (OR 3.728), and job titles remained an independent risk factor for migraine and TTH (OR 2.294 and 4.695). Working more than 6 night-shifts per month was associated with an increased prevalence of migraine and TTH in doctors; the same was true in nurses for migraine, but not for TTH. The prevalence of primary headache disorders in both nurses and doctors is higher than that in the general population in South China. Our study shows that occupation, geography and sex may play an important role. Further, female doctors are more susceptible than female nurses to migraine. The risk factors relevant to headache that were found in this study should provide an important reference for promoting occupational health in medical staff, especially female doctors in China.

  • The epidemiology of headaches among patients with epilepsy: a systematic review and meta-analysis
    J. Headache Pain (IF 3.918) Pub Date : 2020-01-10
    Bereket Duko; Mohammed Ayalew; Alemayehu Toma

    Headache is the symptom of pain in the face, head or neck that causes disability in most people with medical and neurological disorders. It frequently co-occurs with most chronic diseases such as epilepsy and significantly impacts the quality of life. However, epidemiologic data from different studies showed different rates of prevalence. Therefore, we conducted this review to summarize the available epidemiologic evidence on the topic and formulate recommendations for future research and clinical practice. We followed the preferred reporting items for systematic review and meta-analysis (PRISMA) guidelines. We systematically searched the literature using popular databases such as PubMed, EMBASE, Psych-INFO, and SCOPUS. We further scanned the reference lists of the eligible studies to supplement our electronic search. The Comprehensive Meta-Analysis software version 3.0 (CMA 3.0) was used to conduct a meta-analysis. Subgroup and sensitivity analysis were performed and Cochran’s Q- and the I2- test were used to assess the source of heterogeneity. The funnel plot and Egger’s regression tests were used to assess potential publication bias. A total of 17 studies conducted both in developed and developing countries including 5564 study participants were combined in this meta-analysis. The pooled estimated prevalence of headache among patients with epilepsy was 48.4%. The pooled estimated prevalence of Inter-Ictal headache (IIH) (42.2%) and Postictal headache (PIH) (43.1%) were higher when compared to tension-type headache (TTH) (26.2%), migraine with aura (26.0%) and migraine without aura (10.4%). The pooled prevalence of headache was 50.6% and 49.5% for developed and developing countries respectively. The pooled prevalence of headache among patients with epilepsy was considerably higher among females (63.0%) when compared to males (33.3%). Moreover, the pooled estimated prevalence of headache among patients with epilepsy was ranging from 46.0% to 52.2% in a leave-one-out sensitivity analysis. The pooled estimated prevalence of headache among patients with epilepsy was considerably high (48.4%). Screening and appropriate management of headaches among patients with epilepsy are warranted.

  • ICHD-3 is significantly more specific than ICHD-3 beta for diagnosis of migraine with aura and with typical aura
    J. Headache Pain (IF 3.918) Pub Date : 2020-01-07
    Carl H. Göbel; Sarah C. Karstedt; Thomas F. Münte; Hartmut Göbel; Sebastian Wolfrum; Elena R. Lebedeva; Jes Olesen; Georg Royl

    In the emergency room, distinguishing between a migraine with aura and a transient ischemic attack (TIA) is often not straightforward and mistakes can be harmful to both the patient and to society. To account for this difficulty, the third edition of the International Classification of Headache disorders (ICHD-3) changed the diagnostic criteria of migraine with aura. One hundred twenty-eight patients referred to the emergency room at the University Hospital of Lübeck, Germany with a suspected TIA were prospectively interviewed about their symptoms leading to admission shortly after initial presentation. The diagnosis that resulted from applying the ICHD-3 and ICHD-3 beta diagnostic criteria was compared to the diagnosis made independently by the treating physicians performing the usual diagnostic work-up. The new ICHD-3 diagnostic criteria for migraine with aura and migraine with typical aura display an excellent specificity (96 and 98% respectively), and are significantly more specific than the previous ICHD-3 beta classification system when it comes to diagnosing a first single attack (probable migraine with aura and probable migraine with typical aura). The ICHD-3 is a highly useful tool for the clinical neurologist in order to distinguish between a migraine with aura and a TIA, already at the first point of patient contact, such as in the emergency department or a TIA clinic.

  • White matter changes in chronic and episodic migraine: a diffusion tensor imaging study
    J. Headache Pain (IF 3.918) Pub Date : 2020-01-02
    Álvaro Planchuelo-Gómez; David García-Azorín; Ángel L. Guerrero; Santiago Aja-Fernández; Margarita Rodríguez; Rodrigo de Luis-García

    White matter alterations have been observed in patients with migraine. However, no microstructural white matter alterations have been found particularly in episodic or chronic migraine patients, and there is limited research focused on the comparison between these two groups of migraine patients. Fifty-one healthy controls, 55 episodic migraine patients and 57 chronic migraine patients were recruited and underwent brain T1-weighted and diffusion-weighted MRI acquisition. Using Tract-Based Spatial Statistics (TBSS), fractional anisotropy, mean diffusivity, radial diffusivity and axial diffusivity were compared between the different groups. On the one hand, all migraine patients were compared against healthy controls. On the other hand, patients from each migraine group were compared between them and also against healthy controls. Correlation analysis between clinical features (duration of migraine in years, time from onset of chronic migraine in months, where applicable, and headache and migraine frequency, where applicable) and Diffusion Tensor Imaging measures was performed. Fifty healthy controls, 54 episodic migraine and 56 chronic migraine patients were finally included in the analysis. Significant decreased axial diffusivity (p < .05 false discovery rate and by number of contrasts corrected) was found in chronic migraine compared to episodic migraine in 38 white matter regions from the Johns Hopkins University ICBM-DTI-81 White-Matter Atlas. Significant positive correlation was found between time from onset of chronic migraine and mean fractional anisotropy in the bilateral external capsule, and negative correlation between time from onset of chronic migraine and mean radial diffusivity in the bilateral external capsule. These findings suggest global white matter structural differences between episodic migraine and chronic migraine. Patients with chronic migraine could present axonal integrity impairment in the first months of chronic migraine with respect to episodic migraine patients. White matter changes after the onset of chronic migraine might reflect a set of maladaptive plastic changes.

  • The crossover design for migraine preventives: an analyses of four randomized placebo-controlled trials
    J. Headache Pain (IF 3.918) Pub Date : 2019-12-27
    Astrid Bjørke Jenssen; Lars Jacob Stovner; Erling Tronvik; Trond Sand; Grethe Helde; Gøril Bruvik Gravdahl; Knut Hagen

    To evaluate the crossover design in migraine preventive treatment trials by assessing dropout rate, and potential period and carryover effect in four placebo-controlled randomized controlled trials (RCTs). In order to increase statistical power, the study combined data from four different RCTs performed from 1998 to 2015 at St. Olavs Hospital, Norway. Among 264 randomized patients, 120 received placebo treatment before and 144 after active treatment. Only 26 (10%) dropped out during the follow-up period of 30–48 weeks, the majority (n = 19) in the first 12 weeks. No period effect was found, since the treatment sequence did not influence the responder rate after placebo treatment, being respectively for migraine 30.5% vs. 27.4% (p = 0.59) and for headache 25.0% vs. 24.8% (p = 0.97, Chi-square test) when placebo occurred early or late. Furthermore, no carryover effect was identified, since the treatment sequence did not influence the treatment effect (difference between placebo and active treatment). There was no significant difference between those who received active treatment first and those who received placebo first with respect to change in number of days per 4 week of headache (− 0.9 vs. -1.3, p = 0.46) and migraine (− 1.2 vs. -0.9, p = 0.35, Student’s t-test). Summary data from four crossover trials evaluating preventive treatment in adult migraine showed that few dropped out after the first period. No period or carryover effect was found. RCT studies with crossover design can be recommended as an efficient and cost-saving way to evaluate potential new preventive medicines for migraine in adults.

  • Cost of chronic and episodic migraine patients in continuous treatment for two years in a tertiary level headache Centre
    J. Headache Pain (IF 3.918) Pub Date : 2019-12-30
    Andrea Negro; Paolo Sciattella; Daniele Rossi; Martina Guglielmetti; Paolo Martelletti; Francesco Saverio Mennini

    Migraine is one of the most common neurological diseases and an estimated 1.04 billion people worldwide have been diagnosed with migraine. Available data suggest that migraine is world widely associated with a high economic burden, but there is great variability in estimated costs that depends on the geographical, methodological and temporal differences between the studies. The purpose of this study was to quantify the annual direct cost of episodic migraine (EM) and chronic migraine (CM), both for the patient and for the National Health System (NHS), using data from subjects who attended an Italian tertiary headache centre. Furthermore, we evaluated comparatively the impact of gender and age on the economic burden of migraine. We conducted a retrospective and non-interventional observational analysis of the electronic medical records of subjects with EM and CM who consecutively attended the Regional Referral Headache Centre of Rome and undergoing continuous treatment in the 2 years prior to 31 January 2019. This approach was intended to prevent distorsions due to natural fluctuations in migraine status over time. The collected data included demographic characteristics, number of specialist visits, consumption of medications, diagnostic tests, accesses in the emergency department (ED) and days of hospitalization due to the pathology. Our sample consisted of 548 patients (85.4% women and 14.6% men): 65.5% had CM and 34.5% had EM. The average annual expenditure per patient was €1482. 82.8% of the total cost (€1227) was covered by the NHS. The main item of expenditure were medications that represented 86.8% (€1286), followed by specialist visits (10.2%), hospitalizations for (1.9%), diagnostic tests for (1%) and ED visits for (0.1%). Costs were significantly higher for women than men (€1517 vs. €1274, p = 0.013) and increased with age (p = 0.002). The annual direct cost of CM was 4.8-fold higher than that of EM (€2037 vs. €427, p = 0.001). Our results provide a valuable estimate of the annual direct cost of CM and EM patients in the specific setting of a tertiary headache centre and confirm the high economic impact of migraine on both the NHS and patients.

  • Correction to: Galcanezumab in episodic migraine: subgroup analyses of efficacy by high versus low frequency of migraine headaches in phase 3 studies (EVOLVE-1 & EVOLVE-2)
    J. Headache Pain (IF 3.918) Pub Date : 2019-12-27
    Stephen D. Silberstein; Virginia L. Stauffer; Katie A. Day; Sarah Lipsius; Maria-Carmen Wilson

    After publication of our article [1] we were notified that the data presented in the upper row of Fig. 7 was inadvertently the least square mean change from baseline (standard error) at Month 6 rather than the overall average of Month 3 and Month 6. The figure legend and discussion of the data in the text were and are correct. The error was only in the upper row of Fig. 7. The legend for Fig. 7 did not require revision.

  • Mechanisms of migraine as a chronic evolutive condition
    J. Headache Pain (IF 3.918) Pub Date : 2019-12-23
    Anna P. Andreou; Lars Edvinsson

    Understanding the mechanisms of migraine remains challenging as migraine is not a static disorder, and even in its episodic form migraine remains an “evolutive” chronic condition. Considerable progress has been made in elucidating the pathophysiological mechanisms of migraine, associated genetic factors that may influence susceptibility to the disease, and functional and anatomical changes during the progression of a migraine attack or the transformation of episodic to chronic migraine. Migraine is a life span neurological disorder that follows an evolutive age-dependent change in its prevalence and even clinical presentations. As a disorder, migraine involves recurrent intense head pain and associated unpleasant symptoms. Migraine attacks evolve over different phases with specific neural mechanisms and symptoms being involved during each phase. In some patients, migraine can be transformed into a chronic form with daily or almost daily headaches. The mechanisms behind this evolutive process remain unknown, but genetic and epigenetic factors, inflammatory processes and central sensitization may play an important role.

  • Impaired intrinsic functional connectivity between the thalamus and visual cortex in migraine without aura
    J. Headache Pain (IF 3.918) Pub Date : 2019-12-19
    Heng-Le Wei; Xin Zhou; Yu-Chen Chen; Yu-Sheng Yu; Xi Guo; Gang-Ping Zhou; Qing-Qing Zhou; Li-Jie Qu; Xindao Yin; Junrong Li; Hong Zhang

    Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has confirmed disrupted visual network connectivity in migraine without aura (MwoA). The thalamus plays a pivotal role in a number of pain conditions, including migraine. However, the significance of altered thalamo-visual functional connectivity (FC) in migraine remains unknown. The goal of this study was to explore thalamo-visual FC integrity in patients with MwoA and investigate its clinical significance. Resting-state fMRI data were acquired from 33 patients with MwoA and 22 well-matched healthy controls. After identifying the visual network by independent component analysis, we compared neural activation in the visual network and thalamo-visual FC and assessed whether these changes were linked to clinical characteristics. We used voxel-based morphometry to determine whether functional differences were dependent on structural differences. The visual network exhibited significant differences in regions (bilateral cunei, right lingual gyrus and left calcarine sulcus) by inter-group comparison. The patients with MwoA showed significantly increased FC between the left thalami and bilateral cunei and between the right thalamus and the contralateral calcarine sulcus and right cuneus. Furthermore, the neural activation of the left calcarine sulcus was positively correlated with visual analogue scale scores (r = 0.319, p = 0.043), and enhanced FC between the left thalamus and right cuneus in migraine patients was negatively correlated with Generalized Anxiety Disorder scores (r = − 0.617, p = 0.005). Our data suggest that migraine distress is exacerbated by aberrant feedback projections to the visual network, playing a crucial role in migraine physiological mechanisms. The current study provides further insights into the complex scenario of migraine mechanisms.

  • Consensus of the Hellenic Headache Society on the diagnosis and treatment of migraine
    J. Headache Pain (IF 3.918) Pub Date : 2019-12-13
    Evangelos Kouremenos; Chrysa Arvaniti; Theodoros S. Constantinidis; Ermioni Giannouli; Nikolaos Fakas; Themistoklis Kalamatas; Evangelia Kararizou; Dimitrios Naoumis; Dimos D. Mitsikostas

    More than 0.6 million people suffer from disabling migraines in Greece causing a dramatic work loss, but only a small proportion of migraineurs attend headache centres, most of them being treated by non-experts. On behalf of the Hellenic Headache Society, we report here a consensus on the diagnosis and treatment of adult migraine that is based on the recent guidelines of the European Headache Federation, on the principles of Good Clinical Practice and on the Greek regulatory affairs. The purposes are three-fold: (1) to increase awareness for migraine in Greece; (2) to support Greek practitioners who are treating migraineurs; and (3) to help Greek migraineurs to get the most appropriate treatment. For mild migraine, symptomatic treatment with high dose simple analgesics is suggested, while for moderate to severe migraines triptans or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, or both, should be administered following an individually tailored therapeutic strategy. A rescue acute treatment option should always be advised. For episodic migraine prevention, metoprolol (50–200 mg/d), propranolol (40–240 mg/d), flunarizine (5–10 mg/d), valproate (500–1800 mg/d), topiramate (25–100 mg/d) and candesartan (16–32 mg/d) are the drugs of first choice. For chronic migraine prevention topiramate (100-200 mg/d), valproate (500–1800 mg/d), flunarizine (5–10 mg/d) and venlafaxine (150 mg/d) may be used, but the evidence is very limited. Botulinum toxin type A and monoclonal antibodies targeting the CGRP pathway (anti-CGRP mAbs) are recommended for patients suffering from chronic migraine (with or without medication overuse) who failed or did not tolerate two previous treatments. Anti-CGRP mAbs are also suggested for patients suffering from high frequency episodic migraine (≥8 migraine days per month and less than 14) who failed or did not tolerate two previous treatments.

  • Primary headache disorders among the adult population of Mongolia: prevalences and associations from a population-based survey
    J. Headache Pain (IF 3.918) Pub Date : 2019-12-16
    Otgonbayar Luvsannorov; Byambasuren Tsenddorj; Dorjkhand Baldorj; Selenge Enkhtuya; Delgermaa Purev; Hallie Thomas; Timothy J. Steiner

    In the ongoing Global Campaign endeavour to improve knowledge and awareness of headache prevalence worldwide, Mongolia is a country of interest. It sits between Russia and China, in which prevalence is, respectively, much higher and much lower than the estimated global mean. We conducted a population-based study in Mongolia both to add to knowledge and to inform local health policy. Using standardized methodology with cluster random sampling, we selected Mongolian adults (aged 18–65 years) from five regions reflecting the country’s diversities. They were interviewed by trained researchers, cold-calling at their homes, using the Headache-Attributed Restriction, Disability, Social Handicap and Impaired Participation (HARDSHIP) structured questionnaire following pilot-testing. ICHD-3 beta diagnostic criteria were applied. N = 2043 (mean age 38.0 [±13.4] years, 40% urban-dwelling and 60% rural), with a non-participation proportion of 1.7%. Males were somewhat underrepresented, for which corrections were made. The crude 1-year prevalence of any headache was 66.1% (95% CI: 64.0–68.2%), with a strong female preponderance (OR: 2.2; p < 0.0001). Age- and gender-adjusted prevalences were: migraine 23.1% (for females, OR = 2.2; p < 0.0001); tension-type headache (TTH) 29.1% (no gender difference); probable medication-overuse headache (pMOH) 5.7% (trending towards higher in females); other headache on ≥15 days/month 5.0% (for females, OR = 2.2; p = 0.0008). Unclassified cases were only 35 (1.7%). Any headache yesterday was reported by 410 (20.1%; for females, OR = 2.4; p < 0.0001). Only pMOH showed a strong association with age, peaking in middle years with a 5-fold increase in prevalence. Migraine showed a consistent association with educational level, while pMOH showed the reverse, and was also more common among other groups than among participants who were single (never married). Migraine was less common among rural participants than urban (OR: 0.80; p = 0.0326), while pMOH again showed the reverse (OR: 2.4; p < 0.0001). Finally, pMOH (but not migraine or TTH) was significantly associated with obesity (OR: 1.8; p = 0.0214). Headache disorders are common in Mongolia, with, most notably, a very high prevalence of headache on ≥15 days/month corroborated by the high prevalence of headache yesterday. The picture is very like that in Russia, and dissimilar to China. There are messages for national health policy.

  • TRPM8 genetic variant is associated with chronic migraine and allodynia
    J. Headache Pain (IF 3.918) Pub Date : 2019-12-16
    Yu-Hsiang Ling; Shih-Pin Chen; Cathy Shen-Jang Fann; Shuu-Jiun Wang; Yen-Feng Wang

    Many single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been reported to be associated with migraine susceptibility. However, evidences for their associations with migraine endophenotypes or subtypes are scarce. We aimed to investigate the associations of pre-identified migraine susceptibility loci in Taiwanese with migraine endophenotypes or subtypes, including chronic migraine and allodynia. The associations of six SNPs identified from our previous study, including TRPM8 rs10166942, LRP1 rs1172113, DLG2 rs655484, GFRA1 rs3781545, UPP2 rs7565931, and GPR39 rs10803531, and migraine endophenotypes, including chronic migraine and allodynia were tested. Significant associations in the discovery cohort were validated in the replication cohort. The adjusted odds ratios (aOR) were calculated after controlling for confounders. In total, 1904 patients (mean age 37.5 ± 12.2 years old, female ratio: 77.7%) including 1077 in the discovery cohort and 827 in the replication cohort were recruited. Of them, 584 (30.7%) had chronic migraine. Of the 6 investigated SNPs, TRPM8 rs10166942 T allele-carrying patients were more likely to have chronic migraine than non-T allele carriers in both discovery and replication cohorts and combined samples (33.7% vs. 25.8%, p = 0.004, aOR = 1.62). In addition, T allele carriers reported more allodynic symptoms than non-T allele carriers (3.5 ± 3.7 vs. 2.6 ± 2.8, p < 0.001). However, allodynia severity did not differ between episodic and chronic migraine patients. No further correlations between genetic variants and endophenotypes were noted for the other SNPs. TRPM8 may contribute to the pathogenesis of chronic migraine. However, our study did not support allodynia as a link between them. The underlying mechanisms deserve further investigations.

  • Prevalence, burden, and clinical management of migraine in China, Japan, and South Korea: a comprehensive review of the literature
    J. Headache Pain (IF 3.918) Pub Date : 2019-12-05
    Takao Takeshima; Qi Wan; Yanlei Zhang; Mika Komori; Serina Stretton; Narayan Rajan; Tamas Treuer; Kaname Ueda

    The objective of this review was to determine the unmet needs for migraine in East Asian adults and children. We searched MEDLINE and EMBASE (January 1, 1988 to January 14, 2019). Studies reporting the prevalence, humanistic and economic burden, and clinical management of migraine in China (including Hong Kong and Taiwan), Japan, and South Korea were included. Studies conducted before 1988 (before the International Headache Society [IHS] first edition of the International Classification of Headache Disorders) were not included. We retrieved 1337 publications and 41 met the inclusion criteria (28 from China, 7 from Japan, and 6 from South Korea). The 1-year prevalence of migraine (IHS criteria) among adults ranged from 6.0% to 14.3%. Peak prevalence ranged from 11% to 20% for women and 3% to 8% for men (30- to 49-year-olds). For children, prevalence of migraine increased with age. Information on the economic burden and clinical management of migraine was limited, particularly for children. When reported, migraine was significantly associated with high levels of disability and negative effects on quality of life. Studies suggested low levels of disease awareness/diagnosis within each country. Of individuals with migraine from China, 52.9% to 68.6% had consulted a physician previously, 37.2% to 52.7% diagnosed with headache had not been diagnosed with migraine previously, and 13.5% to 18% had been diagnosed with migraine previously. Of individuals with migraine from Japan, 59.4% to 71.8% had never consulted a physician previously, 1.3% to 7.3% regularly consulted physicians for their headache, and only 11.6% of individuals with migraine were aware that they had migraine. In addition, studies suggested that over-the-counter medication use was high and prescription medication use was low in each country. This review suggests that there are unmet needs for migraine in terms of sufficient and appropriate diagnosis, and better management and therapies for treatment of migraine in East Asia. The findings are limited by a lack of recent information and significant gaps in the literature. More recent, population-based studies assessing disease burden and clinical management of migraine are needed to confirm unmet needs for migraine across East Asia.

  • The effect of CSF drain on the optic nerve in idiopathic intracranial hypertension
    J. Headache Pain (IF 3.918) Pub Date : 2019-05-23
    Jan Hoffmann; Katharina Maria Kreutz; Christoph Csapó-Schmidt; Nils Becker; Hagen Kunte; Lucius Samo Fekonja; Anas Jadan; Edzard Wiener

    Elevation of intracranial pressure in idiopathic intracranial hypertension induces an edema of the prelaminar section of the optic nerve (papilledema). Beside the commonly observed optic nerve sheath distention, information on a potential pathology of the retrolaminar section of the optic nerve and the short-term effect of normalization of intracranial pressure on these abnormalities remains scarce. In this exploratory study 8 patients diagnosed with idiopathic intracranial hypertension underwent a MRI scan (T2 mapping) as well as a diffusion tensor imaging analysis (fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity). In addition, the clinical presentation of headache and its accompanying symptoms were assessed. Intracranial pressure was then normalized by lumbar puncture and the initial parameters (MRI and clinical features) were re-assessed within 26 h. After normalization of CSF pressure, the morphometric MRI scans of the optic nerve and optic nerve sheath remained unchanged. In the diffusion tensor imaging, the fractional anisotropy value was reduced suggesting a tissue decompression of the optic nerve after lumbar puncture. In line with these finding, headache and most of the accompanying symptoms also improved or remitted within that short time frame. The findings support the hypothesis that the elevation of intracranial pressure induces a microstructural compression of the optic nerve impairing axoplasmic flow and thereby causing the prelaminar papilledema. The microstructural compression of the optic nerve as well as the clinical symptoms improve within hours of normalization of intracranial pressure.

  • Shaping the future of migraine targeting Calcitonin-Gene-Related-Peptide with the Disease-Modifying Migraine Drugs (DMMDs)
    J. Headache Pain (IF 3.918) Pub Date : 2019-05-23
    Paolo Martelletti; Lars Edvinsson; Messoud Ashina

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  • Migraine and cluster headache show impaired neurosteroids patterns
    J. Headache Pain (IF 3.918) Pub Date : 2019-05-27
    Angela Koverech; Claudia Cicione; Luana Lionetto; Marta Maestri; Francesco Passariello; Elisabetta Sabbatini; Matilde Capi; Cristiano Maria De Marco; Martina Guglielmetti; Andrea Negro; Luisa Di Menna; Maurizio Simmaco; Ferdinando Nicoletti; Paolo Martelletti

    Perturbation of neuronal excitability contributes to migraine. Neurosteroids modulate the activity of γ-aminobutyric acid A and N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors, and might be involved in the pathogenesis of migraine. Here, we measured plasma levels of four neurosteroids, i.e., allopregnanolone, epiallopregnanolone, dehydroepiandrosterone and deydroepiandrosterone sulfate, in patients affected by episodic migraine, chronic migraine, or cluster headache. Nineteen female patients affected by episodic migraine, 51 female patients affected by chronic migraine, and 18 male patients affected by cluster headache were recruited to the study. Sex- and age-matched healthy control subjects (31 females and 16 males) were also recruited. Patients were clinically characterized by using validated questionnaires. Plasma neurosteroid levels were measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. We found disease-specific changes in neurosteroid levels in our study groups. For example, allopregnanolone levels were significantly increased in episodic migraine and chronic migraine patients than in control subjects, whereas they were reduced in patients affected by cluster headache. Dehydroepiandrosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate levels were reduced in patients affected by chronic migraine, but did not change in patients affected by cluster headache. We have shown for the first time that large and disease-specific changes in circulating neurosteroid levels are associated with chronic headache disorders, raising the interesting possibility that fluctuations of neurosteroids at their site of action might shape the natural course of migraine and cluster headache. Whether the observed changes in neurosteroids are genetically determined or rather result from exposure to environmental or intrinsic stressors is unknown. This might also be matter for further investigation because stress is a known triggering factor for headache attacks in both migraineurs and cluster headache patients.

  • Correction to: Ultra-high field MR angiography in human migraine models: a 3.0 T/7.0 T comparison study
    J. Headache Pain (IF 3.918) Pub Date : 2019-05-28
    Casper Emil Christensen; Samaira Younis; Ulrich Lindberg; Vincent Oltman Boer; Patrick de Koning; Esben Thade Petersen; Olaf Bjarne Paulson; Henrik Bo Wiberg Larsson; Faisal Mohammad Amin; Messoud Ashina

    After publication of the original article [1], the authors have notified us that an updated version of Figures 1, 2 and 3 should have been published. The incorrect and revised figures can be found below.

  • Aura and Stroke: relationship and what we have learnt from preclinical models
    J. Headache Pain (IF 3.918) Pub Date : 2019-05-29
    Muge Yemisci; Katharina Eikermann-Haerter

    Population-based studies have highlighted a close relationship between migraine and stroke. Migraine, especially with aura, is a risk factor for both ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke. Interestingly, stroke risk is highest for migraineurs who are young and otherwise healthy. Preclinical models have provided us with possible mechanisms to explain the increased vulnerability of migraineurs’ brains towards ischemia and suggest a key role for enhanced cerebral excitability and increased incidence of microembolic events. Spreading depolarization (SD), a slowly propagating wave of neuronal depolarization, is the electrophysiologic event underlying migraine aura and a known headache trigger. Increased SD susceptibility has been demonstrated in migraine animal models, including transgenic mice carrying human mutations for the migraine-associated syndrome CADASIL and familial hemiplegic migraine (type 1 and 2). Upon experimentally induced SD, these mice develop aura-like neurological symptoms, akin to patients with the respective mutations. Migraine mutant mice also exhibit an increased frequency of ischemia-triggered SDs upon experimental stroke, associated with accelerated infarct growth and worse outcomes. The severe stroke phenotype can be explained by SD-related downstream events that exacerbate the metabolic mismatch, including pericyte contraction and neuroglial inflammation. Pharmacological suppression of the genetically enhanced SD susceptibility normalizes the stroke phenotype in familial hemiplegic migraine mutant mice. Recent epidemiologic and imaging studies suggest that these preclinical findings can be extrapolated to migraine patients. Migraine patients are at risk for particularly cardioembolic stroke. At the same time, studies suggest an increased incidence of coagulopathy, atrial fibrillation and patent foramen ovale among migraineurs, providing a possible path for microembolic induction of SD and, in rare instances, stroke in hyperexcitable brains. Indeed, recent imaging studies document an accelerated infarct progression with only little potentially salvageable brain tissue in acute stroke patients with a migraine history, suggesting an increased vulnerability towards cerebral ischemia. Preclinical models suggest a key role for enhanced SD susceptibility and microembolization to explain both the occurrence of migraine attacks and the increased stroke risk in migraineurs. Therapeutic targeting of SD and microembolic events, or potential causes thereof, will be promising for treatment of aura and may also prevent ischemic infarction in vulnerable brains.

  • Clinical features of visual migraine aura: a systematic review
    J. Headache Pain (IF 3.918) Pub Date : 2019-05-30
    Michele Viana; Erling Andreas Tronvik; Thien Phu Do; Chiara Zecca; Anders Hougaard

    Migraine aura (MA) is a common and disabling neurological condition, characterized by transient visual, and less frequently sensory and dysphasic aura disturbances. MA is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disorders and is often clinically difficult to distinguish from other serious neurological disorders such as transient ischemic attacks and epilepsy. Optimal clinical classification of MA symptoms is important for more accurate diagnosis and improved understanding of the pathophysiology of MA through clinical studies. A systematic review of previous prospective and retrospective systematic recordings of visual aura symptoms (VASs) was performed to provide an overview of the different types of visual phenomena occurring during MA and their respective frequencies in patients. We found 11 retrospective studies and three prospective studies systematically describing VASs. The number of different types of VASs reported by patients in the studies ranged from two to 23. The most common were flashes of bright light, “foggy” vision, zigzag lines, scotoma, small bright dots and ‘like looking through heat waves or water’. We created a comprehensive list of VAS types reported by migraine patients based on all currently available data from clinical studies, which can be used for testing and validation in future studies. We propose that, based on this work, an official list of VAS types should be developed, preferably within the context of the International Classification of Headache Disorders of the International Headache Society.

  • Burden and costs of migraine in a Swedish defined patient population – a questionnaire-based study
    J. Headache Pain (IF 3.918) Pub Date : 2019-05-31
    Frida Hjalte; Sara Olofsson; Ulf Persson; Mattias Linde

    Migraine is a disabling, chronic neurological disease leading to severe headache episodes affecting 13.2% of the Swedish population. Migraine leads to an extensive socio-economic burden in terms of healthcare costs, reduced workforce and quality of life (QoL) but studies of the health-economic consequences in a Swedish context are lacking. The objective of this study is to map the health-economic consequences of migraine in a defined patient population in terms of healthcare consumption, production loss and QoL in Sweden. The study is based on data from a web-based survey to members in the Swedish patients’ association suffering from migraine. The survey was conducted in May 2018 and included people with migraine aged 18 years or older. The survey included questions on health resource consumption, lost production resulting from migraine-related absenteeism and presenteeism, and QoL as measured by the EuroQol 5 dimensions questionnaire (EQ-5D-5 L) and the Headache Impact Test (HIT-6). The results are presented in yearly costs per patient and losses in quality adjusted life years (QALYs). The results are based on answers from 630 individuals with migraine and are presented by number of migraine days per month. The total cost per patient and year increased with the number of migraine days per month (p < 0.001) and varied between approximately €5000 for those with less than 3 migraine days per month and €24,000 per year for those with 21–28 migraine days per month. Production loss represented the main part of the costs, approximately 80%. The average loss in QALYs per year also increased with the monthly number of migraine days (p = 0.023). Migraine leads to significant societal costs and loss of quality of life. There appears to be an unmet need and a potential for both cost savings and QoL benefits connected with a reduction in the number of migraine days.

  • Erenumab and galcanezumab in chronic migraine prevention: effects after treatment termination
    J. Headache Pain (IF 3.918) Pub Date : 2019-06-03
    Bianca Raffaelli; Valeria Mussetto; Heike Israel; Lars Neeb; Uwe Reuter

    Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) targeting the CGRP pathway are safe and efficacious therapies for the prevention of migraine. In this study we assessed the effects of discontinuation of preventive erenumab and galcanezumab treatment in patients with chronic migraine. This retrospective pooled analysis included completers of the open-label extension study phase for the preventive treatment of chronic migraine with galcanezumab (NCT02614261; 9 months) and erenumab (NCT02174861; 12 months) in a single headache center. We compare migraine data until week 12 after open-label treatment completion, when patients did not have any pharmacological preventive medication, to study baseline values of the double-blind trial period, and to the last 4 weeks of the open-label extension. The assessment included changes in monthly migraine days, headache hours, days with severe headache and acute headache medication use. Data from 16 patients after galcanezumab (n = 9) and erenumab (n = 7) open-label treatment completion were analyzed. The mean number of monthly migraine days was 18.38 ± 3.74 at baseline, and 12.19 ± 4.53 in the last 4 weeks of the open-label extension (p < 0.001). Monthly migraine days remained significantly reduced compared to baseline during the entire 12-week observation period after open-label termination (p = 0.002), with a reduction of 5.38 ± 4.92 in weeks 1–4 (p = 0.001), 4.75 ± 4.15 in weeks 5–8 (p = 0.001), and 3.93 ± 5.45 in weeks 9–12 (p = 0.014). There was no significant difference in monthly migraine days between the 12 weeks after open-label termination and the last 4 weeks of the open-label phase (p = 0.228). All other analyses revealed numerical improvement through week 12 in comparison to baseline. In this small, self-selected cohort, the results indicate a therapeutic effect of monoclonal antibodies targeting the CRGP pathway in chronic migraine prevention after treatment termination up to 12 weeks.

  • 更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Real-world treatment patterns and patient-reported outcomes in episodic and chronic migraine in Japan: analysis of data from the Adelphi migraine disease specific programme
    J. Headache Pain (IF 3.918) Pub Date : 2019-06-07
    Kaname Ueda; Wenyu Ye; Louise Lombard; Atsushi Kuga; Yongin Kim; Sarah Cotton; James Jackson; Tamas Treuer

    In Japan, detailed information on the characteristics, disease burden, and treatment patterns of people living with migraine is limited. The aim of this study was to compare clinical characteristics, disease burden, and treatment patterns in people with episodic migraine (EM) or chronic migraine (CM) using real-world data from clinical practice in Japan. This was an analysis of data collected in 2014 by the Adelphi Migraine Disease Specific Programme, a cross-sectional survey of physicians and their consulting adult patients in Japan, using physician and patient questionnaires. We report patient demographics, prescribed treatment, work productivity, and quality-of-life data for people with CM (≥15 headache days/month) or EM (not fulfilling CM criteria). In descriptive analyses, continuous and categorical measures were assessed using t-tests and Chi-squared tests, respectively. Physicians provided data for 977 patients (mean age 44.5 years; 77.2% female; 94.5% with EM, 5.5% with CM). A total of 634/977 (64.9%) invited patients (600 with EM; 34 with CM) also provided data. Acute therapy was currently being prescribed in 93.7% and 100% of patients with EM and CM, respectively (p = 0.069); corresponding percentages for current preventive therapy prescriptions were 40.5% and 68.5% (p < 0.001). According to physicians who provided data, preventive therapy was used at least once by significantly fewer patients with EM than with CM (42.3% vs. 68.5%, respectively; p < 0.001). Among patients who provided physicians with information on issues with their current therapy (acute therapy: n = 668 with EM, n = 38 with CM; preventive therapy: n = 295 with EM, n = 21 with CM), lack of efficacy was the most frequently identified problem (acute therapy: EM 35.3%, CM 39.5% [p = 0.833]; preventive therapy: EM 35.3%, CM 52.4% [p = 0.131]). Moderate-to-severe headache-related disability (Migraine Disability Assessment total score ≥ 11) was reported by significantly fewer patients with EM than with CM (21.0% vs. 60.0%, respectively; p < 0.001) among patients who provided data. Preventive treatment patterns in people with EM versus CM differ in Japan, with both types of migraine posing notable disease burdens. Our findings demonstrate that more effective migraine therapies are required to reduce the burden of the disease.

  • Trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias presenting in a multidisciplinary tertiary orofacial pain clinic
    J. Headache Pain (IF 3.918) Pub Date : 2019-06-11
    D. Y. Wei; D. Moreno-Ajona; T. Renton; P. J. Goadsby

    Orofacial pain may have a variety of causes and offers a significant clinical challenge for its diagnosis and management. To assess the headache disorders presenting in a tertiary multidisciplinary orofacial pain clinic, after dental causes have been excluded. Clinic letters from the initial consultation and subsequent follow up reviews of the 142 patients, who were seen in the tertiary Multidisciplinary Orofacial Pain clinic between January 2015 until January 2018 were reviewed as a clinical audit. The most common diagnoses were possible trigeminal autonomic cephalalgia (n = 62, 44%), migraine (n = 38, 27%) and painful post-traumatic trigeminal neuropathy (n = 17, 12%). The most common trigeminal autonomic cephalalgia diagnosis was hemicrania continua (n = 13, 9%), which is higher than the reported prevalence in neurology and headache clinics. This study demonstrates the importance of a multidisciplinary approach to diagnosing complex orofacial pain patients and the importance of awareness of primary headache disorders, in particular trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias, thereby reducing unnecessary diagnostic delays or procedures.

  • The HUNT4 study: the validity of questionnaire-based diagnoses
    J. Headache Pain (IF 3.918) Pub Date : 2019-06-13
    Knut Hagen; Anders Nikolai Åsberg; Benjamin L. Uhlig; Erling Tronvik; Eiliv Brenner; Trond Sand

    Questionnaire-based headache diagnoses should be validated against diagnoses made by the gold standard, which is personal interview by a headache expert. The diagnostic algorithm with the best diagnostic accuracy should be used when later analysing the data. The Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT4) was performed between 2017 and 2019. Among HUNT4 participants, a total of 232 (19.3%) out of 1201 randomly invited were interviewed by a headache expert to assess the sensitivity, specificity and kappa value of the questionnaire-based headache diagnoses. The median interval between answering the headache questions and the validation interview was 60 days (95% CI 56–62 days). The best agreements were found for self-reported lifetime migraine (sensitivity of 59%, specificity of 99%, and a kappa statistic of 0.65, 95% CI 0.55–0.75), self-reported active migraine (sensitivity of 50%, specificity of 97%, and a kappa statistic of 0.55, 95% 0.39–0.71), liberal criteria of migraine (sensitivity of 64%, specificity of 93%, and a kappa statistic of 0.58, 95% CI 0.43–0.73) and ICDH3-based migraine ≥1 days/month (sensitivity of 50%, specificity of 94%, and a kappa statistic of 0.49, 95% CI 0.30–0.68). For headache suffering ≥1 days/month a sensitivity of 90%, specificity 80%, and a kappa statistic of 0.55, 95% CI 0.41–0-69 were found. For tension-type headache (TTH) ≥ 1 days/month the agreement was 0.33 (95% CI 0.17–0.49). The HUNT4 questionnaire is a valid tool for identifying persons with lifetime migraine, self-reported active migraine and active migraine applying liberal modified criteria. The agreement for TTH was fair.

  • Correction to: Primary headaches during lifespan
    J. Headache Pain (IF 3.918) Pub Date : 2019-06-19
    Andreas Straube; Anna P. Andreou

    Following publication of the original article [1], we have been notified that one of the author names was incompletely presented.

  • Advances in genetics of migraine
    J. Headache Pain (IF 3.918) Pub Date : 2019-06-21
    Heidi G. Sutherland; Cassie L. Albury; Lyn R. Griffiths

    Migraine is a complex neurovascular disorder with a strong genetic component. There are rare monogenic forms of migraine, as well as more common polygenic forms; research into the genes involved in both types has provided insights into the many contributing genetic factors. This review summarises advances that have been made in the knowledge and understanding of the genes and genetic variations implicated in migraine etiology. Migraine is characterised into two main types, migraine without aura (MO) and migraine with aura (MA). Hemiplegic migraine is a rare monogenic MA subtype caused by mutations in three main genes - CACNA1A, ATP1A2 and SCN1A - which encode ion channel and transport proteins. Functional studies in cellular and animal models show that, in general, mutations result in impaired glutamatergic neurotransmission and cortical hyperexcitability, which make the brain more susceptible to cortical spreading depression, a phenomenon thought to coincide with aura symptoms. Variants in other genes encoding ion channels and solute carriers, or with roles in regulating neurotransmitters at neuronal synapses, or in vascular function, can also cause monogenic migraine, hemiplegic migraine and related disorders with overlapping symptoms. Next-generation sequencing will accelerate the finding of new potentially causal variants and genes, with high-throughput bioinformatics analysis methods and functional analysis pipelines important in prioritising, confirming and understanding the mechanisms of disease-causing variants. With respect to common migraine forms, large genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have greatly expanded our knowledge of the genes involved, emphasizing the role of both neuronal and vascular pathways. Dissecting the genetic architecture of migraine leads to greater understanding of what underpins relationships between subtypes and comorbid disorders, and may have utility in diagnosis or tailoring treatments. Further work is required to identify causal polymorphisms and the mechanism of their effect, and studies of gene expression and epigenetic factors will help bridge the genetics with migraine pathophysiology. The complexity of migraine disorders is mirrored by their genetic complexity. A comprehensive knowledge of the genetic factors underpinning migraine will lead to improved understanding of molecular mechanisms and pathogenesis, to enable better diagnosis and treatments for migraine sufferers.

  • Quality assurance in specialized headache units in Spain: an observational prospective study
    J. Headache Pain (IF 3.918) Pub Date : 2019-06-25
    Patricia Pozo-Rosich; Alba Martínez-García; Julio Pascual; Emilio Ignacio; Ángel L. Guerrero-Peral; José Balseiro-Gómez; Jesús Porta-Etessam; Germán Latorre-González; Almudena Layos-Romero; César Lucas; José J. Mira

    To assess the quality of the therapeutic approach in Specialized Headache Units in Spain. An observational (prospective) study was conducted. Anonymized data of 313 consecutive patients during a defined period of time were analyzed and a comparison of performance in 13 consensual quality indicators between Specialized Headache Units and neurology consultations was calculated. Specialized Units and neurology consultations represented the type of provision that Spaniards receive in hospitals. The consensus benchmark standard was reached for 8/13 (61%) indicators. Specialized Headache Units performed better in the indicators, specifically in relation to accessibility, equity, safety, and patient satisfaction. Patients attended in Specialized Headache Units had more complex conditions. Although there is variability among Specialized Headache Units, the overall quality was generally better than in traditional neurology consultations in Spain.

  • A real-world study on unmet medical needs in triptan-treated migraine: prevalence, preventive therapies and triptan use modification from a large Italian population along two years
    J. Headache Pain (IF 3.918) Pub Date : 2019-06-27
    Carlo Piccinni; Sabina Cevoli; Giulia Ronconi; Letizia Dondi; Silvia Calabria; Antonella Pedrini; Immacolata Esposito; Valentina Favoni; Giulia Pierangeli; Pietro Cortelli; Nello Martini

    Although migraine is a disabling neurological condition that causes important disability, it remains an area of underdiagnosis and undertreatment worldwide. The aim of this study was to depict the burden of the unmet medical needs in migraine treated with triptans in a large Italian population. A 2-year longitudinal analysis of migraineurs with unmet medical needs on treatment with triptans was performed. The studied cohort consisted of subjects with ≥4 triptan dose units per month, selected from the general population These patients were stratified into: possible Low-Frequency Episodic Migraine (pLF-EM: 4–9 triptan dose units per month), possible High-Frequency Episodic Migraine (pHF-EM: 10–14 triptan dose units per month) and possible Chronic Migraine (pCM:> 14 triptan dose units per month). The first follow-up year was analysed to describe the use of preventive therapies, the second year to describe the ≥50% reduction in triptan use. Of 10,270,683 adults, 8.0 per 1000 were triptan users and, of these, 38.2% were migraineurs with unmet medical needs, corresponding to 3.1 per 1000 adults. By stratifying for the number of triptan dose units per month, 72.3% were affected by pLF-EM, 17.4% by pHF-EM, and 10.3% by pCM. In this cohort, 19.1% of individuals used oral preventive drugs and 0.1% botulinum toxin. Triptan use reduction was found in 22.3% individuals of the cohort, decreasing with the intensification of need levels (25.8% pLF-EM, 13.6% pHF-EM, 12.0% pCM). This real-life analysis underlined that the unmet medical needs concern a large part of patients treated with triptans and there is an undertreatment with preventive therapies whose benefit is insufficient, which may be due to the lack of effective preventive strategies, probably still reserved to severe patients. This study allows forecasting the actual impact of newest therapeutic strategies aimed to fill this gap.

  • Galcanezumab in episodic migraine: subgroup analyses of efficacy by high versus low frequency of migraine headaches in phase 3 studies (EVOLVE-1 & EVOLVE-2)
    J. Headache Pain (IF 3.918) Pub Date : 2019-06-28
    Stephen D. Silberstein; Virginia L. Stauffer; Katie A. Day; Sarah Lipsius; Maria-Carmen Wilson

    Patients with high-frequency episodic migraine (HFEM) have a greater disease burden than those with low-frequency episodic migraine (LFEM). Acute treatment overuse increases the risk of migraine chronification in patients with HFEM. Galcanezumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody binding calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), is effective for migraine prevention with a favorable safety profile. Here, we investigate whether there are differences in galcanezumab efficacy in patients with LFEM or with HFEM. Data were pooled from two double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 3 trials; EVOLVE-1 and EVOLVE-2. Patients were 18–65 years old, experienced 4–14 monthly migraine headache days (MHDs) for ≥1 year prior, with onset at < 50 years of age. Migraine headaches were tracked via electronic patient-reported outcome system and randomization was stratified by low (LFEM; 4–7 monthly MHDs) or high (HFEM; 8–14 monthly MHDs) frequency. Subgroup analysis compared the HFEM and LFEM subgroups with a linear or generalized linear mixed model repeated measures approach. The intent-to-treat patients (N = 1773) had a mean age of 41.3 years, were mostly white (75%), female (85%), and 66% of patients had HFEM. In both the LFEM and HFEM subgroups, the overall (Months 1–6) and monthly changes from baseline in monthly MHDs and monthly MHDs with acute medication use compared with placebo were statistically significantly reduced for galcanezumab 120-mg and 240-mg. Galcanezumab (120-mg and 240-mg) significantly decreased the overall and monthly MHDs with nausea and/or vomiting, and with photophobia and phonophobia versus placebo in patients with LFEM or HFEM. In both subgroups, the mean overall (Months 1–6) and monthly percentages of patients with ≥50%, ≥75%, and 100% reduction in monthly MHDs from baseline were statistically significantly greater in patients receiving either dose of galcanezumab versus placebo. Galcanezumab (120-mg and 240-mg) significantly improved the Migraine-Specific Quality of Life Questionnaire role function-restrictive domain score as well as the Migraine Disability Assessment total score versus placebo for patients with LFEM or HFEM. There were no significant subgroup-by-treatment interactions. Galcanezumab was as effective in patients with HFEM as in those with LFEM. Associated symptoms, quality of life, and disability were similarly improved in patients with HFEM or LFEM. NCT02614183 , NCT02614196 .

  • Emerging evidence of occipital nerve compression in unremitting head and neck pain
    J. Headache Pain (IF 3.918) Pub Date : 2019-07-02
    Pamela Blake; Rami Burstein

    Unremitting head and neck pain (UHNP) is a commonly encountered phenomenon in Headache Medicine and may be seen in the setting of many well-defined headache types. The prevalence of UHNP is not clear, and establishing the presence of UHNP may require careful questioning at repeated patient visits. The cause of UHNP in some patients may be compression of the lesser and greater occipital nerves by the posterior cervical muscles and their fascial attachments at the occipital ridge with subsequent local perineural inflammation. The resulting pain is typically in the sub-occipital and occipital location, and, via anatomic connections between extracranial and intracranial nerves, may radiate frontally to trigeminal-innervated areas of the head. Migraine-like features of photophobia and nausea may occur with frontal radiation. Occipital allodynia is common, as is spasm of the cervical muscles. Patients with UHNP may comprise a subgroup of Chronic Migraine, as well as of Chronic Tension-Type Headache, New Daily Persistent Headache and Cervicogenic Headache. Centrally acting membrane-stabilizing agents, which are often ineffective for CM, are similarly generally ineffective for UHNP. Extracranially-directed treatments such as occipital nerve blocks, cervical trigger point injections, botulinum toxin and monoclonal antibodies directed at calcitonin gene related peptide, which act primarily in the periphery, may provide more substantial relief for UHNP; additionally, decompression of the occipital nerves from muscular and fascial compression is effective for some patients, and may result in enduring pain relief. Further study is needed to determine the prevalence of UHNP, and to understand the role of occipital nerve compression in UHNP and of occipital nerve decompression surgery in chronic head and neck pain.

  • Fluctuations of sensorimotor processing in migraine: a controlled longitudinal study of beta event related desynchronization
    J. Headache Pain (IF 3.918) Pub Date : 2019-07-09
    Martin Syvertsen Mykland; Marte Helene Bjørk; Marit Stjern; Petter Moe Omland; Martin Uglem; Trond Sand

    The migraine brain seems to undergo cyclic fluctuations of sensory processing. For instance, during the preictal phase, migraineurs experience symptoms and signs of altered pain perception as well as other well-known premonitory CNS-symptoms. In the present study we measured EEG-activation to non-painful motor and sensorimotor tasks in the different phases of the migraine cycle by longitudinal measurements of beta event related desynchronization (beta-ERD). We recorded electroencephalography (EEG) of 41 migraine patients and 31 healthy controls. Each subject underwent three EEG recordings on three different days with classification of each EEG recording according to the actual migraine phase. During each recording, subjects performed one motor and one sensorimotor task with the flexion-extension movement of the right wrist. Migraine patients had significantly increased beta-ERD and higher baseline beta power at the contralateral C3 electrode overlying the primary sensorimotor cortex in the preictal phase compared to the interictal phase. We found no significant differences in beta-ERD or baseline beta power between interictal migraineurs and controls. Increased preictal baseline beta activity may reflect a decrease in pre-activation in the sensorimotor cortex. Altered pre-activation may lead to changes in thresholds for inhibitory responses and increased beta-ERD response, possibly reflecting a generally increased preictal cortical responsivity in migraine. Cyclic fluctuations in the activity of second- and third-order afferent somatosensory neurons, and their associated cortical and/or thalamic interneurons, may accordingly also be a central part of the migraine pathophysiology.

  • Diffusion tensor imaging in middle-aged headache sufferers in the general population: a cross-sectional population-based imaging study in the Nord-Trøndelag health study (HUNT-MRI)
    J. Headache Pain (IF 3.918) Pub Date : 2019-07-10
    Andreas Kattem Husøy; Live Eikenes; Asta K. Håberg; Knut Hagen; Lars Jacob Stovner

    Several studies have investigated white matter with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in those suffering from headache, but so far only in clinic based samples and with conflicting results. In the present study, 1006 individuals (50–66 years) from the general population (Nord-Trøndelag Health Study) participated in an imaging study of the head at 1.5 T (HUNT-MRI). Hundred and ninety-six individuals were excluded because of errors in the data acquisition or brain pathology. Two hundred and forty-six of the remaining participants reported suffering from headache (69 from migraine and 76 from tension-type headache) the year prior to the scanning. DTI data were analysed with Tract-Based Spatial Statistics and automated tractography. Type of headache, frequency of attacks and evolution of headache were investigated for an association with white matter fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), axonal diffusivity (AD), radial diffusivity (RD) and tract volume. Correction for various demographical and clinical variables were performed. Headache sufferers had widespread higher white matter MD, AD and RD compared to headache free individuals (n = 277). The effect sizes were mostly small with the largest seen in those with middle-age onset headache, who also had lower white matter FA. There were no associations between white matter microstructure and attack frequency or type of headache. Middle-age onset headache may be related to a widespread process in the white matter leading to altered microstructure.

  • Genetic mouse models of migraine
    J. Headache Pain (IF 3.918) Pub Date : 2019-07-12
    Daniela Pietrobon; K. C. Brennan

    Mouse models of rare monogenic forms of migraine provide a unique experimental system to study the cellular and circuit mechanisms of the primary brain dysfunctions causing a migraine disorder. Here, we discuss the migraine-relevant phenotypes and the migraine-relevant functional alterations in the brain of five genetic mouse models of migraine, four of which carry mutations derived from patients with familial hemiplegic migraine (FHM) and the fifth carry a mutation from patients with both phenotypically normal MA and familial advanced sleep phase syndrome (FASPS). We focus on the latter mouse model, in which a ubiquitous serine-threonine kinase is mutated, and on two mouse models of pure FHM, in which a voltage-gated calcium channel controlling neurotransmitter release at most brain synapses and a Na/K ATPase that is expressed mainly in astrocytes in the adult brain are mutated, respectively. First, we describe the behavioral phenotypes of the genetic animal models and review the evidence that an increased susceptibility to experimentally induced cortical spreading depression (CSD) is a key migraine-relevant phenotype common to the five models. Second, we review the synaptic alterations in the cerebral cortex of the genetic models of migraine and discuss the mechanisms underlying their increased susceptibility to CSD. Third, we review the alterations in the trigeminovascular pain pathway and discuss possible implications for migraine pain mechanisms. Finally, we discuss the insights into migraine pathophysiology obtained from the genetic models of migraine, in particular regarding the mechanisms that make the brain of migraineurs susceptible to the ignition of “spontaneous” CSDs. Although the reviewed functional studies support the view of migraine as a disorder of the brain characterized by dysfunctional regulation of the excitatory/inhibitory balance in specific neuronal circuits, much work remains to be done in the genetic mouse models e.g. to identfy the relevant dysfunctional circuits and to establish whether and how the alterations in the function of specific circuits (in the cerebral cortex and/or other brain areas) are state-dependent and may, in certain conditions, favor CSD ignition and the migraine attack.

  • New daily persistent headache: a systematic review on an enigmatic disorder
    J. Headache Pain (IF 3.918) Pub Date : 2019-07-15
    Nooshin Yamani; Jes Olesen

    New daily persistent headache (NDPH) presents with a sudden onset headache which continues without remission within 24 h. Although rare, NDPH is important because it is one of the most treatment refractory primary headache disorders and can be highly disabling to the individuals. In this structured review, we describe the current knowledge of epidemiology, clinical features, trigger factors, pathophysiology, diagnosis and therapeutic options of NDPH to better understand this enigmatic disorder. The prevalence of NDPH estimated to be 0.03% to 0.1% in the general population and is higher in children and adolescents than in adults. Individuals with NDPH can pinpoint the exact date their headache started. The pain is constant and lacks special characteristics but in some has migraine features. The exact pathogenic mechanism of NDPH is unknown, however pro-inflammatory cytokines and cervicogenic problems might play a role in its development. The diagnosis of NDPH is mainly clinical and based on a typical history, but proper laboratory investigation is needed to exclude secondary causes of headache. Regarding treatment strategy, controlled drug trials are absent. It is probably best to treat NDPH based upon the predominant headache phenotype. For patients who do not respond to common prophylactic drugs, ketamine infusion, onabotulinum toxin type A, intravenous (IV) lidocaine, IV methylprednisolone and nerve blockade are possible treatment options, but even aggressive treatment is usually ineffective. NDPH remains poorly understood but very burdensome for the individual. Multi-center randomized controlled trials are recommended to gain better understanding of NDPH and to establish evidence based treatments.

  • Real-world effectiveness of onabotulinumtoxinA treatment for the prevention of headaches in adults with chronic migraine in Australia: a retrospective study
    J. Headache Pain (IF 3.918) Pub Date : 2019-07-15
    Catherine Stark; Richard Stark; Nicole Limberg; Julian Rodrigues; Dennis Cordato; Raymond Schwartz; Robert Jukic

    OnabotulinumtoxinA (BOTOX®, Allergan plc, Dublin, Ireland) is approved for the preventive treatment of headaches in adult patients with chronic migraine (CM) in Australia by the country’s reimbursement mechanism for medicines, the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS). To our knowledge, this study represents the first focused report evaluating real-world evidence of onabotulinumtoxinA treatment via the PBS in Australian clinics. This study reviewed the medical records of adults with inadequately controlled CM from 7 private neurology practices in Australia who, beginning in March 2014, received PBS-subsidized onabotulinumtoxinA per product labelling for the first time. The primary effectiveness measure was the percentage of patients achieving a response defined by 50% or greater reduction in headache days from baseline after 2 treatment cycles. Additional data were recorded in the case report form when available and included demographics, clinical characteristics, headache severity and frequency, Headache Impact Test (HIT-6) score, medication use, and days missed of work or study at baseline, after 2 treatment cycles, and at last follow-up. Differences in mean changes from baseline were evaluated with a 1-tailed t-test or Pearson’s chi-squared test (p < 0.05). The study population included 211 patients with a mean (SD) of 25.2 (5.3) monthly headache days at baseline. In the primary outcome analysis, 74% of patients achieved a response, with a mean (SD) of 10.6 (7.9) headache days after 2 treatment cycles (p < 0.001). Secondary effectiveness outcomes included mean (SD) reductions in HIT-6 score of − 11.7 (9.8) and − 11.8 (12.2) after 2 treatment cycles (p < 0.001) and final follow-up (p < 0.001), respectively, and mean (SD) decreases in days per month of acute pain medication use of − 11.5 (7.6) after 2 treatment cycles (p < 0.001) and − 12.7 (8.1) at final follow-up (p < 0.001). This study provides additional clinical evidence for the consistent effectiveness of onabotulinumtoxinA for the treatment of CM in Australia. This effectiveness was made evident by reductions in migraine days, severe headache days, and HIT-6 scores from baseline.

  • The association between headache and low back pain: a systematic review
    J. Headache Pain (IF 3.918) Pub Date : 2019-07-15
    Arani Vivekanantham; Claire Edwin; Tamar Pincus; Manjit Matharu; Helen Parsons; Martin Underwood

    To systematically review studies quantifying the association between primary chronic headaches and persistent low back pain (LBP). We searched five electronic databases. We included case-control, cross-sectional and cohort studies that included a headache and back pain free group, reporting on any association between persistent LBP and primary headache disorders. Methodological quality was assessed using Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Our primary outcome was the association between primary headache disorders and persistent LBP. Our secondary outcomes were any associations between severity of LBP and severity of headache, and the relationship between specific headache sub-types classified as per International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD) criteria and persistent LBP. We included 14 studies. The sizes of the studies ranged from 88 participants to a large international study with 404, 206 participants. Odds ratios for the association were between 1.55 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.13–2.11) and 8.00 (95% CI 5.3–12.1). Study heterogeneity meant statistical pooling was not possible. Only two studies presented data investigating persistent LBP and chronic headache disorders in accordance with ICDH criteria. We identified a positive association between persistent LBP and primary headache disorders. The quality of the review findings is limited by diversity of populations, study designs and uncertainly about headache and LBP definitions. PROSPERO 2018 CRD42018086557 .

  • Remote electrical neuromodulation (REN) in the acute treatment of migraine: a comparison with usual care and acute migraine medications
    J. Headache Pain (IF 3.918) Pub Date : 2019-07-22
    Alan M. Rapoport; Jo H. Bonner; Tamar Lin; Dagan Harris; Yaron Gruper; Alon Ironi; Robert P. Cowan

    There is a significant unmet need for new, effective and well tolerated acute migraine treatments. A recent study has demonstrated that a novel remote electrical neuromodulation (REN) treatment provides superior clinically meaningful pain relief with a low rate of device-related adverse events. The results reported herein compare the efficacy of REN with current standard of care in the acute treatments of migraine. We performed a post-hoc analysis on a subgroup of participants with migraine from a randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, sham-controlled, multicenter study on acute care. The original study included a 2–4 weeks run-in phase, in which migraine attacks were treated according to patient preference (i.e., usual care) and reported in an electronic diary; next, participants entered a double-blind treatment phase in which they treated the attacks with an active or sham device. The efficacy of REN was compared to the efficacy of usual care or pharmacological treatments in the run-in phase in a within-subject design that included participants who treated at least one attack with the active REN device and reported pain intensity at 2 h post-treatment. Of the 252 patients randomized, there were 99 participants available for analysis. At 2 h post-treatment, pain relief was achieved in 66.7% of the participants using REN versus 52.5% participants with usual care (p < 0.05). Pain relief at 2 h in at least one of two attacks was achieved by 84.4% of participants versus 68.9% in usual care (p < 0.05). REN and usual care were similarly effective for pain-free status at 2 h. The results also demonstrate the non-inferiority of REN compared with acute pharmacological treatments and its non-dependency on preventive medication use. REN is an effective acute treatment for migraine with non-inferior efficacy compared to current acute migraine therapies. Together with a very favorable safety profile, these findings suggest that REN may offer a promising alternative for the acute treatment of migraine and could be considered first line treatment in some patients. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03361423 . Registered 18 November 2017.

  • Efficacy and safety of lasmiditan in patients using concomitant migraine preventive medications: findings from SAMURAI and SPARTAN, two randomized phase 3 trials
    J. Headache Pain (IF 3.918) Pub Date : 2019-07-24
    Li Shen Loo; Jessica Ailani; Jack Schim; Simin Baygani; Hans-Peter Hundemer; Martha Port; John H. Krege

    To study the efficacy and safety of lasmiditan for acute treatment of migraine in patients using migraine preventive medications. While lasmiditan has been proven to be an effective acute treatment for migraine, its effectiveness has not been examined when used concurrently with migraine preventives. SAMURAI and SPARTAN were similarly designed, double-blind, phase 3, placebo-controlled studies of patients 18 years or older with 3 to 8 migraine attacks per month. Patients were randomized to treat a migraine attack with oral lasmiditan 50 mg (SPARTAN only), 100 mg, 200 mg, or placebo. Migraine preventives were allowed as long as doses were stable for 3 months prior to screening and were unchanged during the study. Preventive medications with established or probable efficacy, as recommended by the American Academy of Neurology, the American Headache Society, and the European Headache Federation, plus botulinum toxin type A and candesartan, were included. Within the subgroups of patients using and not using preventive therapies, lasmiditan and placebo groups were analyzed for the outcome of pain-free at 2 h and other efficacy outcomes. The subgroups of patients using and not using preventive therapies were compared and interaction p-values were calculated for safety and efficacy outcomes. In these trials, 698 of 3981 patients (17.5%) used migraine preventive treatments. Among patients using preventives, all lasmiditan doses resulted in significantly more patients being pain-free at 2 h, compared to placebo (p < 0.05). Primary efficacy outcome (pain-free at 2 h), key secondary outcome (most bothersome symptom-free at 2 h) and all other efficacy outcomes were not significantly different between patients using or not using migraine preventives (all interaction p-values ≥0.1). Rates of adverse events were similar for patients using and not using preventive medications. Lasmiditan was more effective than placebo for the acute treatment of migraine in patients concurrently using migraine preventive medications. Lasmiditan efficacy and safety measures were similar for patients using and not using preventive medications. SAMURAI (NCT02439320) and SPARTAN (NCT02605174). Registered 18 March 2015.

  • Migraine: a major debilitating chronic non-communicable disease in Brazil, evidence from two national surveys
    J. Headache Pain (IF 3.918) Pub Date : 2019-08-01
    Mario Fernando Prieto Peres; Luiz Paulo Queiroz; Pedro Sampaio Rocha-Filho; Elder Machado Sarmento; Zaza Katsarava; Timothy J. Steiner

    Even though migraine and other primary headache disorders are common and debilitating, major health surveys in Brazil have not included them. We repair this omission by combining data on non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in the Brazilian National Health Survey (PNS) 2013 with epidemiological data on migraine prevalence and severity in Brazil. The purpose is to rank migraine and its impact on public healthh among NCDs in order to support public-health policy toward better care for migraine in Brazil. Data from PNS, a cross-sectional population-based study, were merged with estimates made by the Brazilian Headache Epidemiology Study (BHES) of migraine prevalence (numbers of people affected and of candidates for migraine preventative therapy) and migraine-attributed disability. Migraine ranked second in prevalence among the NCDs, and as the highest cause of disability among adults in Brazil. Probable migraine accounted for substantial additional disability. An estimated total of 5.5 million people in Brazil (or 9.5 million with probable migraine included) were in need of preventative therapy. On this evidence, migraine should be included in the next health surveys in Brazil. Public-health policy should recognize the burden of migraine expressed in public ill health, and promote health services offering better diagnosis and treatment.

  • Shortcomings and missed potentials in the management of migraine patients - experiences from a specialized tertiary care center
    J. Headache Pain (IF 3.918) Pub Date : 2019-08-01
    Christian Ziegeler; Greta Brauns; Tim P. Jürgens; Arne May

    Migraine is a common and severely disabling neurological disorder affecting millions of patients in Europe. Despite the availability of evidence-based national and international guidelines, the management of migraine patients often remains poor, which is often attributed to a low availability of headache specialists. The aim of this study was to investigate the adherence to national guidelines and to assess the possible potential of optimized therapy regimens in migraine patients. We collected data of migraine patients presenting to our out-patient clinic via standardized questionnaires regarding headache, diagnostics and experience with previous treatments. We also assessed the efficacy of treatment started by our center. 1,935 migraine patients were included between 2010 and 2018. In the 12 months before consulting our headache clinic 89.5% of the patients had consulted a general practitioner and 74.9% had consulted a neurologist because of their migraine. Nevertheless, 50% of the patients underwent unnecessary diagnostics and 34.2% had not been treated according to evidence-based treatment guidelines. Out of 1,031 patients who had not been prescribed a preventative treatment 627 (60.8%) had in average 3 or more migraine attacks per month and thus qualified for a preventative treatment. These patients missed in the 3 months prior to consultation on average 5 work or school days. Initiating a preventative treatment was effective in 71.2% of the patients, that provided follow-up data. Our data suggest, that many migraine patients to this day do not receive state-of-the-art therapy. Adherence to national and international European guidelines could improve the outcome in migraine patients. Future research should try to answer why guidelines are not followed.

  • Electrical stimulation of the superior sagittal sinus suppresses A-type K+ currents and increases P/Q- and T-type Ca2+ currents in rat trigeminal ganglion neurons
    J. Headache Pain (IF 3.918) Pub Date : 2019-08-02
    Junping Cao; Yuan Zhang; Lei Wu; Lidong Shan; Yufang Sun; Xinghong Jiang; Jin Tao

    Migraine is a debilitating neurological disorder involving abnormal trigeminovascular activation and sensitization. However, the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms remain unclear. A rat model of conscious migraine was established through the electrical stimulation (ES) of the dural mater surrounding the superior sagittal sinus. Using patch clamp recording, immunofluorescent labelling, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and western blot analysis, we studied the effects of ES on sensory neuronal excitability and elucidated the underlying mechanisms mediated by voltage-gated ion channels. The calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) level in the jugular vein blood and the number of CGRP-positive neurons in the trigeminal ganglia (TGs) were significantly increased in rats with ES-induced migraine. The application of ES increased actional potential firing in both small-sized IB4-negative (IB4−) and IB4+ TG neurons. No significant changes in voltage-gated Na+ currents were observed in the ES-treated groups. ES robustly suppressed the transient outward K+ current (IA) in both types of TG neurons, while the delayed rectifier K+ current remained unchanged. Immunoblot analysis revealed that the protein expression of Kv4.3 was significantly decreased in the ES-treated groups, while Kv1.4 remained unaffected. Interestingly, ES increased the P/Q-type and T-type Ca2+ currents in small-sized IB4− TG neurons, while there were no significant changes in the IB4+ subpopulation of neurons. These results suggest that ES decreases the IA in small-sized TG neurons and increases P/Q- and T-type Ca2+ currents in the IB4− subpopulation of TG neurons, which might contribute to neuronal hyperexcitability in a rat model of ES-induced migraine.

  • Migraine patients’ journey until a tertiary headache center: an observational study
    J. Headache Pain (IF 3.918) Pub Date : 2019-08-15
    Mario Fernando Prieto Peres; Diego Belandrino Swerts; Arão Belitardo de Oliveira; Raimundo Pereira Silva-Neto

    Migraine diagnosis is based on clinical aspects and is dependent on the experience of the attending physician. This study aimed to describe the patients journey profile until they start their experience in a tertiary headache center. In a cross-sectional study, medical charts from migraine patients were reviewed to describe which treatments, procedures and follow-up strategies are performed until the first appointment with a headache specialist. Patients from both sexes, ≥18 years old, which came to their first visit from March to July 2017 were included. Sociodemographic information, headache characteristics, diagnostic methods previously used, clinical history, family history and the treatments previously used were assessed in the first appointment with a specialist. Patient Health Questionnaire-9 and General Anxiety Disorder-7 were also applied. Descriptive analyses were performed to describe the sample profile and statistical tests were used to evaluate factors associated with the type of migraine (chronic or episodic). The sample consisted of 465 patients. On average, the pain started 17.1 (SD = 11.4) years before the first appointment with a headache specialist. Most of patients were classified as having chronic migraine (51.7%), with an average frequency of 15.5 (SD = 9.9) days per month. Regarding patients’ journey until a specialist, most patients were submitted to laboratory tests (74.0%), cranial tomography (66.8%) and magnetic resonance imaging (66.8%) as diagnostic methods, and preventive drugs (70.2%) and acupuncture (61.0%) as treatments. After stratification by migraine type as episodic or chronic, patients with chronic migraine were submitted to more magnetic resonance imaging test, acupuncture, psychotherapy, used preventive drugs, and reported to have used topiramate without beneficial effects. Brazilian patients with migraine experiment a long journey until getting to a headache specialist and are submitted to a great number of unnecessary exams, especially those with chronic migraine.

  • Identifying and managing refractory migraine: barriers and opportunities?
    J. Headache Pain (IF 3.918) Pub Date : 2019-08-23
    Linda D’Antona; Manjit Matharu

    The term refractory migraine has been used to describe persistent headache that is difficult to treat or fails to respond to standard and/or aggressive treatments. This subgroup of migraine patients are generally highly disabled and experience impaired quality of life, despite optimal treatments. Several definitions and criteria for refractory migraine have been published, but as yet, an accepted or established definition is not available. This article reviews the published criteria and proposes a new set of criteria. The epidemiology, pathophysiology and management options are also reviewed.

  • Lasmiditan for acute treatment of migraine in patients with cardiovascular risk factors: post-hoc analysis of pooled results from 2 randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trials
    J. Headache Pain (IF 3.918) Pub Date : 2019-08-29
    Robert E. Shapiro; Helen M. Hochstetler; Ellen B. Dennehy; Rashna Khanna; Erin Gautier Doty; Paul H. Berg; Amaal J. Starling

    In addition to the increased risk for cardiovascular (CV) disease and CV events associated with migraine, patients with migraine can also present with a number of CV risk factors (CVRFs). Existing treatment options can be limited due to contraindications, increased burden associated with monitoring, or patient avoidance of side effects. Safe and effective migraine treatment options are needed for patients with migraine and a history of CV or cerebrovascular disease or with increased risk for CV events. This analysis was designed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of oral lasmiditan, a selective serotonin 5-hydroxytryptamine 1F receptor agonist, in acute treatment of migraine attacks in patients with CVRFs. SAMURAI and SPARTAN were similarly designed, Phase 3, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials in adults treating a single migraine attack with lasmiditan 50, 100, or 200 mg. Both studies included patients with CVRFs, and SPARTAN allowed patients with coronary artery disease, clinically significant arrhythmia, or uncontrolled hypertension. Efficacy and safety of lasmiditan in subgroups of patients with differing levels of CVRFs are reported. For efficacy analyses, logistic regression was used to assess treatment-by-subgroup interactions. For safety analyses, Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel test of general association evaluated treatment comparisons; Mantel-Haenszel odds ratio assessed significant treatment effects. In this pooled analysis, a total of 4439 patients received ≥1 dose of study drug. A total of 3500 patients (78.8%) had ≥1 CVRF, and 1833 patients (41.3%) had ≥2 CVRFs at baseline. Both trials met the primary endpoints of headache pain freedom and most bothersome symptom freedom at 2 h. The presence of CVRFs did not affect efficacy results. There was a low frequency of likely CV treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) overall (lasmiditan, 30 [0.9%]; placebo, 5 [0.4%]). There was no statistical difference in the frequency of likely CV TEAEs in either the absence or presence of any CVRFs. The only likely CV TEAE seen across patients with ≥1, ≥ 2, ≥ 3, or ≥ 4 CVRFs was palpitations. When analyzed by the presence of CVRFs, there was no statistical difference in lasmiditan efficacy or the frequency of likely CV TEAEs. Despite the analysis being limited by a single-migraine-attack design, the lack of differences in efficacy and safety with increasing numbers of CVRFs indicates that lasmiditan might be considered in the treatment algorithm for patients with CVRFs. Future studies are needed to assess long-term efficacy and safety. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02439320 (SAMURAI), registered 18 March 2015 and ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02605174 (SPARTAN), registered 11 November 2015.

  • Animal models of migraine and experimental techniques used to examine trigeminal sensory processing
    J. Headache Pain (IF 3.918) Pub Date : 2019-08-29
    Andrea M. Harriott; Lauren C. Strother; Marta Vila-Pueyo; Philip R. Holland

    Migraine is a common debilitating condition whose main attributes are severe recurrent headaches with accompanying sensitivity to light and sound, nausea and vomiting. Migraine-related pain is a major cause of its accompanying disability and can encumber almost every aspect of daily life. Advancements in our understanding of the neurobiology of migraine headache have come in large from basic science research utilizing small animal models of migraine-related pain. In this current review, we aim to describe several commonly utilized preclinical models of migraine. We will discuss the diverse array of methodologies for triggering and measuring migraine-related pain phenotypes and highlight briefly specific advantages and limitations therein. Finally, we will address potential future challenges/opportunities to refine existing and develop novel preclinical models of migraine that move beyond migraine-related pain and expand into alternate migraine-related phenotypes. Several well validated animal models of pain relevant for headache exist, the researcher should consider the advantages and limitations of each model before selecting the most appropriate to answer the specific research question. Further, we should continually strive to refine existing and generate new animal and non-animal models that have the ability to advance our understanding of head pain as well as non-pain symptoms of primary headache disorders.

  • Current and emerging evidence-based treatment options in chronic migraine: a narrative review
    J. Headache Pain (IF 3.918) Pub Date : 2019-08-30
    Elio Clemente Agostoni; Piero Barbanti; Paolo Calabresi; Bruno Colombo; Pietro Cortelli; Fabio Frediani; Pietrangelo Geppetti; Licia Grazzi; Massimo Leone; Paolo Martelletti; Luigi Alberto Pini; Maria Pia Prudenzano; Paola Sarchielli; Gioacchino Tedeschi; Antonio Russo

    Chronic migraine is a disabling condition that is currently underdiagnosed and undertreated. In this narrative review, we discuss the future of chronic migraine management in relation to recent progress in evidence-based pharmacological treatment. Patients with chronic migraine require prophylactic therapy to reduce the frequency of migraine attacks, but the only currently available evidence-based prophylactic treatment options for chronic migraine are topiramate and onabotulinumtoxinA. Improved prophylactic therapy is needed to reduce the high burden of chronic migraine in Italy. Monoclonal antibodies that target the calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) pathway of migraine pathogenesis have been specifically developed for the prophylactic treatment of chronic migraine. These anti-CGRP/R monoclonal antibodies have demonstrated good efficacy and excellent tolerability in phase II and III clinical trials, and offer new hope to patients who are currently not taking any prophylactic therapy or not benefitting from their current treatment. Treatment of chronic migraine is a dynamic and rapidly advancing area of research. New developments in this field have the potential to improve the diagnosis and provide more individualised treatments for this condition. Establishing a culture of prevention is essential for reducing the personal, social and economic burden of chronic migraine.

  • Structural changes of cerebellum and brainstem in migraine without aura
    J. Headache Pain (IF 3.918) Pub Date : 2019-09-02
    Zhaoxia Qin; Xin-Wei He; Jilei Zhang; Shuai Xu; Ge-Fei Li; Jingjing Su; Yan-Hui Shi; Shiyu Ban; Yue Hu; Yi-Sheng Liu; Mei-Ting Zhuang; Rong Zhao; Xiao-Lei Shen; Jianqi Li; Jian-Ren Liu; Xiaoxia Du

    Increasing evidence has suggested that the cerebellum is associated with pain and migraine. In addition, the descending pain system of the brainstem is the major site of trigeminal pain processing and modulation and has been discussed as a main player in the pathophysiology of migraine. Cerebellar and brainstem structural changes associated with migraineurs remain to be further investigated. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) (50 controls, 50 migraineurs without aura (MWoAs)) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) (46 controls, 46 MWoAs) were used to assess cerebellum and brainstem anatomical alterations associated with MWoAs. We utilized a spatially unbiased infratentorial template toolbox (SUIT) to perform cerebellum and brainstem optimized VBM and DTI analysis. We extracted the average diffusion values from a probabilistic cerebellar white matter atlas to investigate whether MWoAs exhibited microstructure alterations in the cerebellar peduncle tracts. MWoAs showed decreased fractional anisotropy (FA) in the vermis VI extending to the bilateral lobules V and VI of the cerebellum. We also found higher axial diffusivity (AD), mean diffusivity (MD), and radial diffusivity (RD) in the right inferior cerebellum peduncle tract in MWoAs. MWoAs exhibited both reduced gray matter volume and increased AD, MD and RD in the spinal trigeminal nucleus (SpV). MWoAs exhibited microstructural changes in the cerebellum and the local brainstem. These structural differences might contribute to dysfunction of the transmission and modulation of noxious information, trigeminal nociception, and conduction and integration of multimodal information in MWoAs. These findings further suggest involvement of the cerebellum and the brainstem in the pathology of migraine without aura.

  • Aura and Head pain: relationship and gaps in the translational models
    J. Headache Pain (IF 3.918) Pub Date : 2019-09-03
    Hayrunnisa Bolay; Doga Vuralli; Peter J. Goadsby

    Migraine is a complex brain disorder and initiating events for acute attacks still remain unclear. It seems difficult to explain the development of migraine headache with one mechanism and/or a single anatomical location. Cortical spreading depression (CSD) is recognized as the biological substrate of migraine aura and experimental animal studies have provided mechanisms that possibly link CSD to the activation of trigeminal neurons mediating lateralized head pain. However, some CSD features do not match the clinical features of migraine headache and there are gaps in translating CSD to migraine with aura. Clinical features of migraine headache and results from research are critically evaluated; and consistent and inconsistent findings are discussed according to the known basic features of canonical CSD: typical SD limited to the cerebral cortex as it was originally defined. Alternatively, arguments related to the emergence of SD in other brain structures in addition to the cerebral cortex or CSD initiated dysfunction in the thalamocortical network are proposed. Accordingly, including thalamus, particularly reticular nucleus and higher order thalamic nuclei, which functions as a hub connecting the visual, somatosensory, language and motor cortical areas and subjects to modulation by brain stem projections into the CSD theory, would greatly improve our current understanding of migraine.

  • Identifying menstrual migraine– improving the diagnostic criteria using a statistical method
    J. Headache Pain (IF 3.918) Pub Date : 2019-09-06
    Mathias Barra; Fredrik A. Dahl; E. Anne MacGregor; Kjersti Grøtta Vetvik

    To develop a robust statistical tool for the diagnosis of menstrually related migraine. The International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD) has diagnostic criteria for menstrual migraine within the appendix. These include the requirement for menstrual attacks to occur within a 5-day window in at least $\frac {2}{3}$ menstrual cycles ( $\frac {2}{3}$ -criterion). While this criterion has been shown to be sensitive, it is not specific. Yet in some circumstances, for example to establish the underlying pathophysiology of menstrual attacks, specificity is also important, to ensure that only women in whom the relationship between migraine and menstruation is more than a chance occurrence are recruited. Using a simple mathematical model, a Markov chain, to model migraine attacks we developed a statistical criterion to diagnose menstrual migraine (sMM). We then analysed a data set of migraine diaries using both the $\frac {2}{3}$ -criterion and the sMM. sMM was superior to the $\frac {2}{3}$ -criterion for varying numbers of menstrual cycles and increased in accuracy with more cycle data. In contrast, the $\frac {2}{3}$ -criterion showed maximum sensitivity only for three cycles, although specificity increased with more cycle data. While the ICHD $\frac {2}{3}$ -criterion is a simple screening tool for menstrual migraine, the sMM provides a more specific diagnosis and can be applied irrespective of the number of menstrual cycles recorded. It is particularly useful for clinical trials of menstrual migraine where a chance association between migraine and menstruation must be excluded.

  • Differences in treatment response between migraine with aura and migraine without aura: lessons from clinical practice and RCTs
    J. Headache Pain (IF 3.918) Pub Date : 2019-09-06
    Jakob Møller Hansen; Andrew Charles

    Migraine is a major public health problem afflicting approximately 10% of the general population and is a leading cause of disability worldwide, yet our understanding of the basis mechanisms of migraine remains incomplete. About a third of migraine patients have attacks with aura, consisting of transient neurological symptoms that precede or accompany headache, or occur without headache. For patients, aura symptoms are alarming and may be transiently disabling. For clinicians and scientists, aura represents an intriguing neurophysiological event that may provide important insight into basic mechanisms of migraine. Several observations point toward important differences between migraine with and without aura. Compared with migraine without aura, migraine with aura has different heritability, greater association with different conditions including stroke, different alterations of brain structure and function as revealed by imaging studies. A number of studies also indicate that migraine with aura may respond differently to acute and preventive therapies as compared to migraine without aura. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of these differences in treatment responses, and to discuss the possibility of different therapeutic strategies for migraine with vs. without aura.

  • New diagnostic criteria for headache attributed to transient ischemic attacks
    J. Headache Pain (IF 3.918) Pub Date : 2019-09-06
    Elena R. Lebedeva; Natalia M. Gurary; Jes Olesen

    The International Classification of Headache Disorders diagnostic criteria for Headache Attributed to Transient Ischemic Attack (TIA) and many other secondary headaches are based primarily on the opinion of experts. The aim of this study was to field test, for the first time, the diagnostic criteria for headache attributed to TIA of the International Classification of Headache Disorders, 3rd edition (ICHD-3) and in case of their weaknesses to propose new diagnostic criteria. Consecutive patients with Transient Ischemic Attack and a simultaneous control group were extensively interviewed soon after admission. Data were collected on previous headaches, headaches around the time of Transient Ischemic Attack and characteristics of the TIA using validated neurologist conducted semi-structured interview forms. The evidence of relevant infarction were excluded in patients with Transient Ischemic Attack using magnetic resonance imaging with diffusion-weighted imaging (n = 112) or computed tomography (n = 8). One hundred twenty patients with Transient Ischemic Attack and 192 controls were included. A new type of headache occurred within 24 h in 16 (13%) of patients with Transient Ischemic Attack and in no controls, a preexisting type of headache with altered characteristics occurred in 9 (7.5%) of patients with Transient Ischemic Attack and no in controls, headache without altered characteristics occurred in 8 (6.6%) of patients with Transient Ischemic Attack and in 9 (4.6%) controls. Only 24% of the headaches in patients with Transient Ischemic Attack (8 of 33 patients) fulfilled the diagnostic criteria of International Classification of Headache Disorders-3 and no control patients. We propose new criteria fulfilled by 94% of the headaches. Specificity remained excellent as only one of 192 controls had a headache fulfilling the proposed criterion C. Existing diagnostic criteria for headache attributed to TIA of the International Classification of Headache Disorders are too insensitive. We suggest new diagnostic criteria with high sensitivity and preserved specificity.

  • Acute and preventive pharmacological treatment of post-traumatic headache: a systematic review
    J. Headache Pain (IF 3.918) Pub Date : 2019-10-21
    Eigil Lindekilde Larsen; Håkan Ashina; Afrim Iljazi; Haidar Muhsen Al-Khazali; Kristoffer Seem; Messoud Ashina; Sait Ashina; Henrik Winther Schytz

    Post-traumatic headache (PTH) is associated with considerable disability and reduced health-related quality of life. Despite the very high prevalence of PTH, there are no evidence-based guidelines for PTH treatment. Thus, we found it timely to provide a systematic review of the current literature on acute and preventive pharmacological treatment of PTH using PubMed and Embase databases. Included studies involved acute and preventive pharmacological treatment of headache attributed to traumatic injury to the head in adherence to the International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD) criteria. Of 1424 potentially relevant articles identified, 63 were retrieved for detailed evaluation and seven studies (one prospective and six retrospective) met the inclusion criteria. None of the seven included studies were randomized clinical trials (RCTs) or used a placebo-controlled study design. We found that there is a lack of high-quality evidence-based studies on the pharmacological treatment of PTH. Future studies are highly needed and must emphasize open-label studies with rigorous methodology or RCTs with a placebo-controlled design.

  • The appropriate dosing of erenumab for migraine prevention after multiple preventive treatment failures: a critical appraisal
    J. Headache Pain (IF 3.918) Pub Date : 2019-10-30
    Raffaele Ornello; Cindy Tiseo; Ilaria Frattale; Giulia Perrotta; Carmine Marini; Francesca Pistoia; Simona Sacco

    Erenumab, a fully human monoclonal antibody directed against the calcitonin gene-related peptide receptor, was approved for the prevention of episodic (EM) or chronic migraine (CM) at the monthly dose of 70 mg or 140 mg. We reviewed the available literature to understand if patients with prior preventive treatment failures benefit more from the 140 mg dose than the 70 mg. We searched papers indexed in PubMed and conference abstracts published in the last 2 years which assessed the safety and efficacy of erenumab in patients with prior preventive treatment failures. We reviewed the results of 3 randomized controlled trials and their subgroup analyses and open-label extensions. The 140 mg monthly dose of erenumab had a numerical advantage over the 70 mg monthly dose in patients with prior preventive treatment failures, both in EM and CM (with or without medication overuse) during the double blind phases of the trials and their open-label extensions. The numerical difference between the two doses increased with the increase in the number of prior preventive treatment failures. The available data suggest that erenumab 140 mg monthly might be preferred over the 70 mg monthly dose in patients with EM or CM and prior preventive treatment failures. Further data are needed to assess the long-term efficacy in clinical practice of the two doses of erenumab, while their safety profile is comparable.

  • Headaches in the emergency department –a survey of patients’ characteristics, facts and needs
    J. Headache Pain (IF 3.918) Pub Date : 2019-11-05
    Alberto Doretti; Irina Shestaritc; Daniela Ungaro; John-Ih Lee; Loukas Lymperopoulos; Lili Kokoti; Martina Guglielmetti; Dimos Dimitrios Mitsikostas; Christian Lampl

    Headache is very often the cause for seeking an emergency department (ED). However, less is known about the different diagnosis of headache disorders in the ED, their management and treatment. The aim of this survey is to analyse the management of headache patients in two different ED in Europe. This retrospective survey was performed from September 2018 until January 2019. Patients were collected from the San Luca Hospital, Milan, Italy and the Ordensklinikum Barmherzige Schwestern, Linz, Austria. Only patients with a non-traumatic headache, as the primary reason for medical clarification, were included. Patients were analysed for their complexity and range of examination, their diagnoses, acute treatment and overall efficacy rate. The survey consists of 415 patients, with a mean age of 43.32 (SD ±17.72); 65% were female. Technical investigation was performed in 57.8% of patients. For acute treatment non-steroidal-anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) were the most used, whereas triptans were not given. A primary headache disorder was diagnosed in 45.3% of patients, being migraine the most common, but in 32% of cases the diagnosis was not further specified. Life-threatening secondary headaches accounted for less than 2% of cases. The vast majority of patients attending an ED because of headache are suffering from a primary headache disorder. Life-threatening secondary headaches are rare but seek attention. NSAIDs are by far the most common drugs for treating headaches in the ED, but not triptans.

  • Prevalence and burden of headache in children and adolescents in Austria – a nationwide study in a representative sample of pupils aged 10–18 years
    J. Headache Pain (IF 3.918) Pub Date : 2019-11-06
    Julia Philipp; Michael Zeiler; Christian Wöber; Gudrun Wagner; Andreas F. K. Karwautz; Timothy J. Steiner; Çiçek Wöber-Bingöl

    Headache disorders are highly prevalent worldwide, but not so well investigated in children and adolescents as in adults: few studies have included representative nationwide samples. No data exist for Austria until now. In a representative sample of children and adolescents in Austria, we estimated the prevalence and attributable burden of headache disorders, including the new diagnostic category of “undifferentiated headache” (UdH) defined as mild headache lasting less than 1 hour. Within the context of a broader national mental health survey, children and adolescents aged 10–18 years were recruited from purposively selected schools. Mediated self-completed questionnaires included sociodemographic enquiry (gender, age, socioeconomic status, family constellation, residence [urban or rural] and migration background). Prevalence and attributable burden of all headache, UdH, migraine (definite plus probable), tension-type headache (TTH: definite plus probable) and headache on ≥15 days/month (H15+) were assessed using the Headache-Attributed Restriction, Disability, Social Handicap and Impaired Participation (HARDSHIP) questionnaire for children and adolescents. Health-related quality of life (HrQoL) was assessed using the KIDSCREEN questionnaire. Of 7643 selected pupils, 3386 (44.3%) completed the questionnaires. The 1-year prevalence of headache was 75.7%, increasing with age and higher in girls (82.1%) than in boys (67.7%; p < 0.001). UdH, migraine, TTH and H15+ were reported by 26.1%, 24.2%, 21.6% and 3.0% of participants. Attributable burden was high, with 42% of those with headache experiencing restrictions in daily activities. Medication use (50% overall) was highest in H15+ (67%) and still considerable in UdH (29%). HrQoL was reduced for all headache types except UdH. Participants in single parent or patchwork families had a higher probability of migraine (respectively, OR 1.5, p < 0.001; OR 1.5, p < 0.01). Participants with a migration background had a lower probability of TTH (OR 0.7, p < 0.01). Headache disorders are both very common and highly burdensome in children and adolescents in Austria. This study contributes to the global atlas of headache disorders in these age groups, and corroborates and adds knowledge of the new yet common and important diagnostic category of UdH. The findings call for action in national and international health policies, and for further epidemiological research.

  • Burden of headache disorders in China, 1990–2017: findings from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017
    J. Headache Pain (IF 3.918) Pub Date : 2019-11-07
    Chengye Yao; Yu Wang; Lijun Wang; Yunning Liu; Jiangmei Liu; Jinlei Qi; Yun Lin; Peng Yin; Maigeng Zhou

    Headache has emerged as a global public health concern. However, little is known about the burden from headache disorders in China. The aim of this work was to quantify the spatial patterns and temporal trends of burden from headache disorders in China. Following the general analytic strategy used in the 2017 Global Burden of Disease study, we analyzed the prevalence and years lived with disability (YLDs) of headache and its main subcategories, including migraine and tension-type headache (TTH), by age, sex, year and 33 province-level administrative units in China from 1990 to 2017. Almost 112.4 million individuals were estimated to have headache disorders in 1990 in China, which rose to 482.7 million in 2017. The all-age YLDs increased by 36.2% from 1990 to 2017. Migraine caused 5.5 million YLDs, much higher than TTH (1.1 million) in 2017. The age-standardized prevalence and YLDs rate of headache remained stable and high in 2017 compared with 1990, respectively. The proportion of total headache YLDs in all diseases increased from 1990 to 2017 by 5.4%. A female preponderance was observed for YLDs and the YLDs were mainly in people aged 20~54 years. Headache remains a huge health burden in China from 1990 to 2017, with prevalence and YLDs rates higher in eastern provinces than western provinces. The substantial increase in headache cases and YLDs represents an ongoing challenge in Chinese population. Our results can help shape and inform headache research and public policy throughout China, especially for females and middle-aged people.

  • Reduced resting-state brain functional network connectivity and poor regional homogeneity in patients with CADASIL
    J. Headache Pain (IF 3.918) Pub Date : 2019-11-11
    Jingjing Su; Shiyu Ban; Mengxing Wang; Fengchun Hua; Liang Wang; Xin Cheng; Yuping Tang; Houguang Zhou; Yu Zhai; Xiaoxia Du; Jianren Liu

    Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) manifests principally as a suite of cognitive impairments, particularly in the executive domain. Executive functioning requires the dynamic coordination of neural activity over large-scale networks. It remains unclear whether changes in resting-state brain functional network connectivity and regional homogeneities (ReHos) underly the mechanisms of executive dysfunction evident in CADASIL patients. In this study, 22 CADASIL patients and 44 matched healthy controls underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Independent component analysis (ICA) was used to measure functional brain network connectivity, and ReHos were calculated to evaluate local brain activities. We used seed-based functional connectivity (FC) analyses to determine whether dysfunctional areas (as defined by ReHos) exhibited abnormal FC with other brain areas. Relationships among the mean intra-network connectivity z-scores of dysfunctional areas within functional networks, and cognitive scores were evaluated using Pearson correlation analyses. Compared to the controls, CADASIL patients exhibited decreased intra-network connectivity within the bilateral lingual gyrus (LG) and the right cuneus (CU) (thus within the visual network [VIN)], and within the right precuneus (Pcu), inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), and precentral gyrus (thus within the frontal network [FRN]). Compared to the controls, patients also exhibited significantly lower ReHos in the right precuneus and cuneus (Pcu/CU), visual association cortex, calcarine gyri, posterior cingulate, limbic lobe, and weaker FC between the right Pcu/CU and the bilateral parahippocampal gyrus (PHG), and between the right Pcu/CU and the right postcentral gyrus. Notably, the mean connectivity z-scores of the bilateral LG and the right CU within the VIN were positively associated with compromised attention, calculation and delayed recall as revealed by tests of the various cognitive domains explored by the Mini-Mental State Examination. The decreases in intra-network connectivity within the VIN and FRN and reduced local brain activity in the posterior parietal area suggest that patients with CADASIL may exhibit dysfunctional visuomotor behaviors (a hallmark of executive function), and that all visual information processing, visuomotor planning, and movement execution may be affected.

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上海纽约大学William Glover