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  • Neuroprotective effect of microglia against impairments of auditory steady-state response induced by anti-P IgG from SLE patients in naïve mice
    J. Neuroinflammation (IF 5.7) Pub Date : 2020-01-23
    Xuejiao Wang; Yingzhuo Li; Zijie Li; Jinhong Li; Jingyi Xu; Pingting Yang; Ling Qin

    Autoantibodies against ribosomal P proteins (anti-P antibodies) are strongly associated with the neuropsychiatric manifestations of systemic lupus erythematosus (NPSLE). The present study was designed to assess whether anti-P antibodies can induce abnormal brain electrical activities in mice and investigate the potential cytopathological mechanism. Affinity-purified human anti-ribosomal P antibodies were injected intravenously into mice after blood–brain barrier (BBB) disruption. The auditory steady-state response (ASSR) was evaluated based on electroencephalography (EEG) signals in response to 40-Hz click-train stimuli, which were recorded from electrodes implanted in the skull of mice. Immunofluorescence staining was used to examine the morphology and density of neurons and glia in the hippocampus and cortex. The presence of apoptosis in the brain tissues was studied using the TUNEL assay. A PLX3397 diet was used to selectively eliminate microglia from the brains of mice. Circulating anti-P antibodies caused an enhancement of the ASSR and the activation of microglia through the disrupted BBB, while no obvious neural apoptosis was observed. In contrast, when microglia were depleted, anti-P antibodies induced a serious reduction in the ASSR and neural apoptosis. Our study indicates that anti-P antibodies can directly induce the dysfunction of auditory-evoked potentials in the brain and that microglia are involved in the protection of neural activity after the invasion of anti-P antibodies, which could have important implications for NPSLE.

    更新日期:2020-01-23
  • Correction to: C3aR signaling and gliosis in response to neurodevelopmental damage in the cerebellum
    J. Neuroinflammation (IF 5.7) Pub Date : 2020-01-23
    Kevin G. Young; Keqin Yan; David J. Picketts

    Following publication of the original article, the authors noticed missing labels in Fig. 1a

    更新日期:2020-01-23
  • Molecular mechanisms underlying the actions of arachidonic acid-derived prostaglandins on peripheral nociception
    J. Neuroinflammation (IF 5.7) Pub Date : 2020-01-22
    Yongwoo Jang; Minseok Kim; Sun Wook Hwang

    Arachidonic acid-derived prostaglandins not only contribute to the development of inflammation as intercellular pro-inflammatory mediators, but also promote the excitability of the peripheral somatosensory system, contributing to pain exacerbation. Peripheral tissues undergo many forms of diseases that are frequently accompanied by inflammation. The somatosensory nerves innervating the inflamed areas experience heightened excitability and generate and transmit pain signals. Extensive studies have been carried out to elucidate how prostaglandins play their roles for such signaling at the cellular and molecular levels. Here, we briefly summarize the roles of arachidonic acid-derived prostaglandins, focusing on four prostaglandins and one thromboxane, particularly in terms of their actions on afferent nociceptors. We discuss the biosynthesis of the prostaglandins, their specific action sites, the pathological alteration of the expression levels of related proteins, the neuronal outcomes of receptor stimulation, their correlation with behavioral nociception, and the pharmacological efficacy of their regulators. This overview will help to a better understanding of the pathological roles that prostaglandins play in the somatosensory system and to a finding of critical molecular contributors to normalizing pain.

    更新日期:2020-01-23
  • White matter inflammation and cognitive function in a co-morbid metabolic syndrome and prodromal Alzheimer’s disease rat model
    J. Neuroinflammation (IF 5.7) Pub Date : 2020-01-21
    Nadezda Ivanova; Qingfan Liu; Cansu Agca; Yuksel Agca; Earl G. Noble; Shawn Narain Whitehead; David Floyd Cechetto

    Metabolic syndrome, the development of which is associated with high-caloric Western diet (HCD) intake, represent a risk factor for mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia including Alzheimer’s disease (AD) later in life. This study aimed to investigate the effect of diet-induced metabolic disturbances on white matter neuroinflammation and cognitive function in a transgenic (TG) Fischer 344 rat carrying a human β-amyloid precursor protein (APP) gene with Swedish and Indiana mutations (APP21 TG), a model of pre-AD and MCI. TG and wildtype (WT) rats received either a HCD with 40% kJ from fat supplemented with 20% corn syrup drink or a standard diet for 12 weeks. Body weight, caloric intake, and blood pressure were measured repeatedly. End-point changes in glucose and lipid metabolism were also assessed. Open field task was used for assessment of activity; Morris water maze was used to assess spatial learning and memory. Cerebral white matter microglia and astrocytes, hippocampal neurons, and neuronal synapses were examined using immunohistochemistry. Rats maintained on the HCD developed significant obesity, visceral adiposity, dyslipidemia, and hyperinsulinemia, but did not become hypertensive. Impaired glucose tolerance was observed only in WT rats on the HCD. Total microglia number, activated OX-6+ microglia, as well as GFAP+ astrocytes located predominantly in the white matter were greater in the APP21 TG rat model in comparison to WT rats. HCD-driven metabolic perturbations further exacerbated white matter microgliosis and microglia cell activation in the APP21 TG rats and led to detectable changes in spatial reference memory in the comorbid prodromal AD and metabolic syndrome group compared to WT control rats. Neuronal density in the CA1 subregion of the hippocampus was not different between the experimental groups. Synaptic density in the CA1 and CA3 hippocampal subregions was lower in the TG rats compared to WT rats; however, there was no additional effect of the co-morbidity on this measure. These results suggest that white matter neuroinflammation might be one of the possible processes of early interaction of metabolic syndrome with MCI and pre-AD and could be one of the early brain pathologies contributing to cognitive deficits observed in mild cognitive impairment and dementia, including AD cases.

    更新日期:2020-01-22
  • Neonatal hypoxia-ischemia in rat elicits a region-specific neurotrophic response in SVZ microglia
    J. Neuroinflammation (IF 5.7) Pub Date : 2020-01-18
    Urs Fisch; Catherine Brégère; Florian Geier; Laurie Chicha; Raphael Guzman

    Recent findings describe microglia as modulators of neurogenesis in the subventricular zone (SVZ). SVZ microglia in the adult rat are thought to adopt a neurotrophic phenotype after ischemic stroke. Early postnatal microglia are endogenously activated and may therefore exhibit an increased sensitivity to neonatal hypoxia-ischemia (HI). The goal of this study was to investigate the impact of cortico-striatal HI on the microglial phenotype, function, and gene expression in the early postnatal SVZ. Postnatal day (P)7 rats underwent sham or right-hemispheric HI surgery. Microglia in the SVZ, the uninjured cortex, and corpus callosum were immunohistochemically analyzed at P10, P20, and P40. The transcriptome of microdissected SVZ and cortical microglia was analyzed at P10 and P20, and the effect of P10 SVZ microglia on neurosphere generation in vitro was studied. The microglial response to HI was region-specific. In the SVZ, a microglial accumulation, prolonged activation and phagocytosis was noted that was not observed in the cortex and corpus callosum. The transcriptome of SVZ microglia and cortical microglia were distinct, and after HI, SVZ microglia concurrently upregulated pro- and anti-inflammatory as well as neurotrophic genes. In vitro, microglia isolated from the SVZ supported neurosphere generation in a concentration-dependent manner. Microglia are an inherent cellular component of the early postnatal SVZ and undergo developmental changes that are affected on many aspects by neonatal HI injury. Our results demonstrate that early postnatal SVZ microglia are sensitive to HI injury and display a long-lasting region-specific response including neurotrophic features.

    更新日期:2020-01-21
  • Microglial depletion and repopulation in brain slice culture normalizes sensitized proinflammatory signaling
    J. Neuroinflammation (IF 5.7) Pub Date : 2020-01-18
    Leon G. Coleman; Jian Zou; Fulton T. Crews

    Microglia are critical mediators of neuroimmune pathology across multiple neurologic disorders. Microglia can be persistently activated or “primed” by Toll-like receptor (TLR) activation, ethanol, stress, and other insults. Thus, strategies to prevent or reverse microglial priming may be beneficial for conditions that involve progressively increasing microglial activation. Microglial depletion with repopulation is emerging as a potential therapy to normalize chronic immune activation. Primary organotypic hippocampal slice culture (OHSC) allows for the study of neuroimmune activation as well as microglial depletion and repopulation without involvement of peripheral immune activation. OHSC undergoes functional maturation and retains cytoarchitecture similar to in vivo. OHSC underwent microglial depletion with the CSF1R antagonist PLX3397 with or without repopulation after removal of PLX3397. Immune, trophic, and synaptic gene changes in response to agonists of TLRs 2, 3, 4, 7, and 9 as well as ethanol were assessed in the settings of microglial depletion and repopulation. Gi-DREADD inhibition of microglia was used to confirm select findings seen with depletion. The ability of microglial repopulation to prevent progressive proinflammatory gene induction by chronic ethanol was also investigated. Microglia were depleted (> 90%) by PLX3397 in OHSC. Microglial depletion blunted proinflammatory responses to several TLR agonists as well as ethanol, which was mimicked by Gi-DREADD inhibition of OHSC microglia. Removal of PLX3397 was followed by complete repopulation of microglia. OHSCs with repopulated microglia showed increased baseline expression of anti-inflammatory cytokines (e.g., IL-10), microglial inhibitory signals (e.g., CX3CL1), and growth factors (e.g., BDNF). This was associated with blunted induction (~ 50%) of TNFα and IL-1β in response to agonists to TLR4 and TLR7. Further, chronic cycled ethanol from 4 days in vitro (DIV) to 16DIV caused immediate 2-fold inductions of TNFα and IL-1β that grew to ~4-fold of age-matched control slices by 40DIV. This persistent inflammatory gene expression was completely reversed by microglial depletion and repopulation after chronic ethanol. Microglia in OHSCs mediate proinflammatory responses to TLR agonists and ethanol. Microglial repopulation promoted an anti-inflammatory, trophic neuroenvironment and normalized proinflammatory gene expression. This supports the possibility of microglial depletion with repopulation as a strategy to reverse chronic neuroimmune activation.

    更新日期:2020-01-21
  • MicroRNA-7, synergizes with RORα, negatively controls the pathology of brain tissue inflammation
    J. Neuroinflammation (IF 5.7) Pub Date : 2020-01-20
    Dongxu Yue; Juanjuan Zhao; Huizi Chen; Mengmeng Guo; Chao Chen; Ya Zhou; Lin Xu

    Accumulating evidence has documented that microRNA-7 (miR-7) plays an important role in the pathology of various diseases. However, the potential role of miR-7 in brain tissue inflammation (BTI) remains unclear. We detected the expression of miR-7 in LPS-induced murine BTI model and observed the possible effects of miR-7 deficiency on the pathology of BTI. To elucidate the mechanism, the target gene of miR-7 was screened out by Gene chip assay and its potential roles in BTI were evaluated by Western blot, immunofluorescence, and RNAi assay, respectively. MiR-7 was upregulated in brain tissue in BTI mice and its deficiency could significantly aggravate the pathology of brain tissue. Moreover, RORα, a new target molecule of miR-7, was upregulated in brain tissue from miR-7 deficiency BTI mice. Of note, downregulation of RORα could remarkably exacerbate the pathology of brain tissue and elevate the transduction of NF-κB and ERK1/2 signaling pathways in brain tissue from miR-7 deficiency BTI mice. Furthermore, RORα and miR-7 were dominantly co-expressed in neurons of BTI mice. Finally, RORα synergized with miR-7 to control the inflammatory reaction of neuronal cells in response to LPS stimulation. MiR-7 expression is upregulated in BTI model. Moreover, miR-7 synergizes with its target gene RORα to control the inflammation reaction of neurons, thereby orchestrating the pathology of BTI.

    更新日期:2020-01-21
  • Pre-treatment with the viral Toll-like receptor 3 agonist poly(I:C) modulates innate immunity and protects neutropenic mice infected intracerebrally with Escherichia coli
    J. Neuroinflammation (IF 5.7) Pub Date : 2020-01-17
    Sandra Ribes; Christa Arcilla; Martina Ott; Sandra Schütze; Uwe-Karsten Hanisch; Stefan Nessler; Roland Nau

    Individuals with impaired immunity are more susceptible to infections than immunocompetent subjects. No vaccines are currently available to induce protection against E. coli meningoencephalitis. This study evaluated the potential of poly(I:C) pre-treatment to induce trained immunity. Poly(I:C) was administered as a non-specific stimulus of innate immune responses to protect immunocompetent and neutropenic wild-type mice from a subsequent challenge by the intracranial injection of E. coli K1. Three days prior to infection, mice received an intraperitoneal injection of poly(I:C) or vehicle. Kaplan-Meier survival curves were analyzed. In short-term experiments, bacterial titers and the inflammatory response were characterized in the blood, cerebellum, and spleen homogenates. NK cell subpopulations in the brain and spleen were analyzed by flow cytometry. Numbers of microglia and activation scores were evaluated by histopathology. Pre-treatment with 200 μg poly(I:C) increased survival time, reduced mortality, and enhanced bacterial clearance in the blood, cerebellum, and spleen at early infection in neutropenic mice. Poly(I:C)-mediated protection correlated with an augmented number of NK cells (CD45+NK1.1+CD3−) and Iba-1+ microglial cells and a higher production of IFN-γ in the brain. In the spleen, levels of CCL5/RANTES and IFN-γ were increased and sustained in surviving poly(I:C)-treated animals for 14 days after infection. In immunocompetent animals, survival time was not significantly prolonged in poly(I:C)-treated animals although poly(I:C) priming reduced brain bacterial concentrations compared with vehicle-injected animals at early infection. Pre-treatment with the viral TLR3 agonist poly(I:C) modulated innate immune responses and strengthened the resistance of neutropenic mice against E. coli K1 meningoencephalitis.

    更新日期:2020-01-17
  • The progress of gut microbiome research related to brain disorders
    J. Neuroinflammation (IF 5.7) Pub Date : 2020-01-17
    Sibo Zhu; Yanfeng Jiang; Kelin Xu; Mei Cui; Weimin Ye; Genming Zhao; Li Jin; Xingdong Chen

    There is increasing evidence showing that the dynamic changes in the gut microbiota can alter brain physiology and behavior. Cognition was originally thought to be regulated only by the central nervous system. However, it is now becoming clear that many non-nervous system factors, including the gut-resident bacteria of the gastrointestinal tract, regulate and influence cognitive dysfunction as well as the process of neurodegeneration and cerebrovascular diseases. Extrinsic and intrinsic factors including dietary habits can regulate the composition of the microbiota. Microbes release metabolites and microbiota-derived molecules to further trigger host-derived cytokines and inflammation in the central nervous system, which contribute greatly to the pathogenesis of host brain disorders such as pain, depression, anxiety, autism, Alzheimer’s diseases, Parkinson’s disease, and stroke. Change of blood–brain barrier permeability, brain vascular physiology, and brain structure are among the most critical causes of the development of downstream neurological dysfunction. In this review, we will discuss the following parts:

    更新日期:2020-01-17
  • Dysregulation of BDNF/TrkB signaling mediated by NMDAR/Ca2+/calpain might contribute to postoperative cognitive dysfunction in aging mice
    J. Neuroinflammation (IF 5.7) Pub Date : 2020-01-16
    Li-Li Qiu; Wei Pan; Dan Luo; Guang-Fen Zhang; Zhi-Qiang Zhou; Xiao-Yun Sun; Jian-Jun Yang; Mu-Huo Ji

    Postoperative cognitive decline (POCD) is a recognized clinical phenomenon characterized by cognitive impairments in patients following anesthesia and surgery, yet its underlying mechanism remains unclear. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays an important role in neuronal plasticity, learning, and memory via activation of TrkB-full length (TrkB-FL) receptors. It has been reported that an abnormal truncation of TrkB mediated by calpain results in dysregulation of BDNF/TrkB signaling and is associated with cognitive impairments in several neurodegenerative disorders. Calpains are Ca2+-dependent proteases, and overactivation of calpain is linked to neuronal death. Since one source of intracellular Ca2+ is N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) related and the function of NMDARs can be regulated by neuroinflammation, we therefore hypothesized that dysregulation of BDNF/TrkB signaling mediated by NMDAR/Ca2+/calpain might be involved in the pathogenesis of POCD. In the present study, 16-month-old C57BL/6 mice were subjected to exploratory laparotomy with isoflurane anesthesia to establish the POCD animal model. For the interventional study, mice were treated with either NMDAR antagonist memantine or calpain inhibitor MDL-28170. Behavioral tests were performed by open field, Y maze, and fear conditioning tests from 5 to 8 days post-surgery. The levels of Iba-1, GFAP, interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), NMDARs, calpain, BDNF, TrkB, bax, bcl-2, caspase-3, and dendritic spine density were determined in the hippocampus. Anesthesia and surgery-induced neuroinflammation overactivated NMDARs and then triggered overactivation of calpain, which subsequently led to the truncation of TrkB-FL, BDNF/TrkB signaling dysregulation, dendritic spine loss, and cell apoptosis, contributing to cognitive impairments in aging mice. These abnormities were prevented by memantine or MDL-28170 treatment. Collectively, our study supports the notion that NMDAR/Ca2+/calpain is mechanistically involved in anesthesia and surgery-induced BDNF/TrkB signaling disruption and cognitive impairments in aging mice, which provides one possible therapeutic target for POCD.

    更新日期:2020-01-16
  • Endothelial-specific deficiency of megalin in the brain protects mice against high-fat diet challenge
    J. Neuroinflammation (IF 5.7) Pub Date : 2020-01-14
    Fernando Bartolome; Desiree Antequera; Macarena de la Cueva; Marcos Rubio-Fernandez; Nerea Castro; Consuelo Pascual; Antoni Camins; Eva Carro

    The increasing risk of obesity and diabetes among other metabolic disorders are the consequence of shifts in dietary patterns with high caloric-content food intake. We previously reported that megalin regulates energy homeostasis using blood-brain barrier (BBB) endothelial megalin-deficient (EMD) mice, since these animals developed obesity and metabolic syndrome upon normal chow diet administration. Obesity in mid-life appears to be related to greater dementia risk and represents an increasing global health issue. We demonstrated that EMD phenotype induced impaired learning ability and recognition memory, neurodegeneration, neuroinflammation, reduced neurogenesis, and mitochondrial deregulation associated with higher mitochondrial mass in cortical tissues. EMD mice were subjected to normal chow and high-fat diet (HFD) for 14 weeks and metabolic changes were evaluated. Surprisingly, BBB megalin deficiency protected against HFD-induced obesity improving glucose tolerance and preventing hepatic steatosis. Compared to wild type (wt), the brain cortex in EMD mice showed increased levels of the mitochondrial biogenesis regulator, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α), and uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2), a thermogenic protein involved in the regulation of energy metabolism. This agreed with the previously found increased mitochondrial mass in the transgenic mice. Upon HFD challenge, we demonstrated these two proteins were found elevated in wt mice but reported no changes over the already increased levels in EMD animals. We propose a protective role for megalin on diet-induce obesity, suggesting this could be related to metabolic disturbances found in dementia through brain endocrine system communications.

    更新日期:2020-01-15
  • Aberrant DNA methylation profile exacerbates inflammation and neurodegeneration in multiple sclerosis patients
    J. Neuroinflammation (IF 5.7) Pub Date : 2020-01-14
    Naiara Celarain; Jordi Tomas-Roig

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune and demyelinating disease of the central nervous system characterised by incoordination, sensory loss, weakness, changes in bladder capacity and bowel function, fatigue and cognitive impairment, creating a significant socioeconomic burden. The pathogenesis of MS involves both genetic susceptibility and exposure to distinct environmental risk factors. The gene x environment interaction is regulated by epigenetic mechanisms. Epigenetics refers to a complex system that modifies gene expression without altering the DNA sequence. The most studied epigenetic mechanism is DNA methylation. This epigenetic mark participates in distinct MS pathophysiological processes, including blood–brain barrier breakdown, inflammatory response, demyelination, remyelination failure and neurodegeneration. In this study, we also accurately summarised a list of environmental factors involved in the MS pathogenesis and its clinical course. A literature search was conducted using MEDLINE through PubMED and Scopus. In conclusion, an exhaustive study of DNA methylation might contribute towards new pharmacological interventions in MS by use of epigenetic drugs.

    更新日期:2020-01-14
  • Cyclophilin a signaling induces pericyte-associated blood-brain barrier disruption after subarachnoid hemorrhage
    J. Neuroinflammation (IF 5.7) Pub Date : 2020-01-11
    Pengyu Pan; Hengli Zhao; Xuan Zhang; Qiang Li; Jie Qu; Shilun Zuo; Fan Yang; Guobiao Liang; John H. Zhang; Xin Liu; Haiyang He; Hua Feng; Yujie Chen

    The potential roles and mechanisms of pericytes in maintaining blood–brain barrier (BBB) integrity, which would be helpful for the development of therapeutic strategies for subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), remain unclear. We sought to provide evidence on the potential role of pericytes in BBB disruption and possible involvement and mechanism of CypA signaling in both cultured pericytes and SAH models. Three hundred fifty-three adult male C57B6J mice weighing 22 to 30 g, 29 CypA−/− mice, 30 CypA+/+ (flox/flox) mice, and 30 male neonatal C57B6J mice were used to investigate the time course of CypA expression in pericytes after SAH, the intrinsic function and mechanism of CypA in pericytes, and whether the known receptor CD147 mediates these effects. Our data demonstrated both intracellular CypA and CypA secretion increased after SAH and could activate CD147 receptor and downstream NF-κB pathway to induce MMP9 expression and proteolytic functions for degradation of endothelium tight junction proteins and basal membranes. CypA served as autocrine or paracrine ligand for its receptor, CD147. Although CypA could be endocytosed by pericytes, specific endocytosis inhibitor chlorpromazine did not have any effect on MMP9 activation. However, specific knockdown of CD147 could reverse the harmful effects of CypA expression in pericytes on the BBB integrity after SAH. This study demonstrated for the first time that CypA mediated the harmful effects of pericytes on BBB disruption after SAH, which potentially mediated by CD147/NF-κB/MMP9 signal, and junction protein degradation in the brain. By targeting CypA and pericytes, this study may provide new insights on the management of SAH patients.

    更新日期:2020-01-13
  • Dectin-1/Syk signaling triggers neuroinflammation after ischemic stroke in mice
    J. Neuroinflammation (IF 5.7) Pub Date : 2020-01-11
    Xin-Chun Ye; Qi Hao; Wei-Jing Ma; Qiu-Chen Zhao; Wei-Wei Wang; Han-Han Yin; Tao Zhang; Miao Wang; Kun Zan; Xin-Xin Yang; Zuo-Hui Zhang; Hong-Juan Shi; Jie Zu; Hafiz Khuram Raza; Xue-Ling Zhang; De-Qin Geng; Jin-Xia Hu; Gui-Yun Cui

    Dendritic cell-associated C-type lectin-1 (Dectin-1) receptor has been reported to be involved in neuroinflammation in Alzheimer’s disease and traumatic brain injury. The present study was designed to investigate the role of Dectin-1 and its downstream target spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) in early brain injury after ischemic stroke using a focal cortex ischemic stroke model. Adult male C57BL/6 J mice were subjected to a cerebral focal ischemia model of ischemic stroke. The neurological score, adhesive removal test, and foot-fault test were evaluated on days 1, 3, 5, and 7 after ischemic stroke. Dectin-1, Syk, phosphorylated (p)-Syk, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression was analyzed via western blotting in ischemic brain tissue after ischemic stroke and in BV2 microglial cells subjected to oxygen-glucose deprivation/reoxygenation (OGD/R) injury in vitro. The brain infarct volume and Iba1-positive cells were evaluated using Nissl’s and immunofluorescence staining, respectively. The Dectin-1 antagonist laminarin (LAM) and a selective inhibitor of Syk phosphorylation (piceatannol; PIC) were used for the intervention. Dectin-1, Syk, and p-Syk expression was significantly enhanced on days 3, 5, and 7 and peaked on day 3 after ischemic stroke. The Dectin-1 antagonist LAM or Syk inhibitor PIC decreased the number of Iba1-positive cells and TNF-α and iNOS expression, decreased the brain infarct volume, and improved neurological functions on day 3 after ischemic stroke. In addition, the in vitro data revealed that Dectin-1, Syk, and p-Syk expression was increased following the 3-h OGD and 0, 3, and 6 h of reperfusion in BV2 microglial cells. LAM and PIC also decreased TNF-α and iNOS expression 3 h after OGD/R induction. Dectin-1/Syk signaling plays a crucial role in inflammatory activation after ischemic stroke, and further investigation of Dectin-1/Syk signaling in stroke is warranted.

    更新日期:2020-01-13
  • Lipopolysaccharide induces neuroinflammation in microglia by activating the MTOR pathway and downregulating Vps34 to inhibit autophagosome formation
    J. Neuroinflammation (IF 5.7) Pub Date : 2020-01-11
    Xiaoxia Ye; Mingming Zhu; Xiaohang Che; Huiyang Wang; Xing-Jie Liang; Chunfu Wu; Xue Xue; Jingyu Yang

    Microglial activation is a prominent feature of neuroinflammation, which is present in almost all neurodegenerative diseases. While an initial inflammatory response mediated by microglia is considered to be protective, excessive pro-inflammatory response of microglia contributes to the pathogenesis of neurodegeneration. Although autophagy is involved in the suppression of inflammation, its role and mechanism in microglia are unclear. In the present study, we studied the mechanism by which lipopolysaccharide (LPS) affects microglial autophagy and the effects of autophagy on the production of pro-inflammatory factors in microglial cells by western blotting, immunocytochemistry, transfection, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and real-time PCR. In a mouse model of neuroinflammation, generated by intraventricular injection of LPS (5 μg/animal), we induced autophagy by rapamycin injection and investigated the effects of enhanced autophagy on microglial activation by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and immunohistochemistry. We found that autophagic flux was suppressed in LPS-stimulated N9 microglial cells, as evidenced by decreased expression of the autophagy marker LC3-II (lipidated form of MAP1LC3), as well as increased levels of the autophagy adaptor protein SQSTM1. LPS significantly decreased Vps34 expression in N9 microglial cells by activating the PI3KI/AKT/MTOR pathway without affecting the levels of lysosome-associated proteins and enzymes. More importantly, overexpression of Vps34 significantly enhanced the autophagic flux and decreased the accumulation of SQSTM1 in LPS-stimulated N9 microglial cells. Moreover, our results revealed that an LPS-induced reduction in the level of Vps34 prevented the maturation of omegasomes to phagophores. Furthermore, LPS-induced neuroinflammation was significantly ameliorated by treatment with the autophagy inducer rapamycin both in vitro and in vivo. These data reveal that LPS-induced neuroinflammation in N9 microglial cells is associated with the inhibition of autophagic flux through the activation of the PI3KI/AKT/MTOR pathway, while enhanced microglial autophagy downregulates LPS-induced neuroinflammation. Thus, this study suggests that promoting the early stages of autophagy might be a potential therapeutic approach for neuroinflammation-associated diseases.

    更新日期:2020-01-13
  • BDNF promotes activation of astrocytes and microglia contributing to neuroinflammation and mechanical allodynia in cyclophosphamide-induced cystitis
    J. Neuroinflammation (IF 5.7) Pub Date : 2020-01-13
    Honglu Ding; Jialiang Chen; Minzhi Su; Zhijun Lin; Hailun Zhan; Fei Yang; Wenbiao Li; Juncong Xie; Yong Huang; Xianguo Liu; Bolong Liu; Xiangfu Zhou

    Patients with interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS) often grieve over a low quality of life brought about by chronic pain. In our previous studies, we determined that neuroinflammation of the spinal dorsal horn (SDH) was associated with mechanisms of interstitial cystitis. Moreover, it has been shown that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) participates in the regulation of neuroinflammation and pathological pain through BDNF-TrkB signaling; however, whether it plays a role in cyclophosphamide (CYP)-induced cystitis remains unclear. This study aimed to confirm whether BDNF-TrkB signaling modulates neuroinflammation and mechanical allodynia in CYP-induced cystitis and determine how it occurs. Systemic intraperitoneal injection of CYP was performed to establish a rat cystitis model. BDNF-TrkB signaling was modulated by intraperitoneal injection of the TrkB receptor antagonist, ANA-12, or intrathecal injection of exogenous BDNF. Mechanical allodynia in the suprapubic region was assessed using the von Frey filaments test. The expression of BDNF, TrkB, p-TrkB, Iba1, GFAP, p-p38, p-JNK, IL-1β, and TNF-α in the L6-S1 SDH was measured by Western blotting and immunofluorescence analysis. BDNF-TrkB signaling was upregulated significantly in the SDH after CYP was injected. Similarly, the expressions of Iba1, GFAP, p-p38, p-JNK, IL-1β, and TNF-α in the SDH were all upregulated. Treatment with ANA-12 could attenuate mechanical allodynia, restrain activation of astrocytes and microglia and alleviate neuroinflammation. Besides, the intrathecal injection of exogenous BDNF further decreased the mechanical withdrawal threshold, promoted activation of astrocytes and microglia, and increased the release of TNF-α and IL-1β in the SDH of our CYP-induced cystitis model. In our CYP-induced cystitis model, BDNF promoted the activation of astrocytes and microglia to release TNF-α and IL-1β, aggravating neuroinflammation and leading to mechanical allodynia through BDNF-TrkB-p38/JNK signaling.

    更新日期:2020-01-13
  • Blast traumatic brain injury and serum inflammatory cytokines: a repeated measures case-control study among U.S. military service members
    J. Neuroinflammation (IF 5.7) Pub Date : 2020-01-13
    Jennifer Rusiecki; Lynn I. Levin; Li Wang; Celia Byrne; Jayasree Krishnamurthy; Ligong Chen; Zygmunt Galdzicki; Louis M. French

    There is a paucity of human data on exposure to blast traumatic brain injury (bTBI) and the corresponding systemic cytokine immune response at later time points (i.e., months, years) post-injury. We conducted a repeated measures, case-control study, examining associations of serum levels of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, measured both pre- and post-deployment with having mild and moderate/severe bTBI. Utilizing serum from the Department of Defense Serum Repository cytokines were measured via an ELISA-based array for 15 cytokines. We compared pre- vs. post-levels among mild cases, moderate/severe cases, and controls and carried out case-control comparisons, using paired t- tests and generalized linear models. The average time between bTBI and post-deployment/bTBI serum among cases was 315.8 days. From pre- to post-deployment/bTBI, levels of interleukin 8 (IL-8) were decreased among both mild cases (μ = − 83.43 pg/ml; s.e. = 21.66) and moderate/severe cases (μ = − 107.67 pg/ml; s.e. = 28.74 pg/ml), while levels increased among controls (μ = 32.86 pg/ml; s.e. = 30.29). The same pattern occurred for matrix metallopeptidase 3 (MMP3), with levels decreasing for moderate/severe cases (μ = − 3369.24 pg/ml; s.e. = 1701.68) and increasing for controls (μ = 1859.60 pg/ml; s.e. = 1737.51) from pre- to post-deployment/bTBI. Evidence was also suggestive of case-control differences, from pre- to post-deployment/bTBI for interleukin 1 alpha (IL-1α), interleukin 4 (IL-4), and interleukin 6 (IL-6) among moderate/severe cases. The findings of this longitudinal study indicate that in the chronic phase of bTBI, levels of IL-8 and MMP3 may be substantially lower than pre-injury. These results need confirmation in other studies, potentially those that account for treatment differences, which was not possible in our study.

    更新日期:2020-01-13
  • Serum dickkopf-3 is associated with death and vascular events after ischemic stroke: an observational study from CATIS
    J. Neuroinflammation (IF 5.7) Pub Date : 2020-01-09
    Zhengbao Zhu; Daoxia Guo; Chongke Zhong; Aili Wang; Tan Xu; Yanbo Peng; Hao Peng; Qunwei Li; Zhong Ju; Deqin Geng; Jing Chen; Yonghong Zhang; Jiang He

    Dickkopf-3 (Dkk-3) is implicated in the progression of atherosclerosis. This study aimed to investigate the association between serum Dkk-3 and the prognosis of ischemic stroke. We measured serum Dkk-3 levels in 3344 ischemic stroke patients from CATIS (China Antihypertensive Trial in Acute Ischemic Stroke). The primary outcome was a combination of death and vascular events within 3 months after ischemic stroke. During 3 months of follow-up, the cumulative incidence rates of primary outcome among ischemic stroke patients in five quintiles of serum Dkk-3 (from low to high) were 4.49%, 3.74%, 2.54%, 5.23%, and 6.73%, respectively (log-rank p = 0.004). Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression analyses showed that compared with the third quintile of serum Dkk-3, the adjusted hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) associated with the first and fifth quintile were 3.49 (1.46–8.34) and 4.23 (1.86–9.64) for primary outcome, 3.47 (1.06–11.36) and 5.30 (1.81–15.51) for death, and 2.66 (1.01–7.01) and 3.35 (1.33–8.40) for vascular events, respectively. Multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazards regression model with restricted cubic splines showed a U-shaped association between serum Dkk-3 and the risk of primary outcome (p for nonlinearity = 0.030). Moreover, adding serum Dkk-3 to conventional risk factors could improve the predictive power for primary outcome (net reclassification improvement 28.44%, p < 0.001; integrated discrimination improvement 0.48%, p = 0.001). Both low and high serum Dkk-3 levels are associated with increased risks of death and vascular events within 3 months after ischemic stroke, indicating that serum Dkk-3 may have a special effect on the prognosis of ischemic stroke. We also found that serum Dkk-3 might be a prognostic biomarker for ischemic stroke. Further studies are needed to replicate our findings and to determine the optimal levels of serum Dkk-3.

    更新日期:2020-01-11
  • Isotalatizidine, a C19-diterpenoid alkaloid, attenuates chronic neuropathic pain through stimulating ERK/CREB signaling pathway-mediated microglial dynorphin A expression
    J. Neuroinflammation (IF 5.7) Pub Date : 2020-01-10
    Shuai Shao; Huan Xia; Min Hu; Chengjuan Chen; Junmin Fu; Gaona Shi; Qinglan Guo; Yu Zhou; Wenjie Wang; Jiangong Shi; Tiantai Zhang

    Isotalatizidine is a representative C19-diterpenoid alkaloid extracted from the lateral roots of Aconitum carmichaelii, which has been widely used to treat various diseases on account of its analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anti-rheumatic, and immunosuppressive properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate the analgesic effect of isotalatizidine and its underlying mechanisms against neuropathic pain. A chronic constrictive injury (CCI)-induced model of neuropathic pain was established in mice, and the limb withdrawal was evaluated by the Von Frey filament test following isotalatizidine or placebo administration. The signaling pathways in primary or immortalized microglia cells treated with isotalatizidine were analyzed by Western blotting and immunofluorescence. Intrathecal injection of isotalatizidine attenuated the CCI-induced mechanical allodynia in a dose-dependent manner. At the molecular level, isotalatizidine selectively increased the phosphorylation of p38 and ERK1/2, in addition to activating the transcription factor CREB and increasing dynorphin A production in cultured primary microglia. However, the downstream effects of isotalatizidine were abrogated by the selective ERK1/2 inhibitor U0126-EtOH or CREB inhibitor of KG-501, but not by the p38 inhibitor SB203580. The results also were confirmed in in vivo experiments. Taken together, isotalatizidine specifically activates the ERK1/2 pathway and subsequently CREB, which triggers dynorphin A release in the microglia, eventually leading to its anti-nociceptive action.

    更新日期:2020-01-11
  • Sepsis-associated encephalopathy: a vicious cycle of immunosuppression
    J. Neuroinflammation (IF 5.7) Pub Date : 2020-01-10
    Chao Ren; Ren-qi Yao; Hui Zhang; Yong-wen Feng; Yong-ming Yao

    Sepsis-associated encephalopathy (SAE) is commonly complicated by septic conditions, and is responsible for increased mortality and poor outcomes in septic patients. Uncontrolled neuroinflammation and ischemic injury are major contributors to brain dysfunction, which arises from intractable immune malfunction and the collapse of neuroendocrine immune networks, such as the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, and sympathetic nervous system. Dysfunction in these neuromodulatory mechanisms compromised by SAE jeopardizes systemic immune responses, including those of neutrophils, macrophages/monocytes, dendritic cells, and T lymphocytes, which ultimately results in a vicious cycle between brain injury and a progressively aberrant immune response. Deep insight into the crosstalk between SAE and peripheral immunity is of great importance in extending the knowledge of the pathogenesis and development of sepsis-induced immunosuppression, as well as in exploring its effective remedies.

    更新日期:2020-01-11
  • HMGB1/RAGE axis mediates stress-induced RVLM neuroinflammation in mice via impairing mitophagy flux in microglia
    J. Neuroinflammation (IF 5.7) Pub Date : 2020-01-10
    Shutian Zhang; Li Hu; Jialun Jiang; Hongji Li; Qin Wu; Kokwin Ooi; Jijiang Wang; Yi Feng; Danian Zhu; Chunmei Xia

    Microglial mediated neuroinflammation in the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) plays roles in the etiology of stress-induced hypertension (SIH). It was reported that autophagy influenced inflammation via immunophenotypic switching of microglia. High-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) acts as a regulator of autophagy and initiates the production of proinflammatory cytokines (PICs), but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. The stressed mice were subjected to intermittent electric foot shocks plus noises administered for 2 h twice daily for 15 consecutive days. In mice, blood pressure (BP) and renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) were monitored by noninvasive tail-cuff method and platinum-iridium electrodes placed respectively. Microinjection of siRNA-HMGB1 (siHMGB1) into the RVLM of mice to study the effect of HMGB1 on microglia M1 activation was done. mRFP-GFP-tandem fluorescent LC3 (tf-LC3) vectors were transfected into the RVLM to evaluate the process of autolysosome formation/autophagy flux. The expression of RAB7, lysosomal-associated membrane protein 1 (LAMP1), and lysosomal pH change were used to evaluate lysosomal function in microglia. Mitophagy was identified by transmission electron microscopic observation or by checking LC3 and MitoTracker colocalization under a confocal microscope. We showed chronic stress increased cytoplasmic translocations of HMGB1 and upregulation of its receptor RAGE expression in microglia. The mitochondria injury, oxidative stress, and M1 polarization were attenuated in the RVLM of stressed Cre-CX3CR1/RAGEfl/fl mice. The HMGB1/RAGE axis increased at the early stage of stress-induced mitophagy flux while impairing the late stages of mitophagy flux in microglia, as revealed by decreased GFP fluorescence quenching of GFP-RFP-LC3-II puncta and decreased colocalization of lysosomes with mitochondria. The expressions of RAB7 and LAMP1 were decreased in the stressed microglia, while knockout of RAGE reversed these effects and caused an increase in acidity of lysosomes. siHMGB1 in the RVLM resulted in BP lowering and RSNA decreasing in SIH mice. When the autophagy inducer, rapamycin, is used to facilitate the mitophagy flux, this treatment results in attenuated NF-κB activation and reduced PIC release in exogenous disulfide HMGB1 (ds-HMGB1)-stimulated microglia. Collectively, we demonstrated that inhibition of the HMGB1/RAGE axis activation led to increased stress-induced mitophagy flux, hence reducing the activity of microglia-mediated neuroinflammation and consequently reduced the sympathetic vasoconstriction drive in the RVLM.

    更新日期:2020-01-11
  • Functional relevance of the multi-drug transporter abcg2 on teriflunomide therapy in an animal model of multiple sclerosis
    J. Neuroinflammation (IF 5.7) Pub Date : 2020-01-08
    Lisa Thiele née Schrewe; Kirsten Guse; Silvia Tietz; Jana Remlinger; Seray Demir; Xiomara Pedreiturria; Robert Hoepner; Anke Salmen; Maximilian Pistor; Timothy Turner; Britta Engelhardt; Dirk M. Hermann; Fred Lühder; Stefan Wiese; Andrew Chan

    The multi-drug resistance transporter ABCG2, a member of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter family, mediates the efflux of different immunotherapeutics used in multiple sclerosis (MS), e.g., teriflunomide (teri), cladribine, and mitoxantrone, across cell membranes and organelles. Hence, the modulation of ABCG2 activity could have potential therapeutic implications in MS. In this study, we aimed at investigating the functional impact of abcg2 modulation on teri-induced effects in vitro and in vivo. T cells from C57BL/6 J wild-type (wt) and abcg2-knockout (KO) mice were treated with teri at different concentrations with/without specific abcg2-inhibitors (Ko143; Fumitremorgin C) and analyzed for intracellular teri concentration (HPLC; LS-MS/MS), T cell apoptosis (annexin V/PI), and proliferation (CSFE). Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) was induced in C57BL/6J by active immunization with MOG35–55/CFA. Teri (10 mg/kg body weight) was given orally once daily after individual disease onset. abcg2-mRNA expression (spinal cord, splenic T cells) was analyzed using qRT-PCR. In vitro, intracellular teri concentration in T cells was 2.5-fold higher in abcg2-KO mice than in wt mice. Teri-induced inhibition of T cell proliferation was two fold increased in abcg2-KO cells compared to wt cells. T cell apoptosis demonstrated analogous results with 3.1-fold increased apoptosis after pharmacological abcg2-inhibition in wt cells. abcg2-mRNA was differentially regulated during different phases of EAE within the central nervous system and peripheral organs. In vivo, at a dosage not efficacious in wt animals, teri treatment ameliorated clinical EAE in abcg2-KO mice which was accompanied by higher spinal cord tissue concentrations of teri. Functional relevance of abcg2 modulation on teri effects in vitro and in vivo warrants further investigation as a potential determinant of interindividual treatment response in MS, with potential implications for other immunotherapies.

    更新日期:2020-01-08
  • Phagocytosis of full-length Tau oligomers by Actin-remodeling of activated microglia
    J. Neuroinflammation (IF 5.7) Pub Date : 2020-01-08
    Rashmi Das; Abhishek Ankur Balmik; Subashchandrabose Chinnathambi

    Alzheimer’s disease is associated with the accumulation of intracellular Tau tangles within neurons and extracellular amyloid-β plaques in the brain parenchyma, which altogether results in synaptic loss and neurodegeneration. Extracellular concentrations of oligomers and aggregated proteins initiate microglial activation and convert their state of synaptic surveillance into a destructive inflammatory state. Although Tau oligomers have fleeting nature, they were shown to mediate neurotoxicity and microglial pro-inflammation. Due to the instability of oligomers, in vitro experiments become challenging, and hence, the stability of the full-length Tau oligomers is a major concern. In this study, we have prepared and stabilized hTau40WT oligomers, which were purified by size-exclusion chromatography. The formation of the oligomers was confirmed by western blot, thioflavin-S, 8-anilinonaphthaalene-1-sulfonic acid fluorescence, and circular dichroism spectroscopy, which determine the intermolecular cross-β sheet structure and hydrophobicity. The efficiency of N9 microglial cells to phagocytose hTau40WT oligomer and subsequent microglial activation was studied by immunofluorescence microscopy with apotome. The one-way ANOVA was performed for the statistical analysis of fluorometric assay and microscopic analysis. Full-length Tau oligomers were detected in heterogeneous globular structures ranging from 5 to 50 nm as observed by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, which was further characterized by oligomer-specific A11 antibody. Immunocytochemistry studies for oligomer treatment were evidenced with A11+ Iba1high microglia, suggesting that the phagocytosis of extracellular Tau oligomers leads to microglial activation. Also, the microglia were observed with remodeled filopodia-like actin structures upon the exposure of oligomers and aggregated Tau. The peri-membrane polymerization of actin filament and co-localization of Iba1 relate to the microglial movements for phagocytosis. Here, these findings suggest that microglia modified actin cytoskeleton for phagocytosis and rapid clearance of Tau oligomers in Alzheimer’s disease condition.

    更新日期:2020-01-08
  • Systemic activation of NLRP3 inflammasome and plasma α-synuclein levels are correlated with motor severity and progression in Parkinson’s disease
    J. Neuroinflammation (IF 5.7) Pub Date : 2020-01-08
    Zheng Fan; Yu-Ting Pan; Zhi-Yuan Zhang; Hui Yang; Shu-Yue Yu; Yan Zheng; Jing-Hong Ma; Xiao-Min Wang

    Emerging evidence indicates that inflammasome-induced inflammation plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of Parkinson’s disease (PD). Several proteins including α-synuclein trigger the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome. However, few studies examined whether inflammasomes are activated in the periphery of PD patients and their possible value in the diagnosis or tracking of the progress of PD. The aim of this study was to determine the association between inflammasome-induced inflammation and clinical features in PD. There were a total of 67 participants, including 43 patients with PD and 24 controls, in the study. Participants received a complete evaluation of motor and non-motor symptoms, including Hoehn and Yahr (H-Y) staging scale. Blood samples were collected from all participants. The protein and mRNA expression levels of inflammasomes subtypes and components in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were determined using western blotting and RT-qPCR. We applied Meso Scale Discovery (MSD) immunoassay to measure the plasma levels of IL-1β and α-synuclein. We observed increased gene expression of NLRP3, ASC, and caspase-1 in PBMCs, and increased protein levels of NLRP3, caspase-1, and IL-1β in PD patients. Plasma levels of IL-1β were significantly higher in patients with PD compared with controls and have a positive correlation with H-Y stage and UPDRS part III scores. Furthermore, plasma α-synuclein levels were also increased in PD patients and have a positive correlation with both UPDRS part III scores and plasma IL-1β levels. Our data demonstrated that the NLRP3 inflammasome is activated in the PBMCs from PD patients. The related inflammatory cytokine IL-1β and total α-synuclein in plasma were increased in PD patients than controls, and both of them presented a positive correlation with motor severity in patients with PD. Furthermore, plasma α-synuclein levels have a positive correlation with IL-1β levels in PD patients. All these findings suggested that the NLRP3 inflammasome activation-related cytokine IL-1β and α-synuclein could serve as non-invasive biomarkers to monitor the severity and progression of PD in regard to motor function.

    更新日期:2020-01-08
  • Classical complement cascade initiating C1q protein within neurons in the aged rhesus macaque dorsolateral prefrontal cortex
    J. Neuroinflammation (IF 5.7) Pub Date : 2020-01-06
    Dibyadeep Datta; Shannon N. Leslie; Yury M. Morozov; Alvaro Duque; Pasko Rakic; Christopher H. van Dyck; Angus C. Nairn; Amy F. T. Arnsten

    Cognitive impairment in schizophrenia, aging, and Alzheimer’s disease is associated with spine and synapse loss from the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) layer III. Complement cascade signaling is critical in driving spine loss and disease pathogenesis. Complement signaling is initiated by C1q, which tags synapses for elimination. C1q is thought to be expressed predominately by microglia, but its expression in primate dlPFC has never been examined. The current study assayed C1q levels in aging primate dlPFC and rat medial PFC (mPFC) and used immunoelectron microscopy (immunoEM), immunoblotting, and co-immunoprecipitation (co-IP) to reveal the precise anatomical distribution and interactions of C1q. Age-related changes in C1q levels in rhesus macaque dlPFC and rat mPFC were examined using immunoblotting. High-spatial resolution immunoEM was used to interrogate the subcellular localization of C1q in aged macaque layer III dlPFC and aged rat layer III mPFC. co-IP techniques quantified protein-protein interactions for C1q and proteins associated with excitatory and inhibitory synapses in macaque dlPFC. C1q levels were markedly increased in the aged macaque dlPFC. Ultrastructural localization found the expected C1q localization in glia, including those ensheathing synapses, but also revealed extensive localization within neurons. C1q was found near synapses, within terminals and in spines, but was also observed in dendrites, often near abnormal mitochondria. Similar analyses in aging rat mPFC corroborated the findings in rhesus macaques. C1q protein increasingly associated with PSD95 with age in macaque, consistent with its synaptic localization as evidenced by EM. These findings reveal novel, intra-neuronal distribution patterns for C1q in the aging primate cortex, including evidence of C1q in dendrites. They suggest that age-related changes in the dlPFC may increase C1q expression and synaptic tagging for glial phagocytosis, a possible mechanism for age-related degeneration.

    更新日期:2020-01-07
  • Toll-like receptor 4 agonist and antagonist lipopolysaccharides modify innate immune response in rat brain circumventricular organs
    J. Neuroinflammation (IF 5.7) Pub Date : 2020-01-06
    Alejandra Vargas-Caraveo; Aline Sayd; Javier Robledo-Montaña; Javier R. Caso; José L. M. Madrigal; Borja García-Bueno; Juan C. Leza

    The circumventricular organs (CVOs) are blood-brain-barrier missing structures whose activation through lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a starting point for TLR-driven (Toll-like receptors) neuroinflammation. The aim of this study was to evaluate in the CVO area postrema (AP), subfornical organ (SFO), and median eminence (ME), the inflammatory response to two TLR4 agonists: LPS from Escherichia coli (EC-LPS), the strongest endotoxin molecule described, and LPS from Porphyromonas gingivalis (PG-LPS), a pathogenic bacteria present in the periodontium related to neuroinflammation in neurodegenerative/psychiatric diseases. The response to LPS from the cyanobacteria Rhodobacter sphaeroides (RS-LPS), a TLR4 antagonist with an interesting anti-inflammatory potential, was also assessed. LPSs were intraperitoneally administered to Wistar rats and, as indicatives of neuroinflammation in CVOs, the cellular localization of the nuclear factor NF-κB was studied by immunofluorescence, and microglia morphology was quantified by fractal and skeleton analysis. Data showed that EC-LPS increased NF-κB nuclear translocation in the three CVOs studied and PG-LPS only induced NF-κB nuclear translocation in the ME. RS-LPS showed no difference in NF-κB nuclear translocation compared to control. Microglia in the three CVOs showed an ameboid-shape after EC-LPS exposure, whereas PG-LPS only elicited a mild tendency to induce an ameboid shape. On the other hand, RS-LPS produced a markedly elongated morphology described as “rod” microglia in the three CVOs. In conclusion, at the doses tested, EC-LPS induces a stronger neuroinflammatory response than PG-LPS in CVOs, which might be related to their different potency as TLR4 agonists. The non-reduction of basal NF-κB activation and induction of rod microglia by RS-LPS, a cell morphology only present in severe brain injury and infections, suggests that this molecule must be carefully studied before being proposed as an anti-inflammatory treatment for neuroinflammation related to neurodegenerative/psychiatric diseases.

    更新日期:2020-01-06
  • The specific ex vivo released cytokine profile is associated with ischemic stroke outcome and improves its prediction
    J. Neuroinflammation (IF 5.7) Pub Date : 2020-01-06
    Elzbieta Klimiec-Moskal; Marcin Piechota; Joanna Pera; Kazimierz Weglarczyk; Agnieszka Slowik; Maciej Siedlar; Tomasz Dziedzic

    Inflammation is associated with poor outcome after stroke. A relationship between ex vivo cytokine synthesis and stroke outcome remains unclear. We explored an association between ex vivo cytokine release, circulating interleukin (IL)-6 as a marker of systemic inflammation, and stroke prognosis. We assessed the utility of ex vivo synthesized cytokines for predicting stroke outcome. We collected blood from 248 ischemic stroke patients and stimulated it ex vivo with lipopolysaccharide. We measured concentration of synthesized cytokines (TNFα, IP-10, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, and IL-12) and plasma IL-6. We assessed functional outcome 3 months after stroke using the modified Rankin Scale. To assess the prognostic ability of cytokines, we applied multivariate logistic regression, cluster analysis, and construction of multimarker score. Decreased release of IP-10, TNFα, IL-1β, and IL-12; increased release of IL-10 and IL-8; and higher plasma IL-6 level were associated with poor outcome. Cluster analysis identified three groups of patients with distinct cytokine profiles. The group with the worst outcome demonstrated high synthesis of IL-10, IL-8, IL-1β, and IL-6 and low synthesis of IL-12, IP-10, and TNFα accompanied by high circulating IL-6 level. The group with the best prognosis showed high synthesis of TNFα, IP-10, IL-12, IL-1β, and IL-6; low synthesis of IL-10 and IL-8; and low plasma IL-6. Patients with intermediate outcome had low synthesis of all cytokines accompanied by low circulating IL-6. We constructed a multimarker score composed of ex vivo released IL-12, IL-10, TNFα, and plasma IL-6. Addition of this score to clinical variables led to significant increase in c-statistic (0.81 vs 0.73, p = 0.02) and net reclassification improvement. The decreased ex vivo release of pro-inflammatory cytokines and increased release of IL-10 and IL-8 are related to poor outcome after stroke. Cytokine-based multimarker score adds prognostic value to clinical model for predicting stroke outcome.

    更新日期:2020-01-06
  • Neuroinflammation trajectories precede cognitive impairment after experimental meningitis—evidence from an in vivo PET study
    J. Neuroinflammation (IF 5.7) Pub Date : 2020-01-04
    Vijayasree V. Giridharan; Allan Collodel; Jaqueline S. Generoso; Giselli Scaini; Rico Wassather; Sudhakar Selvaraj; Rodrigo Hasbun; Felipe Dal-Pizzol; Fabricia Petronilho; Tatiana Barichello

    Bacterial meningitis is a devastating central nervous system (CNS) infection with acute and long-term neurological consequences, including cognitive impairment. The aim of this study was to understand the association between activated microglia-induced neuroinflammation and post-meningitis cognitive impairment. Meningitis was induced in male Wistar rats by injecting Streptococcus pneumoniae into the brain through the cisterna magna, and rats were then treated with ceftriaxone. Twenty-four hours and 10 days after meningitis induction, rats were imaged with positron emission tomography (PET) using [11C]PBR28, a specific translocator protein (TSPO) radiotracer, to determine in vivo microglial activation. Following imaging, the expression of TSPO, cardiolipin, and cytochrome c, inflammatory mediators, oxidative stress markers, and glial activation markers were evaluated in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. Ten days after meningitis induction, animals were subjected to behavioral tests, such as the open-field, step-down inhibitory avoidance, and novel object recognition tests. Both 24-h (acute) and 10-day (long-term) groups of rats demonstrated increased [11C]PBR28 uptake and microglial activation in the whole brain compared to levels in the control group. Although free from infection, 10-day group rats exhibited increased expression levels of cytokines and markers of oxidative stress, microglial activation (IBA-1), and astrocyte activation (GFAP) similar to those seen in the 24-h group. Acute meningitis induction also elevated TSPO, cytochrome c, and caspase-3 levels with no change in caspase-9 levels. Furthermore, upregulated levels of TSPO, cytochrome c, and caspase-3 and caspase-9 were observed in the rat hippocampus 10 days after meningitis induction with a simultaneous reduction in cardiolipin levels. Animals showed a cognitive decline in all tasks compared with the control group, and this impairment may be at least partially mediated by activating a glia-mediated immune response and upregulating TSPO. TSPO-PET could potentially be used as an imaging biomarker for microglial activation and long-term cognitive impairment post-meningitis. Additionally, this study opens a new avenue for the potential use of TSPO ligands after infection-induced neurological sequelae.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • IL-1β induces rod degeneration through the disruption of retinal glutamate homeostasis
    J. Neuroinflammation (IF 5.7) Pub Date : 2020-01-03
    Hugo Charles-Messance; Guillaume Blot; Aude Couturier; Lucile Vignaud; Sara Touhami; Fanny Beguier; Lourdes Siqueiros; Valérie Forster; Nour Barmo; Sébastien Augustin; Serge Picaud; José-Alain Sahel; Alvaro Rendon; Antje Grosche; Ramin Tadayoni; Florian Sennlaub; Xavier Guillonneau

    Age-related macular degeneration is characterized by the accumulation of subretinal macrophages and the degeneration of cones, but mainly of rods. We have previously shown that Mononuclear Phagocytes-derived IL-1β induces rod photoreceptor cell death during experimental subretinal inflammation and in retinal explants exposed to IL-1β but the mechanism is unknown. Retinal explants were culture in the presence of human monocytes or IL-1β and photoreceptor cell survival was analyzed by TUNEL labeling. Glutamate concentration and transcription levels of gene involved in the homeostasis of glutamate were analyzed in cell fractions of explant cultured or not in the presence of IL-1β. Glutamate receptor antagonists were evaluated for their ability to reduce photoreceptor cell death in the presence of IL1-β or monocytes. We here show that IL-1β does not induce death in isolated photoreceptors, suggesting an indirect effect. We demonstrate that IL-1β leads to glutamate-induced rod photoreceptor cell death as it increases the extracellular glutamate concentrations in the retina through the inhibition of its conversion to glutamine in Müller cells, increased release from Müller cells, and diminished reuptake. The inhibition of non-NMDA receptors completely and efficiently prevented rod apoptosis in retinal explants cultured in the presence of IL-1β or, more importantly, in vivo, in a model of subretinal inflammation. Our study emphasizes the importance of inflammation in the deregulation of glutamate homeostasis and provides a comprehensive mechanism of action for IL-1β-induced rod degeneration.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • TREM-2-p38 MAPK signaling regulates neuroinflammation during chronic cerebral hypoperfusion combined with diabetes mellitus
    J. Neuroinflammation (IF 5.7) Pub Date : 2020-01-03
    Jiawei Zhang; Yu Liu; Yaling Zheng; Yan Luo; Yu Du; Yao Zhao; Jian Guan; Xiaojie Zhang; Jianliang Fu

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) and chronic cerebral hypoperfusion(CCH)are both risk factors for cognitive impairment. However, whether DM and CCH can synergistically promote cognitive impairment and the related pathological mechanisms remain unknown. To investigate the effect of DM and CCH on cognitive function, rats fed with high-fat diet (HFD) and injected with low-dose streptozotocin (STZ) followed by bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BCCAO) were induced to mimic DM and CCH in vivo and mouse BV2 microglial cells were exposed to hypoxia and/or high glucose to mimic CCH complicated with DM pathologies in vitro. To further explore the underlying mechanism, TREM-2-specific small interfering RNA and TREM-2 overexpression lentivirus were used to knock out and overexpress TREM-2, respectively. Cognitive deficits, neuronal cell death, neuroinflammation with microglial activation, and TREM-2-MAPK signaling were enhanced when DM was superimposed on CCH both in vivo and in vitro. Manipulating TREM-2 expression levels markedly regulated the p38 MAPK signaling and the inflammatory response in vitro. TREM-2 knockout intensified while TREM-2 overexpression suppressed the p38 MAPK signaling and subsequent pro-inflammatory mediator production under high glucose and hypoxia condition. These results suggest that TREM-2 negatively regulates p38 MAPK-mediated inflammatory response when DM was synergistically superimposed on CCH and highlight the importance of TREM-2 as a potential target of immune regulation in DM and CCH.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • MHCII-restricted T helper cells: an emerging trigger for chronic tactile allodynia after nerve injuries
    J. Neuroinflammation (IF 5.7) Pub Date : 2020-01-03
    You-Quan Ding; Han Luo; Jian-Guo Qi

    Nerve injury-induced chronic pain has been an urgent problem for both public health and clinical practice. While transition to chronic pain is not an inevitable consequence of nerve injuries, the susceptibility/resilience factors and mechanisms for chronic neuropathic pain after nerve injuries still remain unknown. Current preclinical and clinical studies, with certain notable limitations, have shown that major histocompatibility complex class II–restricted T helper (Th) cells is an important trigger for nerve injury-induced chronic tactile allodynia, one of the most prevalent and intractable clinical symptoms of neuropathic pain. Moreover, the precise pathogenic neuroimmune interfaces for Th cells remain controversial, not to mention the detailed pathogenic mechanisms. In this review, depending on the biology of Th cells in a neuroimmunological perspective, we summarize what is currently known about Th cells as a trigger for chronic tactile allodynia after nerve injuries, with a focus on identifying what inconsistencies are evident. Then, we discuss how an interdisciplinary perspective would improve the understanding of Th cells as a trigger for chronic tactile allodynia after nerve injuries. Finally, we hope that the expected new findings in the near future would translate into new therapeutic strategies via targeting Th cells in the context of precision medicine to either prevent or reverse chronic neuropathic tactile allodynia.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Short-term resistance exercise inhibits neuroinflammation and attenuates neuropathological changes in 3xTg Alzheimer’s disease mice
    J. Neuroinflammation (IF 5.7) Pub Date : 2020-01-03
    Yan Liu; John Man Tak Chu; Tim Yan; Yan Zhang; Ying Chen; Raymond Chuen Chung Chang; Gordon Tin Chun Wong

    Both human and animal studies have shown beneficial effects of physical exercise on brain health but most tend to be based on aerobic rather than resistance type regimes. Resistance exercise has the advantage of improving both muscular and cardiovascular function, both of which can benefit the frail and the elderly. However, the neuroprotective effects of resistance training in cognitive impairment are not well characterized. We evaluated whether short-term resistant training could improve cognitive function and pathological changes in mice with pre-existing cognitive impairment. Nine-month-old 3xTg mouse underwent a resistance training protocol of climbing up a 1-m ladder with a progressively heavier weight loading. Compared with sedentary counterparts, resistance training improved cognitive performance and reduced neuropathological and neuroinflammatory changes in the frontal cortex and hippocampus of mice. In line with these results, inhibition of pro-inflammatory intracellular pathways was also demonstrated. Short-term resistance training improved cognitive function in 3xTg mice, and conferred beneficial effects on neuroinflammation, amyloid and tau pathology, as well as synaptic plasticity. Resistance training may represent an alternative exercise strategy for delaying disease progression in Alzheimer’s disease.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Unique molecular signature in mucolipidosis type IV microglia
    J. Neuroinflammation (IF 5.7) Pub Date : 2019-12-28
    Antony Cougnoux; Rebecca A. Drummond; Mason Fellmeth; Fatemeh Navid; Amanda L. Collar; James Iben; Ashok B. Kulkarni; James Pickel; Raphael Schiffmann; Christopher A. Wassif; Niamh X. Cawley; Michail S. Lionakis; Forbes D. Porter

    Lysosomal storage diseases (LSD) are a large family of inherited disorders characterized by abnormal endolysosomal accumulation of cellular material due to catabolic enzyme and transporter deficiencies. Depending on the affected metabolic pathway, LSD manifest with somatic or central nervous system (CNS) signs and symptoms. Neuroinflammation is a hallmark feature of LSD with CNS involvement such as mucolipidosis type IV, but not of others like Fabry disease. We investigated the properties of microglia from LSD with and without major CNS involvement in 2-month-old mucolipidosis type IV (Mcoln1−/−) and Fabry disease (Glay/−) mice, respectively, by using a combination of flow cytometric, RNA sequencing, biochemical, in vitro and immunofluorescence analyses. We characterized microglia activation and transcriptome from mucolipidosis type IV and Fabry disease mice to determine if impaired lysosomal function is sufficient to prime these brain-resident immune cells. Consistent with the neurological pathology observed in mucolipidosis type IV, Mcoln1−/− microglia demonstrated an activation profile with a mixed neuroprotective/neurotoxic expression pattern similar to the one we previously observed in Niemann-Pick disease, type C1, another LSD with significant CNS involvement. In contrast, the Fabry disease microglia transcriptome revealed minimal alterations, consistent with the relative lack of CNS symptoms in this disease. The changes observed in Mcoln1−/− microglia showed significant overlap with alterations previously reported for other common neuroinflammatory disorders including Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, and Huntington’s diseases. Indeed, our comparison of microglia transcriptomes from Alzheimer’s disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Niemann-Pick disease, type C1 and mucolipidosis type IV mouse models showed an enrichment in “disease-associated microglia” pattern among these diseases. The similarities in microglial transcriptomes and features of neuroinflammation and microglial activation in rare monogenic disorders where the primary metabolic disturbance is known may provide novel insights into the immunopathogenesis of other more common neuroinflammatory disorders. ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01067742, registered on February 12, 2010

    更新日期:2019-12-30
  • Deletion of SIRPα (signal regulatory protein-α) promotes phagocytic clearance of myelin debris in Wallerian degeneration, axon regeneration, and recovery from nerve injury
    J. Neuroinflammation (IF 5.7) Pub Date : 2019-12-28
    Gerard Elberg; Sigal Liraz-Zaltsman; Fanny Reichert; Takashi Matozaki; Michael Tal; Shlomo Rotshenker

    Recovery of function from traumatic nerve injury depends on the ability of severed axons to grow/regenerate back to their target tissues. This is achieved by successfully crossing the lesion site where physical impact severed axons, determined by the type of trauma, followed by successfully growing throughout the Wallerian degenerating nerve segment located distal to and beyond the lesion site, determined by the nature of Wallerian degeneration. The protracted removal of myelin debris in Wallerian degeneration, which leads residual myelin debris to slow down axon growth, impedes recovery of function. We focused in this study on mechanism(s) that delay the removal of myelin debris in Wallerian degeneration and so impede recovery. Previously, we showed that myelin debris inhibited its own phagocytosis in primary cultured macrophages and microglia as CD47 on myelin ligated SIRPα (signal regulatory protein-α) on phagocytes, and sequentially, SIRPα generated “don’t eat me” signaling. We also demonstrated that serum inhibited phagocytosis in a SIRPα-dependent manner. Herein, we aimed to determine whether SIRPα-dependent inhibition of phagocytosis in macrophages impedes the in vivo removal of myelin debris in Wallerian degeneration, further leading to impaired healing. Using SIRPα null (SIRPα−/−) and littermate wild-type (SIRPα+/+) mice, we studied the recovery of sensory and motor functions from nerve injury and, further, axon regeneration, SIRPα expression, myelin debris removal, and the phagocytic capacity and presence of macrophages in Wallerian degeneration. Myelin debris removal, axon regeneration, and the recovery of functions were all faster in SIRPα−/− mice than in wild-type mice. Between the two cell types that mostly scavenge myelin debris, macrophages but not Schwann cells expressed SIRPα in wild-type mice, and furthermore, SIRPα−/− macrophages phagocytosed significantly more than wild-type macrophages. Our findings suggest an intrinsic normally occurring SIRPα-dependent mechanism that impedes the in vivo removal of myelin debris in Wallerian degeneration by inhibiting the phagocytosis of myelin debris in macrophages, hence preventing fast growing axons from fully implementing their regenerative potential. Thus, accelerating the removal of myelin debris by eliminating SIRPα-dependent inhibition of phagocytosis will most likely advance recovery of functions from nerve injury.

    更新日期:2019-12-30
  • KS23, a novel peptide derived from adiponectin, inhibits retinal inflammation and downregulates the proportions of Th1 and Th17 cells during experimental autoimmune uveitis
    J. Neuroinflammation (IF 5.7) Pub Date : 2019-12-28
    Tian Niu; Lu Cheng; Hanying Wang; Shaopin Zhu; Xiaolu Yang; Kun Liu; Huiyi Jin; Xun Xu

    Uveitis is a potentially sight-threatening form of ocular inflammation that affects the uvea in the wall of the eye. Currently available treatments for uveitis have exhibited profound adverse side effects. However, KS23 is a novel 23-amino-acid anti-inflammatory peptide derived from adiponectin that may have the capability to function as a safe alternative to these existing treatment options. We, therefore, evaluated the preventive effect of KS23 in experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU). EAU was induced in mice via immunization with the peptide interphotoreceptor retinoid binding protein 161–180 (IRBP161–180). KS23 was then administered every 2 days via intraperitoneal injection to induce protection against EAU. Clinical and histopathological scores were employed to evaluate the disease progression. Inflammatory cytokines were also quantified using ELISA, and the expression levels of specific chemokines and chemokine receptors were assessed via qRT-PCR. In addition, the proportions of Th1 and Th17 cells were detected via flow cytometry, and the expression levels of specific proteins were quantified from the retina of mice using western blot analysis, to elucidate the specific mechanism of action employed by KS23 to suppress the inflammation associated with EAU. KS23 was found to significantly improve EAU-associated histopathological scores, while decreasing the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-17A), chemokines (LARC, RANTES, MIG, IP-10), and chemokine receptors (CCR6 and CXCR3). The proportions of Th1 and Th17 cells were also suppressed following intraperitoneal injection with KS23. The anti-inflammatory mechanism employed by KS23 was determined to be associated with the activation of AMPK and subsequent inhibition of NF-κB. KS23 decreased the proportions of Th1 and Th17 cells to effectively ameliorate the progression of EAU. It may, therefore, serve as a promising potential therapeutic agent for uveitis.

    更新日期:2019-12-30
  • Complement factor H contributes to mortality in humans and mice with bacterial meningitis
    J. Neuroinflammation (IF 5.7) Pub Date : 2019-12-28
    E. Soemirien Kasanmoentalib; Mercedes Valls Serón; Joo Yeon Engelen-Lee; Michael W. Tanck; Richard B. Pouw; Gerard van Mierlo; Diana Wouters; Matthew C. Pickering; Arie van der Ende; Taco W. Kuijpers; Matthijs C. Brouwer; Diederik van de Beek

    The complement system is a vital component of the inflammatory response occurring during bacterial meningitis. Blocking the complement system was shown to improve the outcome of experimental pneumococcal meningitis. Complement factor H (FH) is a complement regulatory protein inhibiting alternative pathway activation but is also exploited by the pneumococcus to prevent complement activation on its surface conferring serum resistance. In a nationwide prospective cohort study of 1009 episodes with community-acquired bacterial meningitis, we analyzed whether genetic variations in CFH influenced FH cerebrospinal fluid levels and/or disease severity. Subsequently, we analyzed the role of FH in our pneumococcal meningitis mouse model using FH knock-out (Cfh−/−) mice and wild-type (wt) mice. Finally, we tested whether adjuvant treatment with human FH (hFH) improved outcome in a randomized investigator blinded trial in a pneumococcal meningitis mouse model. We found the major allele (G) of single nucleotide polymorphism in CFH (rs6677604) to be associated with low FH cerebrospinal fluid concentration and increased mortality. In patients and mice with bacterial meningitis, FH concentrations were elevated during disease and Cfh−/− mice with pneumococcal meningitis had increased mortality compared to wild-type mice due to C3 depletion. Adjuvant treatment of wild-type mice with purified human FH led to complement inhibition but also increased bacterial outgrowth which resulted in similar disease outcomes. Low FH levels contribute to mortality in pneumococcal meningitis but adjuvant treatment with FH at a clinically relevant time point is not beneficial.

    更新日期:2019-12-30
  • The history of neuromyelitis optica. Part 2: ‘Spinal amaurosis’, or how it all began
    J. Neuroinflammation (IF 5.7) Pub Date : 2019-12-28
    S. Jarius; B. Wildemann

    Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) was long considered a clinical variant of multiple sclerosis (MS). However, the discovery of a novel and pathogenic anti-astrocytic serum autoantibody targeting aquaporin-4 (termed NMO-IgG or AQP4-Ab), the most abundant water channel protein in the central nervous system, led to the recognition of NMO as a distinct disease entity in its own right and generated strong and persisting interest in the condition. NMO is now studied as a prototypic autoimmune disorder, which differs from MS in terms of immunopathogenesis, clinicoradiological presentation, optimum treatment, and prognosis. While the history of classic MS has been extensively studied, relatively little is known about the history of NMO. In Part 1 of this series we focused on the late 19th century, when the term ‘neuromyelitis optica’ was first coined, traced the term’s origins and followed its meandering evolution throughout the 20th and into the 21st century. Here, in Part 2, we demonstrate that the peculiar concurrence of acute optic nerve and spinal cord affliction characteristic for NMO caught the attention of physicians much earlier than previously thought by re-presenting a number of very early cases of possible NMO that date back to the late 18th and early 19th century. In addition, we comprehensively discuss the pioneering concept of ‘spinal amaurosis’, which was introduced into the medical literature by ophthalmologists in the first half of the 19th century.

    更新日期:2019-12-30
  • BAP31 regulates IRAK1-dependent neuroinflammation in microglia
    J. Neuroinflammation (IF 5.7) Pub Date : 2019-12-28
    Xia Liu; Kun Jiao; Cong-cong Jia; Guo-xun Li; Qing Yuan; Ji-kai Xu; Yue Hou; Bing Wang

    Microglia, the mononuclear immune cells of the central nervous system (CNS), are essential for the maintenance of CNS homeostasis. BAP31, a resident and ubiquitously expressed protein of the endoplasmic reticulum, serves as a sorting factor for its client proteins, mediating the subsequent export, retention, and degradation or survival. Recently, BAP31 has been defined as a regulatory molecule in the CNS, but the function of BAP31 in microglia has yet to be determined. In the present study, we investigated whether BAP31 is involved in the inflammatory response of microglia. This study used the BV2 cell line and BAP31 conditional knockdown mice generated via the Cre/LoxP system. A BAP31 knockdown experiment was performed to elucidate the role of BAP31 in the endogenous inflammatory cytokine production by microglial BV2 cells. A mouse model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced cognitive impairment was established to evaluate the neuroprotective effect of BAP31 against neuroinflammation-induced memory deficits. Behavioral alterations were assessed with the open field test (OFT), Y maze, and Morris water maze. The activation of microglia in the hippocampus of mice was observed by immunohistochemistry. Western blot, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), immunofluorescence staining, and reverse transcription quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) were used to clarify the mechanisms. BAP31 deficiency upregulates LPS-induced proinflammatory cytokines in BV2 cells and mice by upregulating the protein level of IRAK1, which in turn increases the translocation and transcriptional activity of NF-κB p65 and c-Jun, and moreover, knockdown of IRAK1 or use of an IRAK1 inhibitor reverses these functions. In the cognitive impairment animal model, the BAP31 knockdown mice displayed increased severity in memory deficiency accompanied by an increased expression of proinflammatory factors in the hippocampus. These findings indicate that BAP31 may modulate inflammatory cytokines and cognitive impairment induced by neuroinflammation through IRAK1, which demonstrates that BAP31 plays an essential role in microglial inflammation and prevention of memory deficits caused by neuroinflammation.

    更新日期:2019-12-30
  • CXCR5-negative natural killer cells ameliorate experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis by suppressing follicular helper T cells
    J. Neuroinflammation (IF 5.7) Pub Date : 2019-12-29
    Chun-Lin Yang; Peng Zhang; Ru-Tao Liu; Na Zhang; Min Zhang; Heng Li; Tong Du; Xiao-Li Li; Ying-Chun Dou; Rui-Sheng Duan

    Recent studies have demonstrated that natural killer (NK) cells can modulate other immune components and are involved in the development or progression of several autoimmune diseases. However, the roles and mechanisms of NK cells in regulating experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis (EAMG) remained to be illustrated. To address the function of NK cells in experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis in vivo, EAMG rats were adoptively transferred with splenic NK cells. The serum antibodies, and splenic follicular helper T (Tfh) cells and germinal center B cells were determined by ELISA and flow cytometry. The roles of NK cells in regulating Tfh cells were further verified in vitro by co-culturing splenocytes or isolated T cells with NK cells. Moreover, the phenotype, localization, and function differences between different NK cell subtypes were determined by flow cytometry, immunofluorescence, and ex vivo co-culturation. In this study, we found that adoptive transfer of NK cells ameliorated EAMG symptoms by suppressing Tfh cells and germinal center B cells. Ex vivo studies indicated NK cells inhibited CD4+ T cells and Tfh cells by inducing the apoptosis of T cells. More importantly, NK cells could be divided into CXCR5- and CXCR5+ NK subtypes according to the expression of CXCR5 molecular. Compared with CXCR5- NK cells, which were mainly localized outside B cell zone, CXCR5+ NK were concentrated in the B cell zone and exhibited higher expression levels of IL-17 and ICOS, and lower expression level of CD27. Ex vivo studies indicated it was CXCR5- NK cells not CXCR5+ NK cells that suppressed CD4+ T cells and Tfh cells. Further analysis revealed that, compared with CXCR5- NK cells, CXCR5+ NK cells enhanced the ICOS expression of Tfh cells. These findings highlight the different roles of CXCR5- NK cells and CXCR5+ NK cells. It was CXCR5- NK cells but not CXCR5+ NK cells that suppressed Tfh cells and inhibited the autoimmune response in EAMG models.

    更新日期:2019-12-30
  • Lentivirus-mediated downregulation of α-synuclein reduces neuroinflammation and promotes functional recovery in rats with spinal cord injury
    J. Neuroinflammation (IF 5.7) Pub Date : 2019-12-30
    Hong Zeng; Nan Liu; Yan-yan Yang; Hua-yi Xing; Xiao-xie Liu; Fang Li; Gao-yan La; Meng-jie Huang; Mou-wang Zhou

    The prognosis of spinal cord injury (SCI) is closely related to secondary injury, which is dominated by neuroinflammation. There is evidence that α-synuclein aggregates after SCI and that inhibition of α-synuclein aggregation can improve the survival of neurons after SCI, but the mechanism is still unclear. This study was designed to investigate the effects of α-synuclein on neuroinflammation after SCI and to determine the underlying mechanisms. A T3 spinal cord contusion model was established in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. An SNCA-shRNA-carrying lentivirus (LV-SNCA-shRNA) was injected into the injury site to block the expression of α-synuclein (forming the SCI+KD group), and the SCI and sham groups were injected with an empty vector. Basso-Beattie-Bresnahan (BBB) behavioural scores and footprint analysis were used to detect motor function. Inflammatory infiltration and myelin loss were measured in the spinal cord tissues of each group by haematoxylin-eosin (HE) and Luxol Fast Blue (LFB) staining, respectively. Immunohistochemistry, Western blot analysis, and RT-qPCR were used to analyse protein expression and transcription levels in the tissues. Immunofluorescence was used to determine the morphology and function of glial cells and the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 in the central canal of the spinal cord. Finally, peripheral serum cytokine levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Compared with the SCI group, the SCI+KD group exhibited reduced inflammatory infiltration, preserved myelin, and functional recovery. Specifically, the early arrest of α-synuclein inhibited the pro-inflammatory factors IL-1β, TNF-α, and IL-2 and increased the expression of the anti-inflammatory factors IL-10, TGF-β, and IL-4. The neuroinflammatory response was regulated by reduced proliferation of Iba1+ microglia/macrophages and promotion of the shift of M1-polarized Iba1+/iNOS+ microglia/macrophages to M2-polarized Iba1+/Arg1+ microglia/macrophages after injury. In addition, compared with the SCI group, the SCI+KD group also exhibited a smaller microglia/astrocyte (Iba1/GFAP) immunostaining area in the central canal, lower MMP-9 expression, and improved cerebrospinal barrier function. Lentivirus-mediated downregulation of α-synuclein reduces neuroinflammation, improves blood-cerebrospinal barrier function, promotes functional recovery, reduces microglial activation, and promotes the polarization of M1 microglia/macrophages to an M2 phenotype to confer a neuroprotective immune microenvironment in rats with SCI.

    更新日期:2019-12-30
  • Time course of neuropathological events in hyperhomocysteinemic amyloid depositing mice reveals early neuroinflammatory changes that precede amyloid changes and cerebrovascular events
    J. Neuroinflammation (IF 5.7) Pub Date : 2019-12-30
    Erica M. Weekman; Tiffany L. Sudduth; Brittani R. Price; Abigail E. Woolums; Danielle Hawthorne; Charles E. Seaks; Donna M. Wilcock

    Vascular contributions to cognitive impairment and dementia (VCID) are the second leading cause of dementia behind only Alzheimer’s disease (AD); however, VCID is commonly found as a co-morbidity with sporadic AD. We have previously established a mouse model of VCID by inducing hyperhomocysteinemia in both wild-type and amyloid depositing mice. While we have shown the time course of neuropathological events in the wild-type mice with hyperhomocysteinemia, the effect of amyloid deposition on this time course remains unknown; therefore, in this study, we determined the time course of neuropathological changes in our mouse model of hyperhomocysteinemia-induced VCID in amyloid depositing mice. APP/PS1 mice were placed on either a diet deficient in folate and vitamins B6 and B12 and enriched in methionine to induce hyperhomocysteinemia or a control diet for 2, 6, 10, 14, or 18 weeks. Immunohistochemistry and gene expression analysis were used to determine neuroinflammatory changes. Microhemorrhages and amyloid deposition were analyzed using histology and, finally, behavior was assessed using the 2-day radial arm water maze. Neuroinflammation, specifically a pro-inflammatory phenotype, was the first pathological change to occur. Specifically, we see a significant increase in gene expression of tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin 1 beta, interleukin 6, and interleukin 12a by 6 weeks. This was followed by cognitive deficits starting at 10 weeks. Finally, there is a significant increase in the number of microhemorrhages at 14 weeks on diet as well as redistribution of amyloid from the parenchyma to the vasculature. The time course of these pathologies points to neuroinflammation as the initial, key player in homocysteine-induced VCID co-morbid with amyloid deposition and provides a possible therapeutic target and time points.

    更新日期:2019-12-30
  • Interleukin-1β drives NEDD8 nuclear-to-cytoplasmic translocation, fostering parkin activation via NEDD8 binding to the P-ubiquitin activating site
    J. Neuroinflammation (IF 5.7) Pub Date : 2019-12-27
    Meenakshisundaram Balasubramaniam; Paul A. Parcon; Chhanda Bose; Ling Liu; Richard A. Jones; Martin R. Farlow; Robert E. Mrak; Steven W. Barger; W. Sue T. Griffin

    Neuroinflammation, typified by elevated levels of interleukin-1 (IL-1) α and β, and deficits in proteostasis, characterized by accumulation of polyubiquitinated proteins and other aggregates, are associated with neurodegenerative disease independently and through interactions of the two phenomena. We investigated the influence of IL-1β on ubiquitination via its impact on activation of the E3 ligase parkin by either phosphorylated ubiquitin (P-Ub) or NEDD8. Immunohistochemistry and Proximity Ligation Assay were used to assess colocalization of parkin with P-tau or NEDD8 in hippocampus from Alzheimer patients (AD) and controls. IL-1β effects on PINK1, P-Ub, parkin, P-parkin, and GSK3β—as well as phosphorylation of parkin by GSK3β—were assessed in cell cultures by western immunoblot, using two inhibitors and siRNA knockdown to suppress GSK3β. Computer modeling characterized the binding and the effects of P-Ub and NEDD8 on parkin. IL-1α, IL-1β, and parkin gene expression was assessed by RT-PCR in brains of 2- and 17-month-old PD-APP mice and wild-type littermates. IL-1α, IL-1β, and parkin mRNA levels were higher in PD-APP mice compared with wild-type littermates, and IL-1α-laden glia surrounded parkin- and P-tau-laden neurons in human AD. Such neurons showed a nuclear-to-cytoplasmic translocation of NEDD8 that was mimicked in IL-1β-treated primary neuronal cultures. These cultures also showed higher parkin levels and GSK3β-induced parkin phosphorylation; PINK1 levels were suppressed. In silico simulation predicted that binding of either P-Ub or NEDD8 at a singular position on parkin opens the UBL domain, exposing Ser65 for parkin activation. The promotion of parkin- and NEDD8-mediated ubiquitination by IL-1β is consistent with an acute neuroprotective role. However, accumulations of P-tau and P-Ub and other elements of proteostasis, such as translocated NEDD8, in AD and in response to IL-1β suggest either over-stimulation or a proteostatic failure that may result from chronic IL-1β elevation, easily envisioned considering its early induction in Down’s syndrome and mild cognitive impairment. The findings further link autophagy and neuroinflammation, two important aspects of AD pathogenesis, which have previously been only loosely related.

    更新日期:2019-12-27
  • The potassium channel KCa3.1 represents a valid pharmacological target for microgliosis-induced neuronal impairment in a mouse model of Parkinson’s disease
    J. Neuroinflammation (IF 5.7) Pub Date : 2019-12-26
    Jia Lu; Fangfang Dou; Zhihua Yu

    Recent studies described a critical role for microglia in Parkinson’s disease (PD), where these central nerve system resident immune cells participate in the neuroinflammatory microenvironment that contributes to dopaminergic neurons loss in the substantia nigra. Understanding the phenotype switch of microgliosis in PD could help to identify the molecular mechanism which could attenuate or delay the progressive decline in motor function. KCa3.1 has been reported to regulate the “pro-inflammatory” phenotype switch of microglia in neurodegenerative pathological conditions. We here investigated the effects of gene deletion or pharmacological blockade of KCa3.1 activity in wild-type or KCa3.1−/− mice after treatment with 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP), a mouse model of PD. MPTP-induced PD mouse model was subjected to the rotarod test to evaluate the locomotor ability. Glia activation and neuron loss were measured by immunostaining. Fluo-4 AM was used to measure cytosolic Ca2+ level in 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+)-induced microgliosis in vitro. We report that treatment of MPTP-induced PD mouse model with gene deletion or pharmacological blockade of KCa3.1 with senicapoc improves the locomotor ability and the tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive neuron number and attenuates the microgliosis and neuroinflammation in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc). KCa3.1 involves in store-operated Ca2+ entry-induced Ca2+ overload and endoplasmic reticulum stress via the protein kinase B (AKT) signaling pathway during microgliosis. Gene deletion or blockade of KCa3.1 restored AKT/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling both in vivo and in vitro. Taken together, these results demonstrate a key role for KCa3.1 in driving a pro-inflammatory microglia phenotype in PD.

    更新日期:2019-12-27
  • Palmitoylethanolamide counteracts substance P-induced mast cell activation in vitro by stimulating diacylglycerol lipase activity
    J. Neuroinflammation (IF 5.7) Pub Date : 2019-12-26
    Stefania Petrosino; Aniello Schiano Moriello; Roberta Verde; Marco Allarà; Roberta Imperatore; Alessia Ligresti; Ali Mokhtar Mahmoud; Alessio Filippo Peritore; Fabio Arturo Iannotti; Vincenzo Di Marzo

    Palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) is a pleiotropic endogenous lipid mediator currently used as a “dietary food for special medical purposes” against neuropathic pain and neuro-inflammatory conditions. Several mechanisms underlie PEA actions, among which the “entourage” effect, consisting of PEA potentiation of endocannabinoid signaling at either cannabinoid receptors or transient receptor potential vanilloid type-1 (TRPV1) channels. Here, we report novel molecular mechanisms through which PEA controls mast cell degranulation and substance P (SP)-induced histamine release in rat basophilic leukemia (RBL-2H3) cells, a mast cell model. RBL-2H3 cells stimulated with SP were treated with PEA in the presence and absence of a cannabinoid type-2 (CB2) receptor antagonist (AM630), or a diacylglycerol lipase (DAGL) enzyme inhibitor (OMDM188) to inhibit the biosynthesis of the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG). The release of histamine was measured by ELISA and β-hexosaminidase release and toluidine blue staining were used as indices of degranulation. 2-AG levels were measured by LC-MS. The mRNA expression of proposed PEA targets (Cnr1, Cnr2, Trpv1, Ppara and Gpr55), and of PEA and endocannabinoid biosynthetic (Napepld, Dagla and Daglb) and catabolic (Faah, Naaa and Mgl) enzymes were also measured. The effects of PEA on the activity of DAGL-α or -β enzymes were assessed in COS-7 cells overexpressing the human recombinant enzyme or in RBL-2H3 cells, respectively. SP increased the number of degranulated RBL-2H3 cells and triggered the release of histamine. PEA counteracted these effects in a manner antagonized by AM630. PEA concomitantly increased the levels of 2-AG in SP-stimulated RBL-2H3 cells, and this effect was reversed by OMDM188. PEA significantly stimulated DAGL-α and -β activity and, consequently, 2-AG biosynthesis in cell-free systems. Co-treatment with PEA and 2-AG at per se ineffective concentrations downmodulated SP-induced release of histamine and degranulation, and this effect was reversed by OMDM188. Activation of CB2 underlies the inhibitory effects on SP-induced RBL-2H3 cell degranulation by PEA alone. We demonstrate for the first time that the effects in RBL-2H3 cells of PEA are due to the stimulation of 2-AG biosynthesis by DAGLs.

    更新日期:2019-12-27
  • Molecular biomarkers in multiple sclerosis
    J. Neuroinflammation (IF 5.7) Pub Date : 2019-12-23
    Tjalf Ziemssen; Katja Akgün; Wolfgang Brück

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory-neurodegenerative disease of the central nervous system presenting with significant inter- and intraindividual heterogeneity. However, the application of clinical and imaging biomarkers is currently not able to allow individual characterization and prediction. Complementary, molecular biomarkers which are easily quantifiable come from the areas of immunology and neurobiology due to the causal pathomechanisms and can excellently complement other disease characteristics. Only a few molecular biomarkers have so far been routinely used in clinical practice as their validation and transfer take a long time. This review describes the characteristics that an ideal MS biomarker should have and the challenges of establishing new biomarkers. In addition, clinically relevant and promising biomarkers from the blood and cerebrospinal fluid are presented which are useful for MS diagnosis and prognosis as well as for the assessment of therapy response and side effects.

    更新日期:2019-12-23
  • Stress-induced microglial activation occurs through β-adrenergic receptor: noradrenaline as a key neurotransmitter in microglial activation
    J. Neuroinflammation (IF 5.7) Pub Date : 2019-12-17
    Shuei Sugama; Takato Takenouchi; Makoto Hashimoto; Hisayuki Ohata; Yasuhiro Takenaka; Yoshihiko Kakinuma

    The involvement of microglia in neuroinflammatory responses has been extensively demonstrated. Recent animal studies have shown that exposure to either acute or chronic stress induces robust microglial activation in the brain. In the present study, we investigated the underlying mechanism of brain microglial activation by acute stress. We first looked at the spatial distribution of the noradrenaline (NA)-synthesizing enzyme, DBH (dopamine β-hydroxylase), in comparison with NA receptors—β1, β2, and β3 adrenergic receptors (β1-AR, β2-AR, and β3-AR)—after which we examined the effects of the β-blocker propranolol and α-blockers prazosin and yohimbine on stress-induced microglial activation. Finally, we compared stress-induced microglial activation between wild-type (WT) mice and double-knockout (DKO) mice lacking β1-AR and β2-AR. The results demonstrated that (1) microglial activation occurred in most studied brain regions, including the hippocampus (HC), thalamus (TM), and hypothalamus (HT); (2) within these three brain regions, the NA-synthesizing enzyme DBH was densely stained in the neuronal fibers; (3) β1-AR and β2-AR, but not β3-AR, are detected in the whole brain, and β1-AR and β2-AR are co-localized with microglial cells, as observed by laser scanning microscopy; (4) β-blocker treatment inhibited microglial activation in terms of morphology and count through the whole brain; α-blockers did not show such effect; (5) unlike WT mice, DKO mice exhibited substantial inhibition of stress-induced microglial activation in the brain. We demonstrate that neurons/microglia may interact with NA via β1-AR and β2-AR.

    更新日期:2019-12-18
  • Genetic deletion of soluble epoxide hydrolase delays the progression of Alzheimer’s disease
    J. Neuroinflammation (IF 5.7) Pub Date : 2019-12-17
    Hsueh-Te Lee; Kuan-I Lee; Chia-Hui Chen; Tzong-Shyuan Lee

    Soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) is a bifunctional enzyme with COOH-terminal hydrolase and NH2-terminal lipid phosphatase activities. It is expressed in various cell types in the brain and is involved in the pathogenesis of inflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases. Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a progressive neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative disease. However, the pathological significance of sEH and underlying molecular mechanism in AD remain unclear. To examine the role of sEH in pathogenesis of AD, we used wild-type (WT) mice, soluble epoxide hydrolase deficient (sEH−/−) and two mouse models of AD, including amyloid precursor protein (APP)/presenilin 1 (PS1) transgenic (APP/PS1 Tg) and APP/PS1 Tg/sEH−/− mice. Western blotting analysis and immunohistochemistry assay were performed to evaluate the protein expression. Locomotion, nesting building ability, Y-maze, and Morris water maze tests were conducted to study mouse behavior. The levels of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-4, IL-6, and IL-10 and the activities of NF-κB and nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) were measured by commercial assay kits. The quantitative protein level profiling in the brain lysate was analyzed using LC-MS/MS approaches. We demonstrated that the level of sEH was increased in the brain and predominantly appeared in hippocampal astrocytes of APP/PS1 Tg mice. Genetic ablation of sEH in APP/PS1 Tg mice delayed the progression of AD as evidenced by the alleviation in behavior outcomes and Aβ plaque deposition. In addition, loss of the function of sEH in APP/PS1 Tg mice increased astrogliosis and the production of astrocyte-derived anti-inflammatory cytokines including IL-1β, IL-4, and IL-10, as well as the activity of NF-kB and NFAT. Moreover, analysis of gene ontology in the AD brain revealed that important signaling pathways and processes related to AD pathogenesis such as translational regulation, oxidative stress, cytoskeleton reorganization, and small GTPase signal transduction were altered in APP/PS1 Tg/sEH−/− mice compared with APP/PS1 Tg mice. Our results suggest that sEH is a crucial regulator in the progression of AD and might be a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of AD.

    更新日期:2019-12-18
  • Chronic dry eye induced corneal hypersensitivity, neuroinflammatory responses, and synaptic plasticity in the mouse trigeminal brainstem
    J. Neuroinflammation (IF 5.7) Pub Date : 2019-12-17
    Darine Fakih; Zhanlin Zhao; Pierre Nicolle; Elodie Reboussin; Fanny Joubert; Jade Luzu; Antoine Labbé; William Rostène; Christophe Baudouin; Stéphane Mélik Parsadaniantz; Annabelle Réaux-Le Goazigo

    Dry eye disease (DED) is a multifactorial disease associated with ocular surface inflammation, pain, and nerve abnormalities. We studied the peripheral and central neuroinflammatory responses that occur during persistent DED using molecular, cellular, behavioral, and electrophysiological approaches. A mouse model of DED was obtained by unilateral excision of the extraorbital lachrymal gland (ELG) and Harderian gland (HG) of adult female C57BL/6 mice. In vivo tests were conducted at 7, 14, and 21 days (d) after surgery. Tear production was measured by a phenol red test and corneal alterations and inflammation were assessed by fluorescein staining and in vivo confocal microscopy. Corneal nerve morphology was evaluated by nerve staining. Mechanical corneal sensitivity was monitored using von Frey filaments. Multi-unit extracellular recording of ciliary nerve fiber activity was used to monitor spontaneous corneal nerve activity. RT-qPCR and immunostaining were used to determine RNA and protein levels at d21. We observed a marked reduction of tear production and the development of corneal inflammation at d7, d14, and d21 post-surgery in DED animals. Chronic DE induced a reduction of intraepithelial corneal nerve terminals. Behavioral and electrophysiological studies showed that the DED animals developed time-dependent mechanical corneal hypersensitivity accompanied by increased spontaneous ciliary nerve fiber electrical activity. Consistent with these findings, DED mice exhibited central presynaptic plasticity, demonstrated by a higher Piccolo immunoreactivity in the ipsilateral trigeminal brainstem sensory complex (TBSC). At d21 post-surgery, mRNA levels of pro-inflammatory (IL-6 and IL-1β), astrocyte (GFAP), and oxidative (iNOS2 and NOX4) markers increased significantly in the ipsilateral trigeminal ganglion (TG). This correlated with an increase in Iba1, GFAP, and ATF3 immunostaining in the ipsilateral TG of DED animals. Furthermore, pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, TNFα, IL-1β, and CCL2), iNOS2, neuronal (ATF3 and FOS), and microglial (CD68 and Itgam) markers were also upregulated in the TBSC of DED animals at d21, along with increased immunoreactivity against GFAP and Iba1. Overall, these data highlight peripheral sensitization and neuroinflammatory responses that participate in the development and maintenance of dry eye-related pain. This model may be useful to identify new analgesic molecules to alleviate ocular pain.

    更新日期:2019-12-18
  • Loss of amyloid precursor protein exacerbates early inflammation in Niemann-Pick disease type C
    J. Neuroinflammation (IF 5.7) Pub Date : 2019-12-17
    Samuel D. Shin; Alexandra Shin; Karina Mayagoitia; Lorraine Siebold; Marsilio Rubini; Christopher G. Wilson; Denise L. Bellinger; Salvador Soriano

    Niemann-Pick disease type C (NPC) is a progressive neurodegenerative condition that results in early fatality. NPC is inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern from mutations in NPC1 or NPC2 genes. The etiology of NPC is poorly defined. In that regard, neuroinflammation occurs early in the disease and we have recently unveiled an atypical pattern of interferon signaling in pre-symptomatic Npc1−/− mice, with microglial activation, anti-viral response, activation of antigen-presenting cells, and activation and chemotaxis of T lymphocytes as the key affected pathologic pathways. Furthermore, IP-10/CXCL10, a potent IFN-γ-responsive cytokine, was identified as the potential mediator of these early inflammatory abnormalities. Here, we asked whether this aberrant signaling may be exacerbated by the loss of amyloid precursor protein (APP) function, a loss known to shorten lifespan and accelerate neurodegeneration in Npc1−/− mice. We carried out genome-wide comparative transcriptome analyses of pre-symptomatic Npc1+/+/App+/+, Npc1−/−/App+/+, Npc1+/+/App−/−, and Npc1−/−/App−/− mouse cerebella to identify biological pathways in the NPC brain further affected by the loss of APP. Gene Set Enrichment Analysis and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis were utilized for molecular mapping and functional upstream pathway analyses of highly differentially expressed genes. We simultaneously measured the expression of 32 inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in the cerebella from these mice, including those identified in our genome-wide analyses. Finally, we used immunohistochemistry to measure T cell infiltration in the cerebellum. Expression of IFN-γ- and IFN-α-responsive genes in pre-symptomatic Npc1−/−/App−/− cerebella is upregulated compared with Npc1−/−/App+/+ mice, compounding the dysregulation of microglial activation, anti-viral response, activation of antigen-presenting cells, and T-lymphocyte activation and chemotaxis pathways present in the NPC brain. Multiplex protein analysis further showed elevated expression of IP-10/CXCL10, a potent downstream effector of IFN-γ, as well as RANTES/CCL5, eotaxin/CCL11 and IL-10, prior to symptomatic onset in Npc1−/−/App−/− cerebella, compared with Npc1−/−/App+/+mice. In the terminal disease stage, loss of APP caused pleiotropic differential expression of the vast majority of cytokines evaluated. Finally, we present evidence of T cell infiltration in Npc1−/−/App−/− cerebella. Loss of APP exacerbates the pathogenic neuroinflammation that occurs prior to symptomatic onset in the NPC brain. These findings shed new light on the function of APP as a cytoprotective modulator in the CNS, offering potential evidence-based therapies against NPC.

    更新日期:2019-12-18
  • Association of LAG3 genetic variation with an increased risk of PD in Chinese female population
    J. Neuroinflammation (IF 5.7) Pub Date : 2019-12-17
    Wenyuan Guo; Miaomiao Zhou; Jiewen Qiu; Yuwan Lin; Xiang Chen; Shuxuan Huang; Mingshu Mo; Hanqun Liu; Guoyou Peng; Xiaoqin Zhu; Pingyi Xu

    Emerging evidence suggests that α-synuclein (α-syn) aggregation and intercellular transmission contributes to pathogenesis of Parkinson’s disease (PD) and the toxic fibrillary α-syn binds lymphocyte-activation gene 3 (LAG3) receptor that mediates α-syn transmission. The deletion of LAG3 in animal models was shown to limit α-syn spreading and alleviate the pathological changes of dopaminergic neurons and animal behavioral deficits induced by α-syn aggregation. However, little is known about the genetic association of LAG3 variation with human PD development. Here we investigated LAG3 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and examined the levels of soluble LAG3 (sLAG3) of CSF and serum from Chinese PD patients. We enrolled 646 PD patients and 536 healthy controls to conduct a case-control study. All the participants were genotyped using Sequenom iPLEX Assay and the partial cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum samples were assessed by Meso Scale Discovery electrochemiluminescence (MSD-ECL) immunoassay to measure sLAG3 concentration. As a result, distributions of rs1922452-AA (1.975, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.311–2.888, p = 0.001) and rs951818-CC (OR = 2.03, 95% CI 1.369–3.010, p = 0.001) genotype frequencies were found higher in the female PD patients than controls, respectively, and a strong linkage disequilibrium (LD) was calculated on the variants. The level of sLAG3 in CSF of PD patients was found to significantly differ from that of controls (51.56 ± 15.05 pg/ml vs 88.49 ± 62.96 pg/ml, p < 0.0001). Meanwhile, the concentration of α-synuclein in CSF of patients was significantly lower than that of controls (939.9 ± 2900 pg/ml vs 2476 ± 4403 pg/ml, p < 0.0001) and the level of sLAG3 was detected to be positive correlation with that of α-synuclein in the control group (r = 0.597, p = 0.0042), but not in PD group (r = 0.111, p = 0.408). In summary, our data suggested that LAG3 SNPs increase the PD risk of Chinese female population and the sLAG3 may be a potential biomarker predicted for PD development.

    更新日期:2019-12-18
  • Intrathecal injection of bone marrow stromal cells attenuates neuropathic pain via inhibition of P2X4R in spinal cord microglia
    J. Neuroinflammation (IF 5.7) Pub Date : 2019-12-17
    Yongbo Teng; Yang Zhang; Shouwei Yue; Huanwen Chen; Yujuan Qu; Hui Wei; Xiaofeng Jia

    Neuropathic pain is one of the most debilitating of all chronic pain syndromes. Intrathecal (i.t.) bone marrow stromal cell (BMSC) injections have a favorable safety profile; however, results have been inconsistent, and complete understanding of how BMSCs affect neuropathic pain remains elusive. We evaluated the analgesic effect of BMSCs on neuropathic pain in a chronic compression of the dorsal root ganglion (CCD) model. We analyzed the effect of BMSCs on microglia reactivity and expression of purinergic receptor P2X4 (P2X4R). Furthermore, we assessed the effect of BMSCs on the expression of transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4), a key molecule in the pathogenesis of neuropathic pain, in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. I.t. BMSC transiently but significantly ameliorated neuropathic pain behavior (37.6% reduction for 2 days). We found no evidence of BMSC infiltration into the spinal cord parenchyma or DRGs, and we also demonstrated that intrathecal injection of BMSC-lysates provides similar relief. These findings suggest that the analgesic effects of i.t. BMSC were largely due to the release of BMSC-derived factors into the intrathecal space. Mechanistically, we found that while i.t. BMSCs did not change TRPV4 expression in DRG neurons, there was a significant reduction of P2X4R expression in the spinal cord microglia. BMSC-lysate also reduced P2X4R expression in activated microglia in vitro. Coadministration of additional pharmacological interventions targeting P2X4R confirmed that modulation of P2X4R might be a key mechanism for the analgesic effects of i.t. BMSC. Altogether, our results suggest that i.t. BMSC is an effective and safe treatment of neuropathic pain and provides novel evidence that BMSC’s analgesic effects are largely mediated by the release of BMSC-derived factors resulting in microglial P2X4R downregulation.

    更新日期:2019-12-18
  • Maternal elevated salt consumption and the development of autism spectrum disorder in the offspring
    J. Neuroinflammation (IF 5.7) Pub Date : 2019-12-14
    Kazi Farhana Afroz; Karina Alviña

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a prevalent neurodevelopmental condition with no known etiology or cure. Several possible contributing factors, both genetic and environmental, are being actively investigated. Amongst these, maternal immune dysregulation has been identified as potentially involved in promoting ASD in the offspring. Indeed, ASD-like behaviors have been observed in studies using the maternal immune activation mouse model. Furthermore, recent studies have shed light on maternal dietary habits and their impact on the gut microbiome as factors possibly facilitating ASD. However, most of these studies have been limited to the effects of high fat and/or high sugar. More recent data, however, have shown that elevated salt consumption has a significant effect on the immune system and gut microbiome, often resulting in gut dysbiosis and induction of pro-inflammatory pathways. Specifically, high salt alters the gut microbiome and induces the differentiation of T helper-17 cells that produce pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-17 and interleukin-23. Moreover, elevated salt can also reduce the differentiation of regulatory T cells that help maintaining a balanced immune system. While in the innate immune system, high salt can cause over activation of M1 pro-inflammatory macrophages and downregulation of M2 regulatory macrophages. These changes to the immune system are alarming because excessive consumption of salt is a documented worldwide problem. Thus, in this review, we discuss recent findings on high salt intake, gut microbiome, and immune system dysregulation while proposing a hypothesis to link maternal overconsumption of salt and children’s ASD.

    更新日期:2019-12-17
  • Electroacupuncture attenuates cognition impairment via anti-neuroinflammation in an Alzheimer’s disease animal model
    J. Neuroinflammation (IF 5.7) Pub Date : 2019-12-13
    Mudan Cai; Jun-Hwan Lee; Eun Jin Yang

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive loss of cognitive abilities and memory leading to dementia. Electroacupuncture (EA) is a complementary alternative medicine approach, applying an electrical current to acupuncture points. In clinical and animal studies, EA causes cognitive improvements in AD and vascular dementia. However, EA-induced changes in cognition and microglia-mediated amyloid β (Aβ) degradation have not been determined yet in AD animals. Therefore, this study investigated the EA-induced molecular mechanisms causing cognitive improvement and anti-inflammatory activity in five familial mutation (5XFAD) mice, an animal model of AD. 5XFAD mice were bilaterally treated with EA at the Taegye (KI3) acupoints three times per week for 2 weeks. To evaluate the effects of EA treatment on cognitive functions, novel object recognition and Y-maze tests were performed with non-Tg, 5XFAD (Tg), and EA-treated 5XFAD (Tg + KI3) mice. To examine the molecular mechanisms underlying EA effects, western blots, immunohistochemistry, and micro-positron emission tomography scans were performed. Furthermore, we studied synapse ultrastructures with transmission electron microscopy and used electrophysiology to investigate EA effects on synaptic plasticity in 5XFAD mice. EA treatment significantly improved working memory and synaptic plasticity, alleviated neuroinflammation, and reduced ultrastructural degradation of synapses via upregulation of synaptophysin and postsynaptic density-95 protein in 5XFAD mice. Furthermore, microglia-mediated Aβ deposition was reduced after EA treatment and coincided with a reduction in amyloid precursor protein. Our findings demonstrate that EA treatment ameliorates cognitive impairment via inhibition of synaptic degeneration and neuroinflammation in a mouse model of AD.

    更新日期:2019-12-13
  • CXCL12 is involved in α-synuclein-triggered neuroinflammation of Parkinson’s disease
    J. Neuroinflammation (IF 5.7) Pub Date : 2019-12-12
    Yuanyuan Li; Mengyue Niu; Aonan Zhao; Wenyan Kang; Zhichun Chen; Ningdi Luo; Liche Zhou; Xiongwei Zhu; Liming Lu; Jun Liu

    The mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis and progression of Parkinson’s disease (PD) remain elusive, but recent opinions and perspectives have focused on whether the inflammation process induced by microglia contributes to α-synuclein-mediated toxicity. Migration of microglia to the substantia nigra (SN) could precede neurodegeneration in A53T mice. We hypothesized that CXCL12 could be a mediator in the α-synuclein-induced migration of microglia. After establishing appropriate animal and cell culture models, we explored the relationship between α-synuclein and CXCL12 in A53T mice, primary microglia, and BV-2 cell lines. We also explored the mechanisms of these interactions and the signaling processes involved in neuroinflammation. We confirmed the positive correlation between α-synuclein and CXCL12 in the postmortem brain tissue of PD patients and the upregulated CXCR4 expression in SN microglia of A53T mice. In addition, as expected, α-synuclein increased the production of CXCL12 in microglia via TLR4/IκB-α/NF-κB signaling. Importantly, CXCL12/CXCR4/FAK/Src/Rac1 signaling was shown to be involved in α-synuclein-induced microglial accumulation. Our study suggests that CXCL12 could be a novel target for the prevention of α-synuclein-triggered ongoing microglial responses. Blocking CXCL12/CXCR4 may be a potential therapeutic approach for PD progression.

    更新日期:2019-12-13
  • TGFβRI antagonist inhibits HIV-1 Nef-induced CC chemokine family ligand 2 (CCL2) in the brain and prevents spatial learning impairment
    J. Neuroinflammation (IF 5.7) Pub Date : 2019-12-11
    Gladys Chompre; Neysha Martinez-Orengo; Myrella Cruz; James T. Porter; Richard J. Noel

    HIV-1–associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) progression is related to continued inflammation despite undetectable viral loads and may be caused by early viral proteins expressed by latently infected cells. Astrocytes represent an HIV reservoir in the brain where the early viral neurotoxin negative factor (Nef) is produced. We previously demonstrated that astrocytic expression of Nef in the hippocampus of rats causes inflammation, macrophage infiltration, and memory impairment. Since these processes are affected by TGFβ signaling pathways, and TGFβ-1 is found at higher levels in the central nervous system of HIV-1+ individuals and is released by astrocytes, we hypothesized a role for TGFβ-1 in our model of Nef neurotoxicity. To test this hypothesis, we compared cytokine gene expression by cultured astrocytes expressing Nef or green fluorescent protein. To determine the role of Nef and a TGFβRI inhibitor on memory and learning, we infused astrocytes expressing Nef into the hippocampus of rats and then treated them daily with an oral dose of SD208 (10 mg/kg) or placebo for 7 days. During this time, locomotor activity was recorded in an open field and spatial learning tested in the novel location recognition paradigm. Postmortem tissue analyses of inflammatory and signaling molecules were conducted using immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence. TGFβ-1 was induced in cultures expressing Nef at 24 h followed by CCL2 induction which was prevented by blocking TGFβRI with SD208 (competitive inhibitor). Interestingly, Nef seems to change the TGFβRI localization as suggested by the distribution of the immunoreactivity. Nef caused a deficit in spatial learning that was recovered upon co-administration of SD208. Brain tissue from Nef-treated rats given SD208 showed reduced CCL2, phospho-SMAD2, cluster of differentiation 163 (CD163), and GFAP immunoreactivity compared to the placebo group. Consistent with our previous findings, rats treated with Nef showed deficits in spatial learning and memory in the novel location recognition task. In contrast, rats treated with Nef + SD208 showed better spatial learning suggesting that Nef disrupts memory formation in a TGFβ-1-dependent manner. The TGFβRI inhibitor further reduced the induction of inflammation by Nef which was concomitant with decreased TGFβ signaling. Our findings suggest that TGFβ-1 signaling is an intriguing target to reduce neuroHIV.

    更新日期:2019-12-11
  • IL-1β-driven amyloid plaque clearance is associated with an expansion of transcriptionally reprogrammed microglia
    J. Neuroinflammation (IF 5.7) Pub Date : 2019-12-10
    Fátima Rivera-Escalera; Jonathan J. Pinney; Laura Owlett; Hoda Ahmed; Juilee Thakar; John A. Olschowka; Michael R. Elliott; M. Kerry O’Banion

    Neuroinflammation is thought to contribute to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), yet numerous studies have demonstrated a beneficial role for neuroinflammation in amyloid plaque clearance. We have previously shown that sustained expression of IL-1β in the hippocampus of APP/PS1 mice decreases amyloid plaque burden independent of recruited CCR2+ myeloid cells, suggesting resident microglia as the main phagocytic effectors of IL-1β-induced plaque clearance. To date, however, the mechanisms of IL-1β-induced plaque clearance remain poorly understood. To determine whether microglia are involved in IL-1β-induced plaque clearance, APP/PS1 mice induced to express mature human IL-1β in the hippocampus via adenoviral transduction were treated with the Aβ fluorescent probe methoxy-X04 (MX04) and microglial internalization of fibrillar Aβ (fAβ) was analyzed by flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry. To assess microglial proliferation, APP/PS1 mice transduced with IL-1β or control were injected intraperitoneally with BrdU and hippocampal tissue was analyzed by flow cytometry. RNAseq analysis was conducted on microglia FACS sorted from the hippocampus of control or IL-1β-treated APP/PS1 mice. These microglia were also sorted based on MX04 labeling (MX04+ and MX04− microglia). Resident microglia (CD45loCD11b+) constituted > 70% of the MX04+ cells in both Phe- and IL-1β-treated conditions, and < 15% of MX04+ cells were recruited myeloid cells (CD45hiCD11b+). However, IL-1β treatment did not augment the percentage of MX04+ microglia nor the quantity of fAβ internalized by individual microglia. Instead, IL-1β increased the total number of MX04+ microglia in the hippocampus due to IL-1β-induced proliferation. In addition, transcriptomic analyses revealed that IL-1β treatment was associated with large-scale changes in the expression of genes related to immune responses, proliferation, and cytokine signaling. These studies show that IL-1β overexpression early in amyloid pathogenesis induces a change in the microglial gene expression profile and an expansion of microglial cells that facilitates Aβ plaque clearance.

    更新日期:2019-12-11
  • URB597 protects against NLRP3 inflammasome activation by inhibiting autophagy dysfunction in a rat model of chronic cerebral hypoperfusion
    J. Neuroinflammation (IF 5.7) Pub Date : 2019-12-09
    Shao-Hua Su; Yi-Fang Wu; Qi Lin; Da-Peng Wang; Jian Hai

    Previous studies reported that URB597 (URB) had therapeutic potential for treating chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CCH)-induced neuroinflammation and autophagy dysfunction. However, the interaction mechanisms underlying the CCH-induced abnormal excessive autophagy and neuroinflammation remain unknown. In this study, we investigated the roles of impaired autophagy in nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor family pyrin domain-containing (NLRP) 3 inflammasome activation in the rat hippocampus and the underlying mechanisms under the condition of induced CCH as well as the effect of URB treatment. The CCH rat model was established by bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BCCAo), and rats were randomly divided into 11 groups as follows: (1) sham-operated, (2) BCCAo; (3) BCCAo+autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine (3-MA), (4) BCCAo+lysosome inhibitor chloroquine (CQ), (5) BCCAo+microglial activation inhibitor minocycline, (6) BCCAo+ROS scavenger N-acetylcysteine (NAC), (7) BCCAo+URB, (8) BCCAo+URB+3-MA, (9) BCCAo+URB+CQ, (10) BCCAo+URB+minocycline, (11) BCCAo+URB+NAC. The cell localizations of LC3, p62, LAMP1, TOM20 and NLRP3 were assessed by immunofluorescence staining. The levels of autophagy-related proteins (LC3, p62, LAMP1, BNIP3 and parkin), NLRP3 inflammasome-related proteins (NLRP3, CASP1 and IL-1β), microglial marker (OX-42) and proinflammatory cytokines (iNOS and COX-2) were evaluated by western blotting, and proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1β and TNF-a) were determined by ELISA. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) were assessed by dihydroethidium staining. The mitochondrial ultrastructural changes were examined by electron microscopy. CCH induced microglial overactivation and ROS accumulation, promoting the activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome and the release of IL-1β. Blocked autophagy and mitophagy flux enhanced the activation of the NLRP3-CASP1 inflammasome pathway. However, URB alleviated impaired autophagy and mitophagy by decreasing mitochondrial ROS and microglial overactivation as well as restoring lysosomal function, which would further inhibit the activation of the NLRP3-CASP1 inflammasome pathway. These findings extended previous studies indicating the function of URB in the mitigation of chronic ischemic injury of the brain.

    更新日期:2019-12-09
  • Meningeal inflammation changes the balance of TNF signalling in cortical grey matter in multiple sclerosis
    J. Neuroinflammation (IF 5.7) Pub Date : 2019-12-07
    Roberta Magliozzi; Owain William Howell; Pascal Durrenberger; Eleonora Aricò; Rachel James; Carolina Cruciani; Cheryl Reeves; Federico Roncaroli; Richard Nicholas; Richard Reynolds

    Recent studies of cortical pathology in secondary progressive multiple sclerosis have shown that a more severe clinical course and the presence of extended subpial grey matter lesions with significant neuronal/glial loss and microglial activation are associated with meningeal inflammation, including the presence of lymphoid-like structures in the subarachnoid space in a proportion of cases. To investigate the molecular consequences of pro-inflammatory and cytotoxic molecules diffusing from the meninges into the underlying grey matter, we carried out gene expression profiling analysis of the motor cortex from 20 post-mortem multiple sclerosis brains with and without substantial meningeal inflammation and 10 non-neurological controls. Gene expression profiling of grey matter lesions and normal appearing grey matter not only confirmed the substantial pathological cell changes, which were greatest in multiple sclerosis cases with increased meningeal inflammation, but also demonstrated the upregulation of multiple genes/pathways associated with the inflammatory response. In particular, genes involved in tumour necrosis factor (TNF) signalling were significantly deregulated in MS cases compared with controls. Increased meningeal inflammation was found to be associated with a shift in the balance of TNF signalling away from TNFR1/TNFR2 and NFkB-mediated anti-apoptotic pathways towards TNFR1- and RIPK3-mediated pro-apoptotic/pro-necroptotic signalling in the grey matter, which was confirmed by RT-PCR analysis. TNFR1 was found expressed preferentially on neurons and oligodendrocytes in MS cortical grey matter, whereas TNFR2 was predominantly expressed by astrocytes and microglia. We suggest that the inflammatory milieu generated in the subarachnoid space of the multiple sclerosis meninges by infiltrating immune cells leads to increased demyelinating and neurodegenerative pathology in the underlying grey matter due to changes in the balance of TNF signalling.

    更新日期:2019-12-07
  • Proteomic analysis of cerebrospinal fluid extracellular vesicles reveals synaptic injury, inflammation, and stress response markers in HIV patients with cognitive impairment
    J. Neuroinflammation (IF 5.7) Pub Date : 2019-12-05
    Debjani Guha; David R. Lorenz; Vikas Misra; Sukrutha Chettimada; Susan Morgello; Dana Gabuzda

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are nano-sized particles present in most body fluids including cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Little is known about CSF EV proteins in HIV+ individuals. Here, we characterize the CSF EV proteome in HIV+ subjects and its relationship to neuroinflammation, stress responses, and HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). CSF EVs isolated from 20 HIV+ subjects with (n = 10) or without (n = 10) cognitive impairment were characterized by electron microscopy, nanoparticle tracking analysis, immunoblotting, and untargeted LC/MS/MS mass spectrometry. Functional annotation was performed by gene ontology (GO) mapping and expression annotation using Biobase Transfac and PANTHER software. Cultured astrocytic U87 cells were treated with hydrogen peroxide for 4 h to induce oxidative stress and EVs isolated by ultracentrifugation. Selected markers of astrocytes (GFAP, GLUL), inflammation (CRP), and stress responses (PRDX2, PARK7, HSP70) were evaluated in EVs released by U87 cells following induction of oxidative stress and in CSF EVs from HIV+ patients by immunoblotting. Mass spectrometry identified 2727 and 1626 proteins in EV fractions and EV-depleted CSF samples, respectively. CSF EV fractions were enriched with exosomal markers including Alix, syntenin, tetraspanins, and heat-shock proteins and a subset of neuronal, astrocyte, oligodendrocyte, and choroid plexus markers, in comparison to EV-depleted CSF. Proteins related to synapses, immune/inflammatory responses, stress responses, metabolic processes, mitochondrial functions, and blood-brain barrier were also identified in CSF EV fractions by GO mapping. HAND subjects had higher abundance of CSF EVs and proteins mapping to GO terms for synapses, glial cells, inflammation, and stress responses compared to those without HAND. GFAP, GLUL, CRP, PRDX2, PARK7, and HSP70 were confirmed by immunoblotting of CSF EVs from subjects with HAND and were also detected in EVs released by U87 cells under oxidative stress. These findings suggest that CSF EVs derived from neurons, glial cells, and choroid plexus carry synaptic, immune/inflammation-related, and stress response proteins in HIV+ individuals with cognitive impairment, representing a valuable source for biomarker discovery.

    更新日期:2019-12-05
  • The pentose phosphate pathway regulates chronic neuroinflammation and dopaminergic neurodegeneration
    J. Neuroinflammation (IF 5.7) Pub Date : 2019-12-05
    Dezhen Tu; Yun Gao; Ru Yang; Tian Guan; Jau-Shyong Hong; Hui-Ming Gao

    Metabolic dysfunction and neuroinflammation are increasingly implicated in Parkinson’s disease (PD). The pentose phosphate pathway (PPP, a metabolic pathway parallel to glycolysis) converts glucose-6-phosphate into pentoses and generates ribose-5-phosphate and NADPH thereby governing anabolic biosynthesis and redox homeostasis. Brains and immune cells display high activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), the rate-limiting enzyme of the PPP. A postmortem study reveals dysregulation of G6PD enzyme in brains of PD patients. However, spatial and temporal changes in activity/expression of G6PD in PD remain undetermined. More importantly, it is unclear how dysfunction of G6PD and the PPP affects neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration in PD. We examined expression/activity of G6PD and its association with microglial activation and dopaminergic neurodegeneration in multiple chronic PD models generated by an intranigral/intraperitoneal injection of LPS, daily subcutaneous injection of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) for 6 days, or transgenic expression of A53T α-synuclein. Primary microglia were transfected with G6PD siRNAs and treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to examine effects of G6PD knockdown on microglial activation and death of co-cultured neurons. LPS alone or with G6PD inhibitor(s) was administrated to mouse substantia nigra or midbrain neuron-glia cultures. While histological and biochemical analyses were conducted to examine microglial activation and dopaminergic neurodegeneration in vitro and in vivo, rotarod behavior test was performed to evaluate locomotor impairment in mice. Expression and activity of G6PD were elevated in LPS-treated midbrain neuron-glia cultures (an in vitro PD model) and the substantia nigra of four in vivo PD models. Such elevation was positively associated with microglial activation and dopaminergic neurodegeneration. Furthermore, inhibition of G6PD by 6-aminonicotinamide and dehydroepiandrosterone and knockdown of microglial G6PD attenuated LPS-elicited chronic dopaminergic neurodegeneration. Mechanistically, microglia with elevated G6PD activity/expression produced excessive NADPH and provided abundant substrate to over-activated NADPH oxidase (NOX2) leading to production of excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS). Knockdown and inhibition of G6PD ameliorated LPS-triggered production of ROS and activation of NF-кB thereby dampening microglial activation. Our findings indicated that G6PD-mediated PPP dysfunction and neuroinflammation exacerbated each other mediating chronic dopaminergic neurodegeneration and locomotor impairment. Insight into metabolic-inflammatory interface suggests that G6PD and NOX2 are potential therapeutic targets for PD.

    更新日期:2019-12-05
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