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  • Who benefits from the intervention? Correlates of successful BMI reduction in the Texas Childhood Obesity Demonstration Project (TX‐CORD)
    Pediatr. Obes. (IF 3.713) Pub Date : 2020-01-15
    Sarah E. Barlow; Casey Durand; Meliha Salahuddin; Stephen J. Pont; Nancy F. Butte; Deanna M. Hoelscher

    Many childhood obesity intervention studies report mean outcomes but do not explore the variation in responses and the characteristics of those who respond well.

    更新日期:2020-01-16
  • Sex differences in the associations of physical activity and macronutrient intake with child body composition: A cross‐sectional study of 3‐ to 7‐year‐olds in Samoa
    Pediatr. Obes. (IF 3.713) Pub Date : 2020-01-10
    Avery A. Thompson; Rachel L. Duckham; Mayur M. Desai; Courtney C. Choy; Lauren B. Sherar; Take Naseri; Christina Soti‐Ulberg; Muagatutia S. Reupena; Abigail I. Wetzel; Nicola L. Hawley

    Overweight/obesity is prevalent among children in the Pacific Islands, but its aetiology is poorly understood. Few studies have considered body composition in addition to body mass index–based measures.

    更新日期:2020-01-13
  • Lean mass index is positively associated with white matter volumes in several brain regions in children with overweight/obesity
    Pediatr. Obes. (IF 3.713) Pub Date : 2020-01-09
    Luis Gracia‐Marco; Irene Esteban‐Cornejo; Esther Ubago‐Guisado; Maria Rodriguez‐Ayllon; Jose Mora‐Gonzalez; Patricio Solis‐Urra; Cristina Cadenas‐Sanchez; Juan Verdejo‐Roman; Andres Catena; Kirk I. Erickson; Francisco B. Ortega

    The relationship of obesity with grey and white matter volumes has been examined in several studies, and the results are decidedly mixed.

    更新日期:2020-01-11
  • In utero exposure to gestational diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular risk factors in youth: A longitudinal analysis in the EPOCH cohort
    Pediatr. Obes. (IF 3.713) Pub Date : 2020-01-09
    Wei Perng; Christine W. Hockett; Katherine A. Sauder; Dana Dabelea

    To examine associations of maternal gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) with offspring cardiovascular biomarkers from late childhood through adolescence.

    更新日期:2020-01-11
  • Lean mass accretion in children born very low birth weight is significantly associated with estimated changes from sedentary time to light physical activity
    Pediatr. Obes. (IF 3.713) Pub Date : 2020-01-08
    Meghan McGee; Sharon Unger; Jill Hamilton; Catherine S. Birken; Zdenka Pausova; Leigh M. Vanderloo; Nicole Bando; Deborah L. O'Connor

    Few studies have investigated how lifestyle is associated with body composition in children born very low birth weight (VLBW, <1500 g), a population at increased risk of obesity and metabolic syndrome in later life.

    更新日期:2020-01-09
  • Association of maternal prepregnancy weight and early childhood weight with obesity in adolescence: A population‐based longitudinal cohort study in Japan
    Pediatr. Obes. (IF 3.713) Pub Date : 2020-01-07
    Satomi Yoshida; Takeshi Kimura; Masahiro Noda; Masato Takeuchi; Koji Kawakami

    The impact of birth weight and obesity in early childhood on obesity in adolescence remains unclear.

    更新日期:2020-01-08
  • Associations between milk fat content and obesity, 1999 to 2016
    Pediatr. Obes. (IF 3.713) Pub Date : 2020-01-06
    Michelle J. White; Sarah C. Armstrong; Melissa C. Kay; Eliana M. Perrin; Asheley Skinner

    The relationship between milk fat content and body mass index (BMI) remains unclear. The objective of this study was to determine if milk fat content is associated with obesity in children, adolescents and young adults.

    更新日期:2020-01-07
  • Food as an eye‐catcher. An eye‐tracking study on Children's attention to healthy and unhealthy food presentations as well as non‐edible objects in audiovisual media
    Pediatr. Obes. (IF 3.713) Pub Date : 2020-01-06
    Brigitte Naderer; Alice Binder; Jörg Matthes; Ines Spielvogel; Michaela Forrai

    Food presentations within media content are often made responsible for todays' obesity epidemic. This assessment is based on the assumption that food presentations create cue reactivity, which in turn affects the amount of food intake.

    更新日期:2020-01-07
  • Prevalence of overweight among youth with chronic conditions in the United States: An update from the 2016 National Survey of Children's Health
    Pediatr. Obes. (IF 3.713) Pub Date : 2019-12-30
    Justin A. Haegele; John T. Foley; Sean Healy; Alexis Paller

    Surveillance of overweight trends among youth with chronic conditions can inform the prioritization of funding, research and intervention.

    更新日期:2019-12-31
  • Associations of maternal caffeine intake during pregnancy with abdominal and liver fat deposition in childhood
    Pediatr. Obes. (IF 3.713) Pub Date : 2019-12-27
    Ellis Voerman; Vincent WV Jaddoe; Mirjam E Hulst; Edwin HG Oei; Romy Gaillard

    Maternal caffeine intake during pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of childhood obesity. Studies in adults suggest that caffeine intake might also directly affect visceral and liver fat deposition, which are strong risk factors for cardio‐metabolic disease.

    更新日期:2019-12-29
  • Associations between dietary patterns, eating behaviours, and body composition and adiposity in 3‐year‐old children of mothers with obesity
    Pediatr. Obes. (IF 3.713) Pub Date : 2019-12-27
    Kathryn V. Dalrymple; Angela C. Flynn; Paul T. Seed; Annette L. Briley; Majella O'Keeffe; Keith M. Godfrey; Lucilla Poston

    The relationships between eating habits, behaviours, and the development of obesity in preschool children is not well established.

    更新日期:2019-12-29
  • Fast food, beverage, and snack brands on social media in the United States: An examination of marketing techniques utilized in 2000 brand posts
    Pediatr. Obes. (IF 3.713) Pub Date : 2019-12-25
    Marie A. Bragg; Yrvane K. Pageot; Angela Amico; Alysa N. Miller; Angela Gasbarre; Pasquale E. Rummo; Brian Elbel

    Exposure to food advertisements is associated with poor diet among youth, and food and beverage companies are increasingly advertising on social media sites that are popular among youth.

    更新日期:2019-12-26
  • Distinct patterns of socio‐economic disparities in child‐to‐adolescent BMI trajectories across UK ethnic groups: A prospective longitudinal study
    Pediatr. Obes. (IF 3.713) Pub Date : 2019-12-23
    Yi Lu; Anna Pearce; Leah Li

    In many high‐income countries, body mass index (BMI)/obesity levels are inversely associated with socio‐economic position (SEP). Little is known whether socio‐economic patterns in BMI trajectories throughout childhood differ by ethnicity, especially in the United Kingdom.

    更新日期:2019-12-25
  • Community‐level obesity prevention is not associated with dieting behaviours and weight dissatisfaction in children: The Healthy Communities Study
    Pediatr. Obes. (IF 3.713) Pub Date : 2019-12-22
    Colleen C. Plimier; Sridharshi C. Hewawitharana; Karen L. Webb; Lauren E. Au; Dianne Neumark‐Sztainer; Lorrene D. Ritchie

    Within the context of high childhood obesity prevalence, there is a concern that community efforts intended to reduce childhood obesity may lead to unintended adverse outcomes.

    更新日期:2019-12-23
  • Parental adiposity differentially associates with newborn body composition
    Pediatr. Obes. (IF 3.713) Pub Date : 2019-12-19
    Eva C. Diaz; Mario A. Cleves; Marisha DiCarlo; Sarah R. Sobik; Meghan L. Ruebel; Keshari M. Thakali; Clark R. Sims; Nafisa K. Dajani; Rebecca A. Krukowski; Elisabet Børsheim; Thomas M. Badger; Kartik Shankar; Aline Andres

    Maternal obesity increases offspring's obesity risk. However, studies have not often considered maternal metabolic and exercise patterns as well as paternal adiposity as potential covariates.

    更新日期:2019-12-20
  • Intergenerational associations of dietary inflammatory index with birth outcomes and weight status at age 5 and 9: Results from the Lifeways cross‐generation cohort study
    Pediatr. Obes. (IF 3.713) Pub Date : 2019-12-16
    Pilar Navarro; Nitin Shivappa; James R. Hébert; John Mehegan; Celine M. Murrin; Cecily C. Kelleher; Catherine M. Phillips;

    Maternal diet and chronic inflammation may influence early‐life offspring health. No comparative data regarding intergenerational associations between dietary inflammation and offspring growth exist.

    更新日期:2019-12-18
  • An examination of sex differences in associations between cord blood adipokines and childhood adiposity
    Pediatr. Obes. (IF 3.713) Pub Date : 2019-12-16
    Jillian Ashley‐Martin; Maria Karaceper; Linda Dodds; Tye E. Arbuckle; Adrienne S. Ettinger; William D. Fraser; Gina Muckle; Patricia Monnier; Mandy Fisher; Stefan Kuhle

    Though the physiological roles of adipokines in metabolism, insulin resistance and satiety are clear, literature regarding associations between cord blood adipokine levels and childhood adiposity is equivocal.

    更新日期:2019-12-18
  • Link between omentin‐1, obesity and insulin resistance in children: Findings from a longitudinal intervention study
    Pediatr. Obes. (IF 3.713) Pub Date : 2019-12-16
    Juliane Rothermel; Nina Lass; Andre Barth; Thomas Reinehr

    The adipokine omentin‐1 has been suggested to be inversely associated with obesity and insulin resistance in humans. We studied the relationships between omentin‐1, parameters of fat mass, insulin resistance, lipids and blood pressure in children with obesity in a longitudinal study.

    更新日期:2019-12-17
  • Prevalence of prediabetes and type 2 diabetes in children with obesity and increased transaminases in European German‐speaking countries. Analysis of the APV initiative
    Pediatr. Obes. (IF 3.713) Pub Date : 2019-12-06
    Florian Koutny, Daniel Weghuber, E. Bollow, S. Greber‐Platzer, K. Hartmann, A. Körner, T. Reinehr, M. Roebl, G. Simic‐Schleicher, M. Wabitsch, K. Widhalm, S. Wiegand, R. W. Holl

    Non‐alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), prediabetes and type 2 diabetes mellitus are known to be closely linked with obesity as early as during childhood.

    更新日期:2019-12-07
  • Impact of lifestyle behaviors in early childhood on obesity and cardiometabolic risk in children: Results from the Spanish INMA birth cohort study
    Pediatr. Obes. (IF 3.713) Pub Date : 2019-12-02
    Rowaedh Ahmed Bawaked, Sílvia Fernández‐Barrés, Eva Maria Navarrete‐Muñoz, Sandra González‐Palacios, Mònica Guxens, Amaia Irizar, Aitana Lertxundi, Jordi Sunyer, Jesus Vioque, Helmut Schröder, Martine Vrijheid, Dora Romaguera

    Identifying modifiable lifestyle behaviors linked to childhood obesity is necessary to develop preventive strategies.

    更新日期:2019-12-04
  • Associations of nitric oxide with obesity and psychological traits among children and adolescents in Taiwan
    Pediatr. Obes. (IF 3.713) Pub Date : 2019-12-01
    Kuo‐Hsuan Chung, Hung‐Yi Chiou, Jung‐Su Chang, Yi‐Hua Chen

    Findings concerning nitric oxide (NO) in children and adolescents with obesity are scant.

    更新日期:2019-12-02
  • The influence of front‐of‐pack portion size images on children's serving and intake of cereal
    Pediatr. Obes. (IF 3.713) Pub Date : 2019-11-20
    Lauren Sophie McGale, Tim Smits, Jason Christian Grovenor Halford, Joanne Alison Harrold, Emma Jane Boyland

    Consumption of large portions of energy‐dense foods promotes weight gain in children. Breakfast cereal boxes often show portions much larger than the recommended serving size.

    更新日期:2019-11-21
  • Residential mobility in early childhood and obesity at kindergarten age among children from the United States
    Pediatr. Obes. (IF 3.713) Pub Date : 2019-11-20
    Kathryn L. Krupsky, Rebecca R. Andridge, Sarah E. Anderson

    Children who frequently move have poorer behavioural, emotional, and overall health. For similar reasons, the experience of changing home may contextualize children's risk for obesity. Few studies have assessed the relationship between residential mobility and obesity; even fewer explore this relationship with assessment of obesity before school age.

    更新日期:2019-11-20
  • Associations between accelerometry measured physical activity and sedentary time and the metabolic syndrome: A meta‐analysis of more than 6000 children and adolescents
    Pediatr. Obes. (IF 3.713) Pub Date : 2019-11-10
    Markus Renninger, Bjørge H. Hansen, Jostein Steene‐Johannessen, Susi Kriemler, Karsten Froberg, Kate Northstone, Luis Sardinha, Sigmund A. Anderssen, Lars B. Andersen, Ulf Ekelund,

    Metabolic syndrome is increasingly prevalent in the pediatric population. To prevent an early onset, knowledge about its association with modifiable lifestyle factors is needed.

    更新日期:2019-11-11
  • Total and trimester‐specific gestational weight gain and infant anthropometric outcomes at birth and 6 months in low‐income Hispanic families
    Pediatr. Obes. (IF 3.713) Pub Date : 2019-11-06
    Andrea L. Deierlein, Mary Jo Messito, Michelle Katzow, Lauren Thomas Berube, Cara D. Dolin, Rachel S. Gross

    To describe total and trimester‐specific gestational weight gain (GWG) among low‐income Hispanic women and determine whether these GWG exposures are associated with infant anthropometric outcomes at birth and 6 months.

    更新日期:2019-11-07
  • BMI growth trajectory from ages 2 to 6 years and its association with maternal obesity, diabetes during pregnancy, gestational weight gain, and breastfeeding
    Pediatr. Obes. (IF 3.713) Pub Date : 2019-11-05
    Xinhui Wang, Mayra P. Martinez, Ting Chow, Anny H. Xiang

    To identify latent BMI growth trajectories from ages 2 to 6 years and examine their independent associations with maternal prepregnancy obesity or overweight, pre‐existing type 1 (T1D) or type 2 diabetes (T2D) or gestational diabetes (GDM) with or without requiring antidiabetic medications during pregnancy, excessive gestational weight gain (EGWG), and breastfeeding ≤ 6 months.

    更新日期:2019-11-06
  • Longitudinal trajectories of BMI z‐score: an international comparison of 11,513 Australian, American and German/Austrian/Luxembourgian youth with type 1 diabetes
    Pediatr. Obes. (IF 3.713) Pub Date : 2019-11-05
    Helen Phelan, Nicole C. Foster, Anke Schwandt, Jennifer J. Couper, Steven Willi, Peter Kroschwald, Timothy W. Jones, Mengdi Wu, Claudia Steigleder‐Schweiger, Maria E. Craig, David M. Maahs, Nicole Prinz,

    BMI fluctuations during puberty are common. Data on individual change in BMI from childhood to young adulthood are limited in youth with type 1 diabetes.

    更新日期:2019-11-06
  • Childhood hair cortisol concentration and early teen cardiometabolic outcomes
    Pediatr. Obes. (IF 3.713) Pub Date : 2019-11-05
    Joshua Petimar, Sheryl L. Rifas‐Shiman, Marie‐France Hivert, Abby F. Fleisch, Henning Tiemeier, Emily Oken

    To examine associations of hair cortisol concentration (HCC) in mid‐childhood and change in HCC from mid‐childhood to early adolescence (ΔHCC) with early adolescent adiposity and cardiometabolic biomarker measures.

    更新日期:2019-11-06
  • Effect of PM2.5 on macrosomia in China: A nationwide prospective cohort study
    Pediatr. Obes. (IF 3.713) Pub Date : 2019-11-05
    Shi Chen, Shirui Wang, Tiantian Li, Huijuan Zhu, Siyu Liang, Ke Xu, Yuelun Zhang, Xianxian Yuan, Yingying Yang, Hui Pan, Xiaoming Shi

    Macrosomia is associated with both neonatal complications and adult diseases (obesity, diabetes mellitus, etc.). Previous studies have reported maternal exposure to PM2.5 might influence metabolism and fetal development and cause adverse pregnancy outcomes. Studies conducted in areas with low PM2.5 concentration have found relationship between gestational PM2.5 exposure and birth weight. However, the impact of air pollution on macrosomia has not been studied, especially in highly polluted areas.

    更新日期:2019-11-06
  • Early‐life determinants of excess weight in children born heavy
    Pediatr. Obes. (IF 3.713) Pub Date : 2019-11-05
    Amy R. Goetz, Tiffany M. Rybak, James L. Peugh, Lori J. Stark

    Infants born heavy are vulnerable to later obesity, but it is unknown whether obesity‐related risk factors present between conception and delivery predict their postnatal weight trajectory. We modelled the weight trajectories of infants born high birth weight (HBW, greater than or equal to 4000 g) and/or large for gestational age (LGA, greater than 90th percentile) using data from the Infant Feeding Practices Study II (N = 371). A high percentage of infants were both HBW and LGA, but the trajectories were modelled separately. Weight of infants born heavy begins high, gradually decreases, and then levels off by 12 months. Delivery method was the only predictor of weight. Caesarean‐delivered HBW infants were heavier than vaginally‐delivered HBW infants although this effect disappeared by 12 months. Findings indicate that early‐life influences are not necessarily deterministic of the postnatal weight trajectory of infants born heavy. Future research is needed to examine postnatal behaviours that may be implicated in the relationship between large size at birth and later obesity.

    更新日期:2019-11-06
  • Methylphenidate in children with monogenic obesity due to LEPR or MC4R deficiency improves feeling of satiety and reduces BMI‐SDS—A case series
    Pediatr. Obes. (IF 3.713) Pub Date : 2019-10-31
    Stephanie Brandt, Julia von Schnurbein, Belinda Lennerz, Katja Kohlsdorf, Heike Vollbach, Christian Denzer, Harald Bode, Johannes Hebebrand, Martin Wabitsch

    The clinical phenotype of patients with monogenic obesity due to mutations in the leptin receptor (LEPR) or melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R) gene is characterized by impaired satiety and hyperphagia, leading to extreme, sometimes life‐threatening weight gain.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • More precise prevalence of overweight and obesity.
    Pediatr. Obes. (IF 3.713) Pub Date : null
    Seham Elmrayed,Nicole Gilbert,Tanis R Fenton

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Gene expression profiling and association of circulating lactoferrin level with obesity-related phenotypes in Latino youth.
    Pediatr. Obes. (IF 3.713) Pub Date : 2014-11-15
    J Y Kim,L E Campbell,G Q Shaibi,D K Coletta

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Low-grade inflammation is an underlying feature of obesity and identifying inflammatory markers is crucial to understanding this disease. Therefore, the purpose of this study was twofold: (i) to perform a global microarray analysis and (ii) to investigate the role of lactoferrin (LTF), one of the most altered genes, in relation to obesity in Latino youth. METHODS Non-diabetic Latino youth (71 males/92 females; 15.6 ± 3.2 years) were studied. A subset of 39 participants was randomly selected for global microarray analysis profiling from the whole blood sample. Serum LTF was compared between lean (n = 78) and overweight/obese (n = 85) participants. RESULTS Microarray analysis revealed that a total of 1870 probes were altered in expression ≥1.2-fold and P < 0.05 in overweight/obese participants compared with lean. KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) analysis revealed significant enrichment for pathways including toll-like receptor (TLR) and B cell receptor signalling pathways. LTF and TLR5 were increased in expression by 2.2 and 1.5 fold, respectively, in the overweight/obese participants. Increased LTF concentrations were significantly associated with high risk of obesity-related phenotypes (all P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS Our data suggest that increased LTF is associated with obesity risk among Latino youth. This finding is discordant to what has been shown in adults and suggests that age may modulate the association between LTF and obesity-related health.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • 更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Weight change in the management of youth-onset type 2 diabetes: the TODAY clinical trial experience.
    Pediatr. Obes. (IF 3.713) Pub Date : 2016-05-11
    M D Marcus,D E Wilfley,L El Ghormli,P Zeitler,B Linder,K Hirst,C E Ievers-Landis,D J van Buren,N Walders-Abramson,

    BACKGROUND The Treatment Options for type 2 Diabetes in Adolescents and Youth (TODAY) clinical trial documented that metformin plus rosiglitazone, but not metformin plus lifestyle intervention, provided superior durability of glycemic control relative to metformin monotherapy. OBJECTIVES We examined weight changes among TODAY participants that completed at least 6 months of treatment, evaluated predictors of lifestyle outcome, and examined whether weight changes were related to cardiometabolic outcomes across treatment arms. METHODS The 595 youth with type 2 diabetes, (85.1% of randomized participants aged 11-17 years) completed assessments of weight-related and cardiometabolic measures at months 0, 6, 12 and 24. Repeated measures models were used to investigate associations over time. RESULTS Lifestyle intervention did not enhance outcome relative to metformin alone and no predictors of response to lifestyle treatment were identified. However, changes in percent overweight across treatment arms were associated with changes in multiple cardiometabolic risk factors, and decreases of ≥ 7% in overweight were associated with significant benefits over 24 months. CONCLUSIONS Although adjunctive intensive lifestyle intervention did not improve weight-related outcomes, weight changes in the full TODAY sample were associated with small, but significant improvements in cardiometabolic status, highlighting the importance of optimizing weight management in youth with T2DM.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Maternal blood pressure mediates the association between maternal obesity and infant weight gain in early postpartum.
    Pediatr. Obes. (IF 3.713) Pub Date : 2019-07-13
    Paige K Berger,Jasmine F Plows,Roshonda B Jones,Norman K Pollock,Tanya L Alderete,Ji Hoon Ryoo,Michael I Goran

    BACKGROUND It is unknown to what extent higher maternal blood pressure (BP) in early postpartum impacts the relationship between higher maternal weight status and greater infant weight gain in early postpartum. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the mediating role of higher maternal BP at 1 month postpartum on the association between higher maternal weight status at 1 month postpartum and greater infant weight gain over 6 months postpartum. METHODS Participants were 169 Hispanic mother-infant pairs. Maternal body mass index (BMI) and BP were assessed at 1 month postpartum. Infant weight was measured at 1 and 6 months postpartum to calculate weight-for-age z scores (WAZ). Multiple linear regression models were used for prediction, and Sobel test was used to determine mediation. RESULTS Controlling for maternal pre-pregnancy BMI, age, delivery mode, infant sex, and infant birth weight revealed that both maternal BMI (β = .29) and BP (β = .32) predicted infant WAZ gain (both P ≤ .03). However, the relationship between infant WAZ gain and maternal BMI was no longer significant after further adjustment for maternal BP, which remained significant (P < .05). Maternal BP explained 23.6% (Sobel T = 2.01) of the association between maternal BMI at 1 month and infant WAZ gain over 6 months. CONCLUSION Our data suggest that higher maternal weight status at 1 month postpartum is related to greater infant weight gain over 6 months postpartum, and this relationship is mediated by higher maternal BP at 1 month postpartum.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Body mass index, new modes of TV viewing and active video games.
    Pediatr. Obes. (IF 3.713) Pub Date : 2016-06-24
    J Falbe,W C Willett,B Rosner,A E Field

    BACKGROUND Recent technologies have changed screen time. TV can be viewed anywhere, anytime. Content can be collected via digital recorders and online streaming and viewed on smartphones. Video games are no longer strictly sedentary. OBJECTIVES We sought to assess the unknown relations between new modes of TV viewing - recorded, online, downloaded and on hand-held devices - and active video games with body mass index (BMI). METHODS Cross-sectional analysis of the 2011 wave of the Growing Up Today Study 2 cohort. We used gender-specific generalized estimating equations to examine screen time and BMI among 3071 women and 2050 men aged 16-24 years. RESULTS Among women, each hour/day of online TV (0.47; confidence interval [CI]: 0.12, 0.82) and total non-broadcast TV (0.37; CI: 0.14, 0.61) was associated with higher BMI, as was watching ≥ 1/2 h week-1 of TV on hand-held devices (1.04; CI: 0.32-1.77). Active video games were associated with BMI among women, but not after restricting to those not trying to lose/maintain weight. Broadcast TV was associated with higher BMI (kg m-2 ) among women and men (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS Among women, online TV, TV viewed on hand-held devices and the sum of non-broadcast TV time were associated with higher BMI. Broadcast TV was also associated with BMI in women and men.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Associations between adiposity and indicators of thyroid status in children and adolescents.
    Pediatr. Obes. (IF 3.713) Pub Date : 2016-02-26
    A J Krause,B Cines,E Pogrebniak,R Sherafat-Kazemzadeh,A P Demidowich,O A Galescu,S M Brady,J C Reynolds,V S Hubbard,J A Yanovski

    BACKGROUND In adults, obesity is associated with abnormalities of thyroid function; there are fewer studies in paediatric cohorts. OBJECTIVES To examine associations of weight and adiposity with indices of thyroid function and thyroid-related metabolic factors in children. DESIGN/METHODS A sample of 1203 children without obesity (body mass index [BMI] < 95th percentile; N = 631) and with obesity (BMI ≥ 95th percentile; N = 572), age 5-18 years, had height and weight measured (to calculate BMI-Z score for age and sex) and had blood collected in the morning for thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxine (FT4) and leptin. A subset (N = 829) also underwent measurement of fat mass by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Analyses examined associations of TSH and FT4 with adiposity and obesity-related conditions accounting for sociodemographic factors. RESULTS Thyroid-stimulating hormone was positively related to BMIz and fat mass (both p-values < 0.001). FT4 was negatively related to BMIz and fat mass (both p-values < 0.001). TSH was positively correlated to leptin (p = 0.001) even after accounting for fat mass. CONCLUSIONS Paediatric obesity is associated with higher TSH and lower FT4 concentrations and with a greater prevalence of abnormally high TSH. Leptin concentrations may in part explain obesity's effects on thyroid status, perhaps through leptin's effects on TSH secretion.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Cortisol response to an induction of negative affect among adolescents with and without loss of control eating.
    Pediatr. Obes. (IF 3.713) Pub Date : 2015-12-17
    Rachel M Radin,Lauren B Shomaker,Nichole R Kelly,Courtney K Pickworth,Katherine A Thompson,Sheila M Brady,Andrew Demidowich,Ovidiu Galescu,Anne M Altschul,Lisa M Shank,Susan Z Yanovski,Marian Tanofsky-Kraff,Jack A Yanovski

    BACKGROUND Adults with binge eating disorder may have an exaggerated or blunted cortisol response to stress. Yet, limited data exist among youth who report loss of control (LOC) eating, a developmental precursor to binge eating disorder. METHODS We studied cortisol reactivity among 178 healthy adolescents with and without LOC eating. Following a buffet lunch meal adolescents were randomly assigned to watch a neutral or sad film clip. After, they were offered snacks from a multi-item array to assess eating in the absence of hunger. Salivary cortisol was collected at -80, 0, 30 and 50 min relative to film administration, and state mood ratings were reported before and after the film. RESULTS Adolescents with LOC had greater increases in negative affect during the experimental paradigm in both conditions (ps > 0.05). Depressive symptoms, but not LOC, related to a greater cortisol response in the sad film condition (ps > 0.05). Depressive symptoms and state LOC were related to different aspects of eating behaviour, independent of film condition or cortisol response (ps > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS A film clip that induced depressed state affect increased salivary cortisol only in adolescents with more elevated depressive symptoms. Adolescents with and without LOC were differentiated by greater increases in state depressed affect during laboratory test meals but had no difference in cortisol reactivity. Future studies are required to determine if adolescents with LOC manifest alterations in stress reactivity to alternative stress-inducing situations.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Variations in the prevalence and predictors of prevalent metabolically healthy obesity in adolescents.
    Pediatr. Obes. (IF 3.713) Pub Date : 2015-12-09
    S Heinzle,G D C Ball,J L Kuk

    BACKGROUND Obesity is a heterogeneous condition, which includes a subset of individuals that can be classified as having metabolically healthy obesity (MHO), but there is no consensus on what constitutes MHO. Thus, the objective of the study is to examine the prevalence and predictors of prevalent MHO in adolescents using various definitions of MHO. METHODS Cross-sectional data from the 1999-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys were used. Participants included 316 male and 316 female adolescents aged 12-19 years with a BMI ≥ 95th percentile. Two definitions were used to define MHO. First, MHO was defined as having ≤1 metabolic syndrome criteria (excluding waist) and being free of type 2 diabetes, hypertension and dyslipidemia. Second, MHO was defined as being free of all metabolic syndrome criteria, insulin resistance and inflammation. RESULTS The prevalence of MHO was 42% (male) and 74% (female) using the first definition and 7% (male) and 12% (female) using the second more conservative definition. Lower abdominal obesity (waist circumference) and lower insulin resistance predicted prevalent MHO in male and female adolescents for both definitions (p < 0.01). Associations between dietary components and MHO were weak and inconsistent, while physical activity and inflammation were not associated with MHO in male and female adolescents for both definitions (p > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS The prevalence of MHO in adolescents varied across definitions, with lower levels of abdominal obesity and insulin resistance as the most consistent predictors of prevalent MHO status.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Sex differences in obesity incidence: 20-year prospective cohort in South Africa.
    Pediatr. Obes. (IF 3.713) Pub Date : 2015-05-20
    E A Lundeen,S A Norris,L S Adair,L M Richter,A D Stein

    BACKGROUND Prospective data spanning childhood and adolescence are needed to better understand obesity incidence among children and to identify important periods for intervention. OBJECTIVE To describe gender differences in overweight and obesity from infancy to late adolescence in a South African cohort. METHODS We analysed body mass index at 1-2 years, 4-8 years, 11-12 years, 13-15 years and 16-18 years among 1172 participants in the South African Birth-to-Twenty cohort. RESULTS Among boys, overweight and obesity prevalence declined from age 1-2 years to 16-18 years. Among girls, overweight and obesity prevalence increased from 4-8 years to 16-18 years. Obesity incidence was highest from 4-8 years to 11-12 years in boys (6.8 cases per 1000 person-years) and from 11-12 years to 13-15 years in girls (11.2 cases per 1000 person-years). Among girls, obesity at 16-18 years was associated with overweight (odds ratio [OR] = 3.6; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.8-7.2) or obesity (OR = 8.0; 95% CI 3.7-17.6) at 1-2 years and overweight (OR = 6.8; 95% CI 3.3-13.9) or obesity (OR = 42.3; 95% CI 15.0-118.8) at 4-8 years; for boys, obesity at 16-18 years was associated with overweight at 1-2 years (OR = 5.6; 95% CI 1.7-18.0) and obesity at 4-8 years (OR = 19.7; 95% CI 5.1-75.9). CONCLUSIONS Among girls, overweight and obesity increased throughout childhood. Overweight and obesity were not widely prevalent among boys. Early childhood and post-puberty may be important periods for intervention among girls.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Hyperphagia among patients with Bardet-Biedl syndrome.
    Pediatr. Obes. (IF 3.713) Pub Date : 2013-06-19
    R Sherafat-Kazemzadeh,L Ivey,S R Kahn,J C Sapp,M D Hicks,R C Kim,A J Krause,L B Shomaker,L G Biesecker,J C Han,J A Yanovski

    BACKGROUND The importance of hyperphagia as a cause for energy imbalance in humans with Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS) has not been established. We therefore compared hyperphagic symptoms in patients with BBS vs. controls. METHODS We studied 13 patients with BBS and 23 non-syndromic controls with similar age, sex and body mass index (BMI) z-score. A 13-item hyperphagia questionnaire was completed by patients' parents/guardians. RESULTS Total hyperphagia questionnaire score was higher in BBS than controls (27.6 ± 9.0 vs. 19.1 ± 7.9, P = 0.005). Behaviour and drive subscales were higher for BBS than controls (12.5 ± 4.1 vs. 7.8 ± 3.2, P = 0.001, and 11.2 ± 4.1 vs. 8.3 ± 3.8, P = 0.04, respectively); severity was not significantly different between groups (3.8 ± 1.5 vs. 3.0 ± 1.3, P = 0.072). After adjustment for demographic variables and BMI z-score, total and behaviour subscale scores remained significantly different between groups, suggesting food-seeking activity, rather than preoccupation with food may be the main hyperphagic feature among patients with BBS. CONCLUSION Appetite dysregulation may contribute to obesity in BBS.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Gender difference in interactions between MAOA promoter uVNTR polymorphism and negative familial stressors on body mass index among Chinese adolescents.
    Pediatr. Obes. (IF 3.713) Pub Date : 2013-06-14
    B Xie,D Li,S J London,P H Palmer,C A Johnshon,Y Li,J Shih,A W Bergen,D Nishita,G E Swan,R Ahn,D V Conti

    OBJECTIVES Monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) modulates metabolism of serotonin and dopamine metabolism, neurotransmitters involved in regulation of appetite and food intake. The gene coding for MAOA contains a 30-bp tandem repeat (uVNTR) polymorphism in its promoter region that has been previously identified to be associated with obesity with mixed findings in the literature. Our goals were to replicate the population effects of this functional polymorphism on obesity risk, and to further explore gender differences and interaction effects with negative stressors. METHODS Analyses were conducted with data on genotypes, measured weight and height, and self-reported behavioural characteristics among 1101 Chinese adolescents 11-15 years old living in Wuhan, China. RESULTS Girls with the high-activity allele had significantly lower body mass index (BMI; β = -0.25 ± 0.98, P = 0.011) compared to those with the low activity allele. Experience of negative familial stressors (e.g., death or illness of family members, hit or scolded by parents and increased quarrelling with parents, parents argued frequently) significantly weakened this protective genetic effect on BMI (P for interaction = 0.043). Stratified analyses showed a significant protective genetic effect on BMI only within the stratum of low stress level (β = -0.44 ± 0.14, P = 0.002). No similar effect was observed among boys. CONCLUSIONS Our findings confirm the genetic effects of MAOA uVNTR polymorphism on BMI in a Chinese adolescent population and suggest potential genetic interactions with negative familial stressors.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Comparison of total energy expenditure between school and summer months.
    Pediatr. Obes. (IF 3.713) Pub Date : 2013-05-03
    S R J Zinkel,M Moe,E A Stern,V S Hubbard,S Z Yanovski,J A Yanovski,D A Schoeller

    WHAT IS ALREADY KNOWN ABOUT THIS SUBJECT Childhood obesity has increased 3 to 4 fold. Some children gain excess weight in summer. WHAT THIS STUDY ADDS Total energy expenditure increases almost linearly with fat-free mass. A lower total energy expenditure was not detected in summer. OBJECTIVE Recent data report that the youth experience greater weight gain during summer than during school months. We tested the hypothesis that a difference in total energy expenditure (TEE) between school and summer months exists and may contribute to summer weight gain. SUBJECTS AND METHODS A secondary analysis was performed on cross-sectional TEE data from school-age, sedentary African-American and Caucasian youth based in or near the District of Columbia who were at-risk for adult obesity because they had body mass index (BMI) ≥ 85th percentile or had overweight parents. TEE was estimated from 18-O and deuterium measurements during 1-week intervals using urine samples collected after ingestion of doubly labelled water. Differences in summer- and school-time TEE were assessed using analysis of covariance. The data were adjusted for fat-free mass (FFM) as determined by deuterium dilution to adjust for the effect of body size on TEE. RESULTS Data were collected from 162 youth (average age 10 ± 2 years, BMI 28 ± 8 kg m(-2) and BMI z-score 1.96 + 0.96). Of these, 96 youth had TEE measured during the school year (September-June); 66 different youths had TEE measured during summer months (June-August). After adjustment for FFM, average summertime TEE was 2450 ± 270 kcal d(-1) and average school-time TEE was 2510 ± 350 kcal d(-1) (P = 0.26). CONCLUSION No difference in TEE was detected between the school year and the summer months. These data suggest that seasonal differences in youth weight gain are not necessarily due to differences in energy expenditures.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Differences in body composition and metabolic status between white U.K. and Asian Indian children (EarlyBird 24 and the Pune Maternal Nutrition Study).
    Pediatr. Obes. (IF 3.713) Pub Date : 2012-09-04
    S Lakshmi,B Metcalf,C Joglekar,C S Yajnik,C H Fall,T J Wilkin

    BACKGROUND/AIMS The concept of the 'thin-fat' Indian baby is well established, but there is little comparative data in older children, and none that examines the metabolic correlates. Accordingly, we investigated the impact of body composition on the metabolic profiles of Asian Indian and white U.K. children. METHODS Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, sum of four skin-folds, % body fat (by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), glucose, insulin, insulin resistance (Homeostasis Model Assessment), trigylcerides, cholesterol [total, low-density lipoprotein, high-density lipoprotein {HDL}, total/HDL ratio] and blood pressure (systolic, diastolic and mean arterial) were measured in 262 white Caucasian children from Plymouth, U.K. (aged 6.9 ± 0.2 years, 57% male), and 626 Indian children from rural villages around Pune, India (aged 6.2 ± 0.1 years, 53% male). RESULTS Indian children had a significantly lower BMI (boys: -2.1 kg m(-2) , girls: -3.2 kg m(-2) , both P < 0.001), waist circumference (P < 0.001) and skin-fold thickness (P < 0.001) than white U.K. children, yet their % body fat was higher (boys +4.5%, P < 0.001, girls: +0.5%, P = 0.61). Independently of the differences in age and % body fat, the Indian children had higher fasting glucose (boys +0.52 mmol L(-1) , girls +0.39 mmol L(-1) , both P < 0.001), higher insulin (boys +1.69, girls +1.87 mU L(-1) , both P < 0.01) and were more insulin resistant (boys +0.25, girls +0.28 HOMA-IR units, both P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS The 'thin-fat' phenotype observed in Indian babies is also apparent in pre-pubertal Indian children who have greater adiposity than white U.K. children despite significantly lower BMIs. Indian children are more insulin resistant than white U.K. children, even after adjustment for adiposity.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Birth weight, early weight gain and pubertal maturation: a longitudinal study.
    Pediatr. Obes. (IF 3.713) Pub Date : 2012-03-22
    Y Wang,G E Dinse,W J Rogan

    OBJECTIVE To investigate the effect of birth weight and early weight gain on the timing of various measures of puberty in both girls and boys. METHODS A total of 856 newborns enrolled in the North Carolina Infant Feeding Study were followed to age 5 years, with 600 children followed up at adolescence. Birth weight was obtained from medical records and children were weighed at study visits until age 5 years; gains in standardized weights were calculated over four early age intervals: 0-6 months, 6-12 months, 1-2 years and 2-5 years. Age at menarche in girls and age at advanced Tanner stages in both girls and boys were reported by adolescents and their parents. Survival models were used to analyse the effects of birth weight and early weight gain on these outcomes. RESULTS Girls with higher birth weight and greater weight gains during the four early age intervals were younger when they reached menarche and advanced Tanner stages; boys with greater early weight gains also were younger when they reached advanced Tanner stages, but few of these effects were statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS Higher birth weights and greater weight gains during infancy and early childhood can lead to earlier sexual maturation in girls.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Childhood obesity patterns and relation to middle-age sleep apnoea risk: the Bogalusa Heart Study.
    Pediatr. Obes. (IF 3.713) Pub Date : 2016-01-20
    L A Bazzano,T Hu,S M Bertisch,L Yao,E W Harville,J Gustat,W Chen,L S Webber,T Shu,S Redline

    BACKGROUND Obese adults have a higher risk of obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA); however, the relationship between childhood obesity and adult OSA risk is unclear. Objectives This study aimed to examine overweight/obesity (OW) in childhood and risk of OSA in middle age. METHODS Childhood OW status was classified as never OW, weight cycling, persistent OW and incident OW. After 35 years of follow-up, high risk for OSA was determined by a positive score in ≥2 domains on the Berlin Questionnaire with obesity removed from scoring. RESULTS At initial assessment, mean (SD) age was 9.9 (2.9) years, and 23.9% were OW. Overall, 25.7% had scores indicating a high risk for OSA. Compared with participants who were never OW, those with persistent OW and incident OW were 1.36 (95%CI: 1.04-1.77) and 1.47 (1.11-1.96) times more likely to be high risk for OSA, after adjustment for multiple risk factors and adult OW status. Participants with an OW duration of 1-4 years, 5-8 years, and 8+ years were 0.96 (0.44-2.09), 1.20 (0.70-2.04) and 1.52 (1.22-1.90) times more likely to be high risk for OSA compared with those who were never OW (P for trend: 0.0002). CONCLUSIONS These results suggest that childhood OW is associated with a high risk of OSA in middle age.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Genetic and epigenetic associations to obesity-related appetite phenotypes among African-American children.
    Pediatr. Obes. (IF 3.713) Pub Date : 2015-03-18
    K R Gardner,C Sapienza,J O Fisher

    BACKGROUND Genetic and epigenetic variations may be an important contributer to altered eating behaviors in childhood which may lead to weight gain and obesity later in life. OBJECTIVE This study aimed to evaluate epigenetic as well as genetic associations with appetite in young children. SUBJECTS AND METHODS Participants were 32 non-obese and 32 obese African-American children aged 5-6 years. Saliva was collected from each child, and RNA and DNA were extracted for analysis. Individuals were genotyped for eating- and obesity-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms in seven candidate genes (FTO, MAOA, SH2B1, LEPR, DNMT3B, BDNF and CCKAR), and DNA methylation levels were measured in the upstream promoter region of each. Transcript levels of MAOA and FTO were also assessed. The Children's Eating Behavior Questionnaire (CEBQ) was used to assess the aspects of appetite. Child obesity was assessed using measured height and weight, and percent body fat was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. RESULTS Food responsiveness was higher and satiety responsiveness was lower among obese than non-obese female children (P = 0.001 and P = 0.031), but did not differ among male children. Epigenetic analysis of the BDNF promoter revealed associations with altered satiety responsiveness among female children (P < 0.01). CONCLUSION The findings provide new evidence of epigenetic associations with altered appetite among young African-American girls.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Influence of elevated liver fat on circulating adipocytokines and insulin resistance in obese Hispanic adolescents.
    Pediatr. Obes. (IF 3.713) Pub Date : 2012-03-22
    J S Kim,K-A Lê,S Mahurkar,J N Davis,M I Goran

    OBJECTIVE We performed this study to examine the metabolic differences arising from higher liver fat accumulation in obese Hispanic adolescents, with a particular focus on circulating levels of adipocytokines and insulin resistance. METHODS Forty-one obese Hispanic adolescents (15.3 ± 1.0 years, body mass index percentile: 97.0 ± 3.9) were assessed for: visceral adipose tissue (VAT), subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and hepatic fat fraction (HFF) by magnetic resonance imaging; fasting measures of serum glucose, insulin and adipocytokines; homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR); and insulin sensitivity (SI) and the acute insulin response to glucose (AIR) by intravenous glucose tolerance test. Subjects with normal levels of HFF (below 5%; n = 25) were compared to those with HFF > 5% (n = 16). RESULTS The two groups differing in HFF were similar for total body fat, VAT and SAT. The group with HFF > 5% had significantly (P < 0.05) higher interleukin-8 (IL-8) (6.1 ± 1.6 vs. 3.2 ± 0.4 pg mL(-1) ), NGF (30.2 ± 9.9 vs. 13.9 ± 1.6 pg mL(-1) ), HOMA-IR (8.8 ± 1.1 vs. 5.5 ± 0.5), AIR (1869 ± 206 vs. 1092 ± 165) and a tendency for lower SI (1.2 ± 0.4 vs. 2.1 ± 0.3; P = 0.06), with no significant differences in any of other factors measured. CONCLUSIONS These data suggest that elevated liver fat is most closely associated with elevated serum IL-8 and NGF levels as well as increased AIR and HOMA-IR. These elevated factors may play significant roles in the metabolic abnormalities associated with elevated liver fat in obese Hispanics.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Comparing US paediatric and adult weight classification at the transition from late teenage to young adulthood.
    Pediatr. Obes. (IF 3.713) Pub Date : 2015-01-23
    B Maring,L C Greenspan,M Chandra,S R Daniels,A Sinaiko,R J Prineas,E D Parker,K F Adams,M F Daley,N E Sherwood,E O Kharbanda,K L Margolis,D J Magid,P J O'Connor,J C Lo

    BACKGROUND Although paediatric growth charts are recommended for weight assessment prior to age 20, many teenagers transition earlier to adult care where absolute body mass index (BMI) is used. This study examines concordance of weight classification in older teenagers using paediatric percentiles and adult thresholds. METHODS BMI from 23 640 US teens ages 18-19 years were classified using paediatric BMI percentile criteria for underweight (< 5th), normal (5th to < 85th), overweight (85th to < 95th), obesity (≥ 95th) and severe obesity (≥ 120% × 95th percentile) and adult BMI (kg m(-2) ) criteria for underweight (< 18.5), normal (18.5-24.9), overweight (25-29.9) and obesity: class I (30-34.9), class II (35-39.9) and class III (≥ 40). Concordance was examined using the kappa (κ) statistic. Blood pressure (BP) from the same visit was classified hypertensive for BP ≥ 140/90. RESULTS The majority of visits (72.8%) occurred in adult primary care. Using paediatric/adult criteria, 3.4%/5.2% were underweight, 66.6%/58.8% normal weight, 15.7%/21.7% overweight, 14.3%/14.3% obese and 4.9%/6.0% severely/class II-III obese, respectively. Paediatric and adult classification for underweight, normal, overweight and obesity were concordant for 90.3% (weighted κ 0.87 [95% confidence interval, 0.87-0.88]). For severe obesity, BMI ≥ 120% × 95th percentile showed high agreement with BMI ≥ 35 kg m(-2) (κ 0.89 [0.88-0.91]). Normal-weight males and moderately obese females by paediatric BMI percentile criteria who were discordantly classified into higher adult weight strata had a greater proportion with hypertensive BP compared with concordantly classified counterparts. CONCLUSIONS Strong agreement exists between US paediatric BMI percentile and adult BMI classification for older teenagers. Adult BMI classification may optimize BMI tracking and risk stratification during transition from paediatric to adult care.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Downward trends in the prevalence of childhood overweight in two pilot towns taking part in the VIASANO community-based programme in Belgium: data from a national school health monitoring system.
    Pediatr. Obes. (IF 3.713) Pub Date : 2015-04-02
    J Vinck,C Brohet,M Roillet,M Dramaix,J-M Borys,J Beysens,N Jacobs,S Jebb,C De Laet,J Nève

    BACKGROUND Multilevel approaches involving environmental strategies are considered to be good practice to help reduce the prevalence of childhood overweight. OBJECTIVES The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of VIASANO, a community-based programme using the EPODE methodology, on the prevalence of overweight in two pilot towns in Belgium. METHODS We analysed data from a national school health monitoring system to compare changes in the prevalence of overweight and obesity over a 3-year period (2007-2010) in children aged 3-4 and 5-6 years in the pilot towns with those of children of the same ages from the whole French-speaking community of Belgium. Heights and weights of all participants were measured by trained school nurses using a standardized method. RESULTS The prevalence of overweight (-2.1%) and overweight + obesity (-2.4%) decreased in the pilot towns, but remained stable in the comparison population (+0.1% and +0.2%, respectively). After adjustment for lack of homogeneity between the study populations, there was a trend towards a decrease in overweight (P = 0.054) and overweight + obesity (P = 0.058) in the pilot towns compared with the general population. CONCLUSIONS These results suggest that a community-based programme, such as VIASANO, may be a promising strategy for reducing the prevalence of childhood overweight even over a short period of time.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Moderate to vigorous physical activity interactions with genetic variants and body mass index in a large US ethnically diverse cohort.
    Pediatr. Obes. (IF 3.713) Pub Date : 2013-03-27
    A S Richardson,K E North,M Graff,K M Young,K L Mohlke,L A Lange,E M Lange,K M Harris,P Gordon-Larsen

    BACKGROUND Little is known about the interaction between genetic and behavioural factors during lifecycle risk periods for obesity and how associations vary across race/ethnicity. OBJECTIVE The objective of this study was to examine joint associations of adiposity-related single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) with body mass index (BMI) in a diverse adolescent cohort. METHODS Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (n = 8113: Wave II 1996; ages 12-21, Wave III; ages 18-27), we assessed interactions of 41 well-established SNPs and MVPA with BMI-for-age Z-scores in European Americans (EA; n = 5077), African-Americans (AA; n = 1736) and Hispanic Americans (HA; n = 1300). RESULTS Of 97 assessed, we found nominally significant SNP-MVPA interactions on BMI-for-age Z-score in EA at GNPDA2 and FTO and in HA at LZTR2/SEC16B. In EA, the estimated effect of the FTO risk allele on BMI-for-age Z-score was lower (β = -0.13; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.08, 0.18) in individuals with ≥5 vs. <5 (β = 0.24; CI: 0.16, 0.32) bouts of MVPA per week (P for interaction 0.02). Race/ethnicity-pooled meta-analysis showed nominally significant interactions for SNPs at TFAP2B, POC5 and LYPLAL1. CONCLUSIONS High MVPA may attenuate underlying genetic risk for obesity during adolescence, a high-risk period for adult obesity.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Does breastfeeding duration decrease child obesity? An instrumental variables analysis.
    Pediatr. Obes. (IF 3.713) Pub Date : 2016-05-11
    S Modrek,S Basu,M Harding,J S White,M C Bartick,E Rodriguez,K D Rosenberg

    BACKGROUND Many studies have documented that breastfeeding is associated with a significant reduction in child obesity risk. However, a persistent problem in this literature is that unobservable confounders may drive the correlations between breastfeeding behaviors and child weight outcomes. OBJECTIVE This study examines the effect of breastfeeding practices on child weight outcomes at age 2. METHODS This study relied on population-based data for all births in Oregon in 2009 followed for two years. We used instrumental variables methods to exploit variations in breastfeeding by mothers immediately after delivery and the degree to which hospitals encouraged mothers to breastfeed in order to isolate the effect of breastfeeding practices on child weight outcomes. RESULTS We found that for every extra week that the child was breastfed, the likelihood of the child being obese at age 2 declined by 0.82% [95% CI -1.8% to 0.1%]. Likewise, for every extra week that the child was exclusively breastfed, the likelihood of being obese declined by 0.66% [95% CI -1.4 to 0.06%]. While the magnitudes of effects were modest and marginally significant, the results were robust in a variety of specifications. CONCLUSION The results suggest that hospital practices that support breastfeeding may influence childhood weight outcomes.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Striking differences in estimates of infant adiposity by new and old DXA software, PEAPOD and skin-folds at 2 weeks and 1 year of life.
    Pediatr. Obes. (IF 3.713) Pub Date : 2015-07-23
    L A Barbour,T L Hernandez,R M Reynolds,M S Reece,C Chartier-Logan,M K Anderson,T Kelly,J E Friedman,R E Van Pelt

    BACKGROUND Infant adiposity better predicts childhood obesity/metabolic risk than weight, but technical challenges fuel controversy over the accuracy of adiposity estimates. OBJECTIVE We prospectively measured adiposity (%fat) in term newborns (NB) at 2 weeks (n = 41) and 1 year (n = 30). METHODS %fat was measured by dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), PEAPOD and skin-folds (SF). DXAs were analyzed using Hologic Apex software 3.2(DXAv1) and a new version 5.5.2(DXAv2). RESULTS NB %fat by DXAv2 was 55% higher than DXAv1 (14.2% vs. 9.1%), 45% higher than SF (9.8%), and 36% higher than PEAPOD (10.4%). Among NB, Pearson correlations were 0.73-0.89, but agreement (intra-class correlations) poor between DXAv2 and DXAv1 (0.527), SF (0.354) and PEAPOD (0.618). At 1 year, %fat by DXAv2 was 51% higher than DXAv1 (33.6% vs. 22.4%), and twice as high compared with SF (14.6%). Agreement was poor between DXAv2 and DXAv1 (0.204), and SF (0.038). The absolute increase in %fat from 2 weeks to 1 year was 19.7% (DXAv2), 13.6% (DXAv1) and only 4.8% by SF. CONCLUSION Analysis of the same DXA scans using new software yielded considerably higher adiposity estimates at birth and 1 year compared with the previous version. Using different modalities to assess body composition longitudinally is problematic. Standardization is gravely needed to determine how early life exposures affect childhood obesity/metabolic risk.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Visceral adipose tissue measured by DXA correlates with measurement by CT and is associated with cardiometabolic risk factors in children.
    Pediatr. Obes. (IF 3.713) Pub Date : 2014-07-06
    T A Bosch,D R Dengel,A S Kelly,A R Sinaiko,A Moran,J Steinberger

    BACKGROUND Visceral adipose tissue (VAT) generally demonstrates a stronger relationship with cardiometabolic risk factors than total body fat or subcutaneous adipose tissue. OBJECTIVES The purpose of this study was to compare VAT estimated in children by total volume dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) with a gold standard measurement, single slice (L4-L5) computed tomography (CT). METHODS A total of 329 (152 females, 177 males) children ages 6-18 years (mean age 12.3 ± 3.6) and with average body mass index percentile of 54.9% (3-99%) had their VAT estimated by both CT and DXA. Linear association between methods was measured using Pearson's correlation. Multiple linear regressions compared the associations between cardiometabolic risk factors and both CT-VAT and DXA-VAT, respectively. RESULTS In children, DXA-VAT was correlated significantly with CT-VAT, with a stronger relationship in overweight and obese children. Multiple regression analysis showed that both estimates of VAT were significantly associated with lipids and insulin sensitivity, measured by euglycaemic-hyperinsulinaemic clamp. Additionally, DXA-VAT was associated with diastolic blood pressure, homeostasis model of insulin resistance and fasting insulin, but CT-VAT was not. CONCLUSION In children, total volume DXA-VAT and single slice CT-VAT are significantly correlated and each demonstrates similar associations with cardiometabolic risk factors. This suggests that DXA is a useful and valid method for estimation of VAT in children.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Depressive symptoms are associated with fasting insulin resistance in obese youth.
    Pediatr. Obes. (IF 3.713) Pub Date : 2014-05-28
    T S Hannon,Z Li,W Tu,J N Huber,A E Carroll,A M Lagges,S Gupta

    BACKGROUND In adults, depressive symptoms are positively associated with insulin resistance. OBJECTIVE To determine whether an association exists between depressive symptoms and markers of insulin resistance in youth. METHODS This study used a retrospective review of data from an obesity clinic. We evaluated the association between depressive symptoms (Children's Depression Inventory, CDI) and fasting insulin and homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in obese youth (n = 207, age 10-18 years). Individuals with lower vs. higher CDI T-scores (<65 vs. ≥65) were compared; this cut-point is accepted as indicating the possibility of clinical depression. Multiple linear regression was used to evaluate relationships between CDI T-scores and insulin resistance. RESULTS Fasting insulin and HOMA-IR values were 40% higher in patients with higher CDI T-scores (P = 0.04). After accounting for gender, race, age and body mass index, CDI T-score remained associated with HOMA-IR, although the strength of the association was small (b = 0.007, P = 0.049). CONCLUSIONS Relationships between depressive symptoms and insulin resistance should be considered when evaluating obese youth.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Obstructive sleep apnoea in obese adolescents and cardiometabolic risk markers.
    Pediatr. Obes. (IF 3.713) Pub Date : 2013-10-10
    S E Watson,Z Li,W Tu,H Jalou,J L Brubaker,S Gupta,J N Huber,A Carroll,T S Hannon

    WHAT IS ALREADY KNOWN ABOUT THIS SUBJECT In paediatric patients, obstructive sleep apnoea is associated with adiposity, especially visceral adiposity. In adults, obstructive sleep apnoea is also associated with a higher prevalence of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. There are limited and conflicting paediatric studies examining the association between obstructive sleep apnoea and biomarkers of risk for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes in youth. WHAT THIS STUDY ADDS Obstructive sleep apnoea is linked with greater cardiometabolic risk markers in obese adolescents. Fasting insulin and homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance may be especially linked with obstructive sleep apnoea among obese male Hispanic adolescents. The relationship between obstructive sleep apnoea and cardiometabolic abnormalities in obese adolescents should be considered when evaluating patients found to have obstructive sleep apnoea. BACKGROUND Paediatric studies examining the association between obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) and insulin sensitivity/cardiometabolic risk are limited and conflicting. OBJECTIVE This study aims to determine if cardiometabolic risk markers are increased among obese youth with obstructive sleep apnoea as compared with their equally obese peers without OSA. METHODS We performed a retrospective analysis of 96 patients (age 14.2 ± 1.4 years) who underwent polysomnography for suspected OSA. Fasting lipids, glucose, insulin and haemoglobin A1 c (HbA1 c) were performed as part of routine clinical evaluation. Patients were categorized into two groups by degree of OSA as measured by the apnoea-hypopnoea index (AHI): none or mild OSA (AHI < 5) and moderate or severe OSA (AHI ≥ 5). RESULTS Despite the similar degrees of obesity, patients with moderate or severe OSA had higher fasting insulin (P = 0.037) and homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR [P = 0.0497]) as compared with those with mild or no OSA. After controlling for body mass index, there was a positive association between the AHI and log HOMA-IR (P = 0.005). There was a positive relationship between arousals plus awakenings during the polysomnography and fasting triglycerides. CONCLUSIONS OSA is linked with greater cardiometabolic risk markers in obese youth.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Adipose tissue insulin resistance in adolescents with and without type 2 diabetes.
    Pediatr. Obes. (IF 3.713) Pub Date : 2013-07-19
    M M Kelsey,J E Forster,R E Van Pelt,J E B Reusch,K J Nadeau

    BACKGROUND The incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) is increasing in youth, yet little is known about the underlying pathophysiology. Decreased insulin suppression of lipolysis and elevated non-esterified free fatty acid (NEFA) concentrations are known to be associated with insulin resistance and T2D in adults, but less is known about the relationship in adolescents. OBJECTIVES This study aimed to assess adipose tissue insulin resistance (IR; insulin suppression of lipolysis) and its metabolic correlates in lean, obese and T2D adolescents. METHODS Forty-seven lean, obese and T2D youth underwent hyperinsulinaemic (80 mU*m(-2) *min(-1)) euglycaemic clamps. NEFAs were measured at baseline and during steady state. Insulin-mediated suppression of lipolysis (%NEFA suppression from baseline) was calculated, and metabolic risk factors were assessed by %NEFA suppression tertile. RESULTS There was expected variability in %NEFA suppression within obese and T2D youth, but a subset had significantly reduced suppression of lipolysis. NEFA suppression tertile was significantly inversely associated with fasting triglycerides (P = 0.0001), log alanine aminotransferase (ALT; P = 0.02) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P = 0.0002). CONCLUSIONS Marked adipose tissue IR occurs in some obese and T2D adolescents, which may result in release of triglycerides into the circulation and liver deposition of fatty acids, as evidenced by higher ALT in poor NEFA suppressors.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Does the age at adiposity rebound reflect a critical period?
    Pediatr. Obes. (IF 3.713) Pub Date : 2018-09-27
    M F Rolland-Cachera,T J Cole

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Relation between sleep duration and BMI varies by age and sex in youth age 8-19.
    Pediatr. Obes. (IF 3.713) Pub Date : 2012-03-22
    A Storfer-Isser,S R Patel,D C Babineau,S Redline

    OBJECTIVES The objectives of this study were to (i) compare the strength of associations between sleep duration and body mass index (BMI) in middle childhood, and early and late adolescence; (ii) determine whether sleep duration in middle childhood predicts BMI in early or late adolescence; and (iii) examine the consistency of these associations by sex. METHODS Subjects included 313 children/adolescents aged 8-19 participating in a longitudinal cohort study on sleep and health. Participants were assessed at three time points approximately 4 years apart: ages 8-11, 12-15 and 16-19. BMI z-score (BMIz) was calculated using age and sex normative data from the Centers for Disease Control. Sleep duration was reported by the parent (ages 8-15) or the adolescent (ages 16-19). RESULTS [corrected] Half of the participants were male and 79% were Caucasian. Sleep duration had a negative linear association with BMIz for boys but not girls, and the magnitude of this association decreased with age. Sleep duration at age 8-11 predicted BMIz in early and late adolescence for boys but not girls, and associations were largely attenuated after adjusting for BMIz at age 8-11. The strongest predictor of adolescent BMIz was BMIz at age 8-11 for both boys and girls. CONCLUSION We conclude that the association between sleep duration and BMIz varies by sex and age, with stronger associations in boys and in middle childhood compared with adolescence.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
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