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  • Stretching the Social: Broadening the Behavioral Indicators of Sociality
    Child Dev. Perspect. (IF 4.427) Pub Date : 2019-11-29
    Nameera Akhtar, Vikram K. Jaswal

    Human infants are social by nature. Early behaviors taken as evidence of an innate desire to connect with others generally include eye contact, smiles, and positive vocalizations. Studies have shown that, as infants mature, they begin to alternate gaze between objects of interest and their social partners (joint attention), and show signs that some people are special to them by becoming distressed when separated from them (attachment). In this article, we seek to highlight less frequently studied ways that infants and young children show their desire to connect and communicate with others. To do so, we draw on studies of infants in underrepresented communities, interviews with parents of autistic children, and a recent study of interactions between autistic adults.

    更新日期:2019-11-30
  • Why Developmental Researchers Should Care About Biracial, Multiracial, and Multiethnic Youth
    Child Dev. Perspect. (IF 4.427) Pub Date : 2019-11-16
    Adrienne Nishina, Melissa R. Witkow

    The population of multiracial youth in the United States is expected to grow in the coming decades (exceeding 11% by 2060). In this article, we aim to convince child development researchers who do not usually examine race and ethnicity in their work to consider multiracial youth. We describe ways in which youth from more than one racial background might have common developmental experiences. First, we present a rationale for considering multiracial youth as their own numerical minority group. Then, we provide several illustrative examples demonstrating how studying multiracial youth might provide added insight about three interrelated areas: ethnic/racial identity development, social‐cognitive development, and interactions with peers. We also offer guidance on collecting information about children’s and adolescents’ multiracial status. We conclude by offering suggestions for researchers who seek to include multiracial youth in their work.

    更新日期:2019-11-17
  • Introduction to the Special Section: Prevention and Remediation of Emotional and Academic Problems in Youth.
    Child Dev. Perspect. (IF 4.427) Pub Date : 2010-03-02
    Armando A Pina,Nancy Eisenberg

    Accessibility to prevention and remediation programs is critical for today's children who face a broad range of adversities placing them at risk for emotional and academic problems. This introduction briefly summarizes the articles in the Special Section, which provide an overview of different interventions aimed at preventing or ameliorating various youths' emotional and behavioral problems. The Special Section concludes with an article and related commentary pertaining to school-related functioning.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Continuity and Stability in Development.
    Child Dev. Perspect. (IF 4.427) Pub Date : 2018-03-06
    Marc H Bornstein,Diane L Putnick,Gianluca Esposito

    Developmental science is centrally concerned with both consistency and change in characteristics through time. Consistency and change in development are tracked by group mean level continuity and individual order stability. Group mean level and individual order consistency and change are both developmentally informative and can co-exist conceptually and empirically as the two are partially orthogonal perspectives on development. Continuity and stability are broadly applicable to characteristics of the individual, dyad, and environment. Significantly, absent the distinctions we draw between mean level continuity and individual order stability, researchers who use the terms willy-nilly leave their readers in the dark as to which key feature of development is meant. In this article, we distinguish the two types of consistency and change, their measurement, importance, moderation, and implications.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • How International Research on Parenting Advances Understanding of Child Development.
    Child Dev. Perspect. (IF 4.427) Pub Date : 2016-10-12
    Jennifer E Lansford,Marc H Bornstein,Kirby Deater-Deckard,Kenneth A Dodge,Suha M Al-Hassan,Dario Bacchini,Anna Silvia Bombi,Lei Chang,Bin-Bin Chen,Laura Di Giunta,Patrick S Malone,Paul Oburu,Concetta Pastorelli,Ann T Skinner,Emma Sorbring,Laurence Steinberg,Sombat Tapanya,Liane Peña Alampay,Liliana Maria Uribe Tirado,Arnaldo Zelli

    International research on parenting and child development can advance our understanding of similarities and differences in how parenting is related to children's development across countries. Challenges to conducting international research include operationalizing culture, disentangling effects within and between countries, and balancing emic and etic perspectives. Benefits of international research include testing whether findings regarding parenting and child development replicate across diverse samples, incorporating cultural and contextual diversity to foster more inclusive and representative research samples and investigators than has typically occurred, and understanding how children develop in proximal parenting and family and distal international contexts.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • How Economic Downturns Affect Children's Development: An Interdisciplinary Perspective on Pathways of Influence.
    Child Dev. Perspect. (IF 4.427) Pub Date : 2015-12-01
    Anna Gassman-Pines,Christina M Gibson-Davis,Elizabeth O Ananat

    To understand how economic downturns affect children's development, scholars have concentrated on how parents' loss of a job affects children's well-being, but have largely ignored the potential effects of downturns on children whose parents remain employed. In this article, we review research across disciplines to demonstrate that economic downturns should be conceptualized as a community-level event that affects all children in a community, not just those whose parents have lost jobs. We focus on three mechanisms linking downturns to children's developmental outcomes: structural changes to communities, the economic and psychological effects on individuals who are continuously employed, and the strain of job loss on social networks. We conclude by discussing ongoing research and looking at implications for public policy.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Sibling Relationships during the Transition to Adulthood.
    Child Dev. Perspect. (IF 4.427) Pub Date : 2010-08-12
    Katherine Jewsbury Conger,Wendy M Little

    Recent research has shed new light on individual development during the early adulthood years, yet few investigators have examined sibling relationships during this stage of life. These relationships undergo transformations as individuals enter adult roles and orient their lives towards friends and romantic partners and establish independence from parents and siblings. This review examines major life events and role transitions such as leaving home, completing school, obtaining employment, getting married, and having children that influence individuals and their sibling relationships. In addition, the review considers how sibling relationships may affect individuals during the transition to adulthood, and considers the context of family and culture. The article concludes with suggestions for future research on sibling relationships during early adulthood and beyond.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Long-Term Effects of Parenting-Focused Preventive Interventions to Promote Resilience of Children and Adolescents.
    Child Dev. Perspect. (IF 4.427) Pub Date : 2015-09-01
    Irwin Sandler,Alexandra Ingram,Sharlene Wolchik,Jenn-Yun Tein,Emily Winslow

    In this article, we address three questions concerning the long-term effects of parenting-focused preventive interventions: 1) Do prevention programs promote effective parenting in families facing normative stressors as well as those facing frequent adversity? 2) Do parenting programs prevent children's long-term problems? 3) Do changes in parenting mediate long-term effects of programs? We address these questions by summarizing evidence from 22 programs with randomized trials and followups of three years or longer. We describe in more detail two interventions for divorced and bereaved families, suggesting that they prevent a range of problems and promote a range of developmental competencies over a prolonged period. Program effects to strengthen parenting mediated many of these long-term outcomes.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Ecological Commitments: Why Developmental Science Needs Naturalistic Methods.
    Child Dev. Perspect. (IF 4.427) Pub Date : 2017-06-07
    Audun Dahl

    Much of developmental science aims to explain how or whether children's experiences influence their thoughts and actions. Developmental theories make assumptions and claims-what I call ecological commitments-about events outside research contexts. In this article, I argue that most developmental theories make ecological commitments about children's thoughts, actions, and experiences outside research contexts, and that these commitments sometimes go unstated and untested. I also argue that naturalistic methods can provide evidence for or against ecological commitments, and that naturalistic and experimental studies address unique yet complementary questions. Rather than argue for increasing the ecological validity of experiments or abandoning laboratory research, I propose reconsidering the relations among developmental theories, naturalistic methods, and laboratory experiments.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Teenage Mothers Today: What We Know and How It Matters.
    Child Dev. Perspect. (IF 4.427) Pub Date : 2017-05-24
    Stefanie Mollborn

    Over the past two decades, births to U.S. teenagers have fallen and no longer follow overall fertility patterns. Yet the unique challenges faced by teenage mothers and their families justify continued research. Across disciplines, newer work has furthered our understanding of teenage motherhood today. In this article, I highlight four areas of progress: processes of selection into teenage motherhood, the broader consequences of teenage childbearing beyond the socioeconomic realm, heterogeneity of effects, and the application of life course principles. Emerging societal trends such as complex family structures, a stalled recovery from the recession for families of low socioeconomic status, and a rapidly evolving political environment for reproductive health care continue to challenge the lives of teenage mothers. Given that the consequences for teenagers of becoming mothers may change, continued research is needed. Shifts in policy to favor supporting teenage mothers and addressing the causes of both teenage pregnancy and social disadvantage may help improve the lives of these mothers and their families.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Pollution and Infant Health.
    Child Dev. Perspect. (IF 4.427) Pub Date : 2013-12-01
    Janet Currie

    In this article, I review recent research showing that even relatively low levels of pollution can affect infants' health. This research attempts to go beyond documenting correlations by using sharp changes in pollution levels, carefully selecting control groups (including unexposed siblings as controls for exposed children), and considering behavioral responses to pollution such as maternal mobility. Poor and minority children are more likely to be affected and differential exposure could be responsible for some of the observed group-level differences in health at birth. Policymakers concerned about the roots of inequality should consider the role played by environmental exposures of pregnant mothers.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Children's Racial Categorization in Context.
    Child Dev. Perspect. (IF 4.427) Pub Date : 2016-04-26
    Kristin Pauker,Amanda Williams,Jennifer R Steele

    The ability to discriminate visually based on race emerges early in infancy: 3-month-olds can perceptually differentiate faces by race and 6-month-olds can perceptually categorize faces by race. Between ages 6 and 8 years, children can sort others into racial groups. But to what extent are these abilities influenced by context? In this article, we review studies on children's racial categorization and discuss how our conclusions are affected by how we ask the questions (i.e., our methods and stimuli), where we ask them (i.e., the diversity of the child's surrounding environment), and whom we ask (i.e., the diversity of the children we study). Taken together, we suggest that despite a developmental readiness to categorize others by race, the use of race as a psychologically salient basis for categorization is far from inevitable and is shaped largely by the experimental setting and the greater cultural context.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Intergenerational Transmission of Aggression: Physiological Regulatory Processes.
    Child Dev. Perspect. (IF 4.427) Pub Date : 2016-03-02
    Gayla Margolin,Michelle C Ramos,Adela C Timmons,Kelly F Miller,Sohyun C Han

    Children who grow up in aggressive households are at risk of having problems with physiological regulation, but researchers have not investigated physiology as a mechanism in the intergenerational transmission of aggression. In this article, we posit that physiological regulation, particularly during stressful interpersonal interactions, may shed light on sensitivity to conflict, It can also inform our understanding of associations between childhood exposure to aggression in families of origin and aggression against partners in adolescence or adulthood. In support of this model, we highlight findings showing that childhood exposure to family aggression relates to physiological regulation across the life span, and that reactions to physiological stress concurrently relate to aggression against intimate partners. Emerging evidence from research on biological processes during stressful interpersonal interactions raises questions about what is adaptive for individuals from aggressive families, particularly as past family experiences intersect with the challenges of new relationships.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Emerging Trends in Behavioral Genetic Studies of Child Temperament.
    Child Dev. Perspect. (IF 4.427) Pub Date : 2015-09-30
    Kimberly J Saudino,Lauren Micalizzi

    In this article, we describe three emerging trends in the application of behavioral genetic methods to the study of temperament. The trends-using multiple methods to assess temperament, considering contextual influences on temperament, and evaluating the structure of temperament-have been well studied in the phenotypic literature, but adding a behavioral genetic perspective can enrich our understanding of temperament. We review recent behavioral genetic research in each of these areas and discuss its implications.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The Autonomy-Connection Challenge in Adolescent Peer Relationships.
    Child Dev. Perspect. (IF 4.427) Pub Date : 2015-05-06
    Joseph P Allen,Emily L Loeb

    The world of peers presents a unique developmental challenge to adolescents-one that is likely to be linked to prior experiences within the family, affected by concurrent experiences with adults outside the family, and predictive of future mental and physical health. To negotiate relationships with peers successfully, adolescents must manage the challenge of connecting with peers while establishing autonomy regarding peer influences. Both the nature of this challenge and how it is handled are linked closely to the ways adolescents are treated by the adults in their lives. Adolescents' capacities for autonomy and connection can be developed both in the family and in interventions that engage youth with adults outside the family, suggesting a substantial role for adults in easing adolescents' peer challenges.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Infants and Toddlers in Foster Care.
    Child Dev. Perspect. (IF 4.427) Pub Date : 2013-09-28
    Mary Dozier,Charles H Zeanah,Kristin Bernard

    Young children involved in the child welfare system are susceptible to behavioral and physiological dysregulation. These children need nurturing care to develop organized attachments to caregivers; they need synchronous care to support their physiological and behavioral regulation; and they need stable caregivers who can commit to them, supporting their sense of self and behavioral regulation. Without intervention at the level of the parent and the system, most children involved with the child welfare system are unlikely to have these needs met. We present two models of intervention designed to enhance parents' synchrony and nurturance, and highlight aspects of the system that can enhance the stability and commitment of caregivers.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Response to Intervention: Preventing and Remediating Academic Difficulties.
    Child Dev. Perspect. (IF 4.427) Pub Date : 2009-04-01
    Jack M Fletcher,Sharon Vaughn

    We address the advantages and challenges of service delivery models based on student response to intervention (RTI) for preventing and remediating academic difficulties and as data sources for identification for special education services. The primary goal of RTI models is improved academic and behavioral outcomes for all students. We review evidence for the processes underlying RTI, including screening and progress monitoring assessments, evidence-based interventions, and schoolwide coordination of multitiered instruction. We also discuss the secondary goal of RTI, which is to provide data for identification of learning disabilities (LDs). Incorporating instructional response into identification represents a controversial shift away from discrepancies in cognitive skills that have traditionally been a primary basis for LD identification. RTI processes potentially integrate general and special education and suggest new directions for research and public policy related to LDs, but the scaling issues in schools are significant and more research is needed on the use of RTI data for identification.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Emotion (Dys)regulation and Links to Depressive Disorders.
    Child Dev. Perspect. (IF 4.427) Pub Date : 2008-12-01
    Maria Kovacs,Jutta Joormann,Ian H Gotlib

    Clinical depression is a significant mental health problem that is associated with personal suffering and impaired functioning. These effects underscore the continuing need for new approaches that can inform researchers and clinicians when designing interventions. We propose that individual differences in the self-regulation of sadness and distress provide an important link between stress, depressed mood, and the onset of depressive disorder, and that if we have a better understanding of the ways children successfully manage negative emotions, we can better prevent and treat pediatric depression. In this article, we therefore examine the normative development of responses that children use to attenuate sadness, and aspects of the neurobiological infrastructure that both enable and constrain such self-regulatory efforts. We also address the emerging literature on affect regulation among children at familial risk for depressive disorders. We conclude that problems with adaptively self-regulating sadness and distress represent one pathway that can lead to juvenile-onset depression. And we need integrated, developmental studies of the psychosocial and neurobiological aspects of self-regulatory responses to sadness and distress in order to better understand this process, and to design age-sensitive intervention strategies for pediatric depression.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Factorial Invariance within Longitudinal Structural Equation Models: Measuring the Same Construct across Time.
    Child Dev. Perspect. (IF 4.427) Pub Date : 2010-04-07
    Keith F Widaman,Emilio Ferrer,Rand D Conger

    Charting change in behavior as a function of age and investigating longitudinal relations among constructs are primary goals of developmental research. Traditionally, researchers rely on a single measure (e.g., scale score) for a given construct for each person at each occasion of measurement, assuming that measure reflects the same construct at each occasion. With multiple indicators of a latent construct at each time of measurement, the researcher can evaluate whether factorial invariance holds. If factorial invariance constraints are satisfied, latent variable scores at each time of measurement are on the same metric and stronger conclusions are warranted. In this paper we discuss factorial invariance in longitudinal studies, contrasting analytic approaches and highlighting strengths of the multiple-indicator approach to modeling developmental processes.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Developmental Neuroscience Perspectives on Emotion Regulation.
    Child Dev. Perspect. (IF 4.427) Pub Date : 2009-12-04
    H Hill Goldsmith,Seth D Pollak,Richard J Davidson

    Because individual differences in emotion regulation are associated with risk for childhood behavioral problems, multidisciplinary investigation of the genetic and neural underpinnings of emotion regulation should be a research priority. Here, we summarize research findings from three independent laboratories to demonstrate the ways in which a variety of developmental human neuroscience-based approaches can address critical conceptual issues in the emergence of emotion regulation. To do so, we present three perspectives on how developmental neurobiology constrains and enriches theories of ER. The three perspectives of (1) genetics, (2) brain structure and function, and (3) plasticity of development are illustrated with empirical results derived from both typical and atypical samples of children and adults. These perspectives are complementary and sometimes represent different levels of analysis of the same question.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Emotions and the Development of Childhood Depression: Bridging the Gap.
    Child Dev. Perspect. (IF 4.427) Pub Date : 2009-12-04
    Pamela M Cole,Joan Luby,Margaret W Sullivan

    There is a gap between scientific knowledge about typical and atypical emotional development and efforts to identify and serve children's mental health needs. The gap can be bridged with research that integrates clinical perspectives into the study of emotional development. We illustrate this by discussing typical emotional development in early childhood and how it differs from the atypical features of emotion seen among preschool-age children with depression. We suggest new research directions that integrate the study of typical emotional development with clinical evidence of risk for and presence of affective disorders in young children.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Short arms and talking eggs: Why we should no longer abide the nativist-empiricist debate.
    Child Dev. Perspect. (IF 4.427) Pub Date : 2009-09-29
    John P Spencer,Mark S Blumberg,Bob McMurray,Scott R Robinson,Larissa K Samuelson,J Bruce Tomblin

    The nativist-empiricist debate and the nativist commitment to the idea of core knowledge and endowments that exist without relevant postnatal experience continue to distract attention from the reality of developmental systems. The developmental systems approach embraces the concept of epigenesis, that is, the view that development emerges via cascades of interactions across multiple levels of causation, from genes to environments. This view is rooted in a broader interpretation of experience and an appreciation for the nonobvious nature of development. We illustrate this systems approach with examples from studies of imprinting, spatial cognition, and language development, revealing the inadequacies of the nativist-empiricist debate and the inconvenient truths of development. Developmental scientists should no longer abide the nativist-empiricist debate and nativists' ungrounded focus on origins. Rather, the future lies in grounding our science in contemporary theory and developmental process.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Seeing the world through a third eye: Developmental systems theory looks beyond the nativist-empiricist debate.
    Child Dev. Perspect. (IF 4.427) Pub Date : 2009-09-29
    John P Spencer,Larissa K Samuelson,Mark S Blumberg,Bob McMurray,Scott R Robinson,J Bruce Tomblin

    In response to the commentaries on our paper (Spencer et al., 2009) we summarize what a developmental systems perspective offers for a twenty-first century science of development by highlighting five insights from developmental systems theory. Where applicable, the discussion is grounded in a particular example-the emergence of ocular dominance columns in early development. Ocular dominance columns are a paragon of epigenesis and are inconsistent with the nativist view. We conclude with optimism that developmental science can move beyond the nativist-empiricist debate armed with both modern technological tools and strong theory to guide their use.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • To Model or Not to Model? A Dialogue on the Role of Computational Modeling in Developmental Science.
    Child Dev. Perspect. (IF 4.427) Pub Date : 2011-06-01
    Vanessa R Simmering,Jochen Triesch,Gedeon O Deák,John P Spencer

    All sciences use models of some variety to understand complex phenomena. In developmental science, however, modeling is mostly limited to linear, algebraic descriptions of behavioral data. Some researchers have suggested that complex mathematical models of developmental phenomena are a viable (even necessary) tool that provide fertile ground for developing and testing theory as well as for generating new hypotheses and predictions. This paper explores the concerns, attitudes, and historical trends that underlie the tension between two cultures: one in which computational simulations of behavior are an important complement to observation and experimentation, and another which emphasizes evidence from behavioral experiments and linear models enhanced by verbal descriptions. This tension is explored as a dialogue between three characters: Ed (Experimental Developmentalist), Mira (Modeling Inclusive Research Advocate), and Phil (Philosopher of Science).

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The Shaping of the Face Space in Early Infancy: Becoming a Native Face Processor.
    Child Dev. Perspect. (IF 4.427) Pub Date : 2011-05-13
    Alan Slater,Paul C Quinn,David J Kelly,Kang Lee,Christopher A Longmore,Paula R McDonald,Olivier Pascalis

    Face perception remains one of the most intensively researched areas in psychology and allied disciplines, and there has been much debate regarding the early origins and experiential determinants of face processing. This article reviews studies, the majority of which have appeared in the past decade, that discuss possible mechanisms underlying face perception at birth and document the prominent role of experience in shaping infants' face-processing abilities. In the first months of life, infants develop a preference for female and own-race faces and become better able to recognize and categorize own-race and own-species faces. This perceptual narrowing and shaping of the "face space" forms a foundation for later face expertise in childhood and adulthood and testifies to the remarkable plasticity of the developing visual system.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Developing Multiple Language Versions of Instruments for Intercultural Research.
    Child Dev. Perspect. (IF 4.427) Pub Date : 2011-03-23
    Sumru Erkut

    This article examines the strengths and weaknesses of several translation techniques currently in use through the lens of emerging opinions on the science and ethics of intercultural research. Broad scientific and ethical dimensions relevant to translating instruments and a distinction between generating multiple language forms of two kinds of instruments are introduced: those in which wording in the source language cannot be altered and those in which constraints of the target language can lead to changes in the original instrument's wording. Developmental psychologists engaged in intercultural research can consider techniques for minimizing the influence of Western perspectives while pursuing conceptual equivalence in order to satisfy science's concern for internal validity of translated instruments.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Examining How Context Changes Intervention Impact: The Use of Effect Sizes in Multilevel Mixture Meta-Analysis.
    Child Dev. Perspect. (IF 4.427) Pub Date : 2008-11-28
    C Hendricks Brown,Wei Wang,Irwin Sandler

    In describing the impact of an intervention, a single effect size, odds ratio, or other summary measure is often employed. This single measure is useful in calibrating the effect of one intervention against others, but it is less meaningful when the intervention displays variation in impact. A single intervention trial can show differential effects when subgroups respond differentially, when impact varies by environmental context, or when there is varying impact with different outcome measures or across follow-up time. This article presents a multilevel mixture modeling approach for meta-analyses that summarizes these sources of impact variation across trials and measured outcomes.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • How gesture promotes learning throughout childhood.
    Child Dev. Perspect. (IF 4.427) Pub Date : 2010-03-17
    Susan Goldin-Meadow

    The gestures children use when they talk often reveal knowledge that they do not express in speech. Gesture is particularly likely to reveal these unspoken thoughts when children are on the verge of learning a new task. It thus reflects knowledge in child learners. But gesture can also play a role in changing the child's knowledge, indirectly through its effects on the child's communicative environment and directly through its effects on the child's cognitive state. Because gesture reflects thought and is an early marker of change, it may be possible to use it diagnostically. Gesture (or its lack) may be the first sign of future developmental difficulty. And because gesture can change thought, it may prove to be useful in the home, the classroom, and the clinic as a way to alter the pace, and perhaps the course, of learning and development.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • On the Importance of a Unified Model of Responsiveness-To-Intervention.
    Child Dev. Perspect. (IF 4.427) Pub Date : 2010-02-18
    Lynn S Fuchs,Douglas Fuchs

    In this commentary, we take issue with only one idea in Fletcher and Vaughn's overall balanced description of the potential advantages and disadvantages of RTI: the assertion that RTI models are best conceptualized as a set of processes, not as a single model of service delivery. We argue that RTI's major goal, to prevent long-term and debilitating academic failure, is better served by a unified model that encourages shared understanding among all school-based practitioners about intervention intensity, roles and responsibilities, and constructive and effective relationships between general and special education. We briefly describe a unified model, explain how it eases some of the challenges associated with RTI implementation, and consider implications for learning disabilities.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Response to Intervention: Prevention and Remediation, Perhaps. Diagnosis, No.
    Child Dev. Perspect. (IF 4.427) Pub Date : 2010-02-18
    Cecil R Reynolds,Sally E Shaywitz

    Fletcher and Vaughn (this issue) describe recent changes to federal laws governing special education eligibility for specific learning disabilities focusing on what is commonly known as response to intervention (RTI). We are concerned about what appears to us as a selective review of empirical support for RTI and a consequently overly optimistic view of many practical issues surrounding the implementation of RTI models that neglects the potential negative long-term impact on the range of students with and without a learning disability. These include (1) the lack of a firm evidence base reflected in vagaries and ambiguity of the critical details of the model in practice; (2) the worrisome shortcomings of the RTI process as a means of diagnosis or determination of a disability; (3) the contextual, situation-dependent nature of who is identified; (4) the seeming lack of consideration of bright struggling readers in the RTI process; and (5) the apparent lack of student-based data to guide the most effective choice of approaches to, and specific components of, intervention.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Development in Children and Adolescents Whose Mothers Have Borderline Personality Disorder.
    Child Dev. Perspect. (IF 4.427) Pub Date : 2010-02-18
    Jenny Macfie

    A mother's mental illness may have a profound effect on her child's development, including an increased risk of the child developing the same disorder. From a developmental psychopathology perspective, offspring provide an opportunity to examine pathways to disorder versus resilience. Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a severe disorder diagnosed in early adulthood involving stormy relationships, an unstable sense of identity, and self-destructive behavior. Interestingly, the domains of dysfunction are conceptually similar to developmental tasks in early childhood reworked in adolescence: attachment, self development, and self-regulation. Early deviation may increase the risk for later disorder. There are five empirical studies of children whose mothers have BPD, two conducted from a developmental perspective. This article proposes a theoretical framework and an innovative methodology with which to extend this research, and suggests an intervention to bring development back on track if necessary.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Commentary on Grolnick and Pomerantz, "Issues and Challenges in Studying Parental Control: Toward a New Conceptualization"
    Child Dev. Perspect. (IF 4.427) Pub Date : 2010-02-18
    Rand D Conger

    Grolnick and Pomerantz (this issue) take on the difficult challenge of rethinking how investigators might use the concept of parental control in the study of child and adolescent development. They note that previous conceptual and empirical work has employed a wide variety of definitions of parental control and argue that this broad range of approaches has created problems for the field. For example, they cite Rollins and Thomas (1979), who identified more than 15 different labels for the construct. This multiplicity of definitions, the authors suggest, has led to ambiguity in the interpretation of research findings. In particular, Grolnick and Pomerantz propose that the multiple-forms approach to defining parental control is so fraught with problems that scholars should replace it with another strategy for describing and measuring control and related constructs. They then suggest a new approach that they believe will solve the problem and also increase the theoretical value of research on these types of parenting behaviors. In this commentary, I first discuss their critique of the multiple-forms approach and then analyze their proposed solution to the conceptual difficulties they describe.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The Concept of Development in Developmental Psychopathology.
    Child Dev. Perspect. (IF 4.427) Pub Date : 2010-02-18
    L Alan Sroufe

    So important is the perspective of development for understanding psychopathology that it spawned a new discipline-"developmental psychopathology"-which has seen remarkable advances since its introduction,, but has yet to completely fulfill its promise. To do this requires maintaining a thoroughgoing developmental perspective. When we take development seriously, there are implications for how we understand psychopathology, describe and conceptualize the origins and course of disorder, and interpret research findings. From this perspective, disorders are complex products of development; for example, we can view neurophysiological associates of disorder not as causes but as markers, the development of which we need to understand. Research on developmental psychopathology requires an examination of the history of problem behavior from early in life, and it unites multiple features of adaptation and maladaptation (contextual, experiential, physiological, and genetic).

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Psychosocial Interventions for School Refusal Behavior in Children and Adolescents.
    Child Dev. Perspect. (IF 4.427) Pub Date : 2010-02-18
    Armando A Pina,Argero A Zerr,Nancy A Gonzales,Claudio D Ortiz

    This article reviews empirical evidence for the efficacy of psychosocial interventions for school refusal behavior. Data corresponding to eight experimental single-case and seven group-design studies are presented. Across studies, behavioral and cognitive-behavioral treatments emerged as promising lines of intervention. These interventions produced improvements in school attendance and youths'symptom levels (e.g., anxiety, fear, depression, anger) based on this study's examination of effect sizes. The article concludes with suggestions for interventionists, researchers, and policymakers attempting to deal with the problem of school refusal.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Beyond Emotion Regulation: Emotion Utilization and Adaptive Functioning.
    Child Dev. Perspect. (IF 4.427) Pub Date : 2009-12-04
    Carroll Izard,Kevin Stark,Christopher Trentacosta,David Schultz

    Recent research indicates that emotionality, emotion information processing, emotion knowledge, and discrete emotion experiences may influence and interact with emotion utilization, that is, the effective use of the inherently adaptive and motivational functions of emotions. Strategies individuals learn for emotion modulation and emotion utilization become stabilized in emerging affective-cognitive structures, or emotion schemas. In these emotion schemas, the feeling/motivational component of emotion and perceptual and cognitive processes interact dynamically and continually. The concepts and techniques that promote emotion knowledge, emotion regulation, and emotion utilization have proved effective in promoting favorable behavioral outcomes in both emotion-based and cognitive-behavioral interventions. In this paper, we suggest that current conceptualizations of emotion regulation need to be extended to take these interactions into account.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • How Marginal Deviations Sometimes Grow Into Serious Aggression.
    Child Dev. Perspect. (IF 4.427) Pub Date : 2007-07-01
    Gian Vittorio Caprara,Kenneth A Dodge,Concetta Pastorelli,Arnaldo Zelli

    We offer a theory of marginal deviations that articulates the processes through which initial behavior that is only slightly deviant from the norm gets transformed into more serious antisocial outcomes. We present evidence that, of the one third of the population that is marginally deviant, about one fourth (or 8% of the total population) becomes seriously deviant over time. Hypothesized factors in this transformation involve the child actor, peer observer-judges, and social transactions between them in processes that derive from self-fulfilling prophecies and dynamic systems theory. Hypotheses and studies are proposed to address the circumstances and processes that determine whether a marginal deviation will be bought back to the norm (through assimilation and attenuation) or accelerated to severe deviance (through accommodation and amplification).

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Innateness, Learning, and Rationality.
    Child Dev. Perspect. (IF 4.427) Pub Date : 2009-09-22
    Elizabeth S Spelke,Katherine D Kinzler

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Modeling Variability in Individual Development: Differences of degree or kind?
    Child Dev. Perspect. (IF 4.427) Pub Date : 2010-08-01
    Daniel J Bauer,Heathe Luz McNaughton Reyes

    The proper use of statistical models for analyzing individual change over time is critical for the progress of developmental science. Latent curve models, hierarchical linear growth models, group-based trajectory models, and growth mixture models constitute increasingly important tools for longitudinal data analysis. To facilitate their understanding and use, this paper clarifies similarities and differences between these models, with particular attention to the assumptions they make about individual development. An example shows how the results and interpretation vary across model types. Discussion centers on reviewing the strengths and limitations of each approach for developmental research.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Specific Language Impairment Across Languages.
    Child Dev. Perspect. (IF 4.427) Pub Date : 2014-04-26
    Laurence B Leonard

    Children with specific language impairment (SLI) have a significant and longstanding deficit in spoken language ability that adversely affects their social and academic well-being. Studies of children with SLI in a wide variety of languages reveal diverse symptoms, most of which seem to reflect weaknesses in grammatical computation and phonological short-term memory. The symptoms of the disorder are sensitive to the type of language being acquired, with extraordinary weaknesses seen in those areas of language that are relatively challenging for younger typically developing children. Although these children's deficits warrant clinical and educational attention, their weaknesses might reflect the extreme end of a language aptitude continuum rather than a distinct, separable condition.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Cultural Influences on Substance Use Among Hispanic Adolescents and Young Adults: Findings From Project RED.
    Child Dev. Perspect. (IF 4.427) Pub Date : 2014-04-15
    Jennifer B Unger

    Hispanic adolescents represent a growing segment of the U.S. population. In addition to the typical stressors encountered during adolescence, Hispanic adolescents may experience acculturative stress, perceived discrimination, and conflicts with parents about acculturation, which can lead to maladaptive behaviors such as substance use. Personal cultural resources may help Hispanic youth cope with cultural stressors and avoid substance use, but little is known about how such factors affect decisions about substance use. In 2005, my research group began studying a group of Hispanic adolescents in Los Angeles. The participants completed surveys annually about cultural issues such as acculturation, ethnic identity, and perceived discrimination; family and peer relationships; and use of alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana. We found that Hispanic adolescents' perceptions that they were discriminated against put them at greater risk for substance use, and that Hispanic orientation protected the youth from substance use. The findings can inform the development of culturally relevant prevention interventions for Hispanic adolescents and emerging adults.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Is Insecure Parent-Child Attachment a Risk Factor for the Development of Anxiety in Childhood or Adolescence?
    Child Dev. Perspect. (IF 4.427) Pub Date : 2014-03-25
    Kathryn A Kerns,Laura E Brumariu

    In this article, we address how and why parent-child attachment is related to anxiety in children. Children who do not form secure attachments to caregivers risk developing anxiety or other internalizing problems. While meta-analyses yield different findings regarding which insecurely attached children are at greatest risk, our recent studies suggest that disorganized children may be most at risk. Insecure attachment itself may contribute to anxiety, but insecurely attached children also are more likely to have difficulties regulating emotions and interacting competently with peers, which may further contribute to anxiety. Clinical disorders occur primarily when insecure attachment combines with other risk factors. In this article, we present a model of factors related to developing anxiety.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Counterfactual Reasoning: Sharpening Conceptual Distinctions in Developmental Studies.
    Child Dev. Perspect. (IF 4.427) Pub Date : 2014-03-07
    Eva Rafetseder,Josef Perner

    Counterfactual reasoning (CFR)-mentally representing what the world would be like now if things had been different in the past-is an important aspect of human cognition and the focus of research in areas such as philosophy, social psychology, and clinical psychology. More recently, it has also gained broad interest in cognitive developmental psychology, mainly focusing on the question of how this kind of reasoning can be characterized. Studies have been inconsistent in identifying when children can use CFR. In this article, we present theoretical positions that may account for this inconsistency and evaluate them in the light of research on counterfactual emotions.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Links Between the Intuitive Sense of Number and Formal Mathematics Ability.
    Child Dev. Perspect. (IF 4.427) Pub Date : 2014-01-21
    Lisa Feigenson,Melissa E Libertus,Justin Halberda

    Humans share with other animals a system for thinking about numbers in an imprecise and intuitive way. The Approximate Number System (ANS) that underlies this thinking is present throughout the lifespan, is entirely nonverbal, and supports basic numerical computations like comparing, adding, and subtracting quantities. Humans, unlike other animals, also have a system for representing exact numbers. This linguistically mediated system is slowly mastered over the course of many years and provides the basis for most of our formal mathematical thought. A growing body of evidence suggests that the nonverbal ANS and the culturally invented system of exact numbers are fundamentally linked. In this article, we review evidence for this relationship, describing how group and individual differences in the ANS correlate with and even predict formal math ability. In this way, we illustrate how a system of ancient core knowledge may serve as a foundation for more complex mathematical thought.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Children's Provision of Family Caregiving: Benefit or Burden?
    Child Dev. Perspect. (IF 4.427) Pub Date : 2010-04-01
    Patricia L East

    Despite the high numbers of children who provide care to family members in industrialized countries, relatively little is known about the impact of caregiving on children's development. In this article, issues related to children's caregiving, including a discussion of who provides care, the costs and benefits of caring, and directions for future research are reviewed. This review is intended to stimulate further study of this issue, particularly in clarifying who is most vulnerable to caregiving burden and understanding how caregiving affects children's lives and development.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Adolescent Resilience: Promotive Factors That Inform Prevention.
    Child Dev. Perspect. (IF 4.427) Pub Date : 2013-11-30
    Marc A Zimmerman,Sarah A Stoddard,Andria B Eisman,Cleopatra H Caldwell,Sophie M Aiyer,Alison Miller

    Resilience theory provides a framework for studying and understanding how some youths overcome risk exposure and guides the development of interventions for prevention using a strengths-based approach. In this article, we describe basic concepts of the theory, such as promotive factors, and distinguish assets and resources that help youths overcome the negative effects of risk exposure. We also present three models of resilience theory-compensatory, protective, and challenge-and review empirical research on three promotive factors-ethnic identity, social support, and prosocial involvement-that include individual, family, and community levels of analysis and have modifiable qualities for informing interventions. Finally, we present examples of how research findings from the three promotive factors can be translated into interventions to enhance youth development.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Are Nouns Learned Before Verbs? Infants Provide Insight into a Longstanding Debate.
    Child Dev. Perspect. (IF 4.427) Pub Date : 2013-11-14
    Sandra Waxman,Xiaolan Fu,Sudha Arunachalam,Erin Leddon,Kathleen Geraghty,Hyun-Joo Song

    For decades, a spirited debate has existed over whether infants' remarkable capacity to learn words is shaped primarily by universal features of human language or by specific featuers of the particulare native language they are acquiring. A strong focus for this debate has been a well-documented difference in early word learning: Infants' success in learning verbs lags behind their success in learning nouns.. In this review, we articulate both sides of the debate and summarize new cross-linguistic evidence from infants that underscores the role of universal features and begins to clarify the impact of distinctly different languages on early language and conceptual development.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Spanking and Child Development: We Know Enough Now To Stop Hitting Our Children.
    Child Dev. Perspect. (IF 4.427) Pub Date : 2013-09-17
    Elizabeth T Gershoff

    Spanking remains a common, if controversial, childrearing practice in the United States. In this article, I pair mounting research indicating that spanking is both ineffective and harmful with professional and human rights opinions disavowing the practice. I conclude that spanking is a form of violence against children that should no longer be a part of American childrearing.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The Biological Residue of Childhood Poverty.
    Child Dev. Perspect. (IF 4.427) Pub Date : 2013-09-14
    Gregory E Miller,Edith Chen

    Children raised in poverty are prone to physical health problems late in life. To understand these findings and address the scientific challenge they represent, we must formulate integrative conceptual frameworks at the crossroads of behavioral and biomedical science, with a strong developmental emphasis. In this article, we outline such a framework and discuss research bearing on its validity. We address how childhood poverty gets under the skin, at the level of tissues and organs, in a manner that affects later disease risks. We also tackle questions about resilience; Even with lengthy exposure to childhood poverty, why do only a subset of people acquire diseases? Why are some individuals protected while others remain vulnerable? Maternal nurturance might be a source of resilience, buffering children from the long-term health consequences of poverty. We conclude with research priorities.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The Contributions of Developmental Science to the Study of Substance Use and Disorder: Introduction to a Special Section of Child Development Perspectives.
    Child Dev. Perspect. (IF 4.427) Pub Date : 2011-11-01
    Andrea M Hussong

    This Special Section of Child Development Perspectives highlights the contributions of developmental science to the study of substance use and disorder. It focuses on the specific question of how genetic, biological, and environmental factors vary in the way they interactively predict substance use and disorder over the course of development. The first three articles outline answers to this question that are emerging from the study of substance use disorder and contributing contexts, particularly the work on the externalizing or behavioral-undercontrol risk pathway to substance use disorder. The markers of risk and contextual variation are further integrated in the final contribution, which evaluates current evidence for this pathway to substance use disorder.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Contact Between Adoptive and Birth Families: Perspectives from the Minnesota Texas Adoption Research Project.
    Child Dev. Perspect. (IF 4.427) Pub Date : 2013-08-21
    Harold D Grotevant,Ruth G McRoy,Gretchen M Wrobel,Susan Ayers-Lopez

    A growing number of adoptive families have contact with their children's birth relatives. The Minnesota Texas Adoption Research Project is examining longitudinally the consequences of variations in contact arrangements for birth mothers, adoptive parents, and adopted children in domestic infant adoptions, and is studying the dynamics of relationships within these family systems. Individuals who had contact were more satisfied with their arrangements than those who did not have contact. Satisfaction with contact predicted more optimal adjustment among adopted adolescents and emerging adults. Adoption-related communication predicted identity development among adopted adolescents and emerging adults. Birth mothers who were more satisfied with their contact arrangements, regardless of level of contact, had less unresolved grief 12 to 20 years after placement. Adoptive and birth relatives who engage in contact need flexibility, strong interpersonal skills, and commitment to the relationship. These skills can be learned, and they can be supported by others, through informal, psychoeducational, and therapeutic means.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Training Self-Control: A Domain-General Translational Neuroscience Approach.
    Child Dev. Perspect. (IF 4.427) Pub Date : 2013-07-31
    Elliot T Berkman,Alice M Graham,Philip A Fisher

    Self-control plays an important role in healthy development and has been shown to be amenable to intervention. This article presents a theoretical framework for the emerging area of "brain-training" interventions that includes both laboratory-based direct training methods and ecologically valid school-, family-, and community-based interventions. Although these approaches have proliferated in recent years, evidence supporting them is just beginning to emerge, and conceptual models underlying many of the techniques they employ tend to be underspecified and imprecise. Identifying the neural systems responsible for improvements in self-control may be of tremendous benefit not only for overall intervention efficacy but also for basic science issues related to underlying shared biological mechanisms of psychopathology. This article reviews the neurodevelopment of self-control and explores its implications for theory, intervention, and prevention. It then presents a neurally informed framework for understanding self-control development and change and discusses how this framework may inform future intervention strategies for individuals suffering with psychopathology or drug abuse/dependence, or for young children with delays in cognitive or emotional functioning.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • From Racial Discrimination to Substance Use: The Buffering Effects of Racial Socialization.
    Child Dev. Perspect. (IF 4.427) Pub Date : 2010-07-15
    Enrique W Neblett,Mary Terzian,Valencia Harriott

    The experience of race-based discrimination may place African American youth at risk for substance use initiation and substance use disorders. This article examines the potential of parental racial socialization-a process by which parents convey messages to their children about race-to protect against the impact of racial discrimination on substance use outcomes. Focusing on stress as a major precipitating factor in substance use, the article postulates several possible mechanisms by which racial socialization might reduce stress and the subsequent risk for substance use. It discusses future research directions with the goal of realizing the promise of racial socialization as a resilience factor in African American and ethnic minority youth mental health.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Little Liars: Development of Verbal Deception in Children.
    Child Dev. Perspect. (IF 4.427) Pub Date : 2013-05-21
    Kang Lee

    Lying is common among adults and a more complex issue in children. In this article, I review two decades of empirical evidence about lying in children from the perspective of speech act theory. Children begin to tell lies in the preschool years for anti- and prosocial purposes, and their tendency to lie changes as a function of age and the type of lies being told. In addition, children's ability to tell convincing lies improves with age. In the article, I highlight the central roles that children's understanding of mental states and social conventions play in the development of lying. I also identify areas for research to be done to develop a more comprehensive picture of the typical and atypical developmental courses of verbal deception in children.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Incentive Motivation, Cognitive Control, and the Adolescent Brain: Is It Time for a Paradigm Shift?
    Child Dev. Perspect. (IF 4.427) Pub Date : 2013-04-02
    Monica Luciana,Paul F Collins

    It can be argued that adolescents' decision making is biased more by motivational factors than by cognitively driven calculations of outcome probabilities. Brain-based models, derived from structural and functional neuroimaging perspectives to account for this bias, have focused on purported differences in rates of development of motivational and regulatory-control systems. This article proposes a neurochemically based framework for understanding adolescents' behavioral biases_and suggests that there should be an increased focus on the dopaminergic substrates of incentive motivation, which increases into adolescence and decreases thereafter. The article also discusses the manner in which this increase interacts with executive control systems in affecting self-regulation.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Language and Literacy Development of Dual Language Learners Growing Up in the United States: A Call for Research.
    Child Dev. Perspect. (IF 4.427) Pub Date : 2011-03-01
    Carol Scheffner Hammer,Gisela Jia,Yuuko Uchikoshi

    Statistics show that many dual language learners (DLLs) growing up in the United States are at risk for poor educational outcomes. As a result, national attention has focused on the promotion of DLLs' academic abilities, beginning in the preschool years. Despite this interest, our understanding of DLLs' language and literacy development is limited. The purpose of this article is to discuss the current state of knowledge about the language and literacy development of DLLs during early childhood, and to present a research agenda designed to enhance the field's understanding of DLLs' development, which, in turn, can help improve the educational outcomes of children who are learning two languages.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Linking Students' Emotions and Academic Achievement: When and Why Emotions Matter.
    Child Dev. Perspect. (IF 4.427) Pub Date : 2012-11-02
    Carlos Valiente,Jodi Swanson,Nancy Eisenberg

    Few studies include associations of emotions, or of individual differences in emotionality, to academic competence, and there are virtually no empirical data on when or why relations exist (or do not exist). The few studies of emotion and achievement have largely focused on anxiety, but there has been scant theoretical and empirical attention devoted to the treatment of other emotions. It is suggested that considering the moderated and indirect effects of students' emotions on their academic functioning may provide an understanding of whether and under what circumstances emotions are related to achievement. This article briefly reviews findings linking situational and dispositional negative or positive emotions to academic achievement and suggests that researchers can learn much about relations between emotions and achievement by considering the potential moderating role of effortful control, as well as considering the mediating roles that cognitive processes, motivational mechanisms, and classroom relationships play in linking emotions and achievement.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Contemplative Practices and Mental Training: Prospects for American Education.
    Child Dev. Perspect. (IF 4.427) Pub Date : 2012-08-21

    Drawing upon research in neuroscience, cognitive science, developmental psychology and education, as well as scholarship from contemplative traditions concerning the cultivation of positive development, we highlight a set of mental skills and socio-emotional dispositions that we believe are central to the aims of education in the 21(st) century. These include self-regulatory skills associated with emotion and attention, self-representations, and prosocial dispositions such as empathy and compassion. These positive qualities and dispositions can be strengthened through systematic contemplative practice. Such practice induces plastic changes in brain function and structure, supporting prosocial behavior and academic success in young people. These putative beneficial consequences call for focused programmatic research to better characterize which forms and frequencies of practice are most efficacious for which types of children and adolescents. Results from such research may help refine training programs to maximize their effectiveness at different ages and to document the changes in neural function and structure that might be induced.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The Need for a Broader Approach to Emotion Regulation Research in Autism.
    Child Dev. Perspect. (IF 4.427) Pub Date : 2012-05-29
    Carla A Mazefsky,Kevin A Pelphrey,Ronald E Dahl

    Maladaptive emotional reactions are common among individuals diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and often impair functioning. Most research on emotional processes in ASD has focused on the recognition of emotion in others. This article argues for a broader approach to affective research in ASD, one that includes investigations into emotional reactivity and regulation. For example, research has typically looked at perseveration in ASD from a cognitive or perceptual perspective, yet perseveration also appears to have emotional aspects. This article discusses examples of emotion regulation research in other populations to illustrate how this approach could inform understanding of perseveration in ASD, particularly related to affective interference with cognitive control. More broadly, it highlights the potential contributions of emotion regulation research in ASD in relation to improving treatment specificity, increasing understanding of individual differences and diagnostic conceptualizations, and, potentially, contributing to a deeper understanding the neurobehavioral underpinnings of ASD.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Exergames for Physical Education Courses: Physical, Social, and Cognitive Benefits.
    Child Dev. Perspect. (IF 4.427) Pub Date : 2012-05-09
    Amanda E Staiano,Sandra L Calvert

    Digital games combining exercise with game play, known as exergames, can improve youths' health status and provide social and academic benefits. Exergame play increases caloric expenditure, heart rate, and coordination. Psychosocial and cognitive impacts of exergame play may include increased self-esteem, social interaction, motivation, attention, and visual-spatial skills. This article summarizes the literature on exergames, with a special emphasis on physical education courses and the potential of exergames to improve students' physical health, as well as transfer effects that may benefit related physical, social, and academic outcomes.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Should We Care About Adolescents Who Care for Themselves? What We've Learned and What We Need to Know About Youth in Self-Care.
    Child Dev. Perspect. (IF 4.427) Pub Date : 2009-12-01
    Joseph L Mahoney,Maria E Parente

    This article provides an overview of existing research on the prevalence and predictors of adolescent self-care and on the consequences associated with it. Self-care, in which the young are left unsupervised during out-of-school hours, is a common experience for millions of American youth, and existing studies suggest that this arrangement may represent a risk for the development of behavior problems. However, the behavior problems associated with self-care depend on both individual and environmental factors and are most likely to develop when self-care (1) occurs out of the home, (2) involves permissive parenting and/or low parental monitoring, (3) takes place in neighborhoods with high levels of crime and disorganization, (4) involves adolescents with preexisting behavioral problems, and (5) represents an intensive and persistent arrangement. Following our survey of current research on self-care, we offer recommendations regarding future research and policy.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
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