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  • The prevalence of undiagnosed Prediabetes/type 2 diabetes, prehypertension/hypertension and obesity among ethnic groups of adolescents in Western Canada
    BMC Pediatr. (IF 1.983) Pub Date : 2020-01-23
    Shelley Spurr; Jill Bally; Carol Bullin; Diane Allan; Erick McNair

    An increased incidence of type 2 diabetes in youth is occurring worldwide. While diverse ethnic groups are disproportionately affected by type 2 diabetes, studies that explore ethnic differences and undiagnosed prediabetes/type 2 diabetes in adolescents are scarce. This paper compares the prevalence of undiagnosed prediabetes and type 2 diabetes and the associated risk factors among various ethnic groups of adolescents living in Western Canada. The data for this study were derived from two previous studies in which 396 adolescents, aged 14 to 19 years and living in a western Canadian province, were screened for undiagnosed prediabetes, diabetes, and any associated risk factors. Risk was determined by demographics, family history, anthropometric measurements (body mass index, BMI), blood pressure (BP), and HbA1c. Descriptive and inferential statistics (SPSS) were used to establish both risk and prevalence for prediabetes and type 2 diabetes. Chi-square analyses were done to determine if the risk factors occurred at higher frequencies in certain ethnicities. Based on BP, BMI, and HbA1c measurements, several statistically significant differences were identified in relation to ethnicity. Many of the adolescents had increased HbA1c levels, with 27.3% considered high risk and 2.3% in the prediabetes range; these high risk and prediabetes groups were heavily represented by Filipino (46%), Indigenous (22%), and European (10%) adolescents. Notable prevalence of prehypertension (17.7%) and hypertension (21.7%) were reported in European (59%) followed by Filipino (50%) and Indigenous (26%) adolescents. Higher numbers of adolescents in the European and Filipino ancestry groups had two or more risk factors (BP, BMI, & HbA1c) for developing type 2 diabetes in relation to the adolescents from the Indigenous group. Ethnic adolescent groups demonstrate a notable prevalence of undiagnosed prediabetes and type 2 diabetes. Specifically, a significant number of Filipino adolescents had both increased HbA1c and blood pressure that has gone undetected. Earlier onset of type 2 diabetes is congruent with an increased risk of developing diabetes-associated complications and, ultimately, diabetes-related morbidity and mortality at a younger age. Future studies should explore how genetic and/or environmental factors among ethnic groups may contribute to early onset hypertension and prediabetes/type 2 diabetes.

    更新日期:2020-01-23
  • Prevalence and factors associated with intestinal parasites among children of age 6 to 59 months in, Boricha district, South Ethiopia, in 2018
    BMC Pediatr. (IF 1.983) Pub Date : 2020-01-22
    Berhan Tsegaye; Amanuel Yoseph; Hunachew Beyene

    Intestinal parasites are the commonest cause of childhood diarrhea and malnutrition in Ethiopia. Information about intestinal parasites is the first fundamental step for designing intervention strategies against them. Hence, health planners can maximize their efforts. Information is scarce about intestinal parasites among children of under-five years of age in Boricha district. Therefore, this study aimed at assessing prevalence and factors associated with intestinal parasites among children of age 6 to 59 months in Boricha district, South Ethiopia. A community based analytical cross sectional study was conducted among 624 children of age 6 to 59 months from January 1 to 30; in 2018. We have utilized two stage stratified sampling method. Firstly, simple random sampling was used to select sample Kebeles. Secondly, systematic random sampling method was used to select the study participants. Structured and interviewer administrated questionnaire was used to collect data. Parasitological examination of children’s stool was conducted microscopically. Data were entered into Epi-info, exported and analyzed by SPSS version 22. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to identify association between explanatory variables and outcome variable. Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) with 95% confidence interval (95%CI) was computed, and P-value < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Descriptive statistics was presented using texts, tables and figures. A total of 622 participants were included in the analysis which makes a response rate of 99.9%. Prevalence of intestinal parasites was 48.7% (95%CI, 44.8–52.6) in this study. Higher family size (AOR = 2.7, 95%CI = 1.5–5.0), medium family size (AOR = 2.3,95%CI,1.3–4.2), absence of laterine facility in the household (AOR = 2.9, 95% CI = 1.6–5.3), unable to put on shoes (AOR = 3.5,95%CI = 2.2–5.7), and eating raw vegetables (AOR = 2.6,95%CI = 1.6–4.7) were factors positively associated with intestinal parasites in this study. Overall prevalence of intestinal parasites was almost high. Latrine facility, family size, shoes wearing habit and eating raw vegetables were significantly associated with intestinal parasites. Family planning service, sanitation and hygiene practices should be intensified through community education. Activate support of deworming program should be considered. Moreover, policy makers should give priority on creating awareness to prevent intestinal parasite.

    更新日期:2020-01-23
  • Early intervention and follow-up programs among children with cerebral palsy in Moldova: potential impact on impairments?
    BMC Pediatr. (IF 1.983) Pub Date : 2020-01-22
    Ecaterina Gincota Bufteac; Guro L. Andersen; Larisa Spinei; Reidun Birgitta Jahnsen

    To study whether early intervention services (EI) and a follow-up program (FU) influence outcomes of children with cerebral palsy (CP) in Moldova. Records from 351 children with CP in Moldova born during 2009 and 2010 were retrieved from hospital and orphanage archives between 1 July 2016 and 30 September 2017. We investigated the proportion enrolled in EI and FU at the Early Intervention Centre Voinicel and at the Institute of Mother and Child in 2009–2012. Logistic regression analyses were applied to calculate crude and adjusted odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) for outcomes in children enrolled and not enrolled. Among all children with CP, 166 (47%) were enrolled in EI and FU. Of the 51 children born extremely preterm (gestational age ≤ 31 weeks), 46 (90%) were enrolled, compared to 97 (39%) of the 250 children born at term. Among 110 non-walking children with CP, 82 (74%) were enrolled into EI and FU, compared to 84 (35%) of 241 able to walk. There was no difference in outcomes of cognition, communication, vision and hearing impairments between those enrolled or not enrolled in EI and FU. However, the subgroup analyses showed that the risk of contractures was 11 times higher among non-walking children who were not enrolled in EI and FU programs (OR = 10.931, 95% CI 2.328–51.328, p = 0.002). In Moldova, EI and FU seem to be offered mostly to extremely preterm and non-walking children with CP. The results indicate a decreased risk for contractures in these children.

    更新日期:2020-01-23
  • Validation and human factor analysis study of an infant weight estimation device
    BMC Pediatr. (IF 1.983) Pub Date : 2020-01-22
    Susan M. Abdel-Rahman; Ian M. Paul; Paula Delmore; Jia-Yuh Chen; Mary Mills; Rachel G. Greenberg

    Weight is critical for the medical management of infants; however, scales can be unavailable or inaccessible in some practice settings. We recently developed and validated a robust infant weight estimation method based on chest circumference (CC) and head circumference (HC). This study was designed to determine the human factors (HF) experience with, and predictive performance of, an infant weight estimation device that implements this method. Prospective, multi-center, observational, masked study of 486 preterm and term infants (0–90 days) assessed by 15 raters. Raters measured the infant using calibrated scales/measures and masked versions of the device. Raters also evaluated critical tasks associated with device use. Mean error (ME) and mean percentage error (MPE) were used to assess predictive performance. Among 486 infants enrolled (36.8 ± 4.0 weeks gestational age, 31.5 ± 28.6 days postnatal age), predicted weight correlated highly with actual weight (r = 0.97, ME: − 69 ± 257 g, MPE: − 1.3 ± 6.9%). Predicted weight was within 10 and 15% of actual weight in 86 and 99%, of infants. HF errors were low, 0.1–0.8% depending on task. In all cases raters were confident or very confident in their measurements. The device was statistically equivalent to the method on which it was based and approximated weight with acceptable variance from the true weight. HF data suggest the device is easy to use. This device can be used to estimate weight in infants when calibrated scales are impractical or unavailable.

    更新日期:2020-01-23
  • Anthropometry, dietary intake, physical activity and sitting time patterns in adolescents aged 15–17 years: an international comparison in eight Latin American countries
    BMC Pediatr. (IF 1.983) Pub Date : 2020-01-21
    Gerson Luis de Moraes Ferrari; Irina Kovalskys; Mauro Fisberg; Georgina Gomez; Attilio Rigotti; Lilia Yadira Cortés Sanabria; Martha Cecilia Yépez García; Rossina Gabriella Pareja Torres; Marianella Herrera-Cuenca; Ioná Zalcman Zimberg; Viviana Guajardo; Michael Pratt; Agatha Nogueira Previdelli; Shaun Scholes; Carlos A. Celis-Morales; Dirceu Solé

    Although there is high prevalence of obesity and other cardiovascular risk factors among Latin American adolescents, there is limited evidence on dietary intake and physical activity (PA) patterns in this population. Therefore, we characterized anthropometry, dietary intake, PA and sitting time (ST) in adolescents aged 15–17 years from eight Latin American countries. Six hundred seventy-one adolescents (41.4% girls) from the Latin American Study of Nutrition and Health (ELANS) were included. Nutritional status was classified by four BMI (kg/m2) categories. Waist circumference (WC) was categorized as above or below thresholds. Dietary intake was assessed through two non-consecutive 24-h dietary recalls. PA and ST were measured using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). We calculated overall and country-specific estimates by sex and tested for differences between boys and girls. Differences in the prevalence of overweightness (15.1 and 21.6%) and obesity (8.5 and 6.5%) between boys and girls, respectively, were statistically insignificant (p = 0.059). Average energy intake was 2289.7 kcal/day (95% CI: 2231–2350) for boys and 1904.2 kcal/day (95% CI: 1840–1963) for girls (p < 0.001). In relation to macronutrient intake for boys and girls, respectively, the average intake (expressed as percentage of total energy) was 15.0 and 14.9% for protein; 55.4 and 54.9% for carbohydrates; 14.1 and 14.5% for added sugar; 29.5 and 30.1% for total fat; and 9.6 and 9.9% for saturated fat (p > 0.05 for all outcomes). There was no statistically significant difference in the prevalence of total energy (TE) saturated fat and added sugar (>10% of TE) between girls and boys (49.6% versus 44.8 and 81.7% versus 76.1%, respectively). Prevalence of physical inactivity was 19% in boys and 43.7% in girls (p < 0.001). Median levels of vigorous-intensity PA and total PA were significantly higher for boys than for girls (p < 0.05 for both outcomes); whereas levels of ST were similar (273.7 versus 220.0 min/day for boys and girls, respectively; p > 0.05). These findings highlight the high prevalence of poor dietary intake and physical inactivity in adolescents from Latin American countries. Therefore, effective and sustainable strategies and programmes are needed that promote healthier diets, regular PA and reduce ST among Latin American adolescents. Clinical Trials NCT02226627. Retrospectively registered on August 27, 2014.

    更新日期:2020-01-22
  • Childhood overweight and obesity and the risk of depression across the lifespan
    BMC Pediatr. (IF 1.983) Pub Date : 2020-01-21
    Deborah Gibson-Smith; Thorhallur I. Halldorsson; Mariska Bot; Ingeborg A. Brouwer; Marjolein Visser; Inga Thorsdottir; Bryndis E. Birgisdottir; Vilmundur Gudnason; Gudny Eiriksdottir; Lenore J. Launer; Tamara B. Harris; Ingibjorg Gunnarsdottir

    Obesity has been longitudinally associated with depression but only few studies take a life course approach. This longitudinal study investigates whether being overweight or obese at age 8 and 13 years is associated with depressive symptoms more than 60 years later and whether this association is independent of late-life body mass index (BMI). We also investigated the association of being overweight/obese at age 8 or 13 years with ever having major depressive disorder (lifetime MDD). This analysis is based on a sub-sample of 889 AGES-Reykjavik participants with measured BMI data from early life. Late-life depressive symptoms were measured with the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) and lifetime MDD was assessed at late-life using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the relationships between BMI (continuous and categorical) at age 8 or 13 years, and late-life depressive symptoms (measured as GDS ≥ 5) or lifetime MDD, adjusted for sex, education, physical activity, smoking status and alcohol use. In a separate model, additional adjustments were made for late-life BMI. One hundred and one subjects (11%) had depressive symptoms at late-life (GDS ≥ 5), and 39 subjects (4.4%) had lifetime MDD. Being overweight or obese at age 8 or 13 years was not associated with higher depressive symptoms during late-life, irrespective of late-life BMI. Being overweight or obese at age 8 years, but not age 13 years was associated with an increased risk of lifetime MDD (Odds Ratio (OR) (95% confidence interval [CI]) for age 8 = 4.03[1.16–13.96]P = 0.03 and age 13 = 2.65[0.69–10.26] P = 0.16, respectively). Being overweight in childhood was associated with increased odds of lifetime MDD, although the magnitude of the risk is uncertain given the small numbers of participants with lifetime MDD. No clear association was observed between childhood and adolescent overweight/obesity and late-life depressive symptoms irrespective of late life BMI.

    更新日期:2020-01-22
  • Correlating maternal iodine status with neonatal thyroid function in two hospital populations in Ghana: a multicenter cross-sectional pilot study
    BMC Pediatr. (IF 1.983) Pub Date : 2020-01-21
    Selorm A. Dei-Tutu; Adoma Manful; Douglas C. Heimburger; Hawa Malechi; Daniel J. Moore; Samuel A. Oppong; William E. Russell; Muktar H. Aliyu

    Congenital hypothyroidism is a common, yet easily treatable cause of poor growth and intellectual disability. Newborn screening programs play an important role in the early detection and treatment of congenital hypothyroidism. However, an estimated 71% of children are born in countries such as Ghana, which does not have a screening program. Iodine deficiency, a common cause of congenital hypothyroidism, is present in the Ghanaian population. Mild to moderate maternal iodine deficiency may negatively impact cognitive function in children. A structured approach to examine the association between maternal iodine levels and infant thyroid function may have important ramifications on our understanding of congenital hypothyroidism in Ghana. We investigated the hypothesis that maternal iodine deficiency impacts infant thyroid function, using Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) as a marker of thyroid function. We also explored potential opportunities and barriers to newborn screening for congenital hypothyroidism in Ghana. This was a cross-sectional, multicenter pilot study of 250 women and their neonates recruited from post-natal clinics in Accra and Tamale, Ghana. We compared maternal urine iodine concentration and infant TSH, as well as maternal sociodemographic and nutrition information. Regression models were used to model the relationship between variables. Median infant TSH was 4.7 μIU/ml (95% CI: 3.9–5.5) in Accra. In Tamale, the median infant TSH was 3.5 μIU/ml (95%CI: 3.3 to 3.6) (Δ: 1.3 μIU/ml, 95% CI: 0.5–2.1, p = 0.002). Median maternal urine iodine concentrations were 141.0 μg/L (95% CI: 115.7 to 166.3) and 142.5 μg/L (95% CI: 125.1 to 160.0) in Accra and Tamale, respectively (Δ: − 1.5 μIU/ml, 95% CI: − 32.2 – 29.2, p = 0.925). There was a weakly positive correlation between maternal urine iodine and infant TSH (rho 0.1, p = 0.02). Almost one-third (30%) of women in both locations had biochemical evidence of iodine deficiency. Mothers with any formal education were more likely to have higher iodine levels than their counterparts who had no formal education (coefficient 0.31, p = 0.006). Maternal iodine deficiency is prevalent in Ghana and is correlated to infant thyroid function. We recommend studies with larger sample sizes to assess the true scope of this relationship.

    更新日期:2020-01-22
  • Infant care practices and parent uptake of safe sleep messages: a cross-sectional survey in Queensland, Australia
    BMC Pediatr. (IF 1.983) Pub Date : 2020-01-21
    Roni Cole; Jeanine Young; Lauren Kearney; John M. D. Thompson

    Globally, the incidence of sleep-related infant mortality declined dramatically following the first public health campaigns seen internationally in the 1990s to reduce the risks of sudden infant death. However, Australian Sudden Unexpected Death in Infancy (SUDI) rates have plateaued with little change in incidence since 2004 despite two further public health safe sleep campaigns. This study aims to describe contemporary infant care practices employed by families related to the current public health SUDI prevention program. A cross-sectional survey of 3341 Queensland primary caregivers with infants approximately 3-months of age was conducted using the Queensland Registry of Births, Deaths and Marriages as a sampling frame. Surveys were returned either via reply-paid mail or online. Questionnaires explored prevalence of infant care practices and awareness of safe sleep recommendations. Univariable analysis was used to generate descriptive statistics for key variables. Overall, only 13% of families routinely practised all six ‘Safe Sleeping’ program messages. More than one third (1118, 34%) of infants had slept in a non-supine sleep position at some time. Potentially hazardous sleep environments were common, with 38% of infants sleeping with soft items or bulky bedding, or on soft surfaces. Nearly half, for either day- or night-time sleeps, were routinely placed in a sleep environment that was not designed or recommended for safe infant sleep (i.e. a bouncer, pram, beanbag). Most babies (84%) were reportedly smoke free before and after birth. Sleeping in the same room as their caregiver for night-time sleeps was usual practice for 75% of babies. Half (1600, 50%) of all babies shared a sleep surface in the last two-weeks. At 8-weeks, 17% of infants were no longer receiving any breastmilk. The prevalence rates of infant care practices among this Australian population demonstrate many families continue to employ suboptimal practices despite Australia’s current safe sleep campaign. Strategic approaches together with informed decisions about pertinent messages to feature within future public health campaigns and government policies are required so targeted support can be provided to families with young infants to aid the translation of safe sleep evidence into safe sleeping practices.

    更新日期:2020-01-22
  • Study protocol for an evaluation of ASDetect - a Mobile application for the early detection of autism
    BMC Pediatr. (IF 1.983) Pub Date : 2020-01-18
    Josephine Barbaro; Maya Yaari

    Autism Spectrum Conditions (ASC) can be reliably diagnosed by 24 months of age. However, despite the well-known benefits of early intervention, there is still a research-practice gap in the timely identification of ASC, particularly in low-resourced settings. The Social Attention and Communication Surveillance (SACS) tool, which assesses behavioural markers of autism between 12 to 24 months of age, has been implemented in Maternal and Child Health (MCH) settings, with excellent psychometric properties. ASDetect is a free mobile application based on the SACS, which is designed to meet the need for an effective, evidence-based tool for parents, to learn about children’s early social-communication development and assess their child’s ‘likelihood’ for ASC. The primary aim of this study is to evaluate the psychometric properties of ASDetect in the early detection of children with ASC. A secondary aim is to assess ASDetect’s acceptability and parental user experience with the application. Families are recruited to download the application and participate in the study via social media, health professionals (e.g., MCH nurses, paediatricians) and word of mouth. All participating caregivers complete a demographic questionnaire, survey regarding their user experience, and the Social Responsiveness Scale-2 (SRS-2), an autism screening questionnaire; they are also invited to participate in focus groups. Children identified at ‘high likelihood’ for ASC based on the ASDetect results, the SRS-2 or parental and/or professional concerns undergo a formal, gold-standard, diagnostic assessment. Receiver Operating Characteristic analyses will be used to assess psychometric properties of ASDetect. Thematic analyses will be used to explore themes arising in the focus groups to provide insights regarding user experiences with the app. Multiple regression analyses will be carried out to determine the extent to which demographic factors, parental stress and beliefs on health surveillance and child results on ASDetect are associated with the parental user-experience of the application. With a strong evidence-base and global access, ASDetect has the potential to empower parents by providing them with knowledge of their child’s social-communication development, validating and reassuring any parental concerns, and supporting them in communicating with other health professionals, ultimately enhancing child and family outcomes and well-being.

    更新日期:2020-01-21
  • Tonsillar hypertrophy and prolapse in a child – is epiglottitis a predisposing factor for sudden unexpected death?
    BMC Pediatr. (IF 1.983) Pub Date : 2020-01-20
    I. Nieuwoudt; P. Goussard; J. Verster; J. Dempers

    Tonsillitis, with associated tonsillar hypertrophy, is a common disease of childhood, yet it is rarely associated with sudden death due to airway obstruction. Lethal complications involving the inflamed tonsils include haemorrhage, retropharyngeal abscess and disseminated sepsis. We report on a case of sudden and unexpected death in an 8-year-old female who was diagnosed with and treated for tonsillitis. The child was diagnosed with acute tonsillitis 2 days prior to her collapse and was placed on a course of oral antibiotics. There were no signs of upper or lower airway obstruction. She was found to be unresponsive by her caregiver and gasping for air in her bed in the early hours of the second morning after the start of treatment. Autopsy showed massive and symmetrically enlarged palatine tonsils. The tonsils filled the pharynx almost completely. The epiglottis and laryngeal mucosa at the base of the epiglottis in the vicinity of the aryepiglottic membrane and the superior aspect of the larynx displayed red-purple discoloration, with mucosal swelling and edema. Histological examination of the palatine tonsils revealed prominent lymphoid hyperplasia, but no evidence of acute inflammation. Palatine tonsillar hypertrophy in infants is a common feature of both viral and bacterial tonsillitis and has been postulated as a possible risk factor for Sudden and Unexplained Death in Infancy (SUDI), based on the theory of mechanical impediment of breathing by narrowing of the upper airway. The rounded shape of the tonsils may facilitate some airflow past the enlarged structures and hence protect against asphyxial death when the enlarged tonsils fill the laryngo-pharynx. Epiglottal and proximal laryngeal edema may play a more significant role in asphyxial unexpected deaths in cases of tonsillitis with tonsillar hypertrophy than previously suspected. This focusses the importance of careful examination of the epiglottis and proximal laryngeal mucosa, as part of a thorough examination of the laryngo-pharynx in cases of sudden death associated with tonsillar hypertrophy.

    更新日期:2020-01-21
  • Association between pre-and postnatal growth and longitudinal trends in serum uric acid levels and blood pressure in children aged 3 to 7 years
    BMC Pediatr. (IF 1.983) Pub Date : 2020-01-20
    Bomi Park; Bohyun Park; Hye Ah Lee; Seonhwa Lee; Hyejin Han; Eunae Park; Su Jin Cho; Hae Soon Kim; Young Ju Kim; Eun-Hee Ha; Hyesook Park

    Uric acid has been identified as an important factor in the development of hypertension. If low birth weight (LBW) combined with catch-up growth (CUG) is associated with continuously elevated serum uric acid levels (SUA) level trajectories, LBW children who experience CUG may have an increased risk of hypertension later in life. Therefore, this cohort study analyzed longitudinal trends in SUA levels and changes in blood pressure in relation to pre- and postnatal growth over an extended follow-up period. This prospective cohort study of 364 children from the Ewha Birth and Growth Cohort assessed the effects of pre- and postnatal growth status on SUA at 3, 5, and 7 years of age using a linear mixed model and the change in blood pressure over the 7-year follow-up period using a generalized linear model (analysis of covariance). CUG was defined as a change in weight (between birth and age 3) with a z-score > 0.67 for LBW subjects. The multivariate model considered sex, gestational age, and uric acid, height, and weight at 3 years of age. Children with LBW and CUG had higher SUA for the first 7 years of life compared to the normal birth weight group. This trend was particularly evident when comparing LBW children at term to children with normal birth weight. Within the group with LBW at term, children with greater CUG had higher SUA than children with normal birth weight, and this difference increased with age. Changes in the systolic blood pressure between 3 and 7 years of age were higher by 7.9 mmHg in children who experienced LBW and CUG compared with those who had a normal birth weight after adjusting for sex, gestational age, and height, weight, and uric acid at 3 years of age (p-value = 0.08). The uric acid levels and changes in systolic blood pressure were consistently higher among LBW children who experienced CUG compared with NBW children for the first 7 years of life. LBW children who experienced greater weight gain from birth to age 3 had even higher uric acid levels compared with NBW children.

    更新日期:2020-01-21
  • Cleidocranial dysplasia with growth hormone deficiency: a case report
    BMC Pediatr. (IF 1.983) Pub Date : 2020-01-16
    Nozomi Takaki; Jun Mori; Satoshi Matsuo; Toshio Osamura; Toshimi Michigami

    Cleidocranial dysplasia (CCD) is a rare skeletal disorder with autosomal dominant inheritance that is characterized by hypoplastic clavicles, delayed closure of the cranial sutures, dental abnormalities, and short stature, among other features. The responsible gene for CCD is RUNX2 located on the short arm of chromosome 6p21. In general, there are intrafamilial variations in height among CCD patients. Few studies have reported data on recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) treatment for patients with CCD; thus, it remains to be elucidated whether rhGH treatment can improve short stature. Here, we report a case of a 6-year-old girl with CCD who has growth hormone deficiency (GHD) and a novel mutation of RUNX2. At 5 years of age, this patient was diagnosed with GHD and rhGH treatment was initiated. Thereafter, she was diagnosed with CCD due to the presence of hypoplastic clavicles and an open fontanelle, which was also observed in her mother and brother. She responded well to rhGH treatment; her height improved from − 3.2 SD to − 2.4 SD after 13 months. A detailed patient history and physical examination are necessary for the early diagnosis of CCD. Similarly, to ascertain the effect of rhGH treatment, careful evaluation of the patient’s final height post-therapy is needed.

    更新日期:2020-01-17
  • Determinants of healthcare seeking for childhood illnesses among caregivers of under-five children in urban slums in Malawi: a population-based cross-sectional study
    BMC Pediatr. (IF 1.983) Pub Date : 2020-01-17
    Edgar Arnold Lungu; Catherine Darker; Regien Biesma

    There is considerable evidence that health systems, in so far as they ensure access to healthcare, promote population health even independent of other determinants. Access to child health services remains integral to improving child health outcomes. Cognisant that improvements in child health have been unevenly distributed, it is imperative that health services and research focus on the disadvantaged groups. Children residing in urban slums are known to face a health disadvantage that is masked by the common view of an urban health advantage. Granted increasing urbanisation rates and proliferation of urban slums resulting from urban poverty, the health of under-five children in slums remains a public health imperative in Malawi. We explored determinants of healthcare-seeking from a biomedical health provider for childhood symptoms of fever, cough with fast breathing and diarrhoea in three urban slums of Lilongwe, Malawi. This was a population-based cross-sectional study involving 543 caregivers of under-five children. Data on childhood morbidity and healthcare seeking in three months period were collected using face-to-face interviews guided by a validated questionnaire. Data were entered in CS-Pro 5.0 and analysed in SPSS version 20 using descriptive statistics and logistic regression analyses. 61% of caregivers sought healthcare albeit 53% of them sought healthcare late. Public health facilities constituted the most frequently used health providers. Healthcare was more likely to be sought: for younger than older under-five children (AOR = 0.54; 95% CI: 0.30–0.99); when illness was perceived to be severe (AOR = 2.40; 95% CI: 1.34–4.30); when the presenting symptom was fever (AOR = 1.77; 95% CI: 1.10–2.86). Home management of childhood illness was negatively associated with care-seeking (AOR = 0.54; 95% CI: 0.36–0.81) and timely care-seeking (AOR = 0.44; 95% CI: 0.2–0.74). Caregivers with good knowledge of child danger signs were less likely to seek care timely (AOR = 0.57; 95% CI: 0.33–0.99). Even in the context of geographical proximity to healthcare services, caregivers in urban slums may not seek healthcare or when they do so the majority may not undertake timely healthcare care seeking. Factors related to the child, the type of illness, and the caregiver are central to the healthcare decision making dynamics. Improving access to under-five child health services therefore requires considering multiple factors.

    更新日期:2020-01-17
  • Analysis of salivary level Lactobacillus spp. and associated factors as determinants of dental caries amongst primary school children in Harar town, eastern Ethiopia
    BMC Pediatr. (IF 1.983) Pub Date : 2020-01-16
    Dawit Ademe; Desalegn Admassu; Senthilkumar Balakrishnan

    Lactobacillus spp. play a major role in the development of dental caries. Although effective methods are known for the prevention and management of dental caries, its prevalence of dental caries is increasing amongst school-age children in Ethiopia. Hence, this study is aimed to determine the association of salivary Lactobacillus spp. level and oral health factors as determinants of dental caries amongst primary school children in Harar town, Eastern Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study was conducted amongst primary school children (n = 407) using a questionnaire survey, clinical DMFT (decayed, missing, filled tooth number) examination and enumeration of salivary level Lactobacillus spp. Data were analyzed by SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Science software- version 25.0). The odds ratio was used to determine the predictors of the outcome. The data were expressed as mean ± SD. Statistical significance was defined as a p-value of less than 0.05. The prevalence of dental caries was found to be 36.9% amongst primary school children. The mean DMFT value of the participants was 0.95 ± 1.57. The dental decay component was the primary observation that accounted for 84.6% of the DMFT. Almost, 67% of the saliva culture revealed a significant amount of Lactobacillus spp. count. The mean bacterial count was found to be 14.92 × 105 ± 22.92 × 105. Among various parameters analysed for association with dental caries, a number of them show positive associtation, incluing reduction in academic scores in the prevous academic year (p = 0.034), grade levels of school children 1–4 (p = 0.041), sweet food consumption habit (p = 0.003), absence of daily teeth cleaning habit (p = 0.002), absence of toothpaste use (p = 0.001), dental ache history (p = < 0.001), significant microbial load of salivary Lactobacillus spp. (p = < 0.001), acidic (p = 0.028) and basic salivary pH (p = 0.025). A significant salivary Lactobacillus count associated with lower grade level, sweet diet, and poor oral hygiene were found to be the determinant factors for dental caries. Thus, dissemination of oral health information is obligatory to prevent dental caries amongst primary school children in the study area.

    更新日期:2020-01-16
  • Are parental dietary patterns associated with children’s overweight and obesity in China?
    BMC Pediatr. (IF 1.983) Pub Date : 2020-01-11
    Daisheng Tang; Tao Bu; Xuefan Dong

    It is believed that parents have a great influence on their children’s dietary behaviours. However, it is not clear whether parental food patterns are associated with children’s nutritional status in China, which includes a vast territory with rich, diverse cultures. The goal of this project is to systematically study the associations between parental food intake and children’s overweight and obesity in China, according to children’s ages and regional differences. Based on individual food consumption data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) package in 2011, cross-sectional studies have previously been conducted to analyse the association between different categories of food intake of parents and children. The current study extends this research by directly. Our analysis results show that parental food intake is highly correlated with children’s food intake, with the estimated coefficients of most food intake categories being greater than 0.5. Furthermore, this association between parental food intake and children’s overweight and obesity is most significant in young children, but it begins to weaken in relation to children aged between 13 and 18. Additionally, the associations between parental food intake and children’s overnutrition are more significant in rural areas than they are in urban areas. The association between parental food intake and childhood overweight and obesity is significant, although it varies considerably according to food categories, children’s ages and area differences. These results show promise for intervening in the overnutrition of children by controlling household dietary patterns according to children’s developmental stages and regional differences.

    更新日期:2020-01-13
  • Developmental risk among Aboriginal children living in urban areas in Australia: the Study of Environment on Aboriginal Resilience and Child Health (SEARCH)
    BMC Pediatr. (IF 1.983) Pub Date : 2020-01-13
    Shingisai Chando; Jonathan C. Craig; Leonie Burgess; Simone Sherriff; Alison Purcell; Hasantha Gunasekera; Sandra Banks; Natalie Smith; Emily Banks; Sue Woolfenden

    Most Australian Aboriginal children are on track with their development, however, the prevalence of children at risk of or with a developmental or behavioural problem is higher than in other children. Aboriginal child development data mostly comes from remote communities, whereas most Aboriginal children live in urban settings. We quantified the proportion of participating children at moderate and high developmental risk as identified by caregivers’ concerns, and determined the factors associated with developmental risk among urban Aboriginal communities. Study methods were co-designed and implemented with four participating urban Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Services in New South Wales, Australia, between 2008 and 2012. Caregiver-reported data on children < 8 years old enrolled in a longitudinal cohort study (Study of Environment on Aboriginal Resilience and Child Health: SEARCH) were collected by interview. The Parents’ Evaluation of Developmental Status (PEDS) was used to assess developmental risk through report of caregiver concerns. Odds ratios (OR) were calculated using multinomial logistic regression to investigate risk factors and develop a risk prediction model. Of 725 children in SEARCH with PEDS data (69% of eligible), 405 (56%) were male, and 336 (46%) were aged between 4.5 and 8 years. Using PEDS, 32% were at high, 28% moderate, and 40% low/no developmental risk. Compared with low/no risk, factors associated with high developmental risk in a mutually-adjusted model, with additional adjustment for study site, were male sex (OR 2.42, 95% confidence intervals 1.62–3.61), being older (4.5 to < 8 years versus < 3 years old, 3.80, 2.21–6.54), prior history of ear infection (1.95, 1.21–3.15), having lived in 4 or more houses versus one house (4.13, 2.04–8.35), foster care versus living with a parent (5.45, 2.32–12.78), and having a caregiver with psychological distress (2.40, 1.37–4.20). In SEARCH, 40% of urban Aboriginal children younger than 8 years were at no or low developmental risk. Several factors associated with higher developmental risk were modifiable. Aboriginal community-driven programs to improve detection of developmental problems and facilitate early intervention are needed.

    更新日期:2020-01-13
  • Rapid brain MRI protocols reduce head computerized tomography use in the pediatric emergency department
    BMC Pediatr. (IF 1.983) Pub Date : 2020-01-13
    Sriram Ramgopal; Sabrina A. Karim; Subramanian Subramanian; Andre D. Furtado; Jennifer R. Marin

    Rapid magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) protocols may be effective in the emergency department (ED) to evaluate nontraumatic neurologic complaints. We evaluate neuroimaging (rapid MRI [rMRI]), head computerized tomography [HCT], and full MRI) use following widespread implementation of rMRI protocols in a pediatric emergency department (ED). We conducted a retrospective study in a tertiary care pediatric ED of encounters with neuroimaging during two 9-month periods: one prior to (control period) and one after generalized availability of 4 rMRI protocols (rMRI period). The primary outcome was differences in neuroimaging rates between the two periods. Secondary outcomes included ED process measures, unsuccessful imaging, and undetected pathology, with full MRI within 14 days as the reference standard. There were 1052 encounters with neuroimaging during the control and 1308 during the rMRI periods. Differences in neuroimaging between periods were 27.7% for rMRI (95% CI, 24.4, 31.0), − 21.5% for HCT (95% CI, − 25.5, − 17.5), and − 6.2% for full MRI (95% CI, − 9.3, − 3.1%.) Time to imaging (182 [IQR 138–255] versus 86 [IQR 52–137] minutes) as well as ED length of stay (396 [IQR 304–484] versus 257 [IQR 196–334] minutes) was longer for rMRI versus HCT (p < 0.01). Between the control and rMRI periods, there were differences in types of neuroimaging performed for patients with altered mental status, headache, seizure, shunt dysfunction, stroke, syncope, trauma, vomiting, infection, and other neurologic complaints (p < 0.05). rMRI studies were unsuccessful in 3.6% of studies versus 0.0% of HCTs (p < 0.01). The 22 unsuccessful rMRI studies were unsuccessful due to artifacts from dental hardware (n = 2) and patient motion (n = 20). None of the rMRI studies with full MRI follow-up imaging had undetected pathology; the false negative rate for the HCT exams was as high as 25%. After routine ED use of 4 rMRI protocols, there was a more than 20% decrease in HCT use without missed diagnoses. Time to neuroimaging and length of stay were longer for rMRI than HCT, with higher rates of unsuccessful imaging. Despite these limitations, rMRI may be an alternative to HCT for nontraumatic complaints in the ED.

    更新日期:2020-01-13
  • Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis complicating invasive pneumococcal disease: a pediatric case report
    BMC Pediatr. (IF 1.983) Pub Date : 2020-01-13
    Mitsuru Tsuge; Machiko Miyamoto; Reiji Miyawaki; Yoichi Kondo; Hirokazu Tsukahara

    Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is an infrequent but life-threatening disease due to excessive immune activation. Secondary HLH can be triggered by infections, autoimmune diseases, and malignant diseases. Streptococcus pneumoniae is a pathogenic bacterium responsible for invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) such as meningitis and bacteremia. Although the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) has led to reductions in IPD incidence, cases of IPD caused by serotypes not included in PCV are increasing. There are few reports of secondary HLH caused by IPD in previously healthy children. We herein report a rare case of a previously healthy boy with secondary HLH complicating IPD of serotype 23A, which is not included in the pneumococcal 13-valent conjugate vaccine (PCV-13). An 11-month-old boy who had received three doses of PCV-13 was hospitalized with prolonged fever, bilateral otitis media, neutropenia and elevated C-reactive protein (CRP) levels. Blood culture on admission revealed S. pneumoniae, leading to a diagnosis of IPD. HLH was diagnosed based on a prolonged fever, neutropenia, anemia, hepatosplenomegaly, hemophagocytosis in the bone marrow, and elevated serum levels of triglycerides, ferritin, and soluble interleukin-2 receptor. He received broad-spectrum antibiotics and intravenous immunoglobulins for IPD and high-dose steroid pulse therapy and cyclosporine A for HLH; thereafter, his fever resolved, and laboratory findings improved. The serotype of the isolated S. pneumoniae was 23A, which is not included in PCV-13. It is important to consider secondary HLH as a complication of IPD cases with febrile cytopenia or hepatosplenomegaly, and appropriate treatment for HLH should be started without delay.

    更新日期:2020-01-13
  • Management of fever in Australian children: a population-based sample survey
    BMC Pediatr. (IF 1.983) Pub Date : 2020-01-13
    Joanna Holt; Leslie White; Gavin R. Wheaton; Helena Williams; Shefali Jani; Gaston Arnolda; Hsuen P. Ting; Peter D. Hibbert; Jeffrey Braithwaite

    Fever in childhood is a common acute presentation requiring clinical triage to identify the few children who have serious underlying infection. Clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) have been developed to assist clinicians with this task. This study aimed to assess the proportion of care provided in accordance with CPG recommendations for the management of fever in Australian children. Clinical recommendations were extracted from five CPGs and formulated into 47 clinical indicators for use in auditing adherence. Indicators were categorised by phase of care: assessment, diagnosis and treatment. Patient records from children aged 0 to 15 years were sampled from general practices (GP), emergency departments (ED) and hospital admissions in randomly-selected health districts in Queensland, New South Wales and South Australia during 2012 and 2013. Paediatric nurses, trained to assess eligibility for indicator assessment and adherence, reviewed eligible medical records. Adherence was estimated by individual indicator, phase of care, age-group and setting. The field team conducted 14,879 eligible indicator assessments for 708 visits by 550 children with fever in 58 GP, 34 ED and 28 hospital inpatient settings. For the 33 indicators with sufficient data, adherence ranged from 14.7 to 98.1%. Estimated adherence with assessment-related indicators was 51.3% (95% CI: 48.1–54.6), 77.5% (95% CI: 65.3–87.1) for diagnostic-related indicators and 72.7% (95% CI: 65.3–79.3) for treatment-related indicators. Adherence for children < 3 months of age was 73.4% (95% CI: 58.0–85.8) and 64.7% (95% CI: 57.0–71.9) for children 3–11 months of age, both significantly higher than for children aged 4–15 years (53.5%; 95% CI: 50.0–56.9). The proportion of adherent care for children attending an ED was 77.5% (95% CI: 74.2–80.6) and 76.7% (95% CI: 71.7–81.3) for children admitted to hospital, both significantly higher than for children attending a GP (40.3%; 95% CI: 34.6–46.1). This study reports a wide range of adherence by clinicians to 47 indicators of best practice for the management of febrile children, sampled from urban and rural regions containing 60% of the Australian paediatric population. Documented adherence was lowest for indicators related to patient assessment, for care provided in GP settings, and for children aged 4–15 years.

    更新日期:2020-01-13
  • What should we consider in the case of combined Down- and 47,XY,+i(X)(q10) Klinefelter syndromes? The unique case of a male newborn and review of the literature
    BMC Pediatr. (IF 1.983) Pub Date : 2020-01-13
    Eva Pinti; Anna Lengyel; Gyorgy Fekete; Iren Haltrich

    Double aneuploidies - especially in combination with structural aberrations - are extremely rare among liveborns. The most frequent association is that of Down (DS) and Klinefelter syndromes (KS). We present the case of a male newborn with a unique 47,XY,+ 21[80%]/48,XY,+i(X)(q10),+ 21[20%] karyotype, hypothesize about his future phenotype, discuss the aspects of management and review the literature. The additional association of isochromosome Xq (i(X)(q10)) could be the result of a threefold non-disjunction event. 47,XY,+i(X)(q10) KS is not common and its symptoms differ from the classical KS phenotype. In combined DS and i(X)(q10) KS, the anticipatory phenotype is not simply the sum of the individual syndromic characteristics. This genotype is associated with higher risk for several diseases and certain conditions with more pronounced appearance: emotional and behavioral disorders; poorer mental and physical quality of life; lower muscle mass/tone/strength; connective tissue weakness; muscle hypotonia and feeding difficulties; osteopenia/−porosis with earlier beginning and faster progression; different types of congenital heart diseases; more common occurrence of hypertension; increased susceptibility to infections and female predominant autoimmune diseases; higher risk for hematological malignancies and testicular tumors. In multiple aneuploidies, the alterations have the potential to weaken or enhance each other, or they may not have modifying effects at all. Prenatal ultrasound signs are not obligatory symptoms of numerous chromosomal anomalies (specifically those involving supernumerary sex chromosomes), therefore combined prenatal screening has pertinence in uncomplicated pregnancies as well.

    更新日期:2020-01-13
  • Determinants of adverse birth outcome in Tigrai region, North Ethiopia: Hospital-based case-control study
    BMC Pediatr. (IF 1.983) Pub Date : 2020-01-08
    Helen Tsehaye Hailemichael; Gurmesa Tura Debelew; Haileselasie Berhane Alema; Meresa Gebremedhin Weldu; Kebede Haile Misgina

    Adverse birth outcome which attributes to most perinatal deaths is an important indicator of child health and survival. Hence, this study aims to identify determinants of adverse birth outcome among mothers who gave birth in public hospitals of Tigrai region, North Ethiopia. Hospital based case-control study was conducted in Tigrai region, Ethiopia between December 2015 and January 2016 among 405 (135 cases and 270 controls) consecutively selected mothers who gave birth in four randomly selected public Hospitals. Mothers with adverse birth outcome (preterm birth; < 37 gestational weeks at birth, low birth weight; < 2.5 kg at birth, or still birth) were the cases while mothers without adverse birth outcome (live birth, birth weight ≥ 2.5 kg and of ≥37 gestational weeks at birth) were the controls. Data were collected by interview and reviewing medical records using structured questionnaire. The collected data were entered into database using EPI info version 3.5.1 then exported to SPSS version 21 for analysis. Finally, multivariate logistic regression was used to identify determinants of adverse birth outcomes at P value < 0.05. The mean age of cases and controls was 27.3 (SD = 6.6) and 26.14 (SD = 4.9) years, respectively. In a multivariate analysis; less than four antenatal care visits [AOR = 4.35, 95% CI: 1.15–13.50], not receiving dietary counseling [AOR = 11.24, 95% CI: 3.92–36.60], not using family planning methods [AOR = 4.06, 95% CI:1.35–17.34], less than 24 months inter pregnancy interval [AOR = 5.21, 95% CI: 1.89–13.86], and less than 11 g/dl hemoglobin level [AOR = 4.86, 95% CI: 1.83–14.01] were significantly associated with adverse birth outcomes. The number of antenatal care visits, ever use of family planning methods, not receiving dietary counseling during antenatal care follow up visits, short inter-pregnancy interval, and low hemoglobin level were identified as independent determinants of adverse birth outcome. A concerted effort should be taken improve family planning use, and antenatal care follow-up with special emphasis to maternal nutrition to prevent adverse birth outcomes.

    更新日期:2020-01-08
  • Change in popliteal angle and hamstrings spasticity during childhood in ambulant children with spastic bilateral cerebral palsy. A register-based cohort study
    BMC Pediatr. (IF 1.983) Pub Date : 2020-01-08
    Merete Aarsland Fosdahl; Reidun Jahnsen; Are Hugo Pripp; Inger Holm

    Muscle contractures are developing during childhood and may cause extensive problems in gait and every day functioning in children with cerebral palsy (CP). The aim of the present study was to evaluate how the popliteal angle (PA) and hamstrings spasticity change during childhood in walking children with spastic bilateral CP. The present study was a longitudinal register-based cohort study including 419 children (1–15 years of age) with spastic bilateral CP, gross motor function classification system (GMFCS) level I, II and III included in the Norwegian CP Follow-up Program (CPOP). From 2006 to 2018 a total of 2193 tests were performed. The children were tested by trained physiotherapists yearly or every second year, depending on GMFCS level and age. The PA and the hamstrings spasticity (Modified Ashworth scale (MAS)) were measured at every time point. Both legs were included in the analysis. There was an increase in PA with age for all three GMFCS levels with significant differences between the levels from 1 up to 8 years of age. At the age of 10 years there was no significant difference between GMFCS level II and III. At the age of 14 years all three GMFCS levels had a mean PA above 40° and there were no significant differences between the groups. The hamstrings spasticity scores for all the three GMFCS levels were at the lower end of the MAS (mean < 1+), however they were significantly different from each other until 8 years of age. The spasticity increased the first four years in all three GMFCS levels, thereafter the level I and II slightly increased, and level III slightly decreased, until the age of 15 years. The present study showed an increasing PA during childhood. There were significantly different PAs between GMFCS level I, II and III up to 8 years of age. At the age of 14 years all levels showed a PA above 40°. The spasticity increased up to 4 years of age, but all the spasticity scores were at the lower end of the MAS during childhood.

    更新日期:2020-01-08
  • A prospective study investigating gross motor function of children with cerebral palsy and GMFCS level II after long-term Botulinum toxin type A use
    BMC Pediatr. (IF 1.983) Pub Date : 2020-01-06
    Jane Valentine; Sue-Anne Davidson; Natasha Bear; Eve Blair; Lisa Paterson; Roslyn Ward; David Forbes; Catherine Elliott

    The aim of this study is to contribute to the knowledge base on the long-term outcomes of evidence-based medical interventions used to improve gross motor function in children and adolescents with Cerebral Palsy. Prospective cohort study of children with Cerebral Palsy in the birth years 2000–2009 attending a tertiary level service for children with Cerebral Palsy who’s first recorded Gross Motor Function Classification System level was II. A total of 40 children were eligible for the study, of whom 28 (72.7%) enrolled. The Botulinum toxin A treatment for this cohort, (median and interquartile ranges) were: total number of lower limb Botulinum toxin A injections 11 (6.7, 5.5); total dose of Botulinum Toxin A per lower limb treatment 6.95 u/kg (4.5, 11); and dose of Botulinum Toxin u/kg/muscle 2.95 (2.2, 4). For all 28 subjects there was a median of 15 (8.5 to 22) Gross Motor Function Classification System level recordings: six of the 28 children (21.4%) improved from level II to level I, the remaining 22 children remained stable at level II (78.6%). In this highly treated population, the average 66 item Gross Motor Function Measure score for the 22 children in level II was 72.55, which is consistent with the mean of 68.5 reported in the original Ontario cohort. This cohort study has confirmed that children with Cerebral Palsy, Gross Motor Function level II treated at a young age with repeated doses of Botulinum Toxin A within an integrated comprehensive service, maintain or improve their functional motor level at a later age.

    更新日期:2020-01-07
  • Intensity of perinatal care for extremely preterm babies and outcomes at a higher gestational age: evidence from the EPIPAGE-2 cohort study
    BMC Pediatr. (IF 1.983) Pub Date : 2020-01-07
    Andrei Scott Morgan; Babak Khoshnood; Caroline Diguisto; Laurence Foix L’Helias; Laetitia Marchand-Martin; Monique Kaminski; Jennifer Zeitlin; Gérard Bréart; François Goffinet; Pierre-Yves Ancel

    Perinatal decision-making affects outcomes for extremely preterm babies (22–26 weeks’ gestational age (GA)): more active units have improved survival without increased morbidity. We hypothesised such units may gain skills and expertise meaning babies at higher gestational ages have better outcomes than if they were born elsewhere. We examined mortality and morbidity outcomes at age two for babies born at 27–28 weeks’ GA in relation to the intensity of perinatal care provided to extremely preterm babies. Fetuses from the 2011 French national prospective EPIPAGE-2 cohort, alive at maternal admission to a level 3 hospital and delivered at 27–28 weeks’ GA, were included. Morbidity-free survival (survival without sensorimotor (blindness, deafness or cerebral palsy) disability) and overall survival at age two were examined. Sensorimotor disability and Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ) result below threshold among survivors were secondary outcomes. Perinatal care intensity level was based on birth hospital, grouped using the ratio of 24–25 weeks’ GA babies admitted to neonatal intensive care to fetuses of the same gestation alive at maternal admission. Sensitivity analyses used ratios based upon antenatal steroids, Caesarean section, and newborn resuscitation. Multiple imputation was used for missing data; hierarchical logistic regression accounted for births nested within centres. 633 of 747 fetuses (84.7%) born at 27–28 weeks’ GA survived to age two. There were no differences in survival or morbidity-free survival: respectively, fully adjusted odds ratios were 0.96 (95% CI: 0.54 to 1.71) and 1.09 (95% CI: 0.59 to 2.01) in medium and 1.12 (95% CI: 0.63 to 2.00) and 1.16 (95% CI: 0.62 to 2.16) in high compared to low-intensity hospitals. Among survivors, there were no differences in sensorimotor disability or ASQ below threshold. Sensitivity analyses were consistent with the main results. No difference was seen in survival or morbidity-free survival at two years of age among fetuses alive at maternal hospital admission born at 27–28 weeks’ GA, or in sensorimotor disability or presence of an ASQ below threshold among survivors. There is no evidence for an impact of intensity of perinatal care for extremely preterm babies on births at a higher gestational age.

    更新日期:2020-01-07
  • Study protocol of a randomized controlled trial of home-based computerized executive function training for children with cerebral palsy
    BMC Pediatr. (IF 1.983) Pub Date : 2020-01-07
    María García-Galant; Montse Blasco; Lee Reid; Kerstin Pannek; David Leiva; Olga Laporta-Hoyos; Júlia Ballester-Plané; Júlia Miralbell; Xavi Caldú; Xènia Alonso; Esther Toro-Tamargo; Mar Meléndez-Plumed; Francisca Gimeno; Marc Coronas; Emili Soro-Camats; Roslyn Boyd; Roser Pueyo

    Cerebral palsy (CP) is frequently associated with specific cognitive impairments, such as executive dysfunction which are related to participation and quality of life (QOL). The proposed study will examine whether a computerized executive function (EF) training programme could provide superior benefits for executive functioning, participation, QOL and brain plasticity, as compared to usual care. A single-blind randomized controlled trial (RCT) design will be performed. Thirty children with CP aged 8 to 12 years will participate in a home-based computerized multi-modal executive training programme (12 weeks, 5 days a week, 30 min a day training, total dose = 30 h). Thirty children with CP matched by age, sex, motor and intelligence quotient (IQ) will compose the waitlist group. Cognitive, behavioural, emotional, participation and QOL measures will be obtained at three time points: before, immediately after and 9 months after completing the training. Additionally, structural and functional (resting state) magnetic resonance images (MRI) will be obtained in a subsample of 15 children from each group. Outcomes between groups will be compared following standard principles for RCTs. The study will test whether the cognitive training programme exerts a positive effect not only on neuropsychological and daily functioning of children with CP but also on other measures such as participation and QOL. We will also use brain MRI to test brain functional and structural changes after the intervention. If this on-line and home-based training programme proves effective, it could be a cost-effective intervention with short- and long-term effects on EF, participation or QOL in CP. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT04025749. Registered 19 July 2019. Retrospectively registered.

    更新日期:2020-01-07
  • An evaluation of the clinical features of measles virus infection for diagnosis in children within a limited resources setting
    BMC Pediatr. (IF 1.983) Pub Date : 2020-01-06
    Dominicus Husada; Kusdwijono; Dwiyanti Puspitasari; Leny Kartina; Parwati Setiono Basuki; Ismoedijanto

    Measles is a recurrent health problem in both advanced and developed countries. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends anti-measles immunoglobulin M (Ig M) as the standard method of detecting the virus; however, many areas still present the inability to perform a serology test of anti-measles IgM. Therefore, a typical clinical feature is necessary to establish the diagnosis of measles. The objective of this study was to evaluate hyperpigmented rash and other clinical features as the diagnostic tools with respect to measles, especially in an outbreak setting. In this observational diagnostic study, the inclusion criteria were as follows: between 6 and 144 months of age, fever, maculopapular rash for 3 days or more, accompanied by a cough, or coryza, or conjunctivitis. Those with a prior history of measles vaccination (1–6 weeks) were excluded, in addition to those with histories of corticosteroid for 2 weeks or more and immunocompromised conditions. The samples were taken from Dr. Soetomo General Academic Hospital in Surabaya, Indonesia. We evaluated the sensitivity, specificity, the positive predictive value, and the negative predictive value of such clinical features. Hyperpigmented rash was validated using Kappa and Mc Nemar tests. Anti-measles Ig M was considered as the gold standard. This study gathered 82 participants. The clinical manifestations of all subjects included fever, cough, coryza, conjunctivitis, Koplik spots, and maculopapular rash (which turns into hyperpigmented rash along the course of the illness). Most maculopapular rashes turn out to be hyperpigmented (89%). Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive values ​​of the combination of fever, maculopapular rash, and hyperpigmented rash were found to be at 90.7, 28.6, 93.2, and 22.2%, respectively. The Mc Nemar and Kappa tests showed p values of 0.774 and 0.119, respectively. The combination of fever, maculopapular rash, and hyperpigmented rash can be used as a screening tool regarding measles infection in an outbreak setting, which can then be confirmed by anti-measles Ig M. Cough, coryza, and Koplik’s spot can be added to this combination, albeit with a slight reduction of sensitivity value.

    更新日期:2020-01-06
  • Beyond BMI: waist circumference and social environment is associated with motor performance ability in kindergartners
    BMC Pediatr. (IF 1.983) Pub Date : 2020-01-06
    Sascha W. Hoffmann; Matthias Dreher; Michael S. Urschitz; Perikles Simon

    The aim of the current study was to examine the relationship between anthropometric characteristics (i.e. body height, body weight, body mass index [BMI] and waist circumference [WC]) with motor performance ability [MPA], social environmental factors of the district (i.e. employment status/working life, education, social situation/heterogeneity and home environment), where the respective kindergarten was located, as well as other potential health determinants in a representative sample of kindergartners. We analyzed data of 434 children aged 3 to 6 years which were obtained from a community-based cross-sectional health study conducted in the city of Mainz, Germany. Body height and weight, BMI and WC standard deviation scores [SDS] were calculated relative to the international proposed cut-offs of the IOTF. MPA was collected with multiple test items to determine coordination, speed strength, muscular endurance and speed. The life situation index [LSI] was used to assess the social environment of the district of the kindergarten. Adjusted for covariates, correlation and logistic regression analyses were conducted to estimate the effect of WC on MPA. Below-average MPA was found in 46% of the sample. While there was no relationship to BMI (odds ratio [OR]: 1.09, 95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 0.83–1.44; p = 0.538), WC SDS was positively associated with below-average MPA (OR: 1.41, 95% CI: 1.01–1.95; p = 0.041). Further results show that the social environment of the district of the kindergarten was independently related to below-average MPA (OR: 2.72, 95% CI: 1.29–5.75; p = 0.009). The findings suggest that WC rather than BMI is linked to measurements of MPA already in kindergartners and furthermore, there seems to be an independent association between MPA and the social environment of the district of the respective kindergarten.

    更新日期:2020-01-06
  • A usability and feasibility study of a computerized version of the Bath Adolescent Pain Questionnaire: the BAPQ-C
    BMC Pediatr. (IF 1.983) Pub Date : 2020-01-06
    Abbie Jordan; Fiona M. Begen; Lisa Austin; Rhiannon T. Edwards; Hannah Connell

    Pain is a common experience in adolescence, with up to 44% of adolescents reporting chronic pain. For a significant minority, severe pain becomes an ongoing disabling problem. Treatment of adolescent chronic pain aims to reduce the impact of pain on adolescents’ lives. Efficient, accurate assessment of the impact of pain is essential to treatment. The ‘Bath Adolescent Pain Questionnaire’ (BAPQ) is a psychometrically robust multidimensional self-report measure of adolescent functioning. Whilst widely used, the paper-based format of the BAPQ can present completion difficulties for adolescents experiencing chronic pain. To increase the accessibility and clinical utility of the BAPQ, an electronic version of the measure is needed. This study assesses the usability and feasibility of a computerized version of this measure (BAPQ-C) in an adolescent chronic pain population. Fourteen adolescents (13 females; 13–16 years) were recruited from a hospital-based residential pain management programme. Participants completed a qualitative ‘thinking aloud task’ whilst completing the BAPQ-C. and, an acceptability questionnaire regarding the BAPQ-C. Data were analysed using thematic analysis, a widely used qualitative method of data analysis . Two themes labelled ‘engagement and technological appeal’ and ‘accessibility and independence’ were generated. Themes revealed numerous factors contributing to participants’ preference for the BAPQ-C compared with the paper version of the BAPQ. Participants reported that the BAPQ-C was ‘quicker’ and ‘easier’ to complete than the BAPQ. Functional aspects of the BAPQ-C which included use of a touch screen rather than a pen and paper, font colours/styles, the zoom function and the spellchecker, provided participants with improved access. This subsequently increased participants’ independence and confidence when completing the measure. The BAPQ-C is a feasible multidimensional tool for the assessment of functioning in adolescents who experience chronic pain. It was well-received by participants who were able to complete the measure more quickly, independently and confidently than the paper-based BAPQ. Increased speed, ease and accuracy of completion make the BAPQ-C an ideal tool for use in busy clinical and research settings. Findings highlight the potential benefits of adopting the BAPQ-C when assessing the impact of chronic pain on adolescents in clinic and home-based settings.

    更新日期:2020-01-06
  • Decision coaching using a patient decision aid for youth and parents considering insulin delivery methods for type 1 diabetes: a pre/post study
    BMC Pediatr. (IF 1.983) Pub Date : 2020-01-03
    Margaret L. Lawson; Allyson L. Shephard; Bryan Feenstra; Laura Boland; Nadia Sourial; Dawn Stacey

    Choice of insulin delivery for type 1 diabetes can be difficult for many parents and children. We evaluated decision coaching using a patient decision aid for helping youth with type 1 diabetes and parents decide about insulin delivery method. A pre/post design. Youth and parent(s) attending a pediatric diabetes clinic in a tertiary care centre were referred to the intervention by their pediatric endocrinologist or diabetes physician between September 2013 and May 2015. A decision coach guided youth and their parents in completing a patient decision aid that was pre-populated with evidence on insulin delivery options. Primary outcomes were youth and parent scores on the low literary version of the validated Decisional Conflict Scale (DCS). Forty-five youth (mean age = 12.5 ± 2.9 years) and 66 parents (45.8 ± 5.6 years) participated. From pre- to post-intervention, youth and parent decisional conflict decreased significantly (youth mean DCS score was 32.0 vs 6.6, p < 0.0001; parent 37.6 vs 3.5, p < 0.0001). Youth’s and parents’ mean decisional conflict scores were also significantly improved for DCS subscales (informed, values clarity, support, and certainty). 92% of youth and 94% of parents were satisfied with the decision coaching and patient decision aid. Coaching sessions averaged 55 min. Parents (90%) reported that the session was the right length of time; some youth (16%) reported that it was too long. Decision coaching with a patient decision aid reduced decisional conflict for youth and parents facing a decision about insulin delivery method.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • A comprehensive overview of the cystic fibrosis on the island of São Miguel (Azores, Portugal)
    BMC Pediatr. (IF 1.983) Pub Date : 2020-01-03
    Joana Rosa; Patrícia Gaspar-Silva; Paula Pacheco; Conceição Silva; Cláudia C. Branco; Barbara S. Vieira; Alexandra Carreiro; Juan Gonçalves; Luisa Mota-Vieira

    Early diagnosis and treatment are improving significantly the quality of life of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). This recessive disease is caused by a great variability of mutations in the CF transmembrane conductance (CFTR) gene, whose spectrum and frequency can be different across populations. We performed a retrospective cross-sectional study of CF patients from the island of São Miguel (Azores, Portugal) through a clinical, genealogical, genetic and epidemiological investigation. The clinical course of patients was analyzed as a whole and according to their genotype. We identified 14 CF patients within a 23-year period, corresponding to a cumulative incidence of 1:3012 births, being three of them born from consanguineous unions. Genetic analysis revealed three CFTR genotypes: p.[Ser4Ter];[Gln1100Pro] was present in one patient with a less severe phenotype (1/14); c.[120del23];p.[Phe508del], a very rare one (2/14); and p.[Phe508del];[Phe508del] in the remaining patients (11/14). Clinically, respiratory infections (8/14) and growth failure (6/14) were the most common initial manifestations. All patients presented pancreatic dysfunction, with 21.4 and 100% of them showing endocrine and exocrine insufficiency, respectively. As expected, patients with severe phenotype were homozygous for p.Phe508del and had the lowest value of body mass index. The present study demonstrated that São Miguel Island has an increased incidence of CF when compared to recent Portuguese data (1:7500 live births). It also allowed a comprehensive overview of CF in São Miguel, improving medical practice along with genetic counselling and creating opportunities for genotype-targeted therapies.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Serious adverse drug reactions at two children’s hospitals in South Africa
    BMC Pediatr. (IF 1.983) Pub Date : 2020-01-04
    Johannes P. Mouton; Melony C. Fortuin-de Smidt; Nicole Jobanputra; Ushma Mehta; Annemie Stewart; Reneé de Waal; Karl-Günter Technau; Andrew Argent; Max Kroon; Christiaan Scott; Karen Cohen

    The high HIV prevalence in South Africa may potentially be shaping the local adverse drug reaction (ADR) burden. We aimed to describe the prevalence and characteristics of serious ADRs at admission, and during admission, to two South African children’s hospitals. We reviewed the folders of children admitted over sequential 30-day periods in 2015 to the medical wards and intensive care units of each hospital. We identified potential ADRs using a trigger tool developed for this study. A multidisciplinary team assessed ADR causality, type, seriousness, and preventability through consensus discussion. We used multivariate logistic regression to explore associations with serious ADRs. Among 1050 patients (median age 11 months, 56% male, 2.8% HIV-infected) with 1106 admissions we found 40 serious ADRs (3.8 per 100 drug-exposed admissions), including 9/40 (23%) preventable serious ADRs, and 8/40 (20%) fatal or near-fatal serious ADRs. Antibacterials, corticosteroids, psycholeptics, immunosuppressants, and antivirals were the most commonly implicated drug classes. Preterm neonates and children in middle childhood (6 to 11 years) were at increased risk of serious ADRs compared to infants (under 1 year) and term neonates: adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 5.97 (95% confidence interval 1.30 to 27.3) and aOR 3.63 (1.24 to 10.6) respectively. Other risk factors for serious ADRs were HIV infection (aOR 3.87 (1.14 to 13.2) versus HIV-negative) and increasing drug count (aOR 1.08 (1.04 to 1.12) per additional drug). Serious ADR prevalence in our survey was similar to the prevalence found elsewhere. In our setting, serious ADRs were associated with HIV-infection and the antiviral drug class was one of the most commonly implicated. Similar to other sub-Saharan African studies, a large proportion of serious ADRs were fatal or near-fatal. Many serious ADRs were preventable.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • The influence of dietary diversity on the nutritional status of children between 6 and 23 months of age in Tanzania
    BMC Pediatr. (IF 1.983) Pub Date : 2019-12-28
    Ahmed Gharib Khamis; Akwilina Wendelin Mwanri; Julius Edward Ntwenya; Katharina Kreppel

    Undernutrition poses a serious health challenge in developing countries and Tanzania has the highest undernutrition burden of Eastern and Southern Africa. Poor infant and young child feeding practices have been identified as the main causes for undernutrition. As dietary diversity is a major requirement if children are to get all essential nutrients, it can thus be used as one of the core indicators when assessing feeding practices and nutrition of children. Therefore, adequate information on the association between dietary diversity and undernutrition to identify potential strategies for the prevention of undernutrition is critical. Here we examined to what extent dietary diversity is associated with undernutrition among children of 6 to 23 months in Tanzania. Using existing data from the Tanzania Demographic and Health Survey of 2015–2016, we carried out secondary data analysis. Stunting, Wasting and Underweight of the surveyed children were calculated from Z-scores of Height-for-age (HAZ), Weight-for-height (WHZ) and Weight-for-age (WAZ) based on 2006 WHO standards. A composite dietary diversity score was created by summing the number of food groups eaten the previous day as reported for each child by the mother ranging from 0 to 7. Then, minimum dietary diversity (MDD) of 4 food groups out of seven was used to assess the diversity of the diet given to children. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression techniques were used to assess the crude and adjusted odds ratios of stunting, wasting and being underweight. A total of 2960 children were enrolled in this study. The prevalence of stunting was 31%, wasting 6% and underweight 14%. Among all children, 51% were female and 49% male. The majority (74%) of children did not reach the MDD. The most commonly consumed types of foods were grains, roots and tubers (91%), and Vitamin A containing fruits and vegetables (65%). The remaining food groups were reported to be consumed by a much lower proportion of children, including eggs (7%), meat and fish (36%), milk and dairy products (22%), as well as legumes and nuts (35%), and other vegetables (21%). Consumption of a diverse diet was significantly associated with a reduction of stunting, wasting and being underweight in children. The likelihood of being stunted, wasted and underweight was found to decrease as the number of food groups consumed increased. Children who did not receive the MDD had a significantly higher likelihood of being stunted (AOR = 1.37, 95% CI; 1.13–1.65) and underweight (AOR = 1.49, 95% CI; 1.15–1.92), but this was not the case for wasting. Consumption of animal-source foods has been found to be associated with reduced stunting among children. Consumption of a diverse diet is associated with a reduction in undernutrition among children of 6 to 23 months in Tanzania. Measures to improve the type of complementary foods in order to meet the energy and nutritional demands of children should be considered in Tanzania.

    更新日期:2019-12-30
  • Study protocol: The Dutch 20|30 Postmeningitis study: a cross-sectional follow-up of two historical childhood bacterial meningitis cohorts on long-term outcomes
    BMC Pediatr. (IF 1.983) Pub Date : 2019-12-30
    O. El Tahir; R. C. J. de Jonge; S. Ouburg; S. A. Morré; A. M. van Furth

    Bacterial meningitis (BM) is a serious, life-threatening infectious disease of the central nervous system that often occurs in young children. The most common severe to moderate sequelae following BM are sensorineural hearing loss, neuromotor disabilities and mental retardation, while subtle sequelae include academic and behavioral disabilities. It is largely unknown whether these more subtle sequelae persist into adolescence and adulthood. Therefore, this study will investigate the very long-term effects of childhood BM in later life. Better understanding of long-term effects and early identification of adverse outcomes after BM are essential for more timely interventions. Additionally, certain single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are associated with disease severity and might predict adverse sequelae. These include SNPs in genes encoding for pathogen recognition and immune response upon infection. Accordingly, a secondary objective of this study is to investigate the role of genetic variation in BM and use any insights to predict short- and long-term outcomes. In the Dutch 20|30 Postmeningitis study, adolescents and young adults (n = 947) from two historical cohorts with a prior episode of BM during childhood will be enrolled into a cross-sectional follow-up investigation using mainly questionnaires that examine executive and behavioral functioning, health-related quality of life, subjective hearing, mood and sleeping disorders, academic performance, and economic self-sufficiency. The results will be compared to normative data by one-sample t-tests. Multivariable regression analysis will be used to assess for any associations with causative pathogens and severity of BM. Participants that complete the questionnaires will be approached to provide a swab for buccal DNA and subsequent sequencing analyses. Logistic regression models will be used to predict sequelae. The unique follow-up duration of this cohort will enable us to gain insights into the possible very long-term adverse effects of childhood BM and how these might impact on quality of life. The investigation of host genetic factors will contribute to the development of prediction models which will serve as prognostic tools to identify children who are at high risk of adverse outcome after BM. Dutch Trial Register NTR-6891. Retrospectively registered 28 December 2017.

    更新日期:2019-12-30
  • Prevalence of positional skull deformities in 530 premature infants with a corrected age of up to 6 months: a multicenter study
    BMC Pediatr. (IF 1.983) Pub Date : 2019-12-30
    Wang Yang; Jianping Chen; Wenzhi Shen; Chengju Wang; Zhifeng Wu; Qing Chang; Wenzao Li; Kuilin Lv; Qiuming Pan; Hongxia Li; Duyao Ha; Yuping Zhang

    Positional deformities (PD) are common during early infancy. Severe cases may result in facial abnormalities and be associated with delayed neurological development in infants. The earlier the detection of PD, the better the intervention effect and the lower the cost of treatment. Currently, there are many studies on PD in Europe and the United States. However, in China, there is little data on the basic metrics and incidence of PD. Premature infants have a high risk of PD. However, there are few studies on PD in premature infants globally, and none in Asia. This study aimed to investigate PD and its characteristics inpremature infants to help its early detection and intervention and thus improve the quality of life for premature infants. We analyzed 530 preterm infants who visited the outpatient departments at Xinqiao Hospital of Army Medical University and Maternal and Child Health Care Hospitals of Wanzhou and Yongchuan Districts in Chongqing from September 1, 2016, to August 31, 2017. The head shape data measured by a simple manual method were recorded. The diagonal difference (DD) between the transcranial diagonals and the cranial index (CI) was calculated. PD and its incidences indifferent gestational ages and corrected age groups were analyzed. According to previously defined international diagnostic criteria, the incidence of plagiocephaly, brachycephaly, and dolichocephaly were 51.1, 85.1, and 3.0% respectively, and those of right and left plagiocephalywere69.4 and 30.6%, respectively. The incidence of PD was highest among infants with a gestational age of < 32 weeks and decreased as the gestational age increased. As the corrected age (CA) increased, the incidence of plagiocephaly and dolichocephaly decreased, and the incidence of brachycephaly increased. PD incidence is high among preterm infants. As gestational age decreased, PD incidence and severity increased. Therefore, healthcare providers should implement early PD detection and intervention to prevent the adverse outcomes. The extremely high incidence of brachycephaly and extremely low incidence of dolichocephaly in this study are likely to be due to the variance of cranial metrics caused by cultural differences. The Chinese standards for infant cranial measurements must be established.

    更新日期:2019-12-30
  • Autism spectrum disorder is associated with gut microbiota disorder in children
    BMC Pediatr. (IF 1.983) Pub Date : 2019-12-27
    Hairong Sun; Zhong You; Libo Jia; Fang Wang

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence and clinical characteristics of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) associated to the stable state of the gut microbiota. A total of 9 children with ASD and 6 healthy children used as control were selected and feces samples were collected from all of them. The 16S gene ribosomal RNA sequencing was used to analyze the difference in gut microbiota between healthy control children and ASD patients. The results of 16S sequencing based on operational taxonomic units (OTUs) analysis showed that the ASD group and the healthy control (HC) group had a large difference in the abundance of microbiota at the level of family, genus and species. The abundance of Bacteroidales and Selenomonadales was significantly lower in the ASD group than in the HC group (p = 0.0110 and p = 0.0076, respectively). The abundance of Ruminococcaceae in the ASD group was higher than that in the HC group (p = 0.0285), while the amount of Prevotellaceae was significantly lower in the ASD group than in the HC group (p = 0.0111). The Tax4Fun analysis based on Kyoto Encyclopaedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) data indicated differentially expressed functional pathway between the ASD group and healthy control group associated to the nervous system, environmental information processing and cellular processing. The abundance of gut microbiota in the ASD group is different from that in the healthy control children. These differences affect the biological function of the host. These results suggest that a disorder in the gut microbiota may be associated, at least in part, with ASD in children.

    更新日期:2019-12-27
  • Predicting the serum digoxin concentrations of infants in the neonatal intensive care unit through an artificial neural network
    BMC Pediatr. (IF 1.983) Pub Date : 2019-12-27
    Shu-Hui Yao; Hsiang-Te Tsai; Wen-Lin Lin; Yu-Chieh Chen; Chiahung Chou; Hsiang-Wen Lin

    Given its narrow therapeutic range, digoxin’s pharmacokinetic parameters in infants are difficult to predict due to variation in birth weight and gestational age, especially for critically ill newborns. There is limited evidence to support the safety and dosage requirements of digoxin, let alone to predict its concentrations in infants. This study aimed to compare the concentrations of digoxin predicted by traditional regression modeling and artificial neural network (ANN) modeling for newborn infants given digoxin for clinically significant patent ductus arteriosus (PDA). A retrospective chart review was conducted to obtain data on digoxin use for clinically significant PDA in a neonatal intensive care unit. Newborn infants who were given digoxin and had digoxin concentration(s) within the acceptable range were identified as subjects in the training model and validation datasets, accordingly. Their demographics, disease, and medication information, which were potentially associated with heart failure, were used for model training and analysis of digoxin concentration prediction. The models were generated using backward standard multivariable linear regressions (MLRs) and a standard backpropagation algorithm of ANN, respectively. The common goodness-of-fit estimates, receiver operating characteristic curves, and classification of sensitivity and specificity of the toxic concentrations in the validation dataset obtained from MLR or ANN models were compared to identify the final better predictive model. Given the weakness of correlations between actual observed digoxin concentrations and pre-specified variables in newborn infants, the performance of all ANN models was better than that of MLR models for digoxin concentration prediction. In particular, the nine-parameter ANN model has better forecasting accuracy and differentiation ability for toxic concentrations. The nine-parameter ANN model is the best alternative than the other models to predict serum digoxin concentrations whenever therapeutic drug monitoring is not available. Further cross-validations using diverse samples from different hospitals for newborn infants are needed.

    更新日期:2019-12-27
  • Combined surgical and medical treatment in an adolescent with severe gynecomastia due to excessive estradiol secretion: a case report
    BMC Pediatr. (IF 1.983) Pub Date : 2019-12-26
    Jung-Eun Moon; Cheol Woo Ko; Jung Dug Yang; Joon Seok Lee

    Gynecomastia develops due to the reversed estradiol-to-Testosterone ratio in adolescence, and symptoms typically improve within 2 years. The causes vary widely, including estrogen excess and tumors, and surgical treatment is usually given in late adolescence because postoperative symptoms may recur in adolescents. This study reports a case of a pediatric patient with severe gynecomastia due to excessive estradiol secretion who showed a positive outcome after receiving surgical treatment combined with aromatase inhibitor administration. A 9-year old boy visited to the Department of Pediatric Endocrinology for breast budding. At that time, the patient showed breasts at Tanner stage II and no abnormality on hormone tests. During a follow-up, both gynecomastia had progressed to Tanner stage III–IV at age 13. Tamoxifen 10 mg bid was administered; however, the condition rapidly progressed to Tanner stage V at 13.5 years. The evaluation of pathologic gynecomastia showed an increase of estradiol to 296 pg/mL with normal range 10 ~ 36 pg/mL and microlithiasis in both testes. As the condition worsened, total mastectomy was performed at the age of 13.5 years. Based on the assessment that elevated aromatase activity had induced breast budding, we changed the medication to anastrozole (Arimidex) 1 mg once a day, after which the estradiol level improved to 38.5 pg/mL and was maintained well in the two-year postoperative follow-up. This case report shows a combined plastic surgery and appropriate medical management bring a positive outcome in severe gynecomastia patient.

    更新日期:2019-12-27
  • Neonatal near-misses in Ghana: a prospective, observational, multi-center study
    BMC Pediatr. (IF 1.983) Pub Date : 2019-12-23
    Ashura Bakari; April J. Bell; Samuel A. Oppong; Yemah Bockarie; Priscilla Wobil; Gyikua Plange-Rhule; Bamenla Q. Goka; Cyril M. Engmann; Richard M. Adanu; Cheryl A. Moyer

    For every newborn who dies within the first month, as many as eight more suffer life-threatening complications but survive (termed ‘neonatal near-misses’ (NNM)). However, there is no universally agreed-upon definition or assessment tool for NNM. This study sought to describe the development of the Neonatal Near-Miss Assessment Tool (NNMAT) for low-resource settings, as well as findings when implemented in Ghana. This prospective, observational study was conducted at two tertiary care hospitals in southern Ghana from April – July 2015. Newborns with evidence of complications and those admitted to the NICUs were screened for inclusion using the NNMAT. Incidence of suspected NNM at enrollment and confirmed near-miss (surviving to 28 days) was determined and compared against institutional neonatal mortality rates. Suspected NNM cases were compared with newborns not classified as a suspected near-miss, and all were followed to 28 days to determine odds of survival. Confirmed near-misses were those identified as suspected near-misses at enrollment who survived to 28 days. The main outcome measures were incidence of NNM, NNM:mortality ratio, and factors associated with NNM classification. Out of 394 newborns with complications, 341 (86.5%) were initially classified as suspected near-misses at enrollment using the NNMAT, with 53 (13.4%) being classified as a non-near-miss. At 28-day follow-up, 68 (17%) had died, 52 (13%) were classified as a non-near-miss, and 274 were considered confirmed near-misses. Those newborns with complications who were classified as suspected near-misses using the NNMAT at enrollment had 12 times the odds of dying before 28 days than those classified as non-near-misses. While most confirmed near-misses qualified as NNM via intervention-based criteria, nearly two-thirds qualified based on two or more of the four NNMAT categories. When disaggregated, the most predictive elements of the NNMAT were gestational age < 33 weeks, neurologic dysfunction, respiratory dysfunction, and hemoglobin < 10 gd/dl. The ratio of near-misses to deaths was 0.55: 1, yet this varied across the study sites. This research suggests that the NNMAT is an effective tool for assessing neonatal near-misses in low-resource settings. We believe this approach has significant systems-level, continuous quality improvement, clinical and policy-level implications.

    更新日期:2019-12-23
  • Stable clinical course in three siblings with late-onset isolated sulfite oxidase deficiency: a case series and literature review
    BMC Pediatr. (IF 1.983) Pub Date : 2019-12-23
    Maoqiang Tian; Yi Qu; Lingyi Huang; Xiaojuan Su; Shiping Li; Junjie Ying; Fengyan Zhao; Dezhi Mu

    Isolated sulfite oxidase deficiency (ISOD) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by a deficiency of sulfite oxidase, which is encoded by the sulfite oxidase gene (SUOX). Clinically, the disorder is classified as one of two forms: the late-onset mild form or the classic early-onset form. The latter is life-threatening and always leads to death during early childhood. Mild ISOD cases are rare and may benefit from dietary therapy. To date, no cases of ISOD have been reported to recover spontaneously. Here, we present three mild ISOD cases in one family, each with a stable clinical course and spontaneous recovery. All three siblings had two novel compound heterozygous mutations in the SUOX gene (NM_000456; c.1096C > T [p.R366C] and c.1376G > A [p.R459Q]). The siblings included two males and one female with late ages of onset (12–16 months) and presented with specific neuroimaging abnormalities limited to the bilateral globus pallidus and substantia nigra. The three patients had decreased plasma homocysteine levels. They exhibited a monophasic clinical course continuing up to 8.5 years even without dietary therapy. This is the first report of mild ISOD cases with a stable clinical course and spontaneous recovery without dietary therapy. Our study provides an expansion for the clinical spectrum of ISOD. Furthermore, we highlight the importance of including ISOD in the differential diagnosis for patients presenting with late-onset symptoms, bilaterally symmetric regions of abnormal intensities in the basal ganglia, and decreased plasma homocysteine levels.

    更新日期:2019-12-23
  • Weight status and obesity-related dietary behaviours among culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) children in Victoria, Australia
    BMC Pediatr. (IF 1.983) Pub Date : 2019-12-23
    Breanna Scott; Kristy A. Bolton; Claudia Strugnell; Steven Allender; Jennifer Marks

    In developed economies, obesity prevalence is high within children from some culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) backgrounds. This study aims to identify whether CALD groups in Victoria, Australia, are at increased risk of childhood overweight and obesity, and obesity-related dietary behaviours; compared to their non-CALD counterparts. Objective anthropometric and self-report dietary behavioural data were collected from 2407 Grade 4 and 6 primary school children (aged 9–12 years). Children were categorised into CALD and non-CALD cultural groups according to the Australian Standard Classification of Languages. Overweight/obesity was defined according to the World Health Organization growth reference standards. Obesity-related dietary behaviour categories included excess consumption of takeaway foods, energy-dense, nutrient-poor snacks and sugar sweetened beverages. T-tests and chi-square tests were performed to identify differences in weight status and dietary behaviours between CALD and non-CALD children. Logistic regression analyses examined the relationship between CALD background, weight status and dietary behaviours. Middle-Eastern children had a higher overweight/obesity prevalence (53.0%) than non-CALD children (36.7%; p < 0.001). A higher proportion of Middle-Eastern children had excess consumption of takeaway foods (54.9%), energy-dense, nutrient-poor snacks (36.6%) and sugar sweetened beverages (35.4%) compared to non-CALD children (40.4, 27.0 and 25.0%, respectively; p < 0.05). Southeast Asian and African children were 1.58 (95% CI = [1.06, 2.35]) and 1.61 (95% CI = [1.17, 2.21]) times more likely, respectively, to consume takeaway foods at least once per week than non-CALD children. Disparities in overweight/obesity prevalence and obesity-related dietary behaviours among children in Victoria suggest the need for cultural-specific, tailored prevention and intervention strategies.

    更新日期:2019-12-23
  • Impact of sunflower seed oil versus mustard seed oil on skin barrier function in newborns: a community-based, cluster-randomized trial
    BMC Pediatr. (IF 1.983) Pub Date : 2019-12-23
    Aimee Summers; Marty O. Visscher; Subarna K. Khatry; Jeevan B. Sherchand; Steven C. LeClerq; Joanne Katz; James M. Tielsch; Luke C. Mullany

    Natural vegetable oils are widely used for newborn massage in many low resource settings. Animal models indicated that sunflower seed oil (SSO) can accelerate skin barrier recovery following damage, while other oils, including mustard oil (MO), may cause further skin barrier damage. The objective was to compare the effects of two SSO and MO used for routine massage on skin integrity in premature and full-term neonates. This community-based cluster randomized controlled trial included 995 neonates assigned to full body massage with sunflower seed oil (SSO, intervention) or mustard seed oil (MO, standard practice) from July 2012–May 2014 in Sarlahi, Nepal. Skin integrity measures were evaluated over 28 days, including skin condition (erythema, rash, dryness), skin surface pH, stratum corneum (SC) cohesion/protein concentration, and transepidermal water loss (TEWL). Overall means and rates of change in these skin measures were compared between oil groups using bivariate random-effects models. 500 and 495 live born neonates received repeated massage with MO and SSO, respectively. Skin pH decreased more quickly for SSO than MO in the first week of life, with a difference in mean daily reductions of 0.02 (95% CI: 0.002–0.040). Erythema, rash and dryness increased (worsened) over days 1–14 then decreased by day 28, with no significant oil group differences. TEWL increased over time, with no significant oil group differences. Gestational age did not modify the effect; the slightly faster decrease in skin pH among SSO infants was similar in magnitude between term and preterm infants. Oil type may contribute to differences in skin integrity when neonates are massaged regularly. The more rapid acid mantle development observed for SSO may be protective for neonates in lower resource settings. ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01177111); registered August 6th, 2010.

    更新日期:2019-12-23
  • Real spinal cord injury without radiologic abnormality in pediatric patient with tight filum terminale following minor trauma: a case report
    BMC Pediatr. (IF 1.983) Pub Date : 2019-12-23
    Qin Chuan Liang; Bo Yang; Yun Hai Song; Pin Pin Gao; Ze Yang Xia; Nan Bao

    Spinal cord injury without radiographic abnormality (SCIWORA) is defined as having “clinical symptoms of traumatic myelopathy with no radiographic or computed tomographic features of spinal fracture or instability”. The mechanism of pediatric SCIWORA following minor trauma is still unclear. Tight filum terminale (TFT) has been studied in the literature, but the information regarding the predisposing factor for SCIWORA is still being defined. We report three cases of thoracic and lumber SCIWORA with TFT. The trauma was potentially mild in all cases but resulted in catastrophic damage of the cord. All patients had no signs or symptoms of tethered cord syndrome prior to the minor trauma. TFT was found during operation. We suggest that TFT might be a predisposing factor for SCIWORA and chronic spinal cord traction play an important role in the mechanism of pediatric thoracic and lumber SCIWORA following minor trauma. Patients who never undergo treatment for TFT likely have an elevated risk of developing SCIWORA following minor trauma.

    更新日期:2019-12-23
  • Association of maternal ethnicity and urbanicity on severe pediatric disease: a nationwide cohort study
    BMC Pediatr. (IF 1.983) Pub Date : 2019-12-23
    Ya-Ting Chang; Huei-Shyong Wang; Jia-Rou Liu; Chi-Nan Tseng; I-Jun Chou; Shue-Fen Luo; Chang-Fu Kuo; Lai-Chu See

    A healthy migrant effect on birth outcomes has been reported, however, whether this protective effect persists throughout childhood is unknown. The effect of urbanicity on child health among an immigrant population is unclear. The objective of this study was to compare the incidence rate and cumulative incidence of severe diseases among urban children of Taiwan-born mothers, rural children of Taiwan-born mothers, urban children of foreign-born mothers, and rural children of foreign-born mothers. A nationwide cohort study was conducted for children born in Taiwan during 2004–2011 and follow-up till age 4 to 11 years old by linkage the Taiwan Birth Registry 2004–2011, Taiwan Death Registry 2004–2015, and National Health Insurance Research Database 2004–2015. Cox proportional hazards model (multivariable) was used to examine differences among the four study groups. There were 682,982 urban children of Taiwan-born mothers, 662,818 rural children of Taiwan-born mothers, 61,570 urban children of foreign-born mothers, 87,473 rural children of foreign-born mothers. Children of foreign-born mothers had a lower incidence of vasculitis, mainly Kawasaki disease. The incidences of congenital disorders did not differ between children of foreign-born mothers and children of Taiwan-born mothers. The incidence of psychotic disorders was higher in urban children. However, children in rural areas had a higher incidence of major trauma/burn and a higher mortality rate. A healthy migrant effect was only seen for Kawasaki disease. The mental health of urban children born to immigrant mothers warrants concern.

    更新日期:2019-12-23
  • Gross motor developmental dysfunctional outcomes in infantile and toddler pediatric intensive care unit survivors
    BMC Pediatr. (IF 1.983) Pub Date : 2019-12-21
    Chun-Feng Yang; Yang Xue; Jun-Yan Feng; Fei-Yong Jia; Yu Zhang; Yu-Mei Li

    Increasing studies have focused on motor function/dysfunction in PICU survivors; however, most studies have focused on adults and older children. This study investigated gross motor developmental function outcomes in infantile and toddler pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) survivors and the factors associated with gross motor developmental functions. This observational study was conducted in the PICU of the First Hospital of Jilin University between January 2019 and March 2019. Thirty-five eligible patients were divided into the dysfunctional (n = 24) or non-dysfunctional (n = 11) group according to the results of the Peabody Developmental Motor Scales, Second Edition (PDMS-2). Baseline gross motor function for all participants before PICU admission was measured via the Age and Stages Questionnaires, Third Edition (ASQ-3). The PDMS-2 was used to evaluate gross motor development function before PICU discharge. The gross motor developmental dysfunction incidence was 68.6%. Linear correlation analysis showed that the gross motor quotient (GMQ) was positively correlated with the pediatric critical illness score (PCIS, r = 0.621, P < 0.001), and negatively correlated with length of PICU stay (r = − 0.556, P = 0.001), days sedated (r = − 0.602, P < 0.001), days on invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV; r = − 0.686, P < 0.001), and days on continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT; r = − 0.538, P = 0.001). Linear regression analysis showed that IMV days (β = − 0.736, P = 0.001), sepsis (β = − 18.111, P = 0.003) and PCIS (β = 0.550, P = 0.021) were independent risk factors for gross motor developmental dysfunction. Gross motor developmental dysfunction in infantile and toddler PICU survivors is more common and may be exacerbated by experiences associated with longer IMV days and increasing illness severity combined with sepsis. The trial ‘Early rehabilitation intervention for critically ill children’ has been registered at http://www.chictr.org.cn/showproj.aspx?proj=23132. Registration number: ChiCTR1800020196.

    更新日期:2019-12-21
  • Association of cleft lip and palate on mother-to-infant bonding: a cross-sectional study in the Japan Environment and Children’s Study (JECS)
    BMC Pediatr. (IF 1.983) Pub Date : 2019-12-20
    Shinobu Tsuchiya; Masahiro Tsuchiya; Haruki Momma; Takeyoshi Koseki; Kaoru Igarashi; Ryoichi Nagatomi; Takahiro Arima; Nobuo Yaegashi

    Cleft lip and/or palate is among the most prevalent congenital birth defects, and negatively affects maternal psychological status and may consequently result in higher prevalence of child maltreatment. However, the association of childbirths of infants with cleft lip and/or palate with maternal emotional involvement still remains unclear. We examined the association between childbirths of infants with cleft lip and/or palate and mother-to-infant bonding, using data from the Japan Environment and Children’s Study, a nationwide birth cohort study. A cross-sectional study using the jecs-an-20,180,131 dataset was performed. A total 104,065 fetuses in 15 regional centres in Japan were enrolled after obtaining informed written consent. The Mother-to-Infant Bonding Scale, a self-report scale consisting of 10 items, was used to evaluate maternal bonding at one year after childbirth. Finally, the participants consisted of 79,140 mother-infant pairs, of which 211 mothers of infants with cleft lip and/or palate were included in our analyses. Multivariable logistic regression analysis using multiple imputation for missing data was performed to calculate the odds ratio and 95% confidence interval in the estimation of the association between bonding disorders and childbirths with cleft lip and/or palate. No increased risk of bonding disorders was observed among all the mothers of infants with cleft lip and/or palate (odds ratio [95% confidence interval]; 0.97 [0.63–1.48], p = 0.880), however, advanced maternal age or multiple parity may adversely affect the associations between bonding disorders and cleft lip and/or palate, respectively. After stratification with a combination of maternal age and parity, a significant association of cleft lip and/or palate with bonding disorders was found only among advanced-age multiparae (odds ratio [95% confidence interval] = 2.51 [1.17–5.37], p = 0.018), but it was weakened after additional adjustment for maternal depression. Childbirths of infants with cleft lip and/or palate may increase the risk of bonding disorders among advanced-age multiparae, possibly through maternal depression. This finding provides valuable information for the provision of multidisciplinary cleft care.

    更新日期:2019-12-20
  • G6PD genetic variations in neonatal Hyperbilirubinemia in Indonesian Deutromalay population
    BMC Pediatr. (IF 1.983) Pub Date : 2019-12-20
    Dewi A. Wisnumurti; Yunia Sribudiani; Robert M. Porsch; Ani M. Maskoen; Sri E. Rahayuningsih; Eni K. Asni; Frank Sleutels; Wilfred F. J. van Ijcken; Abdurachman Sukadi; Tri H. Achmad

    Neonatal jaundice is a common finding in newborns in Asia, including Indonesia. In some cases, the serum total bilirubin levels exceeds the 95th percentile for hours of life (neonatal hyperbilirubinemia). Severe neonatal hyperbilirubinemia (NH) could lead to kernicterus and neonatal death. Glucose-6-Phosphage Dehydrogenase (G6PD) genetic variations and deficiency have been reported in several studies to be associated with NH. This study aimed to analyze the G6PD genetic variations and its activity in neonates with and without hyperbilirubinemia in the Deutromalay Indonesian population. Deoxyribose Nucleic Acid (DNA) was isolated from peripheral blood of 116 and 115 healthy term neonates with and without hyperbilirubinemia. All infants underwent the following laboratory examinations: routine hematologic evaluation, Coombs test, G6PD activity measurement using the Randox kit method, and serum total bilirubin level. All exons of the G6PD gene were targeted for deep sequencing using MiSeq (Illumina). An association study of G6PD polymorphisms with NH was performed using PLINK. The prevalence of G6PD deficiency in neonates with and without hyperbilirubinemia in Indonesian Deutromalay population were 1.72% (95% Confidence Interval (CI): 0.6–4.1%) and 1.74% (95% CI: 0.7–4.1%), respectively. The most common G6PD polymorphisms, i.e. rs1050757/c.* + 357A > G, rs2230037/c.1311C > T, and rs2071429/c.1365-13 T/IVS11, were identified. However, none of those polymorphisms and their haplotype were associated with NH (p > 0.05, Odds Ratio (OR) ~1.00). The prevalence of G6PD mutations in neonates with and without hyperbilirubinemia were 6.8% (95% CI: 2.3–11.5%) and 6.9% (95% CI: 2.3–11.6%), respectively. The most frequently identified G6PD mutation was the Viangchan variant (p.V291 M), which was followed by the Canton (p.R459L) and Vanua Lava (p.L128P) variants. Two novel mutations were identified both in case (p.V369A, p.I167F) and control (p.L474=, p.I36T) groups. The prevalence of G6PD deficiency is low in neonates with or without hyperbilirubinemia in Deutromalay Indonesian population. The majority of G6PD mutations identified among Indonesian Deutromalay population in this study are Viangchan, Canton and Vanua Lava variants.

    更新日期:2019-12-20
  • Prepregnancy obesity is associated with cognitive outcomes in boys in a low-income, multiethnic birth cohort
    BMC Pediatr. (IF 1.983) Pub Date : 2019-12-20
    Elizabeth M. Widen; Amy R. Nichols; Linda G. Kahn; Pam Factor-Litvak; Beverly J. Insel; Lori Hoepner; Sara M. Dube; Virginia Rauh; Frederica Perera; Andrew Rundle

    Maternal obesity and high gestational weight gain (GWG) disproportionally affect low-income populations and may be associated with child neurodevelopment in a sex-specific manner. We examined sex-specific associations between prepregnancy BMI, GWG, and child neurodevelopment at age 7. Data are from a prospective low-income cohort of African American and Dominican women (n = 368; 44.8% male offspring) enrolled during the second half of pregnancy from 1998 to 2006. Neurodevelopment was measured using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-IV) at approximately child age 7. Linear regression estimated associations between prepregnancy BMI, GWG, and child outcomes, adjusting for race/ethnicity, marital status, gestational age at delivery, maternal education, maternal IQ and child age. Overweight affected 23.9% of mothers and obesity affected 22.6%. At age 7, full-scale IQ was higher among girls (99.7 ± 11.6) compared to boys (96.9 ± 13.3). Among boys, but not girls, prepregnancy overweight and obesity were associated with lower full-scale IQ scores [overweight β: − 7.1, 95% CI: (− 12.1, − 2.0); obesity β: − 5.7, 95% CI: (− 10.7, − 0.7)]. GWG was not associated with full-scale IQ in either sex. Prepregnancy overweight and obesity were associated with lower IQ among boys, but not girls, at 7 years. These findings are important considering overweight and obesity prevalence and the long-term implications of early cognitive development.

    更新日期:2019-12-20
  • Results of a referral-based weight management program targeted toward children aged 2 to 6 years with obesity or severe obesity
    BMC Pediatr. (IF 1.983) Pub Date : 2019-12-19
    Eric E. Wickel; Lamiaa Ali; Hollie Hawkins; Eden Hemming

    Relatively little is known about weight management programs targeted toward young children with obesity. Using data from the Early Lifestyles Intervention program, we report outcomes from a referral-based, multi-disciplinary weight management program targeted toward children aged 2 to 6 years with obesity or severe obesity. Data from 55 children (4.5 ± 1.3 years) medically referred to the ELI program were examined in this non-randomized investigation. At baseline, a nurse collected demographic, anthropometric and clinical measures from the study child, while parents/guardians completed questionnaires regarding their child’s nutrition and activity behavior. Follow-up sessions were conducted to discuss healthy behavior strategies and collect anthropometrics from the study child. Body mass index (BMI) values were reported relative to the 95th BMI percentile (%BMIp95) and children were classified as obese (≥ 100% of 95th BMI percentile) or severely obese (≥ 120% of 95th BMI). Questionnaire data were analyzed to report group-level differences and to determine whether individual items predicted changes in %BMIp95 from baseline to follow-up. Regression models were used to examine the change in %BMIp95 by sex, ethnicity, and baseline body size. Certain behaviors were more frequent among non-Hispanic children compared to Hispanic children (demanding certain foods), whereas other behaviors were more frequent among children with severe obesity compared to children with obesity (requesting a second helping, getting own snack and sneaking food). Greater reductions in the study child’s %BMIp95 were found among parents indicating their child requests a second helping, is a faster eater, or complains of being hungry. Among the combined sample, %BMIp95 significantly decreased from baseline to final follow-up. On average, the decrease in %BMIp95 did not differ by sex, ethnicity, or baseline body size. Modest improvements in body size were observed. Additional studies are needed to identify best practices for pediatric interventions seeking weight management.

    更新日期:2019-12-19
  • Active children are less adipose and insulin resistant in early adolescence; evidence from the Mysore Parthenon Cohort
    BMC Pediatr. (IF 1.983) Pub Date : 2019-12-18
    Sarah H. Kehoe; Ghattu V. Krishnaveni; Sargoor Veena; Krishnarajasagara N. Kiran; Samuel C. Karat; Asha Dhubey; Patsy Coakley; Caroline H. D. Fall

    The aim of this study was to determine whether physical activity volume and intensity in mid-childhood and early adolescence were associated with cardiometabolic risk factors at 13.5 years. Participants were recruited from the Mysore Parthenon observational birth cohort. At ages 6–10 and 11–13 years, volume and intensity of physical activity were assessed using AM7164 or GT1M actigraph accelerometers worn for ≥4 days, and expressed as mean counts per day and percentage time spent in light, moderate and vigorous physical activity according to criteria defined by Evenson et al. At 13.5 years, fasting blood samples were collected; lipids, glucose and insulin concentrations were measured and insulin resistance (HOMA) was calculated. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure were measured at the left arm using a Dinamap (Criticon). Anthropometry and bio-impedance analysis were used to assess body size and composition. Metabolic and anthropometric measures were combined to produce a metabolic syndrome risk score. At 6–10 years, boys and girls respectively spent a median (IQR) of 1.1 (0.5, 2.0) % and 0.8 (0.4, 1.3) % of recorded time vigorously active. At 11–13 years, boys and girls respectively spent a median (IQR) of 0.8 (0.4, 1.7) % and 0.3 (0.1, 0.6) % of time vigorously active. All of the physical activity parameters were positively correlated between the 6–10 year and the 11–13 year measurements indicating that physical activity tracked from childhood to early adolescence. There were no associations between physical activity at 6–10 years and individual 13.5 year risk factors but % time vigorously active was inversely associated with metabolic syndrome score (B = −0.40, 95% CI −0.75, 0.05). Volume of physical activity at 11–13 years was inversely associated with 13.5 year HOMA and fat percentage and vigorous physical activity was associated with HOMA, fat percentage, sum of skinfolds, waist circumference and total: HDL cholesterol ratio. Vigorous physical activity was inversely associated with metabolic syndrome score (B = −0.51, 95% CI −0.94, −0.08). Volume and intensity of physical activity in early adolescence were negatively associated with metabolic and anthropometric risk factors. Interventions that aim to increase adolescent physical activity, especially vigorous, may prevent cardiometabolic disease in later life.

    更新日期:2019-12-19
  • The relationship between endothelial progenitor cells and pulmonary arterial hypertension in children with congenital heart disease
    BMC Pediatr. (IF 1.983) Pub Date : 2019-12-17
    Hong-Xiao Sun; Guo-Ju Li; Zhan-Hui Du; Zhen Bing; Zhi-Xian Ji; Gang Luo; Si-Lin Pan

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) caused by congenital heart disease (CHD) is very common in clinics. Some studies have shown that PAH is related to the number of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), but there is no report on the relationship between PAH and the number of EPCs in children with CHD. In this study, a total of 173 cases with CHD (from 0 to 6 years old) were collected. According to the mean pulmonary arterial pressure (mPAP) measured by right heart catheterization, these cases were divided into PAH groups (including high PAH group, mPAP> 25 mmHg, n = 32, and the middle PAH group, 20 mmHg ≤ mPAP≤25 mmHg, n = 30) and non-PAH group (mPAP< 20 mmHg, n = 111). Peripheral blood was taken for flow cytometry, and the number of EPCs (CD133+/KDR+ cells) was counted. The number of EPCs /μL of peripheral blood was calculated using the following formula: EPCs /μL = WBC /L × lymphocytes % × EPCs % × 10− 6. The median EPCs of the non-PAH group, middle PAH group and high PAH group is 1.86/μL, 1.30 /μL and 0.98/μL, respectively. The mPAP decreases steadily as the level of EPCs increases (P < 0.05). After adjustment of gender, age and BMI, the number of EPCs was significantly associated with a decreased risk of high PAH (OR = 0.37, 95% CI: 0.16–0.87, P < 0.05). However, EPCs was not significantly associated with middle PAH (P > 0.05). The findings revealed that the EPCs and high PAH in patients with CHD correlate significantly and EPCs may become an effective treatment for PAH in patients with CHD. EPCs may be a protective factor of high PAH for children with CHD.

    更新日期:2019-12-18
  • Communication between mothers and health workers is important for quality of newborn care: a qualitative study in neonatal units in district hospitals in South Africa
    BMC Pediatr. (IF 1.983) Pub Date : 2019-12-16
    Christiane Horwood; Lyn Haskins; Silondile Luthuli; Neil McKerrow

    There is a high global burden of neonatal mortality, with many newborn babies dying of preventable and treatable conditions, particularly in low and middle-income countries. Improving quality of newborn care could save the lives of many thousands of babies. Quality of care (QoC) is a complex and multifaceted construct that is difficult to measure, but patients’ experiences of care are an important component in any measurement of QoC. We report the findings of a qualitative study exploring observations and experiences of health workers (HWs) and mothers of babies in neonatal units in South Africa. A qualitative case study approach was adopted to explore care of newborn babies admitted to neonatal units in district hospitals. Observation data were collected by a registered nurse during working hours over a continuous five-day period. Doctors and nurses working in the neonatal unit and mothers of babies admitted during the observation period were interviewed using a semi-structured interview guide. All interviews were audio recorded. Observation data were transcribed from hand written notes. Audiotapes of interviews were transcribed verbatim and, where necessary, translated into English. A thematic content analysis was used to analyse the data. Observations and interviews were conducted in seven participating hospitals between November 2015 and May 2016. Our findings highlight the importance of information sharing between HWs and mothers of babies, contrasting the positive communication reported by many mothers which led to them feeling empowered and participating actively in the care of their babies, with incidents of poor communication. Poor communication, rudeness and disrespectful behaviour of HWs was frequently described by mothers, and led to mothers feeling anxious, unwilling to ask questions and excluded from their baby’s care. In some cases poor communication and misunderstandings led to serious mismanagement of babies with HWs delaying or withholding care, or to mothers putting their babies at risk by not following instructions. Good communication between mothers and HWs is critical for building mothers’ confidence, promoting bonding and participation of mothers in the care of their baby and may have long term benefits for the health and well-being of the mother and her baby.

    更新日期:2019-12-17
  • Prognostic value of perioperative NT-proBNP after corrective surgery for pediatric congenital heart defects
    BMC Pediatr. (IF 1.983) Pub Date : 2019-12-16
    Fangqin Lin; Lingling Zheng; Yanqin Cui; Weidan Chen; Ramit Kumar Gupta; Huixian Li; Xinxin Chen; Huimin Xia; Huiying Liang

    It is critically important to assess the prognostic value of NT-proBNP in the form of repeated measures among children undergoing surgery for congenital heart defects (CHD). The aim of the present study is to assess the value of repeated perioperative NT-proBNP in evaluating the time dependent and temporal trajectory in prognostics diagnosis during the perioperative period in a large series of children with CHD. Repeated measures of NT-proBNP from 329 consecutive children with CHD were obtained before and 1, 12, and 36 h after surgery, respectively. For fully utilizing longitudinal characteristics, we employed parallel cross-sectional logistic regression, a two stage mixed effect model and trajectories over time analysis to mine the predictive value of perioperative NT-proBNP on the binary outcome of prolonged intensive care unit (ICU) stay. The two stage mixed effects model confirmed that both the mean NT-proBNP level (aOR = 1.46, P = 0.001) and the time trends had prognostic value on the prediction of prolonged ICU stay. In the fully adjusted logistic regression analyses based on gaussian distributions, “rapidly rising NT-proBNP” put the subjects at 5.4-times higher risk of prolonged ICU stay compared with “slowly rising” group (aOR = 5.40, P = 0.003). Comprehensive assessment of the time dependent and temporal trajectory in perioperative NT-proBNP, indicated by repeated measurements, can provide more accurate identification of children with higher risk of prolonged ICU stay after CHD surgery.

    更新日期:2019-12-17
  • Association of adverse childhood experiences and neurodevelopmental disorders in people with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) and non-FASD controls
    BMC Pediatr. (IF 1.983) Pub Date : 2019-12-16
    Cassondra Kambeitz; Marilyn G. Klug; Jacob Greenmyer; Svetlana Popova; Larry Burd

    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is a highly prevalent lifelong disorder with high rates of comorbid neurodevelopmental disorders. Individuals with FASD are often exposed to abuse, neglect and foster home placements which have uncertain effects on the lifelong course of FASD. In this study we compare the prevalence of adverse childhood events (ACEs) and neurodevelopmental disorders in subjects with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) and non-FASD controls. A cross-sectional chart review of patients referred to a regional developmental center was used to identify people with FASD and non-FASD controls. We recorded the number of ACEs and neurodevelopmental disorders in each patient’s chart. The most common diagnoses were attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, comprehension deficits, sleep disorders, and cognitive impairments. T-tests and a regression equation were utilized to determine significant differences between the groups. The review identified 203 subjects, 98 with FASD and 105 non-FASD controls. Group mean age was 8.6 years and 64.5% were male. People with FASD were more likely to have any ACEs (mean 5.3) with ACE scores 3.7 points higher than non-FASD controls (mean 1.69) (t = 11.29; p < .001). Increased ACEs were associated with increased rates of neurodevelopmental disorders for people with FASD (R = .179, p = .026) but not for non-FASD controls (R = .130, p = .094). Conclusions: Both FASD and subsequent exposure to ACEs are associated with increased risk for development of comorbid neurodevelopmental disorders. Prevention of ACEs during childhood may decrease risk for development of comorbid neurodevelopmental disorders.

    更新日期:2019-12-17
  • Neonatal mortality and its determinates in public hospitals of Gamo and Gofa zones, southern Ethiopia: prospective follow up study
    BMC Pediatr. (IF 1.983) Pub Date : 2019-12-16
    Abera Mersha; Agegnehu Bante; Shitaye Shibiru

    The neonatal period is the most vulnerable time for child survival. The declines in the neonatal mortality rate have been slower than the post-neonatal under-five mortality rate in the majority of countries. This trend is also similar in Ethiopia, that neonatal mortality was high as compared to the post-neonatal mortality rate. A large proportion of neonatal deaths occur during the 48 h after delivery. Different studies were conducted in assessing determinates for neonatal mortality but there is a need to assess the immediate postnatal (within 2 days following delivery) cause of neonatal mortality that the majority of deaths occurred at that time. So, this study is to fill those gaps of the aforementioned studies, in assessing the determinate factors affecting neonatal mortality in public hospitals of Gamo and Gofa Zones, Southern Ethiopia. A prospective follow up study was conducted among 6769 study participants from April 5, 2018, to March 5, 2019. All live births at the hospitals during the study period were included in this study. A structured verbal autopsy questionnaire was used to collect the data on the causes of neonatal death. Data were entered into Epi data version 3.1 and exported to Stata version 15 for analysis. Crude and adjusted estimate β with 95%CI was calculated in the binary logistic regression model. A log-likelihood ratio (LR) was tested for goodness of fit. In this study P-value < 0.05 was considered to declare a result as a statistically significant association. In this study, neonatal mortality incidence ratio was 9.6 (95%CI: 7.5, 12.2) per 1000 live births. Age of the mother, number of antenatal care visits, sex of the neonate, presentation, and gestational age were identified as the significant determinates for neonatal mortality cases. Prematurity, infection, and birth asphyxia were the most common causes of neonatal mortality cases. This study indicated that a significant number of neonates died during the neonatal period. Both maternal and neonatal factors were identified. Therefore, early identification of obstetric complications and immediate interventions, strengthening the provision of quality antenatal and postnatal care services are recommended.

    更新日期:2019-12-17
  • The performance of the EMS triage (RETTS-p) and the agreement between the field assessment and final hospital diagnosis: a prospective observational study among children < 16 years
    BMC Pediatr. (IF 1.983) Pub Date : 2019-12-16
    Carl Magnusson; Johan Herlitz; Thomas Karlsson; Maria Jiménez-Herrera; Christer Axelsson

    The rapid triage and treatment system for paediatrics (RETTS-p) has been used by the emergency medical services (EMS) in the west of Sweden since 2014. The performance of the RETTS-p in the pre-hospital setting and the agreement between the EMS nurse’s field assessment and the hospital diagnosis is unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of the RETTS-p in the EMS and the agreement between the EMS field assessment and the hospital diagnosis. A prospective observational study was conducted among 454 patients < 16 years of age who were assessed and transported to the PED. Two instruments were used for comparison: 1) Classification of an emergent patient according to predefined criteria as compared to the RETTS-p and 2) Agreement between the EMS nurse’s field assessment and the hospital diagnosis. Among all children, 11% were identified as having vital signs associated with an increased risk of death and 7% were diagnosed in hospital with a potentially life-threatening condition. Of the children triaged with RETTS-p (85.9%), 149 of 390 children (38.2%) were triaged to RETTS-p red or orange (life-threatening, potentially life-threatening), of which 40 (26.8%) children were classified as emergent. The hospitalised children were triaged with the highest frequency to level yellow (can wait; 41.5%). In children with RETTS-p red or orange, the sensitivity for a defined emergent patient was 66.7%, with a corresponding specificity of 67.0%. The EMS field assessment was in agreement with the final hospital diagnosis in 80% of the cases. The RETTS-p sensitivity in this study is considered moderate. Two thirds of the children triaged to life threatening or potentially life threatening were later identified as non-emergent. Of those, one in six was discharged from the PED without any intervention. Further, one third of the children were under triaged, the majority were found in the yellow triage level (can wait). The highest proportion of hospitalised patients was found in the yellow triage level. Our result is in agreement with previous studies using other triage instruments. A computerised decision support system might help the EMS triage to increase sensitivity and specificity.

    更新日期:2019-12-17
  • Maternal H. pylori seropositivity is associated with gestational hypertension but is irrelevant to fetal growth and development in early childhood
    BMC Pediatr. (IF 1.983) Pub Date : 2019-12-16
    Fu-Ping Lai; Yi-Fang Tu; Bor-Shyang Sheu; Yao-Jong Yang

    Helicobacter pylori infection is known to alter growth-related hormones and affect growth in young children. However, it is still unknown whether maternal H. pylori infection has an impact on the levels of cord blood growth-related hormones and whether this can predict intrauterine growth restriction and poor physical and neurodevelopmental outcomes in children. This study aimed to examine associations between maternal H. pylori infection and pregnancy-related adverse events, fetal growth and early childhood development. In this prospective cohort study, we recruited singleton pregnant women without major medical illnesses from January 2014 to January 2015. Seropositivity for H. pylori was defined as > 12 U/ml of anti-H. pylori IgG in maternal serum. Demographic data and pregnancy-related medical issues of the cohort were documented. Cord blood levels of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3), insulin, and ghrelin were determined using ELISA. The growth of the included neonates was monitored annually for up to 3 years, and cognitive development was assessed using the comprehensive developmental inventory for infants and toddlers (CDIIT) test 3 years after birth. Of the 106 enrolled women, 25 (23.6%) were H. pylori-seropositive. Maternal H. pylori seropositivity was correlated with a higher risk of developing gestational hypertension (GH) (12% vs. 1.2%, p = 0.04) and lower cord blood levels of IGF-1 (< 35 ng/ml, 70.0% vs. 40.7%, p = 0.02) and IGFBP-3 (< 1120 ng/ml, 100.0% vs. 76.3%, p = 0.02) compared with the seronegative women. No significant impacts on birth weight, childhood growth and cognitive development were found to be correlated with maternal H. pylori seropositivity during pregnancy. Maternal H. pylori infection during pregnancy was more likely to lead to the development of GH, but was not correlated with fetal and childhood growth and development. In addition to close monitoring of hypertension, H. pylori eradication can be considered for mothers with H. pylori infection.

    更新日期:2019-12-17
  • Case report: maple syrup urine disease with a novel DBT gene mutation
    BMC Pediatr. (IF 1.983) Pub Date : 2019-12-13
    Wei Feng; Jinfu Jia; Heyang Guan; Qing Tian

    Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is a potentially life-threatening metabolic disorder caused by decreased activity of the branched-chain α-ketoacid dehydrogenase (BCKD) complex. Mutations in four genes (BCKDHA, BCKDHB, DLD and DBT) are associated with MSUD. Here, the presenting symptoms and clinical course of a case of MSUD with a novel DBT gene mutation are described. We describe an infant with MSUD with the DBT gene mutation who had drowsiness and poor appetite as well as abnormal findings upon head magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), plasma amino acid analysis and urine organic acid analysis. Genetic testing revealed that both parents had the heterozygous mutation c.1132C > T (p.378X) in chr1:100672078, and the patient had the homozygous mutations c.1132C > T (p.378X) in chr1:100672078. Once diagnosed with MSUD, the patient’s disease was controlled with a diet of BCAA-free enteral formula and thiamine. The mutation c.1132C > T (p.378X) is a novel DBT gene mutation that is associated with MSUD and always has mild clinical manifestations. After timely BCAA-free nutrition and supplementation with thiamine for the patient, the plasma levels of BCAAs reached a safe level, the abnormal range of the multiple intracranial abnormalities was significantly smaller than before, and the symptoms of drowsiness and poor appetite disappeared.

    更新日期:2019-12-13
  • Application value of three-dimensional arterial spin labeling perfusion imaging in investigating cerebral blood flow dynamics in normal full-term neonates
    BMC Pediatr. (IF 1.983) Pub Date : 2019-12-13
    Jia-Ning Wang; Jia Li; Huai-Jun Liu; Xiao-Ping Yin; Huan Zhou; Ya-Ting Zheng; Na An; Si Liang; Zuo-Jun Geng

    This study aims to investigate the application value of three-dimensional arterial spin labeling (3DASL) in investigating cerebral blood flow dynamics in full-term neonates. A total of 60 full-term neonates without known intracranial pathology were recruited for 3DASL examination. These neonates were divided into three groups: 1–3 day group, 4–7 day group, and 8–15 day group. On the cerebral blood flow (CBF) images, regions of interest (ROI) were selected from the frontal white matter, parietal white matter, basal ganglia, corona radiata, thalamus and brainstem, and the CBF values of each ROI were recorded. The CBF values of ROIs at bilaterally symmetric locations, the values of each ROI between males and females, and the values of each ROI among these three different age groups were compared. The difference in CBF values of the frontal white matter, parietal white matter, basal ganglia, corona radiata and thalamus at the bilateral symmetric positions were not statistically significant. There was no statistical difference in the CBF values of each brain region between the male and female groups. The CBF values at the basal ganglia region, corona radiata and parietal white matter were higher in the 8–15 day group, when compared to the 1–3 day and 4–7 day groups (P < 0.05). The CBF value at the basal ganglia region was higher in the 4–7 day group, when compared to the 1–3 day group (P < 0.05). The CBF value at the frontal white matter was lower in the 4–7 day group, when compared to the 1–3 day and 8–15 day group (P < 0.05). The CBF value at the brainstem was higher in the 4–7 day group, when compared to the 1–3 day and 8–15 day groups (P < 0.05). The 3DASL can quantitatively measure CBF, and be used to evaluate cerebral hemodynamics in neonates. The basal ganglia region and corona radiata CBF increases with the increase in neonatal diurnal age.

    更新日期:2019-12-13
  • Neonatal body composition: crossectional study in healthy term singletons in Germany
    BMC Pediatr. (IF 1.983) Pub Date : 2019-12-12
    Cornelia Wiechers; Sara Kirchhof; Lena Balles; Vanessa Avelina; Romy Weber; Christoph Maas; Jan Pauluschke-Fröhlich; Manfred Hallschmid; Hubert Preißl; Andreas Fritsche; Christian F. Poets; Axel R. Franz

    During pregnancy, a variety of factors can influence fetal growth and development. Intrauterine growth may impact on later life and health. Neonatal body composition may be a more sensitive marker for the intrauterine environment than established anthropometric parameters at birth. To study neonatal body composition determined by air displacement plethysmography in healthy, term singletons as national reference data, and to establish factors impacting on neonatal body composition in this population. This prospective cross-sectional observational study included 271 healthy, full-term, singletons born between June 2014 and July 2015. Body composition was measured within 96 h of birth using air displacement plethysmography. Median (Q1, Q2) fat mass / total body mass (BF%) in German singletons was 10.8% (7.7–13.4) and fat free mass (FFM) 2843 g (2606–3099). Female infants had significantly increased BF% compared to male infants (11.2% (8.7–14.0) vs. 9.6% (7.2–12.1)). On multiple regression analysis, BF% and fat mass increased with female gender, maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index, non-smoking mother and parity, whereas FFM increased with male gender and increasing gestational age at birth. Gestational weight gain category, birth mode, and postnatal age at measurement were not associated with BF%, FFM or fat mass. We generated BF% and FFM centiles for healthy, term, singletons born in Germany; these are similar to those found in other European countries. Infant body composition at birth was associated with modifiable (pre-pregnancy body mass index, smoking), and given factors (gender, gestational age at birth, parity).

    更新日期:2019-12-13
  • Neonatal body composition by air displacement plethysmography in healthy term singletons: a systematic review
    BMC Pediatr. (IF 1.983) Pub Date : 2019-12-12
    Cornelia Wiechers; Sara Kirchhof; Christoph Maas; Christian F. Poets; Axel R. Franz

    There is increasing evidence that intrauterine environment and, consequently, growth in utero have both immediate and far-reaching consequences for health. Neonatal body composition might be a more sensitive marker of intrauterine environment and neonatal adiposity than birth weight and could serve as a predictor for non-communicable diseases later in life. To perform a systematic literature review on neonatal body composition determined by air displacement plethysmography in healthy infants. The systematic review was performed using the search terms “air displacement plethysmography”, “infant” and “newborn” in Pubmed. Data are displayed as mean (Standard deviation). Fourteen studies (including n = 6231 infants) using air displacement plethysmography fulfilled inclusion criteria for meta-analysis. In these, weighted mean body fat percentage was 10.0 (4.1) % and weighted mean fat free mass was 2883 (356) g in healthy term infants. Female infants had a higher body fat percentage (11.1 (4.1) % vs. 9.6 (4.0) %) and lower fat free mass (2827 (316) g vs. 2979 (344) g). In the Caucasian subpopulation (n = 2202 infants) mean body fat percentage was 10.8 (4.1), whereas data for reference values of other ethnic groups are still sparse. Body composition varies depending on gender and ethnicity. These aggregated data may serve as reference for body composition in healthy, term, singletons at least for the Caucasian subpopulation.

    更新日期:2019-12-13
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