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  • αAzithromycin has enhanced effects on lung fibroblasts from idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) patients compared to controls
    Respir. Res. (IF 3.829) Pub Date : 2020-01-15
    Kristina Krempaska; Sandra Barnowski; Jacopo Gavini; Nina Hobi; Simone Ebener; Cedric Simillion; Andrea Stokes; Ronja Schliep; Lars Knudsen; Thomas K. Geiser; Manuela Funke-Chambour

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic fatal lung disease without a cure and new drug strategies are urgently needed. Differences in behavior between diseased and healthy cells are well known and drug response can be different between cells isolated from IPF patients and controls. The macrolide Azithromycin (AZT) has anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties. Recently anti-fibrotic effects have been described. However, the anti-fibrotic effects on primary IPF-fibroblasts (FB) directly compared to control-FB are unknown. We hypothesized that IPF-FB react differently to AZT in terms of anti-fibrotic effects. Primary normal human lung and IPF-FB were exposed to TGF-β (5 ng/ml), Azithromycin (50 μM) alone or in combination prior to gene expression analysis. Pro-collagen Iα1 secretion was assessed by ELISA and protein expression by western blot (αSMA, Fibronectin, ATP6V1B2, LC3 AB (II/I), p62, Bcl-xL). Microarray analysis was performed to screen involved genes and pathways after Azithromycin treatment in control-FB. Apoptosis and intraluminal lysosomal pH were analyzed by flow cytometry. AZT significantly reduced collagen secretion in TGF-β treated IPF-FB compared to TGF-β treatment alone, but not in control-FB. Pro-fibrotic gene expression was similarly reduced after AZT treatment in IPF and control-FB. P62 and LC3II/I western blot revealed impaired autophagic flux after AZT in both control and IPF-FB with significant increase of LC3II/I after AZT in control and IPF-FB, indicating enhanced autophagy inhibition. Early apoptosis was significantly higher in TGF-β treated IPF-FB compared to controls after AZT. Microarray analysis of control-FB treated with AZT revealed impaired lysosomal pathways. The ATPase and lysosomal pH regulator ATP6V0D2 was significantly less increased after additional AZT in IPF-FB compared to controls. Lysosomal function was impaired in both IPF and control FB, but pH was significantly more increased in TGF-β treated IPF-FB. We report different treatment responses after AZT with enhanced anti-fibrotic and pro-apoptotic effects in IPF compared to control-FB. Possibly impaired lysosomal function contributes towards these effects. In summary, different baseline cell phenotype and behavior of IPF and control cells contribute to enhanced anti-fibrotic and pro-apoptotic effects in IPF-FB after AZT treatment and strengthen its role as a new potential anti-fibrotic compound, that should further be evaluated in clinical studies.

    更新日期:2020-01-15
  • Fluid intake-related association between urine output and mortality in acute respiratory distress syndrome
    Respir. Res. (IF 3.829) Pub Date : 2020-01-14
    Yanfei Shen; Guolong Cai; Shangzhong Chen; Caibao Hu; Jing Yan

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), a complex response to various insults, has a high mortality rate. As pulmonary edema resulting from increased vascular permeability is a hallmark of ARDS, management of the fluid status, including the urine output (UO) and fluid intake (FI), is essential. However, the relationships between UO, FI, and mortality in ARDS remain unclear. This retrospective study aimed to investigate the interactive associations among UO, FI, and mortality in ARDS. This was a secondary analysis of a prospective randomized controlled trial performed at 10 centers within the ARDS Network of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute research network. The total UO and FI volumes within the 24-h period preceding the trial, the UO to FI ratio (UO/FI), demographic data, biochemical measurements, and other variables from 835 patients with ARDS, 539 survivors, and 296 non-survivors, were analyzed. The associations among UO, FI, the UO/FI, and mortality were assessed using a multivariable logistic regression. In all 835 patients, an increased UO was significantly associated with decreased mortality when used as a continuous variable (odds ratio [OR]: 0.98, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.98–0.99, P = 0.002) and as a quartile variable (OR of Q2 to Q4: 0.69–0.46, with Q1 as reference). To explore the interaction between UO and FI, the UO/FI was calculated, and a cut-off value of 0.5 was detected for the association with mortality. For patients with a UO/FI ≤0.5, an increased UO/FI was significantly associated with decreased mortality (OR: 0.09, 95% CI: 0.03–0.253, P < 0.001); this association was not significant for patients with UO/FI ratios > 0.5 (OR: 1.04, 95% CI: 0.96–1.14, P = 0.281). A significant interaction was observed between UO and the UO/FI. The association between UO and mortality was significant in the subgroup with a UO/FI ≤0.5 (OR: 0.97, 95% CI: 0.96–0.99, P = 0.006), but not in the subgroup with a UO/FI > 0.5. The association between UO and mortality was mediated by the UO/FI status, as only patients with low UO/FI ratios benefitted from a higher UO.

    更新日期:2020-01-15
  • A comparison of tiotropium, long-acting β2-agonists and leukotriene receptor antagonists on lung function and exacerbations in paediatric patients with asthma
    Respir. Res. (IF 3.829) Pub Date : 2020-01-13
    Christian Vogelberg; Stanley Goldstein; LeRoy Graham; Alan Kaplan; Alberto de la Hoz; Eckard Hamelmann

    Diagnosing and treating asthma in paediatric patients remains challenging, with many children and adolescents remaining uncontrolled despite treatment. Selecting the most appropriate pharmacological treatment to add onto inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) in children and adolescents with asthma who remain symptomatic despite ICS can be difficult. This literature review compares the efficacy and safety of long-acting β2-agonists (LABAs), leukotriene receptor antagonists (LTRAs) and long-acting muscarinic antagonists (LAMAs) as add-on treatment to ICS in children and adolescents aged 4–17 years. A literature search identified a total of 29 studies that met the inclusion criteria, including 21 randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of LABAs versus placebo, two RCTs of LAMAs (tiotropium) versus placebo, and four RCTs of LTRA (montelukast), all as add-on to ICS. In these studies, tiotropium and LABAs provided greater improvements in lung function than LTRAs, when compared with placebo as add-on to ICS. Although exacerbation data were difficult to interpret, tiotropium reduced the risk of exacerbations requiring oral corticosteroids when added to ICS, with or without additional controllers. LABAs and LTRAs had a comparable risk of asthma exacerbations with placebo when added to ICS. When adverse events (AEs) or serious AEs were analysed, LABAs, montelukast and tiotropium had a comparable safety profile with placebo. In conclusion, this literature review provides an up-to-date overview of the efficacy and safety of LABAs, LTRAs and LAMAs as add-on to ICS in children and adolescents with asthma. Overall, tiotropium and LABAs have similar efficacy, and provide greater improvements in lung function than montelukast as add-on to ICS. All three controller options have comparable safety profiles.

    更新日期:2020-01-14
  • Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation as a bridge to lung transplantation: analysis of Korean organ transplantation registry (KOTRY) data
    Respir. Res. (IF 3.829) Pub Date : 2020-01-13
    Ryoung-Eun Ko; Jin Gu Lee; Song Yee Kim; Young Tae Kim; Sun Mi Choi; Do Hyung Kim; Woo Hyun Cho; Seung-Il Park; Kyung-Wook Jo; Hong Kwan Kim; Hyo Chae Paik; Kyeongman Jeon

    The use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) as a bridge to lung transplantation has greatly increased. However, data regarding the clinical outcomes of this approach are lacking. The objective of this multicenter prospective observational cohort study was to evaluate lung transplantation outcomes in Korean Organ Transplantation Registry (KOTRY) patients for whom ECMO was used as a bridge to transplantation. Between March 2015 and December 2017, a total of 112 patients received lung transplantation and were registered in the KOTRY, which is a prospective, multicenter cohort registry. The entire cohort was divided into two groups: the control group (n = 85, 75.9%) and bridge-ECMO group (n = 27, 24.1%). There were no significant differences in pre-transplant and intraoperative characteristics except for poorer oxygenation, more ventilator use, and longer operation time in the bridge-ECMO group. The prevalence of primary graft dysfunction at 0, 24, 48, and 72 h after transplantation did not differ between the two groups. Although postoperative hospital stays were longer in the bridge-ECMO group than in the control group, hospital mortality did not differ between the two groups (25.9% vs. 13.3%, P = 0.212). The majority of patients (70.4% of the bridge-ECMO group and 77.6% of the control group) were discharged directly to their homes. Finally, the use of ECMO as a bridge to lung transplantation did not significantly affect overall survival and graft function. Short- and long-term post-transplant outcomes of bridge-ECMO patients were comparable to recipients who did not receive ECMO.

    更新日期:2020-01-14
  • Development and initial validation of the bronchiectasis exacerbation and symptom tool (BEST)
    Respir. Res. (IF 3.829) Pub Date : 2020-01-13
    Amaia Artaraz; Megan L. Crichton; Simon Finch; Hani Abo-Leyah; Pieter Goeminne; Stefano Aliberti; Thomas Fardon; James D. Chalmers

    Recurrent bronchiectasis exacerbations are related to deterioration of lung function, progression of the disease, impairment of quality of life, and to an increased mortality. Improved detection of exacerbations has been accomplished in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease through the use of patient completed diaries. These tools may enhance exacerbation reporting and identification. The aim of this study was to develop a novel symptom diary for bronchiectasis symptom burden and detection of exacerbations, named the BEST diary. Prospective observational study of patients with bronchiectasis conducted at Ninewells Hospital, Dundee. We included patients with confirmed bronchiectasis by computed tomography, who were symptomatic and had at least 1 documented exacerbation of bronchiectasis in the previous 12 months to participate. Symptoms were recorded daily in a diary incorporating cough, sputum volume, sputum colour, dyspnoea, fatigue and systemic disturbance scored from 0 to 26. Twenty-one patients were included in the study. We identified 29 reported (treated exacerbations) and 23 unreported (untreated) exacerbations over 6-month follow-up. The BEST diary score showed a good correlation with the established and validated questionnaires and measures of health status (COPD Assessment Test, r = 0.61, p = 0.0037, Leicester Cough Questionnaire, r = − 0.52,p = 0.0015, St Georges Respiratory Questionnaire, r = 0.61,p < 0.0001 and 6 min walk test, r = − 0.46,p = 0.037). The mean BEST score at baseline was 7.1 points (SD 2.2). The peak symptom score during exacerbation was a mean of 16.4 (3.1), and the change from baseline to exacerbation was a mean of 9.1 points (SD 2.5). Mean duration of exacerbations based on time for a return to baseline symptoms was 15.3 days (SD 5.7). A minimum clinically important difference of 4 points is proposed. The BEST symptom diary has shown concurrent validity with current health questionnaires and is responsive at onset and recovery from exacerbation. The BEST diary may be useful to detect and characterise exacerbations in bronchiectasis clinical trials.

    更新日期:2020-01-13
  • Reduced airway levels of fatty-acid binding protein 4 in COPD: relationship with airway infection and disease severity
    Respir. Res. (IF 3.829) Pub Date : 2020-01-13
    Lídia Perea; Ana Rodrigo-Troyano; Elisabet Cantó; Marisol Domínguez-Álvarez; Jordi Giner; Ferran Sanchez-Reus; Judit Villar-García; Sara Quero; Marian García-Núñez; Alicia Marín; Eduard Monsó; Rosa Faner; Alvar Agustí; Silvia Vidal; Oriol Sibila

    For still unclear reasons, chronic airway infection often occurs in patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), particularly in those with more severe airflow limitation. Fatty-acid binding protein 4 (FABP4) is an adipokine involved in the innate immune response against infection produced by alveolar macrophages (Mɸ). We hypothesized that airway levels of FABP4 may be altered in COPD patients with chronic airway infection. In this prospective and controlled study we: (1) compared airway FABP4 levels (ELISA) in induced sputum, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and plasma samples in 52 clinically stable COPD patients (65.2 ± 7.9 years, FEV1 59 ± 16% predicted) and 29 healthy volunteers (55.0 ± 12.3 years, FEV1 97 ± 16% predicted); (2) explored their relationship with the presence of bacterial airway infection, defined by the presence of potentially pathogenic bacteria (PPB) at ≥103 colony-forming units/ml in BALF; (3) investigated their relationship with the quantity and proportion of Mɸ in BALF (flow cytometry); and, (4) studied their relationship with the severity of airflow limitation (FEV1), GOLD grade and level of symptoms (CAT questionnaire). We found that: (1) airway levels of FABP4 (but not plasma ones) were reduced in COPD patients vs. controls [219.2 (96.0–319.6) vs. 273.4 (203.1–426.7) (pg/ml)/protein, p = 0.03 in BALF]; (2) COPD patients with airway infection had lower sputum FABP4 levels [0.73 (0.35–15.3) vs. 15.6 (2.0–29.4) ng/ml, p = 0.02]; (3) in COPD patients, the number and proportion of Mɸ were positively related with FABP4 levels in BALF; (4) BALF and sputum FABP4 levels were positively related with FEV1, negatively with the CAT score, and lowest in GOLD grade D patients. Airway FABP4 levels are reduced in COPD patients, especially in those with airway infection and more severe disease. The relationship observed between Mɸ and airway FABP4 levels supports a role for FABP4 in the pathogenesis of airway infection and disease severity in COPD.

    更新日期:2020-01-13
  • ZDHXB-101 (3′,5-Diallyl-2, 4′-dihydroxy-[1,1′-biphen-yl]-3,5′-dicarbaldehyde) protects against airway remodeling and hyperresponsiveness via inhibiting both the activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase and the signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 signaling pathways
    Respir. Res. (IF 3.829) Pub Date : 2020-01-13
    Jun-xia Jiang; Hui-juan Shen; Yan Guan; Yong-liang Jia; Jian Shen; Qi Liu; Qiang-min Xie; Xiao-feng Yan

    Airway remodeling consists of the structural changes of airway walls, which is often considered the result of longstanding airway inflammation, but it may be present to an equivalent degree in the airways of children with asthma, raising the need for early and specific therapeutic interventions. The arachidonic acid cytochrome P-450 (CYP) pathway has thus far received relatively little attention in its relation to asthma. In this study, we studied the inhibition of soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) on airway remodeling and hyperresponsiveness (AHR) in a chronic asthmatic model which long-term exposure to antigen over a period of 12 weeks. The expression of sEH and CYP2J2, the level of 14, 15-epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs), airway remodeling, hyperresponsiveness and inflammation were analyzed to determine the inhibition of sEH. The intragastric administration of 3 or 10 mg/kg ZDHXB-101, which is a structural derivative of natural product honokiol and a novel soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) inhibitor, daily for 9 weeks significantly increased the level of 14, 15-EETs by inhibiting the expression of sEH and increasing the expression of CYP2J2 in lung tissues. ZDHXB-101 reduced the expression of remodeling-related markers such as interleukin (IL)-13, IL-17, MMP-9 N-cadherin, α-smooth muscle actin, S100A4, Twist, goblet cell metaplasia, and collagen deposition in the lung tissue or in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Moreover, ZDHXB-101 alleviated AHR, which is an indicator that is used to evaluate the airway remodeling function. The inhibitory effects of ZDHXB-101 were demonstrated to be related to its direct inhibition of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk1/2) phosphorylation, as well as inhibition of c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK) and the signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3) signal transduction. These findings first revealed the anti-remodeling potential of ZDHXB-101 lead in chronic airway disease.

    更新日期:2020-01-13
  • Neuromuscular blocking agents for acute respiratory distress syndrome: an updated meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials
    Respir. Res. (IF 3.829) Pub Date : 2020-01-13
    Zhongjun Zheng; Libing Jiang; Song Zhang; Christophe Guervilly; Mao Zhang; Xia Feng; Jianbo Ding

    The aim of this study is investigating the benefits and harms of neuromuscular blocking agents (NMBAs) in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). We comprehensively searched PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane library for randomized controlled trials comparing NMBAs to any other comparator. We pooled data using relative risk (RR) for dichotomous outcomes and weighted mean difference (WMD) for continuous outcomes, with 95% confidence intervals. We assessed the quality of included studies using the Cochrane tool and levels of evidence using the GRADE method. Finally, six RCTs (n = 1557 patients) were eligible for analysis. The results showed NMBAs use was not associated with reduced 28 days mortality (RR 0.78; 95% CI, 0.58 to 1.06; P = 0.11), 90 days mortality (RR, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.81 to 1.04; P = 0.16), and intensive care unit (ICU) mortality (RR, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.79 to 1.03; P = 0.13) in patients with ARDS. However, 21–28 days mortality was slightly lower in patients received NMBAs (RR 0.73; 95% CI, 0.54 to 0.99; P = 0.04; I2 = 53%). Besides, NMBAs use could improve the PaO2/FiO2 ratio at 48 and 72 h, decrease plateau pressure and PEEP at 72 h. Additionally, NMBAs had no significant effects on days free of ventilation at day 28 (WMD, 0.55; 95% CI, − 0.46 to 1.57; P = 0.29), days not in ICU at day 28 (WMD, 0.12; 95% CI, − 0.85 to 1.08; P = 0.82), ICU-acquired weakness (RR, 1.23; 95% CI, 0.99 to 1.93; P = 0.06). Finally, NMBAs use was associated with a lower risk of barotrauma (RR, 0.55; 95% CI, 0.35 to 0.85; P = 0.007). In patients with respiratory distress syndrome, NMBAs may be beneficial in reverse refractory hypoxemia and may be associated with reduced short-term mortality and incidence of barotrauma. However, there is no significant effects of NMBAs on mid-term and long-term mortality, and further studies are required.

    更新日期:2020-01-13
  • Impact of diffusing lung capacity before and after neoadjuvant concurrent chemoradiation on postoperative pulmonary complications among patients with stage IIIA/N2 non-small-cell lung cancer
    Respir. Res. (IF 3.829) Pub Date : 2020-01-10
    Sumin Shin; Yong Soo Choi; Jae Jun Jung; Yunjoo Im; Sun Hye Shin; Danbee Kang; Jong Ho Cho; Hong Kwan Kim; Jhingook Kim; Jae Ill Zo; Young Mog Shim; Keunchil Park; Myung-Ju Ahn; Yong Chan Ahn; Genehee Lee; Juhee Cho; Ho Yun Lee; Hye Yun Park

    This study aims to evaluate the impact of diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (DLco) before and after neoadjuvant concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) on postoperative pulmonary complication (PPC) among stage IIIA/N2 non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. We retrospectively studied 324 patients with stage IIIA/N2 NSCLC between 2009 and 2016. Patients were classified into 4 groups according to DLco before and after neoadjuvant CCRT; normal-to-normal (NN), normal-to-low (NL), low-to-low (LL), and low-to-very low (LVL). Low DLco and very low DLco were defined as DLco < 80% predicted and DLco < 60% predicted, respectively. On average, DLco was decreased by 12.3% (±10.5) after CCRT. In multivariable-adjusted analyses, the incidence rate ratio (IRR) for any PPC comparing patients with low DLco to those with normal DLco before CCRT was 2.14 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.36–3.36). Moreover, the IRR for any PPC was 3.78 (95% CI = 1.68–8.49) in LVL group compared to NN group. The significant change of DLco after neoadjuvant CCRT had an additional impact on PPC, particularly after bilobectomy or pneumonectomy with low baseline DLco. The DLco before CCRT was significantly associated with risk of PPC, and repeated test of DLco after CCRT would be helpful for risk assessment, particularly in patients with low DLco before neoadjuvant CCRT.

    更新日期:2020-01-11
  • Construction of asthma related competing endogenous RNA network revealed novel long non-coding RNAs and potential new drugs
    Respir. Res. (IF 3.829) Pub Date : 2020-01-10
    Yifang Liao; Ping Li; Yanxia Wang; Hong Chen; Shangwei Ning; Dongju Su

    Asthma is a heterogeneous disease characterized by chronic airway inflammation. Long non-coding RNA can act as competing endogenous RNA to mRNA, and play significant role in many diseases. However, there is little known about the profiles of long non-coding RNA and the long non-coding RNA related competing endogenous RNA network in asthma. In current study, we aimed to explore the long non-coding RNA-microRNA-mRNA competing endogenous RNA network in asthma and their potential implications for therapy and prognosis. Asthma-related gene expression profiles were downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus database, re-annotated with these genes and identified for asthma-associated differentially expressed mRNAs and long non-coding RNAs. The long non-coding RNA-miRNA interaction data and mRNA-miRNA interaction data were downloaded using the starBase database to construct a long non-coding RNA-miRNA-mRNA global competing endogenous RNA network and extract asthma-related differentially expressed competing endogenous RNA network. Finally, functional enrichment analysis and drug repositioning of asthma-associated differentially expressed competing endogenous RNA networks were performed to further identify key long non-coding RNAs and potential therapeutics associated with asthma. This study constructed an asthma-associated competing endogenous RNA network, determined 5 key long non-coding RNAs (MALAT1, MIR17HG, CASC2, MAGI2-AS3, DAPK1-IT1) and identified 8 potential new drugs (Tamoxifen, Ruxolitinib, Tretinoin, Quercetin, Dasatinib, Levocarnitine, Niflumic Acid, Glyburide). The results suggested that long non-coding RNA played an important role in asthma, and these novel long non-coding RNAs could be potential therapeutic target and prognostic biomarkers. At the same time, potential new drugs for asthma treatment have been discovered through drug repositioning techniques, providing a new direction for the treatment of asthma.

    更新日期:2020-01-11
  • The stability of blood Eosinophils in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
    Respir. Res. (IF 3.829) Pub Date : 2020-01-10
    Gabriella H. Long; Thomas Southworth; Umme Kolsum; Gavin C. Donaldson; Jadwiga A. Wedzicha; Christopher E. Brightling; Dave Singh

    Blood eosinophils are a predictive biomarker of inhaled corticosteroid response in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We investigated blood eosinophil stability over 1 year using the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) 2019 thresholds of < 100, 100- < 300 and ≥ 300 eosinophils/μL in 225 patients from the COPDMAP cohort. Blood eosinophils showed good stability (rho: 0.71, p < 0.001, ICC 0.84), and 69.3% of patients remained in the same eosinophil category at 1 year. 85.3% of patients with eosinophils < 100 cells/μL had stable counts. The majority of blood eosinophil counts remain stable over 1 year using the GOLD 2019 thresholds.

    更新日期:2020-01-11
  • Lung-protective ventilation worsens ventilator-induced diaphragm atrophy and weakness
    Respir. Res. (IF 3.829) Pub Date : 2020-01-10
    Xian-Long Zhou; Xiao-Jun Wei; Shao-Ping Li; Hao-Li Ma; Yan Zhao

    Lung–protective ventilation (LPV) has been found to minimize the risk of ventilator–induced lung injury (VILI). However, whether LPV is able to diminish ventilator–induced diaphragm dysfunction (VIDD) remains unknown. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that LPV protects the diaphragm against VIDD. Adult male Wistar rats received either conventional mechanical (tidal volume [VT]: 10 ml/kg, positive end–expiratory pressure [PEEP]: 2 cm H2O; CV group) or lung-protective (VT: 5 ml/kg, PEEP: 10 cm H2O; LPV group) ventilation for 12 h. Then, diaphragms and lungs were collected for biochemical and histological analyses. Transcriptome sequencing (RNA–seq) was performed to determine the differentially expressed genes in the diaphragms between groups. Our results suggested that LPV was associated with diminished pulmonary injuries and reduced oxidative stress compared with the effects of the CV strategy in rats. However, animals that received LPV showed increased protein degradation, decreased cross–sectional areas (CSAs) of myofibers, and reduced forces of the diaphragm compared with the same parameters in animals receiving CV (p < 0.05). In addition, the LPV group showed a higher level of oxidative stress in the diaphragm than the CV group (p < 0.05). Moreover, RNA–seq and western blots revealed that the peroxisome proliferator–activated receptor γ coactivator–1alpha (PGC–1α), a powerful reactive oxygen species (ROS) inhibitor, was significantly downregulated in the LPV group compared with its expression in the CV group (p < 0.05). Compared with the CV strategy, the LPV strategy did not protect the diaphragm against VIDD in rats. In contrast, the LPV strategy worsened VIDD by inducing oxidative stress together with the downregulation of PGC–1α in the diaphragm. However, further studies are required to determine the roles of PGC–1α in ventilator-induced diaphragmatic oxidative stress.

    更新日期:2020-01-11
  • Reduced risk of clinically important deteriorations by ICS in COPD is eosinophil dependent: a pooled post-hoc analysis
    Respir. Res. (IF 3.829) Pub Date : 2020-01-10
    Mona Bafadhel; Dave Singh; Christine Jenkins; Stefan Peterson; Thomas Bengtsson; Peter Wessman; Malin Fagerås

    Clinically Important Deterioration (CID) is a novel composite measure to assess treatment effect in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We examined the performance and utility of CID in assessing the effect of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) in COPD. This post-hoc analysis of four budesonide/formoterol (BUD/FORM) studies comprised 3576 symptomatic moderate-to-very-severe COPD patients with a history of exacerbation. Analysis of time to first CID event (exacerbation, deterioration in forced expiratory volume in 1 second [FEV1] or worsening St George’s Respiratory Questionnaire [SGRQ] score) was completed using Cox proportional hazards models. The proportion of patients with ≥1 CID in the four studies ranged between 63 and 77% and 69–84% with BUD/FORM and FORM, respectively, with an average 25% reduced risk of CID with BUD/FORM. All components contributed to the CID event rate. Experiencing a CID during the first 3 months was associated with poorer outcomes (lung function, quality of life, symptoms and reliever use) and increased risk of later CID events. The effect of BUD/FORM versus FORM in reducing CID risk was positively associated with the blood eosinophil count. Our findings suggest that BUD/FORM offers protective effects for CID events compared with FORM alone, with the magnitude of the effect dependent on patients’ eosinophil levels. CID may be an important tool for evaluation of treatment effect in a complex, multifaceted, and progressive disease like COPD, and a valuable tool to allow for shorter and smaller future outcome predictive trials in early drug development.

    更新日期:2020-01-11
  • Comorbidities and survival in patients with chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis
    Respir. Res. (IF 3.829) Pub Date : 2020-01-09
    Julia Wälscher; Benjamin Gross; Julie Morisset; Kerri A. Johannson; Martina Vasakova; Jacques Bruhwyler; Michael Kreuter

    Chronic Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis (cHP) is a fibrotic interstitial lung disease (ILD) resulting from repeated exposure to an offending antigen. Prognostication in cHP remains challenging, and the relationship between comorbidities and survival has yet to be characterized. The aim of this study was to describe the relationship between comorbid conditions and survival in patients with cHP. The prospective database from a tertiary referral centre for ILD was reviewed for patient-reported comorbidities, their frequency, and relationship with survival in cHP patients. Comorbidities were assessed by direct questioning of the patient at the baseline visit and by a standardized questionnaire for the diagnosis of interstitial lung diseases. During the follow-up examinations, patients were asked about newly diagnosed comorbidities. Two hundred eleven patients with cHP were identified (mean age 63 years, 53% male, mean FVC 73%), with mean follow-up of 32 months. The mean number of comorbidities was 3 (10% had 0, 59% 1–3 and 31% ≥4 comorbidities). Most frequent comorbidities groups were cardiovascular (65%) and respiratory (26%), most common comorbidities were hypertension (56%), gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD) (24%), diabetes (20%) and coronary heart disease (18%). In general, deceased patients had more comorbidities than survivors (p = 0.005), yet there was no association between the absolute number of comorbidities and survival. Pulmonary hypertension (30.8% versus 5.7%, p = 0.001;), diastolic dysfunction (26.9% versus 6.4%, p = 0.004) and cerebrovascular disease were more frequent in non-survivors (23.1% versus 7.6%, p = 0.026). Lung cancer was not observed, and neither GERD nor antacid drugs were associated with outcome (p = 0.357 and p = 0.961, respectively). Comorbidities are common in cHP are associated with survival. Further work should determine whether interventions for these specific comorbidities can positively affect survival.

    更新日期:2020-01-09
  • SOD2 ameliorates pulmonary hypertension in a murine model of sleep apnea via suppressing expression of NLRP3 in CD11b+ cells
    Respir. Res. (IF 3.829) Pub Date : 2020-01-08
    Cuiping Fu; Shengyu Hao; Zilong Liu; Liang Xie; Xu Wu; Xiaodan Wu; Shanqun Li

    High prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in the pulmonary hypertension (PH) population suggests that chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) is an important pathogenic factor of PH. However, the exact mechanism of CIH induced PH is not clear. One of the molecules that plays a key role in regulating pulmonary artery function under hypoxic conditions is superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2). Our study utilized heterozygous SOD2−/+ mice firstly in CIH model to explore the exact role of SOD2 in CIH causing PH. Expression of SOD2 was analyzed in CIH model. Echocardiography and pulmonary hypertension were measured in wild type (WT) and SOD2−/+ mice under normal air or CIH condition. Hematoxylin–Eosin (H&E) staining and masson staining were carried out to evaluate pulmonary vascular muscularization and remodeling. Micro-PET scanning of in vivo 99mTc-labelled- MAG3-anti-CD11b was applied to assess CD11b in quantification and localization. Level of nod-like receptor pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) was analyzed by real time PCR and immunohistochemistry (IHC). Results showed that SOD2 was down-regulated in OSA/CIH model. Deficiency of SOD2 aggravated CIH induced pulmonary hypertension and pulmonary vascular hypertrophy. CD11b+ cells, especially monocytic myeloid cell line-Ly6C+Ly6G− cells, were increased in the lung, bone marrow and the blood under CIH condition, and down-regulated SOD2 activated NLRP3 in CD11b+ cells. SOD2-deficient-CD11b+ myeloid cells promoted the apoptosis resistance and over-proliferation of human pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) via up-regulating NLRP3. CIH induced down-regulating of SOD2 increased pulmonary hypertension and vascular muscularization. It could be one of the mechanism of CIH leading to PH.

    更新日期:2020-01-08
  • Characteristic chest CT findings for progressive cavities in Mycobacterium avium complex pulmonary disease: a retrospective cohort study
    Respir. Res. (IF 3.829) Pub Date : 2020-01-08
    Yohei Oshitani; Seigo Kitada; Ryuya Edahiro; Kazuyuki Tsujino; Hiroyuki Kagawa; Kenji Yoshimura; Keisuke Miki; Mari Miki; Hiroshi Kida

    Although cavities are an important finding in Mycobacterium avium complex pulmonary disease (MAC-PD), there is little information regarding the types of cavities that indicate disease progression. This study was performed to identify cavity characteristics that were associated with disease progression in patients with MAC-PD. This retrospective cohort study included 97 patients presenting with MAC-PD with cavities between December 2006 and June 2016. We compared initial and final computed tomography (CT) findings, classified 52 and 45 patients in the progressive and non-progressive cavity groups, respectively, and examined the progression-related imaging features in initial CT images. A progressive cavity was defined by more than two-fold increase in internal diameter or emergence of a new cavity around the initial cavity. Patients in the progressive group were older (p < 0.001), had a lower body mass index (p = 0.043), and showed higher diabetes complication rates (p = 0.005). The initial CT in the progressive group showed a longer maximum internal diameter of the cavity (p < 0.001) and higher rates of cavities close to the chest wall (p < 0.001), multiple cavities (p = 0.023), consolidation around the cavity (p < 0.001), atelectasis (p = 0.011), and pleural thickening (p < 0.001). Multivariable logistic regression analysis revealed that the maximum internal diameter of the cavity (odds ratio [OR]: 1.11, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.02–1.21; p=0.012) and consolidation around the cavity (OR: 16.15, 95% CI: 4.05–64.46; p < 0.001) were significantly associated with progressive cavities. In cavities with a maximum internal diameter of ≥10 mm and simultaneous consolidation, the probability of progression was as high as 96.2%. The 10-year mortality rates in the progressive and non-progressive cavity groups were 46.7 and 9.8% (p < 0.001), respectively, while the 10-year respiratory failure rates were 28.1 and 0%, respectively (p < 0.001). Large cavity size and consolidation on CT showed strong relationships with disease progression, which led to respiratory failure and high mortality rate.

    更新日期:2020-01-08
  • The European MultiPartner IPF registry (EMPIRE): validating long-term prognostic factors in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis
    Respir. Res. (IF 3.829) Pub Date : 2020-01-08
    Tanja Tran; Martina Šterclová; Nesrin Mogulkoc; Katarzyna Lewandowska; Veronika Müller; Marta Hájková; Mordechai R. Kramer; Dragana Jovanović; Jasna Tekavec-Trkanjec; Michael Studnicka; Natalia Stoeva; Karel Hejduk; Ladislav Dušek; Samy Suissa; Martina Vašáková

    Several registries of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) have been established to better understand its natural history, though their size and duration of follow-up are limited. Here, we describe the large European MultiPartner IPF Registry (EMPIRE) and validate predictors of long-term survival in IPF. The multinational prospective EMPIRE registry enrolled IPF patients from 48 sites in 10 Central and Eastern European countries since 2014. Survival from IPF diagnosis until death was estimated, accounting for left-truncation. The Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to estimate adjusted hazard ratios (HR) of death for prognostic factors, using restricted cubic splines to fit continuous factors. The cohort included 1620 patients (mean age at diagnosis 67.6 years, 71% male, 63% smoking history), including 75% enrolled within 6 months of diagnosis. Median survival was 4.5 years, with 45% surviving 5 years post-diagnosis. Compared with GAP stage I, mortality was higher with GAP stages II (HR 2.9; 95% CI: 2.3–3.7) and III (HR 4.0; 95% CI: 2.8–5.7) while, with redefined cut-offs, the corresponding HRs were 2.7 (95% CI: 1.8–4.0) and 5.8 (95% CI: 4.0–8.3) respectively. Mortality was higher with concurrent pulmonary hypertension (HR 2.0; 95% CI: 1.5–2.9) and lung cancer (HR 2.6; 95% CI: 1.3–4.9). EMPIRE, one of the largest long-term registries of patients with IPF, provides a more accurate confirmation of prognostic factors and co-morbidities on longer term five-year mortality. It also suggests that some fine-tuning of the indices for mortality may provide a more accurate long-term prognostic profile for these patients.

    更新日期:2020-01-08
  • Porcine versus bovine surfactant therapy for RDS in preterm neonates: pragmatic meta-analysis and review of physiopathological plausibility of the effects on extra-pulmonary outcomes
    Respir. Res. (IF 3.829) Pub Date : 2020-01-07
    Silvia Foligno; Daniele De Luca

    While porcine seems to be superior to bovine surfactants in terms of respiratory outcomes, it is unclear if a surfactant can improve extra-pulmonary outcomes in preterm neonates with respiratory distress syndrome and if there is any physiopathological/biological mechanism linking surfactant therapy to these outcomes. We aim to fill these knowledge gaps. Systematic and pragmatic review coupled with meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials of bovine or porcine surfactants administered to treat RDS in preterm neonates; common extra-pulmonary neonatal intensive care outcomes were considered. As additional analysis, animal or human translational studies about mechanisms linking surfactant replacement to extra-pulmonary neonatal outcomes were also systematically reviewed. Porcine surfactant is associated with lower incidence of patent ductus arteriosus (OR:0.655; 95%CI:0.460–0.931); p = 0.018; 12 trials; 1472 patients); prenatal steroids (coeff.:-0.009, 95%CI:-0.03–0.009, p = 0.323) and gestational age (coeff.:0.079, 95%CI:-0.18–0.34, p = 0.554) did not influence this effect size. No significant differences were found between porcine and bovine surfactants on neonatal intensive care unit length of stay (mean difference (days):-2.977; 95%CI:-6.659–0.705; p = 0.113; 8 trials; 855 patients), intra-ventricular hemorrhage of any grade (OR:0.860; 95%CI:0.648–1.139); p = 0.293; 15 trials; 1703 patients), severe intra-ventricular hemorrhage (OR:0.852; 95%CI:0.624–1.163); p = 0.313; 15 trials; 1672 patients), necrotizing entero-colitis (OR:1.190; 95%CI:0.785–1.803); p = 0.412; 9 trials; 1097 patients) and retinopathy of prematurity (OR:0.801; 95%CI:0.480–1.337); p = 0.396; 10 trials; 962 patients). Physiopathological mechanisms explaining the effect of surfactant have been found for patent ductus arteriosus only, while they are lacking for all other endpoints. Porcine surfactant is associated with lower incidence of PDA than bovine surfactants. As there are no differences in terms of other extra-pulmonary outcomes and no physiopathological plausibility, these endpoints should not be used in future trials. PROSPERO n.CRD42018100906.

    更新日期:2020-01-07
  • Use of antibiotics and asthma medication for acute lower respiratory tract infections in people with and without asthma: retrospective cohort study
    Respir. Res. (IF 3.829) Pub Date : 2020-01-06
    Rachel Denholm; Esther T. van der Werf; Alastair D. Hay

    Antibiotics are overused in patients with acute lower respiratory tract infections (ALRTIs), but less is known about their use in patients with asthma, or the use of asthma medication for ALRTI in patients without asthma. Our aim was to describe the frequency, variation and drivers in antibiotic and asthma medication prescribing for ALRTI in adults with and without asthma in primary care. A retrospective cohort analysis of patients aged ≥12 years, diagnosed with an ALRTI in primary care in 2014–15 was conducted using data from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink. Current asthma status, asthma medication and oral antibiotic use within 3 days of ALRTI infection was determined. Treatment frequency was calculated by asthma status. Mixed-effect regression models were used to explore between-practice variation and treatment determinants. There were 127,976 ALRTIs reported among 110,418 patients during the study period, of whom 17,952 (16%) had asthma. Respectively, 81 and 79% of patients with and without asthma received antibiotics, and 41 and 15% asthma medication. There were significant differences in between-practice prescribing for all treatments, with greatest differences seen for oral steroids (odds ratio (OR) 18; 95% CI 7–82 and OR = 94; 33–363, with and without asthma) and asthma medication only (OR 7; 4–18 and OR = 17; 10–33, with and without asthma). Independent predictors of antibiotic prescribing among patients with asthma included fewer previous ALRTI presentations (≥2 vs. 0 previous ALRTI: OR = 0.25; 0.16–0.39), higher practice (OR = 1.47; 1.35–1.60 per SD) and prior antibiotic prescribing (3+ vs. 1 prescriptions OR = 1.28; 1.04–1.57) and concurrent asthma medication (OR = 1.44; 1.32–1.57). Independent predictors of asthma medication in patients without asthma included higher prior asthma medication prescribing (≥7 vs. 0 prescriptions OR = 2.31; 1.83–2.91) and concurrent antibiotic prescribing (OR = 3.59; 3.22–4.01). Findings from the study indicate that antibiotics are over-used for ALRTI, irrespective of asthma status, and asthma medication is over-used in patients without asthma, with between-practice variation suggesting considerable clinical uncertainty. Further research is urgently needed to clarify the role of these medications for ALRTI.

    更新日期:2020-01-06
  • Risk factors for exacerbations and pneumonia in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a pooled analysis
    Respir. Res. (IF 3.829) Pub Date : 2020-01-06
    Benjamin F. Hartley; Neil C. Barnes; Sally Lettis; Chris H. Compton; Alberto Papi; Paul Jones

    Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are at risk of exacerbations and pneumonia; how the risk factors interact is unclear. This post-hoc, pooled analysis included studies of COPD patients treated with inhaled corticosteroid (ICS)/long-acting β2 agonist (LABA) combinations and comparator arms of ICS, LABA, and/or placebo. Backward elimination via Cox’s proportional hazards regression modelling evaluated which combination of risk factors best predicts time to first (a) pneumonia, and (b) moderate/severe COPD exacerbation. Five studies contributed: NCT01009463, NCT01017952, NCT00144911, NCT00115492, and NCT00268216. Low body mass index (BMI), exacerbation history, worsening lung function (Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease [GOLD] stage), and ICS treatment were identified as factors increasing pneumonia risk. BMI was the only pneumonia risk factor influenced by ICS treatment, with ICS further increasing risk for those with BMI <25 kg/m2. The modelled probability of pneumonia varied between 3 and 12% during the first year. Higher exacerbation risk was associated with a history of exacerbations, poorer lung function (GOLD stage), female sex and absence of ICS treatment. The influence of the other exacerbation risk factors was not modified by ICS treatment. Modelled probabilities of an exacerbation varied between 31 and 82% during the first year. The probability of an exacerbation was considerably higher than for pneumonia. ICS reduced exacerbations but did not influence the effect of risks associated with prior exacerbation history, GOLD stage, or female sex. The only identified risk factor for ICS-induced pneumonia was BMI <25 kg/m2. Analyses of this type may help the development of COPD risk equations.

    更新日期:2020-01-06
  • Chitotriosidase: a biomarker of activity and severity in patients with sarcoidosis
    Respir. Res. (IF 3.829) Pub Date : 2020-01-06
    David Bennett; Paolo Cameli; Nicola Lanzarone; Loredana Carobene; Nicola Bianchi; Annalisa Fui; Luigi Rizzi; Laura Bergantini; Giuseppe Cillis; D’ Alessandro Miriana; Maria Antonietta Mazzei; Rosa Metella Refini; Piersante Sestini; Elena Bargagli; Paola Rottoli

    Serum chitotriosidase is a promising biomarker that has shown high specificity and sensitivity in patients with sarcoidosis. The aim of this study was to investigate correlations between serum chitotriosidase, clinical phenotypes, disease localizations and different radiological lung involvement and to identify clinical features associated with over-expression of chitotriosidase in a large cohort of sarcoidosis patients. Chitotriosidase activity was evaluated in a population of 694 consecutive patients (males 39%, age 55.8 ± 12.8 years). Clinical and respiratory functional characteristics, Clinical Outcome Scale (COS) classification, clinical phenotypes proposed by the GenPhenResA project, and radiological assessment, including CT scan, were collected. Serum sampling and clinical and functional assessments at follow-up were also included. Significantly higher chitotriosidase activity was observed in sarcoidosis patients than in healthy controls (p < 0.0001). Evidence of lung fibrosis with reticular abnormalities and traction bronchiectasis at High resolution CT, presence of multiple extrapulmonary sarcoid localizations and increased 24-h urinary excretion of calcium were associated with significantly higher chitotriosidase activity (p < 0.005). Patients with remitted or minimal disease had lower values of chitotriosidase than patients with persistent disease. At follow-up, patients who required an increase in steroid dose showed an increase in its activity. Chitotriosidase is a reliable biomarker of sarcoidosis. It is increased in patients with sarcoidosis correlating with disease activity, severity and multiorgan dissemination. Steroid therapy tended to reduce chitotriosidase expression, however it responded in cases of disease relapse.

    更新日期:2020-01-06
  • Ongoing challenges in pulmonary fibrosis and insights from the nintedanib clinical programme
    Respir. Res. (IF 3.829) Pub Date : 2020-01-06
    Claudia Valenzuela; Sebastiano Emanuele Torrisi; Nicolas Kahn; Manuel Quaresma; Susanne Stowasser; Michael Kreuter

    The approvals of nintedanib and pirfenidone changed the treatment paradigm in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), and increased our understanding of the underlying disease mechanisms. Nonetheless, many challenges and unmet needs remain in the management of patients with IPF and other progressive fibrosing interstitial lung diseases. This review describes how the nintedanib clinical programme has helped to address some of these challenges. Data from this programme have informed changes to the IPF diagnostic guidelines, the timing of treatment initiation, and the assessment of disease progression. The use of nintedanib to treat patients with advanced lung function impairment, concomitant emphysema, patients awaiting lung transplantation and patients with IPF and lung cancer is discussed. The long-term use of nintedanib and an up-to-date summary of nintedanib in clinical practice are discussed. Directions for future research, namely emerging therapeutic options, precision medicine and other progressive fibrosing interstitial lung diseases, are described. Further developments in these areas should continue to improve patient outcomes.

    更新日期:2020-01-06
  • The impact of palliative care on quality of life, anxiety, and depression in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: a randomized controlled pilot study
    Respir. Res. (IF 3.829) Pub Date : 2020-01-03
    Katherine Janssen; Drew Rosielle; Qi Wang; Hyun Joo Kim

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a fatal disease that results in poor quality of life due to progressive respiratory symptoms, anxiety, and depression. Palliative care improves quality of life and survival in other progressive diseases. No randomized controlled trials have investigated the impact of palliative care on quality of life, anxiety, or depression in IPF. We conducted a randomized, controlled, pilot study to assess the feasibility of measuring the effect of a palliative care clinic referral on quality of life, anxiety, and depression in IPF. Patients were randomized to usual care (UC) or usual care + palliative care (UC + PC) with routine pulmonary follow up at 3 and 6 months. The UC + PC group received a minimum of one PC clinic visit. Primary outcome was change from baseline in quality of life, anxiety, and depression as measured by the St. George’s Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Index (HADS), and the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) at 6 months. Twenty-two patients were randomized between September 2017 through July 2018; 11 to UC and 11 to UC + PC. There was no difference in the change in SGRQ score at 3 months or 6 months, however, the symptom score trended towards a significant worsening for UC + PC at both 3 and 6 months (mean change at 3 months for UC and UC + PC was − 7.8 and + 10.7, respectively, p = 0.066; mean change at 6 months for UC and UC + PC was − 6.0 and + 4.6, respectively, p = 0.055). There was no difference in the change in HADS anxiety or depression scores. There was a significant transient worsening in PHQ-9 scores for UC + PC at 3 months (UC: -1.6, UC + PC: + 0.9, p = 0.008); this effect did not persist at 6 months. This pilot study demonstrated that a randomized controlled trial of palliative care in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis patients is feasible. Receiving palliative care did not lead to improved quality of life, anxiety, or depression compared to usual care after 6 months. Patients in the UC + PC group trended towards worsening symptoms and a small but statistically significant transient worsening in depression. These findings should be interpreted with caution, and need to be evaluated in adequately powered clinical trials. NCT03981406, June 10, 2019, retrospectively registered.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Blood eosinophil count, a marker of inhaled corticosteroid effectiveness in preventing COPD exacerbations in post-hoc RCT and observational studies: systematic review and meta-analysis
    Respir. Res. (IF 3.829) Pub Date : 2020-01-03
    Timothy H. Harries; Victoria Rowland; Christopher J. Corrigan; Iain J. Marshall; Lucy McDonnell; Vibhore Prasad; Peter Schofield; David Armstrong; Patrick White

    Blood eosinophil count has been proposed as a predictor of response to inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) in the prevention of acute exacerbations of COPD. An optimal threshold of blood eosinophil count for prescribing ICS has not been agreed. Doubt has been cast on the role by observational studies. The role of inhaled corticosteroids in this relationship, independent of long-acting bronchodilators, has not been examined. We conducted a systematic review of post-hoc analyses of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and observational studies examining three blood eosinophil thresholds and the independent role of ICS. Included studies were categorised by the form (relative or absolute count) and cut point of eosinophil threshold used. Thresholds assessed were relative eosinophil count of 2%, and absolute counts of 150 cells/μL and 300 cells/μL. Three meta-analyses of the effect of ICS use in post-hoc analyses of RCTs based on these counts were carried out. Initial analysis included all studies of ICS vs. any non-ICS regimen. Further analysis examined the effect of ICS, independent of the effect of long-acting bronchodilators. Sixteen studies examined the association between blood eosinophil count and response of exacerbation risk to ICS, in COPD patients. Eleven studies (25,881 patients) were post-hoc analyses of RCTs. Five studies (109,704 patients) were retrospective observational studies. The independent effect of ICS on the reduction of exacerbation risk was 20% at ≥2% blood eosinophil threshold (RR, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.74–0.85), 35% at ≥150 cells/μL blood eosinophil threshold (RR, 0.65; 0.52–0.79), and 39% at ≥300 cells/μL blood eosinophil threshold (RR, 0.61; 0.44–0.78). No association was found in four out of five observational studies. This is the first systematic review to assess, in post-hoc analyses of RCTs, the independent effect of ICS in reducing the risk of COPD exacerbation across a range of blood eosinophil thresholds. Association between ICS prescription and reduced exacerbation risk at these thresholds was confirmed. The lack of association found in the observational studies questions the relevance of these observations to a “real world” COPD population. To clarify the clinical utility of this biomarker, the association should be tested in prospective effectiveness studies.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Therapeutic effect of subcutaneous injection of low dose recombinant human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor on pulmonary alveolar proteinosis
    Respir. Res. (IF 3.829) Pub Date : 2020-01-02
    Fen Zhang; Dong Weng; Yiliang Su; Chengsheng Yin; Li Shen; Yuan Zhang; Ying Zhou; Qiuhong Li; Yang Hu; Huiping Li

    To observe the efficacy of recombinant human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (rhGM-CSF) for pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP). A total of 55 patients with PAP were screened at Shanghai Pulmonary Hospital between May 2014 and May 2018. Among these, 42 were diagnosed with idiopathic PAP, 24 were included in this study, 20 were treated for 6 months, and 17 were followed up for additional 6 months. All patients received a subcutaneous injection of 75μg/d GM-CSF qd for 1 month. The therapeutic dose was adjusted according to the changes in the lesions of chest CT. If the lesions were absorbed, subcutaneous injections of 75μg/d GM- CSF qd and 75μg/d GM-CSF qod were given for 2 and 3 months, otherwise, the dose was increased to 150μg/d GM-CSF qd and 150μg/d qod for 2 and 3 months, respectively. All cases were treated once a day in the first 3 months and once every other day in the last 3 months. The total course of treatment was 6 months. After withdrawal, the patients were followed up for another 6 months. The deadline of follow up was September 30, 2019. Twenty patients completed the treatment and efficacy evaluation. One patient was completely cured, 16 cases improved, three cases were noneffective. After 1-month evaluation, 12 patients received an increased dose (150μg) from the second month of treatment. Seventeen patients completed the 12-month follow-up, among which fourteen improved. CT showed the lesions were slightly increased in three cases. Economic burden was the following: RMB 7324–15,190 Yuan were required for the 6-month treatment course, which is significantly lower compared to other treatment methods. Subcutaneous injection of rhGM-CSF at low dose (75μg-150μg /d) is effective treatment for patients with idiopathic PAP. NCT01983657. Registered 16 April 2013.

    更新日期:2020-01-02
  • TBX2-positive cells represent a multi-potent mesenchymal progenitor pool in the developing lung
    Respir. Res. (IF 3.829) Pub Date : 2019-12-23
    Irina Wojahn; Timo H. Lüdtke; Vincent M. Christoffels; Mark-Oliver Trowe; Andreas Kispert

    In the embryonic mammalian lung, mesenchymal cells act both as a signaling center for epithelial proliferation, differentiation and morphogenesis as well as a source for a multitude of differentiated cell types that support the structure of the developing and mature organ. Whether the embryonic pulmonary mesenchyme is a homogenous precursor pool and how it diversifies into different cell lineages is poorly understood. We have previously shown that the T-box transcription factor gene Tbx2 is expressed in the pulmonary mesenchyme of the developing murine lung and is required therein to maintain branching morphogenesis. We determined Tbx2/TBX2 expression in the developing murine lung by in situ hybridization and immunofluorescence analyses. We used a genetic lineage tracing approach with a Cre line under the control of endogenous Tbx2 control elements (Tbx2cre), and the R26mTmG reporter line to trace TBX2-positive cells in the murine lung. We determined the fate of the TBX2 lineage by co-immunofluorescence analysis of the GFP reporter and differentiation markers in normal murine lungs and in lungs lacking or overexpressing TBX2 in the pulmonary mesenchyme. We show that TBX2 is strongly expressed in mesenchymal progenitors in the developing murine lung. In differentiated smooth muscle cells and in fibroblasts, expression of TBX2 is still widespread but strongly reduced. In mesothelial and endothelial cells expression is more variable and scattered. All fetal smooth muscle cells, endothelial cells and fibroblasts derive from TBX2+ progenitors, whereas half of the mesothelial cells have a different descent. The fate of TBX2-expressing cells is not changed in Tbx2-deficient and in TBX2-constitutively overexpressing mice but the distribution and abundance of endothelial and smooth muscle cells is changed in the overexpression condition. The fate of pulmonary mesenchymal progenitors is largely independent of TBX2. Nevertheless, a successive and precisely timed downregulation of TBX2 is necessary to allow proper differentiation and functionality of bronchial smooth muscle cells and to limit endothelial differentiation. Our work suggests expression of TBX2 in an early pulmonary mesenchymal progenitor and supports a role of TBX2 in maintaining the precursor state of these cells.

    更新日期:2019-12-23
  • Neurally adjusted ventilatory assist mitigates ventilator-induced diaphragm injury in rabbits
    Respir. Res. (IF 3.829) Pub Date : 2019-12-23
    Tatsutoshi Shimatani; Nobuaki Shime; Tomohiko Nakamura; Shinichiro Ohshimo; Justin Hotz; Robinder G. Khemani

    Ventilator-induced diaphragmatic dysfunction is a serious complication associated with higher ICU mortality, prolonged mechanical ventilation, and unsuccessful withdrawal from mechanical ventilation. Although neurally adjusted ventilatory assist (NAVA) could be associated with lower patient-ventilator asynchrony compared with conventional ventilation, its effects on diaphragmatic dysfunction have not yet been well elucidated. Twenty Japanese white rabbits were randomly divided into four groups, (1) no ventilation, (2) controlled mechanical ventilation (CMV) with continuous neuromuscular blockade, (3) NAVA, and (4) pressure support ventilation (PSV). Ventilated rabbits had lung injury induced, and mechanical ventilation was continued for 12 h. Respiratory waveforms were continuously recorded, and the asynchronous events measured. Subsequently, the animals were euthanized, and diaphragm and lung tissue were removed, and stained with Hematoxylin-Eosin to evaluate the extent of lung injury. The myofiber cross-sectional area of the diaphragm was evaluated under the adenosine triphosphatase staining, sarcomere disruptions by electron microscopy, apoptotic cell numbers by the TUNEL method, and quantitative analysis of Caspase-3 mRNA expression by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Physiological index, respiratory parameters, and histologic lung injury were not significantly different among the CMV, NAVA, and PSV. NAVA had lower asynchronous events than PSV (median [interquartile range], NAVA, 1.1 [0–2.2], PSV, 6.8 [3.8–10.0], p = 0.023). No differences were seen in the cross-sectional areas of myofibers between NAVA and PSV, but those of Type 1, 2A, and 2B fibers were lower in CMV compared with NAVA. The area fraction of sarcomere disruptions was lower in NAVA than PSV (NAVA vs PSV; 1.6 [1.5–2.8] vs 3.6 [2.7–4.3], p < 0.001). The proportion of apoptotic cells was lower in NAVA group than in PSV (NAVA vs PSV; 3.5 [2.5–6.4] vs 12.1 [8.9–18.1], p < 0.001). There was a tendency in the decreased expression levels of Caspase-3 mRNA in NAVA groups. Asynchrony Index was a mediator in the relationship between NAVA and sarcomere disruptions. Preservation of spontaneous breathing using either PSV or NAVA can preserve the cross sectional area of the diaphragm to prevent atrophy. However, NAVA may be superior to PSV in preventing sarcomere injury and apoptosis of myofibrotic cells of the diaphragm, and this effect may be mediated by patient-ventilator asynchrony.

    更新日期:2019-12-23
  • Gene therapy-emulating small molecule treatments in cystic fibrosis airway epithelial cells and patients
    Respir. Res. (IF 3.829) Pub Date : 2019-12-21
    Q. Yang; A. R. Soltis; G. Sukumar; X. Zhang; H. Caohuy; J. Freedy; C. L. Dalgard; M. D. Wilkerson; H. B. Pollard; B. S. Pollard

    Several small molecule corrector and potentiator drugs have recently been licensed for Cystic Fibrosis (CF) therapy. However, other aspects of the disease, especially inflammation, are less effectively treated by these drugs. We hypothesized that small molecule drugs could function either alone or as an adjuvant to licensed therapies to treat these aspects of the disease, perhaps emulating the effects of gene therapy in CF cells. The cardiac glycoside digitoxin, which has been shown to inhibit TNFα/NFκB signaling in CF lung epithelial cells, may serve as such a therapy. IB3–1 CF lung epithelial cells were treated with different Vertex (VX) drugs, digitoxin, and various drug mixtures, and ELISA assays were used to assess suppression of baseline and TNFα-activated secretion of cytokines and chemokines. Transcriptional responses to these drugs were assessed by RNA-seq and compared with gene expression in AAV-[wildtype]CFTR-treated IB3–1 (S9) cells. We also compared in vitro gene expression signatures with in vivo data from biopsied nasal epithelial cells from digitoxin-treated CF patients. CF cells exposed to digitoxin exhibited significant suppression of both TNFα/NFκB signaling and downstream secretion of IL-8, IL-6 and GM-CSF, with or without co-treatment with VX drugs. No evidence of drug-drug interference was observed. RNA-seq analysis showed that gene therapy-treated CF lung cells induced changes in 3134 genes. Among these, 32.6% were altered by digitoxin treatment in the same direction. Shared functional gene ontology themes for genes suppressed by both digitoxin and gene therapy included inflammation (84 gene signature), and cell-cell interactions and fibrosis (49 gene signature), while genes elevated by both were enriched for epithelial differentiation (82 gene signature). A new analysis of mRNA data from digitoxin-treated CF patients showed consistent trends in expression for genes in these signatures. Adjuvant gene therapy-emulating activities of digitoxin may contribute to enhancing the efficacy of currently licensed correctors and potentiators in CF patients.

    更新日期:2019-12-21
  • The socioeconomic burden of chronic lung disease in low-resource settings across the globe – an observational FRESH AIR study
    Respir. Res. (IF 3.829) Pub Date : 2019-12-21
    Evelyn A. Brakema; Aizhamal Tabyshova; Rianne M. J. J. van der Kleij; Talant Sooronbaev; Christos Lionis; Marilena Anastasaki; Pham Le An; Luan Than Nguyen; Bruce Kirenga; Simon Walusimbi; Maarten J. Postma; Niels H. Chavannes; Job F. M. van Boven

    Low-resource settings are disproportionally burdened by chronic lung disease due to early childhood disadvantages and indoor/outdoor air pollution. However, data on the socioeconomic impact of respiratory diseases in these settings are largely lacking. Therefore, we aimed to estimate the chronic lung disease-related socioeconomic burden in diverse low-resource settings across the globe. To inform governmental and health policy, we focused on work productivity and activity impairment and its modifiable clinical and environmental risk factors. We performed a cross-sectional, observational FRESH AIR study in Uganda, Vietnam, Kyrgyzstan, and Greece. We assessed the chronic lung disease-related socioeconomic burden using validated questionnaires among spirometry-diagnosed COPD and/or asthma patients (total N = 1040). Predictors for a higher burden were studied using multivariable linear regression models including demographics (e.g. age, gender), health parameters (breathlessness, comorbidities), and risk factors for chronic lung disease (smoking, solid fuel use). We applied identical models per country, which we subsequently meta-analyzed. Employed patients reported a median [IQR] overall work impairment due to chronic lung disease of 30% [1.8–51.7] and decreased productivity (presenteeism) of 20.0% [0.0–40.0]. Remarkably, work time missed (absenteeism) was 0.0% [0.0–16.7]. The total population reported 40.0% [20.0–60.0] impairment in daily activities. Breathlessness severity (MRC-scale) (B = 8.92, 95%CI = 7.47–10.36), smoking (B = 5.97, 95%CI = 1.73–10.22), and solid fuel use (B = 3.94, 95%CI = 0.56–7.31) were potentially modifiable risk factors for impairment. In low-resource settings, chronic lung disease-related absenteeism is relatively low compared to the substantial presenteeism and activity impairment. Possibly, given the lack of social security systems, relatively few people take days off work at the expense of decreased productivity. Breathlessness (MRC-score), smoking, and solid fuel use are potentially modifiable predictors for higher impairment. Results warrant increased awareness, preventive actions and clinical management of lung diseases in low-resource settings from health policymakers and healthcare workers.

    更新日期:2019-12-21
  • Effects of the Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7) agonist, AZD8848, on allergen-induced responses in patients with mild asthma: a double-blind, randomised, parallel-group study
    Respir. Res. (IF 3.829) Pub Date : 2019-12-19
    Brian R. Leaker; Dave Singh; Sam Lindgren; Gun Almqvist; Leif Eriksson; Barbara Young; Brian O’Connor

    Although allergic asthma is a complex area with many interacting factors involved, the ‘hygiene hypothesis’ proposes that a lack of exposure to infection during childhood may polarise the immune system towards allergen-reactive Th2-type responses in genetically susceptible individuals. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play a key role within the innate immune system and TLR7 agonists have previously been shown to up-regulate Th1 responses and down-regulate Th2 responses to allergens in murine models of allergic or chronic asthma. This study aimed to examine the efficacy and safety of the novel TRL7 agonist AZD8848, which has been developed as an antedrug. In this double-blind, randomised, parallel-group study, AZD8848 60 μg or placebo was administered intranasally once-weekly for 8 weeks in patients with mild-to-moderate allergic asthma (NCT00999466). Efficacy assessments were performed at 1 and 4 weeks after the last dose. The primary outcome was the late asthmatic response (LAR) fall in forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) after allergen challenge at 1-week post-treatment. AZD8848 significantly reduced average LAR fall in FEV1 by 27% vs. placebo at 1 week after treatment (p = 0.035). This effect was sustained at 4 weeks post-treatment; however, it did not reach clinical significance. AZD8848 reduced post-allergen challenge methacholine-induced airway hyper-responsiveness (AHR) vs. placebo at 1 week post-dosing (treatment ratio: 2.20, p = 0.024), with no effect at 4 weeks. There was no significant difference between the two groups in plasma cytokine, sputum Th2 cytokine or eosinophil responses post-allergen challenge at 1 week after treatment. The incidence of adverse events was similar in the two groups. AZD8848 was generally well tolerated. In patients with allergic asthma, TLR7 agonists could potentially reduce allergen responsiveness by stimulating Type 1 interferon responses to down-regulate the dominant Th2 responses. clinicaltrials.gov identifier NCT00999466.

    更新日期:2019-12-20
  • The effectiveness of Reslizumab in severe asthma treatment: a real-world experience
    Respir. Res. (IF 3.829) Pub Date : 2019-12-20
    H. Ibrahim; R. O’Sullivan; D. Casey; J. Murphy; J. MacSharry; B. J. Plant; D. M. Murphy

    Increased numbers of blood and sputum eosinophils are associated with higher exacerbation frequency and increased asthma severity. In clinical trials, targeting Interleukin-5 has been shown to be a useful therapeutic strategy for patients with severe eosinophilic asthma. Twenty-six patients have been commenced on Reslizumab in our institution since early 2017. Safety and clinical efficacy parameters were recorded at regular intervals. Mean ACQ-6 score at the start of treatment was 3.5. The average number of exacerbations in the year preceding treatment was 8.3 per person. 30% of patients had been admitted to hospital at least once over the 12 months preceding therapy. 54% of our patients were on long term oral steroid. Our data showed sustained improvement of Asthma control (Mean improvement in ACQ-6 was 1.7 at 1 year, and 2.0 at 2 years, P = 0.0001). Of the patients who were on long term systemic steroids, 35.7% discontinued steroids completely, with a mean reduction of prednisolone dose of 5.2 mg at 1 year. There was a 79% reduction in the annual exacerbation frequency at 1 year, and 88% at 2 years (P = < 0.0001). Modest, albeit statistically significant increases in creatine kinase which seemed to plateau by 1 year were noted. Overall, Reslizumab was well tolerated with discontinuation of treatment due to side effects recorded in only one patient. Our data confirm the utility of anti-IL5 therapy in a carefully selected phenotype of severe asthma with evidence of eosinophilic airway inflammation.

    更新日期:2019-12-20
  • Exchange protein directly activated by cAMP (Epac) protects against airway inflammation and airway remodeling in asthmatic mice
    Respir. Res. (IF 3.829) Pub Date : 2019-12-18
    Yi-fei Chen; Ge Huang; Yi-min Wang; Ming Cheng; Fang-fang Zhu; Jin-nan Zhong; Ya-dong Gao

    β2 receptor agonists induce airway smooth muscle relaxation by increasing intracellular cAMP production. PKA is the traditional downstream signaling pathway of cAMP. Exchange protein directly activated by cAMP (Epac) was identified as another important signaling molecule of cAMP recently. The role of Epac in asthmatic airway inflammation and airway remodeling is unclear. We established OVA-sensitized and -challenged acute and chronic asthma mice models to explore the expression of Epac at first. Then, airway inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness in acute asthma mice model and airway remodeling in chronic asthma mice model were observed respectively after treatment with Epac-selective cAMP analogue 8-pCPT-2′-O-Me-cAMP (8pCPT) and Epac inhibitor ESI-09. Next, the effects of 8pCPT and ESI-09 on the proliferation and apoptosis of in vitro cultured mouse airway smooth muscle cells (ASMCs) were detected with CCK-8 assays and Annexin-V staining. Lastly, the effects of 8pCPT and ESI-09 on store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE) of ASMCs were examined by confocal Ca2+ fluorescence measurement. We found that in lung tissues of acute and chronic asthma mice models, both mRNA and protein expression of Epac1 and Epac2, two isoforms of Epac, were lower than that of control mice. In acute asthma mice model, the airway inflammatory cell infiltration, Th2 cytokines secretion and airway hyperresponsiveness were significantly attenuated by 8pCPT and aggravated by ESI-09. In chronic asthma mice model, 8pCPT decreased airway inflammatory cell infiltration and airway remodeling indexes such as collagen deposition and airway smooth muscle cell proliferation, while ESI-09 increased airway inflammation and airway remodeling. In vitro cultured mice ASMCs, 8pCPT dose-dependently inhibited, whereas ESI-09 promoted ASMCs proliferation. Interestingly, 8pCPT promoted the apoptosis of ASMCs, whereas ESI-09 had no effect on ASMCs apoptosis. Lastly, confocal Ca2+ fluorescence examination found that 8pCPT could inhibit SOCE in ASMCs at 100 μM, and ESI-09 promoted SOCE of ASMCs at 10 μM and 100 μM. In addition, the promoting effect of ESI-09 on ASMCs proliferation was inhibited by store-operated Ca2+ channel blocker, SKF-96365. Our results suggest that Epac has a protecting effect on asthmatic airway inflammation and airway remodeling, and Epac reduces ASMCs proliferation by inhibiting SOCE in part.

    更新日期:2019-12-19
  • Clinical characteristics and treatment outcomes of patients with macrolide-resistant Mycobacterium avium complex pulmonary disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis
    Respir. Res. (IF 3.829) Pub Date : 2019-12-18
    Youngmok Park; Eun Hye Lee; Inkyung Jung; Goeun Park; Young Ae Kang

    Macrolide is a key drug in the treatment of Mycobacterium avium complex pulmonary disease (MAC-PD). Macrolide-resistant MAC is gaining importance, but there are little data in clinical characteristics and treatment outcomes of macrolide-resistant MAC-PD (MR-MAC-PD). We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of published studies reporting clinical characteristics and treatment outcomes of patients with MR-MAC-PD. Risk of bias was assessed using the modified Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Nine studies (seven retrospective and two prospective) comprising 319 patients were identified through a database search. Around 73% were women, and 52% had the fibrocavitary form. Pooled sputum culture conversion rate after combined multiple antibiotics or surgical resection was 21% (95% confidence interval [CI], 14–30%), and the one-year all-cause mortality was 10% (95% CI, 5–20%). There was no significant difference in treatment outcomes between nodular bronchiectatic and fibrocavitary types. Even combination therapy with fluoroquinolone, aminoglycoside, and surgical resection, the treatment outcomes of MR-MAC-PD were poor. The investigation of new treatment modalities is urgent.

    更新日期:2019-12-19
  • Prognostic differences among patients with idiopathic interstitial pneumonias with acute exacerbation of varying pathogenesis: a retrospective study
    Respir. Res. (IF 3.829) Pub Date : 2019-12-18
    Motoyasu Kato; Tomoko Yamada; Shunichi Kataoka; Yuta Arai; Keita Miura; Yusuke Ochi; Hiroaki Ihara; Ryo Koyama; Shinichi Sasaki; Kazuhisa Takahashi

    Acute exacerbation of chronic fibrosing idiopathic interstitial pneumonias (AE-IIPs) is associated with a high mortality rate. In 2016, an international working group proposed a revised diagnostic criteria for AE-IIPs, suggesting that it be classified as idiopathic or triggered. Many factors are known to trigger AE-IIPs, including surgery, infection, and drugs. However, it is unknown which AE-IIPs triggers have a worse prognosis. We aimed to investigate the prognosis of patients with various clinical types of AE-IIPs, particularly infection-triggered, non-infection triggered, and idiopathic AE-IIPs. We retrospectively collected data from 128 chronic fibrosing IIPs (CF-IIPs) patients who were hospitalized by respiratory failure between April 2009 and March 2019 at Juntendo University Hospital. Among these patients, we evaluated 79 patients who developed AE-IIPs and 21 who developed pneumonia superimposed on CF-IIPs. Patients with AE-IIPs were classified into three types: idiopathic, infection-triggered, and non-infection-triggered AE-IIPs. We analyzed differences in patient characteristics, examination findings; level of serum markers, results of pulmonary function, and radiological findings, prior treatment for baseline CF-IIPs, and prognosis. We then evaluated the risk factor for early death (death within 30 days from the onset of AE-IIPs) associated with AE-IIPs. Among the patients who developed AE-IIPs, 34 were characterized as having idiopathic, 25 were characterized as having infection-triggered, and 20 were categorized as having non-infection-triggered AE-IIPs. Survival time for pneumonia superimposed on IIPs was significantly longer than that for any AE-IIPs. Survival time for bacterial pneumonia superimposed on CF-IIPs was significantly longer than that for AE-IIPs (for each idiopathic and all triggered IIPs). Thereafter, survival time for infection-triggered was significantly longer than for idiopathic or non-infection-triggered AE-IIPs. The mortality rate was significantly lower in infection-triggered AE-IIPs than in other types of AE-IIPs. Furthermore, the incidence of infection-triggered AE-IIPs in winter was significantly higher than that in other seasons. Moreover, the clinical AE-IIPs types and radiological findings at AE-IIP onset were significant risk factors for AE-IIPs-induced early death. Our findings suggest that patients with infection-triggered AE-IIPs can expect a better prognosis than can patients with other clinical types of AE-IIPs.

    更新日期:2019-12-19
  • Electronic cigarette vapour increases virulence and inflammatory potential of respiratory pathogens
    Respir. Res. (IF 3.829) Pub Date : 2019-12-18
    Deirdre F. Gilpin; Katie-Ann McGown; Kevin Gallagher; Jose Bengoechea; Amy Dumigan; Gisli Einarsson; J. Stuart Elborn; Michael M. Tunney

    Bacteria have been extensively implicated in the development of smoking related diseases, such as COPD, by either direct infection or bacteria-mediated inflammation. In response to the health risks associated with tobacco exposure, the use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigs) has increased. This study compared the effect of e-cig vapour (ECV) and cigarette smoke (CSE) on the virulence and inflammatory potential of key lung pathogens (Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa). Biofilm formation, virulence in the Galleria mellonella infection model, antibiotic susceptibility and IL-8/TNF-α production in A549 cells, were compared between bacteria exposed to ECV, CSE and non-exposed bacteria. Statistically significant increases in biofilm and cytokine secretion were observed following bacterial exposure to either ECV or CSE, compared to non-exposed bacteria; the effect of exposure to ECV on bacterial phenotype and virulence was comparable, and in some cases greater, than that observed following CSE exposure. Treatment of A549 cells with cell signaling pathway inhibitors prior to infection, did not suggest that alternative signaling pathways were being activated following exposure of bacteria to either ECV or CSE. These findings therefore suggest that ECV and CSE can induce changes in phenotype and virulence of key lung pathogens, which may increase bacterial persistence and inflammatory potential.

    更新日期:2019-12-18
  • The clinical impact of drug-induced hepatotoxicity on anti-tuberculosis therapy: a case control study
    Respir. Res. (IF 3.829) Pub Date : 2019-12-16
    Jin Hwa Song; Seo-Young Yoon; Tae Yun Park; Eun Young Heo; Deog Kyeom Kim; Hee Soon Chung; Jung-Kyu Lee

    There are limited data available on whether drug-induced hepatotoxicity (DIH) affects the clinical outcomes of tuberculosis (TB) treatment. We explored the effects of DIH on the clinical course and outcomes of pulmonary TB. In this retrospective cohort study, we included patients with culture-proven pulmonary TB treated in a tertiary hospital from 2013 to 2016. DIH was defined as proposed by the official American Thoracic Society statement. We compared the clinical outcomes of DIH and non-DIH patients. Between January 1, 2013 and December 31, 2016, a total of 168 TB patients were included, and 20 (11.9%) were diagnosed with DIH. These patients were significantly older, had a higher Charlson Comorbidity Index score, exhibited more chronic liver disease, included more chronic alcoholics, and had a lower body mass index than non-DIH patients. We found no significant differences between DIH and non-DIH patients in the 2-month sputum culture conversion rate, the time to sputum culture conversion, treatment outcomes, or total treatment duration. However, the ratio of treatment interruption time to total treatment duration and the proportion of hepatotonic users were significantly higher among DIH patients. DIH development during TB treatment does not significantly affect the clinical outcomes of pulmonary TB. However, treatment interruption caused by DIH may increase the risks of future relapse and acquired resistance. Further study is needed.

    更新日期:2019-12-17
  • Comparative analyses of long non-coding RNA profiles in vivo in cystic fibrosis lung airway and parenchyma tissues
    Respir. Res. (IF 3.829) Pub Date : 2019-12-16
    Parameet Kumar; Chaitali Sen; Kathryn Peters; Raymond A. Frizzell; Roopa Biswas

    Recent advances in the functional analyses of endogenous non-coding RNA (ncRNA) molecules, including long non-coding RNAs (LncRNAs), have provided a new perspective on the crucial roles of RNA in gene regulation. Consequently, LncRNA deregulation is a key factor in various diseases, including pulmonary disorders like Cystic Fibrosis (CF). CF is the most common life limiting recessive disease in the U.S., and is due to mutations in the CFTR gene. CF mutations, of which the most common is F508del-CFTR, prevents correct folding, trafficking and function of the mutant CFTR protein and is further manifested by the hyper-expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines into the airway lumen leading to bronchiectasis and culminating in lung destruction. Here we report a distinct LncRNA signature and corresponding mRNAs that distinguishes CF lung (airway and parenchyma) tissues from matched non-CF controls (n = 4 each group), generated by microarray specific for LncRNAs which includes corresponding mRNA expressions. In silico analyses of the cellular processes that are impacted by these LncRNAs was performed using Gene Ontology (GO). A selected subset of LncRNAs were validated by quantitative real-time PCR. We have identified 636 LncRNAs differentially expressed in CF airway epithelium and 1974 in CF lung parenchyma compared to matched non-CF controls (fold change ≥2, p < 0.05), majority of which (> 50%) are intergenic. Interestingly, 15 of these differentially expressed LncRNAs and 9 coding mRNAs are common to airway and parenchyma tissues. GO analyses indicates that signaling pathways and cell membrane functions are significantly affected by the alteration in LncRNA expressions in CF lung tissues. Seven of the differentially expressed LncRNAs, exhibit similar expression trends in CFBE41o- compared to control cells. Understanding the mechanisms by which these LncRNAs regulate CF disease phenotype will help develop novel therapeutic targets for CF and related pulmonary diseases, such as COPD and Asthma.

    更新日期:2019-12-17
  • Upregulation of MUC5AC by VEGF in human primary bronchial epithelial cells: implications for asthma
    Respir. Res. (IF 3.829) Pub Date : 2019-12-12
    Sung-Ho Kim; Qing-Mei Pei; Ping Jiang; Juan Liu; Rong-Fei Sun; Xue-Jiao Qian; Jiang-Bo Liu

    Airway mucus hypersecretion is an important pathophysiological feature in asthma. Mucins are glycoproteins that are mainly responsible for the viscoelastic property of mucus, and MUC5AC is a major mucin glycoprotein that is overproduced in asthma. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) has been implicated in inflammatory and airway blood vessel remodeling in asthmatics. Therefore, we sought to investigate the effect of VEGF on MUC5AC expression and study the underlying mechanisms. In order to elucidate the precise mechanism underlying the effect of VEGF on MUC5AC expression, we tested the effects of VEGF on RhoA activation and the association of caveolin-1 and VEGFR2 in Primary Bronchial Epithelial Cells. VEGF up-regulated MUC5AC mRNA and protein levels in a dose- and time-dependent manner, and activated RhoA. Additionally, VEGF-induced MUC5AC expression and RhoA activation were enhanced by disrupting caveolae with cholesterol depletion and reversed by cholesterol repletion, and inhibited by a selective VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR2) inhibitor SU1498. Furthermore, phospho-VEGFR2 expression was decreased via overexpression of caveolin-1. VEGF treatment reduced the association of caveolin-1 and VEGFR2. Collectively, our findings suggest that VEGF up-regulates MUC5AC expression and RhoA activation by interaction with VEGFR2, and this phenomenon was related with the association of caveolin-1 and VEGFR2. Further studies on these mechanisms are needed to facilitate the development of treatments for asthma.

    更新日期:2019-12-13
  • Threshold of the upper airway cross-section for hypopnea onset during sleep and its identification under waking condition
    Respir. Res. (IF 3.829) Pub Date : 2019-12-11
    Hongyi Lin; Cunting Wang; Han Zhang; Huahui Xiong; Zheng Li; Xiaoqing Huang; Changjin Ji; Junfang Xian; Yaqi Huang

    There is currently no method that can predict whether or under what condition hypopnea, even obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), will occur during sleep for individuals based on credible parameters measured under waking condition. We propose a threshold concept based on the narrowest cross-sectional area of the upper airway (CSA-UA) and aim to prove our hypothesis on the threshold of the area for hypopnea onset (TAHO), which can be used as an indicator of hypopnea onset during sleep and measured while awake. We performed magnetic resonance imaging for 20 OSA patients to observe CSA-UA changes during fluid accumulation in the neck caused by elevating their legs, and identified TAHO by capturing the sudden enlargement in CSA-UA. Correlation analyses between TAHO and the body mass index (BMI), and between the reduction in CSA-UA and the increase in the neck circumference (NC) with fluid accumulation were performed. Logistic regression analysis was performed for identifying OSA patients based on the behaviors of their CSA-UA changes during leg raising. Shape changes of airway cross-section were also investigated. Four CSA-UA change patterns after fluid redistribution were identified. Six patients had similar CSA-UA variation behaviors observed in healthy subjects. From the other three change patterns involving 14 patients, a threshold value of CSA-UA 0.63 ± 0.21 cm2 was identified for normal breathing. Data showed a positive correlation between TAHO and BMI (r = 0.681, p = 0.0007), and a negative correlation between the reduction in CSA-UA and the increase in NC (r = − 0.513, p = 0.051) with fluid accumulation. A sigmoid function for the probability of being a OSA patient p = 1/[1 + exp. (4.836 + 3.850 t-8.4 h)] was obtained to effectively separate OSA patients from normal subjects. The upper airway narrowing occurred in anteroposterior, lateral, or both directions, suggesting different tendencies of upper airway collapse in patients. Three types of shape changes in the cross-section of the upper airway, which had different effects on airway resistance, were measured. Our findings prove TAHO hypothesis. The threshold measured while awake for normal breathing can be used clinically as the indicator of hypopnea onset during sleep, and therefore to identify OSA patients under waking condition and design effective personalized treatments for OSA patients. Both shape and size changes in the cross-section of the upper airway affect airway resistance significantly. Shape change in the cross-section of the upper airway can provide key clinical information on the collapse patterns of the upper airway for individuals.

    更新日期:2019-12-11
  • Targeted regulation of fibroblast state by CRISPR-mediated CEBPA expression
    Respir. Res. (IF 3.829) Pub Date : 2019-12-11
    Wei Liu; Jeffrey A. Meridew; Aja Aravamudhan; Giovanni Ligresti; Daniel J. Tschumperlin; Qi Tan

    Fibroblasts regulate tissue homeostasis and the balance between tissue repair and fibrosis. CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha (CEBPA) is a key transcription factor that regulates adipogenesis. CEBPA has been shown to be essential for lung maturation, and deficiency of CEBPA expression leads to abnormal lung architecture. However, its specific role in lung fibroblast regulation and fibrosis has not yet been elucidated. Lung fibroblast CEBPA expression, pro-fibrotic and lipofibroblast gene expression were assessed by qRT-PCR. CEBPA gain and loss of function experiments were carried out to evaluate the role of CEBPA in human lung fibroblast activation with and without TGF-β1 treatment. Adipogenesis assay was used to measure the adiopogenic potential of lung fibroblasts. Finally, CRISPR activation system was used to enhance endogenous CEBPA expression. We found that CEBPA gene expression is significantly decreased in IPF-derived fibroblasts compared to normal lung fibroblasts. CEBPA knockdown in normal human lung fibroblasts enhanced fibroblast pro-fibrotic activation and ECM production. CEBPA over-expression by transient transfection in IPF-derived fibroblasts significantly reduced pro-fibrotic gene expression, ECM deposition and αSMA expression and promoted the formation of lipid droplets measured by Oil Red O staining and increased lipofibroblast gene expression. Inhibition of the histone methyl transferase G9a enhanced CEBPA expression, and the anti-fibrotic effects of G9a inhibition were partially mediated by CEBPA expression. Finally, targeted CRISPR-mediated activation of CEBPA resulted in fibroblasts switching from fibrogenic to lipofibroblast states. CEBPA expression is reduced in human IPF fibroblasts and its deficiency reduces adipogenic potential and promotes fibrogenic activation. CEBPA expression can be rescued via an inhibitor of epigenetic repression or by targeted CRISPR activation, leading to reduced fibrogenic activation.

    更新日期:2019-12-11
  • Serum bilirubin level is associated with exercise capacity and quality of life in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
    Respir. Res. (IF 3.829) Pub Date : 2019-12-09
    Ah Young Leem; Young Sam Kim; Ji-Hyun Lee; Tae-Hyung Kim; Ha Yan Kim; Yeon Mok Oh; Sang Do Lee; Ji Ye Jung

    Bilirubin has antioxidant properties against chronic respiratory diseases. However, previous studies are limited by acquisition of serum bilirubin level at one time point and its analysis with clinical parameters. We evaluated the association of serum bilirubin levels with various clinical outcomes of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in Korean Obstructive Lung Disease (KOLD) cohort. We included 535 patients with COPD from the KOLD cohort. Serum bilirubin levels and various clinical parameters, such as lung function, 6-min walking (6 MW) distance, quality of life (QoL), and exacerbation, were evaluated annually; their association was analyzed using generalized estimating equations and the linear mixed model. Among 535 patients, 345 (64.5%) and 190 (35.5%) were categorized into Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) I-II and GOLD III-IV groups, respectively. 6 MW distance was positively associated with serum bilirubin levels, especially in the GOLD I-II group (estimated mean = 41.5). Among QoL indexes, the COPD assessment test score was negatively associated with serum bilirubin levels only in the GOLD I-II group (estimated mean = − 2.8). Higher serum bilirubin levels were independently associated with a higher number of acute exacerbation in the GOLD III-IV group (estimated mean = 0.45, P = 0.001). Multivariate analysis revealed that lung function and mortality were not associated with serum bilirubin levels. Higher serum bilirubin levels were associated with a longer 6 MW distance and better QoL, especially in the GOLD I-II group, whereas they were related to a higher risk of acute exacerbation, especially in the GOLD III-IV group. Bilirubin levels may represent various conditions in COPD.

    更新日期:2019-12-11
  • Determination of rheology and surface tension of airway surface liquid: a review of clinical relevance and measurement techniques
    Respir. Res. (IF 3.829) Pub Date : 2019-12-04
    Zhenglong Chen; Ming Zhong; Yuzhou Luo; Linhong Deng; Zhaoyan Hu; Yuanlin Song

    By airway surface liquid, we mean a thin fluid continuum consisting of the airway lining layer and the alveolar lining layer, which not only serves as a protective barrier against foreign particles but also contributes to maintaining normal respiratory mechanics. In recent years, measurements of the rheological properties of airway surface liquid have attracted considerable clinical attention due to new advances in microrheology instruments and methods. This article reviews the clinical relevance of measurements of airway surface liquid viscoelasticity and surface tension from four main aspects: maintaining the stability of the airways and alveoli, preventing ventilator-induced lung injury, optimizing surfactant replacement therapy for respiratory syndrome distress, and characterizing the barrier properties of airway mucus to improve drug and gene delivery. Primary measuring techniques and methods suitable for determining the viscoelasticity and surface tension of airway surface liquid are then introduced with respect to principles, advantages and limitations. Cone and plate viscometers and particle tracking microrheometers are the most commonly used instruments for measuring the bulk viscosity and microviscosity of airway surface liquid, respectively, and pendant drop methods are particularly suitable for the measurement of airway surface liquid surface tension in vitro. Currently, in vivo and in situ measurements of the viscoelasticity and surface tension of the airway surface liquid in humans still presents many challenges.

    更新日期:2019-12-05
  • Primary immunodeficiency-related bronchiectasis in adults: comparison with bronchiectasis of other etiologies in a French reference center
    Respir. Res. (IF 3.829) Pub Date : 2019-12-04
    Hélène Goussault; Hélène Salvator; Emilie Catherinot; Marie-Laure Chabi; Colas Tcherakian; Alexandre Chabrol; Morgane Didier; Elisabeth Rivaud; Alain Fischer; Felipe Suarez; Olivier Hermine; Fanny Lanternier; Olivier Lortholary; Nizar Mahlaoui; Philippe Devillier; Louis-Jean Couderc

    Bronchiectasis is a heterogeneous disease depending on etiology. It represents the most frequent non-infectious pulmonary complication of primary immunodeficiencies (PID). We investigated whether bronchiectasis associated with PID had a distinct course in comparison to bronchiectasis of other causes. Retrospective single-center study of adult patients diagnosed with non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis with more than 5 years of follow-up and at least 4 pulmonary functional tests available at one year apart. They were divided into three groups: PID- related bronchiectasis, idiopathic/post infectious-related bronchiectasis and other causes of bronchiectasis. Respiratory functional data and clinical outcomes were compared. Of 329 patients with bronchiectasis diagnosed in Foch Hospital (Suresnes, France), 98 patients fulfilled the selected criteria (20 PID-related cases, 39 idiopathic or post-infectious cases, and 39 cases with other causes). Median time of follow-up was 9.5 years. Groups were similar concerning initial characteristics (female 70.4%, never smokers 59.2%, mild severity bronchiectasis according to the FACED score and median FEV1 at diagnosis 73.5% predicted values [Q1–Q3: 53.75–90.5]), except PID patients who were younger (median age of 51.5 vs 62 years, p = 0.02). Eighty-five percent of PID patients received immunoglobulin substitution (median trough level was measured at 10.5 g/dl [10;10.92]). Global median FEV1 annual decline was 25.03 ml/year [8.16;43.9] and 19.82 ml/year [16.08;48.02] in the PID patients group. Forty-five percent of patients had bacterial colonization, pneumoniae occurred in 56% of patients and median exacerbation annual rate was 0.8 [0.3–1.4]. Hemoptysis occurred in 31.6% of patients. Global mortality rate was 11.2%. We did not record any significant difference for all clinical and functional outcomes between patients with PID and other etiologies. The median decline in FEV1 was similar in the three groups. The course of PID-related bronchiectasis was similar to bronchiectasis of other causes. Provided that patients receive immunoglobulin replacement, the course of PID-related bronchiectasis seems to be independent of the underlying immune disorder.

    更新日期:2019-12-05
  • Excessive daytime sleepiness, metabolic syndrome, and obstructive sleep apnea: two independent large cross-sectional studies and one interventional study
    Respir. Res. (IF 3.829) Pub Date : 2019-12-04
    Xinyi Li; Hengye Huang; Huajun Xu; Yue Shi; Yingjun Qian; Jianyin Zou; Hongliang Yi; Jian Guan; Shankai Yin

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) were considered to contribute to MetS. This study was performed to assess the association between MetS and EDS in two independent large-scale populations, and in subjects who underwent upper-airway surgery. A total of 6312 patients without self-reported depression and 3578 suspected OSA patients were consecutively recruited, during health screening examinations and from our sleep center, respectively. A total of 57 subjects with OSA who underwent upper-airway surgery were also included. Demographic, anthropometric, biochemical, and polysomnographic data were obtained. In the health screening examination group, 233 (9.23%) women and 350 (10.93%) men had complaints of EDS. A total of 229 (7.04%) women and 1182 (36.88%) men met the criteria for MetS. In the OSA group, 147 (21.18%) women and 1058 (36.69%) men reported EDS. In addition, 93 (13.4%) women and 1368 (47.43%) men reported MetS. In the health screening examination group, EDS did not contribute significantly to MetS (OR = 1.125, 95% CI: 0.907–1.395; p = 0.283). In the OSA group, EDS significantly contributed to MetS (OR = 1.249, 95% CI: 1.063–1.468; p = 0.007); however, the results were not significant after adjusting for sleep variables (OR = 1.071, 95% CI: 0.905–1.268; p = 0.423). Upper-airway surgery did not affect cardio-metabolic variables in OSA patients with or without EDS. EDS was not associated with MetS in two independent large-scale cohorts. In addition, upper-airway surgery did not affect components of MetS in OSA patients with and without EDS.

    更新日期:2019-12-05
  • Inhaled corticosteroids and FEV1 decline in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a systematic review
    Respir. Res. (IF 3.829) Pub Date : 2019-12-04
    Hannah R. Whittaker; Debbie Jarvis; Mohamed R. Sheikh; Steven J. Kiddle; Jennifer K. Quint

    Rate of FEV1 decline in COPD is heterogeneous and the extent to which inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) influence the rate of decline is unclear. The majority of previous reviews have investigated specific ICS and non-ICS inhalers and have consisted of randomised control trials (RCTs), which have specific inclusion and exclusion criteria and short follow up times. We aimed to investigate the association between change in FEV1 and ICS-containing medications in COPD patients over longer follow up times. MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched and literature comparing change in FEV1 in COPD patients taking ICS-containing medications with patients taking non-ICS-containing medications were identified. Titles, abstract, and full texts were screened and information extracted using the PICO checklist. Risk of bias was assessed using the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool and a descriptive synthesis of the literature was carried out due to high heterogeneity of included studies. Seventeen studies met our inclusion criteria. We found that the difference in change in FEV1 in people using ICS and non-ICS containing medications depended on the study follow-up time. Shorter follow-up studies (1 year or less) were more likely to report an increase in FEV1 from baseline in both patients on ICS and in patients on non-ICS-containing medications, with the majority of these studies showing a greater increase in FEV1 in patients on ICS-containing medications. Longer follow-up studies (greater than 1 year) were more likely to report a decline in FEV1 from baseline in patients on ICS and in patients on non-ICS containing medications but rates of FEV1 decline were similar. Further studies are needed to better understand changes in FEV1 when ICS-containing medications are prescribed and to determine whether ICS-containing medications influence rate of decline in FEV1 in the long term. Results from inclusive trials and observational patient cohorts may provide information more generalisable to a population of COPD patients.

    更新日期:2019-12-05
  • Does a tailored intervention to promote adherence in patients with chronic lung disease affect exacerbations? A randomized controlled trial
    Respir. Res. (IF 3.829) Pub Date : 2019-12-03
    Claudia Gregoriano; Thomas Dieterle; Anna-Lisa Breitenstein; Selina Dürr; Amanda Baum; Stéphanie Giezendanner; Sabrina Maier; Anne Leuppi-Taegtmeyer; Isabelle Arnet; Kurt E. Hersberger; Jörg D. Leuppi

    Poor medication-adherence is common in chronic lung patients, resulting in reduced health-outcomes and increased healthcare-costs. This study aimed to investigate the impact of an acoustic reminder and support calls on adherence to inhaled therapy in asthma and COPD patients and to determine their effect on exacerbations. This single-blinded randomized controlled trial investigated asthma and COPD patients during 6 months in an ambulatory setting. The intervention consisted of daily alarm clock and support phone calls, whenever use of rescue medication doubled or inhaled medication was not taken as prescribed. Primary outcome was time to next exacerbation. Frequency of exacerbations, adherence to inhaled medication and quality of life scores were secondary outcomes. Cox and Poisson regression were used to determine intervention effect on time to exacerbation and frequency of exacerbations, respectively. Seventy-five participants were assigned to the intervention group and 74 to usual follow-up care. During a median follow-up of 6.2 months, 22 and 28% in the intervention and control groups respectively, experienced at least one exacerbation. Intervention had no effect on time to first exacerbation (HR 0.65, 95% CI 0.21 to 2.07, P = .24), but showed a trend toward a 39% decreased frequency of exacerbations (RR = 0.61, 95% CI 0.35 to 1.03, P = .070) for the adjusted models, respectively. The intervention group had significantly more days with 80–100% taking adherence regarding puff inhalers (82 ± 14% vs. 60 ± 30%, P < .001) and dry powder capsules (90 ± .10% vs. 80 ± 21%, P = .01). Timing adherence in participants using puff inhalers was higher in the intervention group (69 ± 25% vs. 51 ± 33%, P < .001). No significant differences in QoL were found between the two groups. Participants assigned to the intervention group had significantly better taking and timing adherence of inhaled medication resulting in a trend towards a decreased frequency of exacerbations. However, no effect on time to next exacerbation was observed. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02386722, Registered 14 February 2014.

    更新日期:2019-12-04
  • DNA methylation is associated with lung function in never smokers
    Respir. Res. (IF 3.829) Pub Date : 2019-12-02
    Maaike de Vries; Ivana Nedeljkovic; Diana A. van der Plaat; Alexandra Zhernakova; Lies Lahousse; Guy G. Brusselle; Najaf Amin; Cornelia M. van Duijn; Judith M. Vonk; H. Marike Boezen

    Active smoking is the main risk factor for COPD. Here, epigenetic mechanisms may play a role, since cigarette smoking is associated with differential DNA methylation in whole blood. So far, it is unclear whether epigenetics also play a role in subjects with COPD who never smoked. Therefore, we aimed to identify differential DNA methylation associated with lung function in never smokers. We determined epigenome-wide DNA methylation levels of 396,243 CpG-sites (Illumina 450 K) in blood of never smokers in four independent cohorts, LifeLines COPD&C (N = 903), LifeLines DEEP (N = 166), Rotterdam Study (RS)-III (N = 150) and RS-BIOS (N = 206). We meta-analyzed the cohort-specific methylation results to identify differentially methylated CpG-sites with FEV1/FVC. Expression Quantitative Trait Methylation (eQTM) analysis was performed in the Biobank-based Integrative Omics Studies (BIOS). A total of 36 CpG-sites were associated with FEV1/FVC in never smokers at p-value< 0.0001, but the meta-analysis did not reveal any epigenome-wide significant CpG-sites. Of interest, 35 of these 36 CpG-sites have not been associated with lung function before in studies including subjects irrespective of smoking history. Among the top hits were cg10012512, cg02885771, annotated to the gene LTV1 Ribosome Biogenesis factor (LTV1), and cg25105536, annotated to Kelch Like Family Member 32 (KLHL32). Moreover, a total of 11 eQTMS were identified. With the identification of 35 CpG-sites that are unique for never smokers, our study shows that DNA methylation is also associated with FEV1/FVC in subjects that never smoked and therefore not merely related to smoking.

    更新日期:2019-12-02
  • Relationship between diffusion capacity and small airway abnormality in COPDGene
    Respir. Res. (IF 3.829) Pub Date : 2019-12-02
    Rachel N. Criner; Charles R. Hatt; Craig J. Galbán; Ella A. Kazerooni; David A. Lynch; Meredith C. McCormack; Richard Casaburi; Neil R. MacIntyre; Barry J. Make; Fernando J. Martinez; Wassim W. Labaki; Jeffrey L. Curtis; Mei Lan K. Han

    Impaired single breath carbon monoxide diffusing capacity (DLCO) is associated with emphysema. Small airways disease (SAD) may be a precursor lesion to emphysema, but the relationship between SAD and DLCO is undescribed. We hypothesized that in mild COPD, functional SAD (fSAD) defined by computed tomography (CT) and Parametric Response Mapping methodology would correlate with impaired DLCO. Using data from ever-smokers in the COPDGene cohort, we established that fSAD correlated significantly with lower DLCO among both non-obstructed and GOLD 1–2 subjects. The relationship between DLCO with CT-defined emphysema was present in all GOLD stages, but most prominent in severe disease. NCT00608764. Registry: COPDGene. Registered 06 February 2008, retrospectively registered.

    更新日期:2019-12-02
  • Protein tyrosine kinase 2: a novel therapeutic target to overcome acquired EGFR-TKI resistance in non-small cell lung cancer
    Respir. Res. (IF 3.829) Pub Date : 2019-12-02
    Xuexia Tong; Ryosuke Tanino; Rong Sun; Yukari Tsubata; Tamio Okimoto; Mayumi Takechi; Takeshi Isobe

    Protein tyrosine kinase 2 (PTK2) expression has been reported in various types of human epithelial cancers including lung cancer; however, the role of PTK2 in epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-mutant non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has not been elucidated. We previously reported that pemetrexed-resistant NSCLC cell line PC-9/PEM also acquired EGFR-TKI resistance with constitutive Akt activation, but we could not find a therapeutic target. Cell viability in EGFR-mutant NSCLC cell lines was measured by the WST-8 assay. Phosphorylation antibody array assay for receptor tyrosine kinases was performed in PC-9 and PC-9/PEM cell lines. We evaluated the efficacy of EGFR and PTK2 co-inhibition in EGFR-TKI-resistant NSCLC in vitro. Oral defactinib and osimertinib were administered in mice bearing subcutaneous xenografts to evaluate the efficacy of the treatment combination in vivo. Both the PTK2 phosphorylation and the treatment combination efficacy were evaluated in erlotinib-resistant EGFR-mutant NSCLC cell lines. PTK2 was hyperphosphorylated in PC-9/PEM. Defactinib (PTK2 inhibitor) and PD173074 (FGFR inhibitor) inhibited PTK2 phosphorylation. Combination of PTK2 inhibitor and EGFR-TKI inhibited Akt and induced apoptosis in PC-9/PEM. The combination treatment showed improved in vivo therapeutic efficacy compared to the single-agent treatments. Furthermore, erlotinib-resistant NSCLC cell lines showed PTK2 hyperphosphorylation. PTK2 inhibition in the PTK2 hyperphosphorylated erlotinib-resistant cell lines also recovered EGFR-TKI sensitivity. PTK2 hyperphosphorylation occurs in various EGFR-TKI-resistant NSCLCs. Combination of PTK2 inhibitor and EGFR-TKI (defactinib and osimertinib) recovered EGFR-TKI sensitivity in the EGFR-TKI-resistant NSCLC. Our study result suggests that this combination therapy may be a viable option to overcome EGFR-TKI resistance in NSCLC.

    更新日期:2019-12-02
  • Icotinib-resistant HCC827 cells produce exosomes with mRNA MET oncogenes and mediate the migration and invasion of NSCLC
    Respir. Res. (IF 3.829) Pub Date : 2019-10-12
    Yiming Yu; Maidinaimu Abudula; Chaofen Li; Zhongbo Chen; Yun Zhang; Yichen Chen

    Icotinib has been widely used in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), and have significantly enhanced the overall survival rate of NSCLC patients. However, acquired drug resistance limits its clinical efficacy. Tumor cell-derived exosomes have been reported to participate in various biological processes, including tumor invasion, metastasis and drug resistance. In the present study, drug resistance was measured by MTT assay. Exosomes were extracted from the cell supernatant using ultracentrifugation and identified by exosomal marker. HCC827 cells were treated with exosomes derived from icotinib-resistant (IR) HCC827 to observe the invasion and migration of parent cells. The expression of exo-mRNA was analyzed by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). In addition, 10 exo-mRNAs detecting from the plasma and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of NSCLC patients with icotinib treatment were used to establish a new drug resistant-warning formula. The oncogene MET into exosomes was identified from icotinib-resistant lung cancer cells, and this was also presented in exosomes in NSCLC patients diagnosed with cancer metastasis after icotinib treatment. The knockdown of MET in exosomes significantly decreased the ability of invasion and migration in HCC827 cells. It was suggested that MET might be specifically package and transferred by exosomes to modify the invasion and migration ability of the surrounding icotinib-sensitive cells.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Semi-quantitative visual assessment of chest radiography is associated with clinical outcomes in critically ill patients
    Respir. Res. (IF 3.829) Pub Date : 2019-10-12
    Stefanie E. Mason; Paul B. Dieffenbach; Joshua A. Englert; Angela A. Rogers; Anthony F. Massaro; Laura E. Fredenburgh; Angelica Higuera; Mayra Pinilla-Vera; Marta Vilas; Raul San Jose Estepar; George R. Washko; Rebecca M. Baron; Samuel Y. Ash

    Respiratory pathology is a major driver of mortality in the intensive care unit (ICU), even in the absence of a primary respiratory diagnosis. Prior work has demonstrated that a visual scoring system applied to chest radiographs (CXR) is associated with adverse outcomes in ICU patients with Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS). We hypothesized that a simple, semi-quantitative CXR score would be associated with clinical outcomes for the general ICU population, regardless of underlying diagnosis. All individuals enrolled in the Registry of Critical Illness at Brigham and Women’s Hospital between June 2008 and August 2018 who had a CXR within 24 h of admission were included. Each patient’s CXR was assigned an opacification score of 0–4 in each of four quadrants with the total score being the sum of all four quadrants. Multivariable negative binomial, logistic, and Cox regression, adjusted for age, sex, race, immunosuppression, a history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, a history of congestive heart failure, and APACHE II scores, were used to assess the total score’s association with ICU length of stay (LOS), duration of mechanical ventilation, in-hospital mortality, 60-day mortality, and overall mortality, respectively. A total of 560 patients were included. Higher CXR scores were associated with increased mortality; for every one-point increase in score, in-hospital mortality increased 10% (OR 1.10, CI 1.05–1.16, p < 0.001) and 60-day mortality increased by 12% (OR 1.12, CI 1.07–1.17, p < 0.001). CXR scores were also independently associated with both ICU length of stay (rate ratio 1.06, CI 1.04–1.07, p < 0.001) and duration of mechanical ventilation (rate ratio 1.05, CI 1.02–1.07, p < 0.001). Higher values on a simple visual score of a patient’s CXR on admission to the medical ICU are associated with increased in-hospital mortality, 60-day mortality, overall mortality, length of ICU stay, and duration of mechanical ventilation.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Plasma metabolomics and clinical predictors of survival differences in COPD patients
    Respir. Res. (IF 3.829) Pub Date : 2019-10-15
    Victor Pinto-Plata; Ciro Casanova; Miguel Divo; Yohannes Tesfaigzi; Vince Calhoun; Jing Sui; Francesca Polverino; Carmen Priolo; Hans Petersen; Juan Pablo de Torres; Jose Maria Marin; Caroline A. Owen; Rebeca Baz; Elizabeth Cordova; Bartolome Celli

    Plasma metabolomics profile (PMP) in COPD has been associated with clinical characteristics, but PMP’s relationship to survival has not been reported. We determined PMP differences between patients with COPD who died an average of 2 years after enrollment (Non-survivors, NS) compared to those who survived (S) and also with age matched controls (C). We studied prospectively 90 patients with severe COPD and 30 controls. NS were divided in discovery and validation cohorts (30 patients each) and the results compared to the PMP of 30 S and C. All participants completed lung function tests, dyspnea scores, quality of life, exercise capacity, BODE index, and plasma metabolomics by liquid and gas chromatography / mass spectometry (LC/MS, LC/MS2, GC/MS). Statistically, we used Random Forest Analysis (RFA) and Support Vector Machine (SVM) to determine metabolites that differentiated the 3 groups and compared the ability of metabolites vs. clinical characteristics to classify patients into survivors and non-survivors. There were 79 metabolites statistically different between S and NS [p < 0.05 and false discovery rate (q value) < 0.1]. RFA and SVM classification of COPD survivors and non-survivors had a predicted accuracy of 74 and 85% respectively. Elevation of tricyclic acid cycle intermediates branched amino acids depletion and increase in lactate, fructose and xylonate showed the most relevant differences between S vs. NS suggesting alteration in mitochondrial oxidative energy generation. PMP had similar predictive power for risk of death as information provided by clinical characteristics. A plasma metabolomic profile characterized by an oxidative energy production difference between survivors and non-survivors was observed in COPD patients 2 years before death.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Identifying tuberculous pleural effusion using artificial intelligence machine learning algorithms
    Respir. Res. (IF 3.829) Pub Date : 2019-10-16
    Zenghua Ren; Yudan Hu; Ling Xu

    The differential diagnosis of tuberculous pleural effusion (TPE) is challenging. In recent years, artificial intelligence (AI) machine learning algorithms have started being used to an increasing extent in disease diagnosis due to the high level of efficiency, objectivity, and accuracy that they offer. Data samples on 192 patients with TPE, 54 patients with parapneumonic pleural effusion (PPE), and 197 patients with malignant pleural effusion (MPE) were retrospectively collected. Based on 28 different features obtained via statistical analysis, TPE diagnostic models using four machine learning algorithms (MLAs), namely logistic regression, k-nearest neighbors (KNN), support vector machine (SVM) and random forest (RF) were established and their respective diagnostic performances were calculated. The respective diagnostic performances of each of the four algorithmic models were compared with that of pleural fluid adenosine deaminase (pfADA). Based on 12 features with the most significant impacts on the accuracy of the RF model, a new RF model was designed for clinical application. To demonstrate its external validity, a prospective study was conducted and the diagnostic performance of the RF model was calculated. The respective sensitivity and specificity of each of the four TPE diagnostic models were as follows: logistic regression – 80.5 and 84.8%; KNN– 78.6 and 86.6%; SVM – 83.2 and 85.9%; and RF – 89.1 and 93.6%. The sensitivity and specificity of pfADA were 85.4 and 84.1%, respectively, at the best cut-off value of 17.5 U/L. RF was the superior method among the four MLAs, and was also superior to pfADA. The newly designed RF model (based on 12 out of 28 features) exhibited an acceptable performance rate for the diagnosis of TPE with a sensitivity and specificity of 90.6 and 92.3%, respectively. In the prospective study, its sensitivity and specificity were 100.0 and 90.0%, respectively. Establishing a model for the diagnosis of TPE using RF resulted in a more effective, economical, and faster diagnostic method. This method could enable clinicians to diagnose and treat TPE more effectively.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Influence of β2 adrenergic receptor genotype on risk of nocturnal ventilation in patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy
    Respir. Res. (IF 3.829) Pub Date : 2019-10-16
    Eli F. Kelley; Troy J. Cross; Eric M. Snyder; Craig M. McDonald; Eric P. Hoffman; Luca Bello

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a progressive neuromuscular disease resulting in severe respiratory derangements. As such, DMD patients are at a high risk of nocturnal hypoventilation, thereby requiring nocturnal ventilation (NV). To this end, NV is an important clinical milestone in the management of DMD. Emerging evidence suggests that ß2 adrenergic receptors (ADRB2) may play a role in determining respiratory function, whereby more functional ADRB2 genotype variants (e.g., Gly16) are associated with improved pulmonary function and respiratory muscle strength. These findings suggest that the more functional ADRB2 genotype may help to preserve respiratory function in patients with DMD. The purpose of this study was to identify the influence of ADRB2 genotype on the risk of NV use in DMD. Data from the CINRG Duchenne Natural History Study including 175 DMD patients (3–25 yrs) were analyzed focusing on ADRB2 genotype variants. Time-to-event analyses were used to examine differences in the age at prescription of full-time NV use between genotypes. There were no differences between genotype groups in age, height, weight, corticosteroid use, proportion of ambulatory patients, or age at loss of ambulation. DMD patients expressing the Gly16 polymorphism had a significantly (P < 0.05) lower mean age at NV prescription compared with those patients expressing the Arg16 polymorphism (21.80 ± 0.59 yrs. vs 25.91 ± 1.31 yrs., respectively). In addition, a covariate-adjusted Cox model revealed that the Gly16 variant group possessed a 6.52-fold higher risk of full-time NV use at any given age compared with the Arg16 polymorphism group. These data suggest that genetic variations in the ADRB2 gene may influence the age at which DMD patients are first prescribed NV, whereby patients with the Gly16 polymorphism are more likely to require NV assistance at an earlier age than their Arg16 counterparts.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A): a key phosphatase in the progression of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) to lung cancer
    Respir. Res. (IF 3.829) Pub Date : 2019-10-17
    Cassandra P. Nader; Aylin Cidem; Nicole M. Verrills; Alaina J. Ammit

    Lung cancer (LC) has the highest relative risk of development as a comorbidity of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The molecular mechanisms that mediate chronic inflammation and lung function impairment in COPD have been identified in LC. This suggests the two diseases are more linked than once thought. Emerging data in relation to a key phosphatase, protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A), and its regulatory role in inflammatory and tumour suppression in both disease settings suggests that it may be critical in the progression of COPD to LC. In this review, we uncover the importance of the functional and active PP2A holoenzyme in the context of both diseases. We describe PP2A inactivation via direct and indirect means and explore the actions of two key PP2A endogenous inhibitors, cancerous inhibitor of PP2A (CIP2A) and inhibitor 2 of PP2A (SET), and the role they play in COPD and LC. We explain how dysregulation of PP2A in COPD creates a favourable inflammatory micro-environment and promotes the initiation and progression of tumour pathogenesis. Finally, we highlight PP2A as a druggable target in the treatment of COPD and LC and demonstrate the potential of PP2A re-activation as a strategy to halt COPD disease progression to LC. Although further studies are required to elucidate if PP2A activity in COPD is a causal link for LC progression, studies focused on the potential of PP2A reactivating agents to reduce the risk of LC formation in COPD patients will be pivotal in improving clinical outcomes for both COPD and LC patients in the future.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Primary drug resistance of mycobacterium tuberculosis in Shandong, China, 2004–2018
    Respir. Res. (IF 3.829) Pub Date : 2019-10-18
    Wan-mei Song; Yi-fan Li; Xiao-bin Ma; Jin-yue Liu; Ning-ning Tao; Yao Liu; Qian-yun Zhang; Ting-ting Xu; Shi-jin Li; Chun-Bao Yu; Lei Gao; Liang-liang Cui; Huai-chen Li

    Primary drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB) has contributed to a significant health and economic burden on a global scale, especially in China. we sought to estimate epidemiological characteristics of primary DR-TB in China from 2004 to 2018. Eleven thousand four hundred sixty-seven newly diagnosed and 1981 retreated TB cases with drug susceptibility data were included. Chi-Square test for trends, linear regression, a joinpoint regression model and temporal trend in proportions of the different resistance patterns were carried out. The proportion of primary DR-TB and mono-resistant TB (MR-TB) in China had reduced by more than 12% since 2004, and were 21.38%, 13.35% in 2018 respectively. Among primary DR-TB cases (2173,18.95%), the percentage of multiresistant TB (MDR-TB, from 5.41 to 17.46%), male (from 77.03 to 84.13%), cavity (from 13.51 to 43.92%), rifampicin(RFP)-resistant TB (from 8.11 to 26.98%), streptomycin(SM)-resistant TB (from 50.00 to 71.43%) increased significantly (P < 0.05). On the contrary, the proportion of female, non-cavity, isoniazide(INH)-resistant TB (from 55.41 to 48.15%) and MR-TB (from 82.43 to 62.43%) decreased significant (P < 0.05). The primary drug resistance rate among female, cavity, smoking, drinking, 15 to 44 year-old TB subgroups increased by 0.16, 6.24, 20.95, 158.85, 31.49%, respectively. The percentage of primary DR-TB, RFP-resistant TB dropped significantly during 2004–2007 in Joinpoint regression model. The total rate of drug resistance among new TB cases showed a downward trend in Shandong, China, from 2004 to 2018. Primary drug resistance patterns were shifting from female, non-cavity, INH-resistant TB, and MR-TB groups to male, cavity, RFP/SM-resistant TB, and MDR-TB groups. Considering the rising drug resistance rate among some special population, future control of primary DR-TB in China may require an increased focus on female, cavity, smoking, drinking, or 15 to 44 year-old TB subgroups.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Insufficient serum L-ficolin is associated with disease presence and extent of pulmonary Mycobacterium avium complex disease
    Respir. Res. (IF 3.829) Pub Date : 2019-10-21
    Tomofumi Kobayashi; Koji Kuronuma; Atsushi Saito; Kimiyuki Ikeda; Shigeru Ariki; Atsushi Saitou; Mitsuo Otsuka; Hirofumi Chiba; Satoshi Takahashi; Motoko Takahashi; Hiroki Takahashi

    The incidence of infectious disease caused by nontuberculous mycobacteria is increasing worldwide. Pulmonary Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) disease is difficult to treat with chemotherapy, and its mechanism of infection, infection route, disease onset, and severity remain unknown. Ficolins are oligomeric defense lectins. L-ficolin plays an important role in innate immunity. This study’s aim was to identify L-ficolin’s role in patients with pulmonary MAC disease. Between April 2011 and September 2017, 61 Japanese patients with pulmonary MAC disease were seen at our hospital. A control group, comprising 30 healthy individuals, without respiratory disease were enrolled in our study. The relationship between serum L-ficolin levels and disease severity was assessed, and L-ficolin’s antibacterial role was examined. Serum L-ficolin levels were significantly lower in patients with pulmonary MAC disease than in healthy subjects (1.69 ± 1.27 μg/ml vs. 3.96 ± 1.42 μg/ml; p < 0.001). The cut-off value, based on receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis results, was 2.48 μg/ml (area under the curve (AUC) 0.90, sensitivity and specificity 83.6 and 86.7%, respectively). Serum L-ficolin levels were significantly lower in the patients with nodular bronchiectatic type disease compared with the patients with fibrocavitary type disease and were lower in the high-resolution computed tomography high-scoring group compared with low-scoring group. An in vitro analysis showed that purified recombinant L-ficolin bound to M. avium and its major cell wall component, lipoarabinomannan, in a concentration-dependent manner. In addition, recombinant L-ficolin suppressed M. avium growth in a concentration-dependent manner. Insufficient serum L-ficolin is associated with disease progression in pulmonary MAC disease, and the level of serum L-ficolin is a possible biomarker. This study is registered with UMIN ( UMIN000022392 ).

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • miR-335-5p inhibits TGF-β1-induced epithelial–mesenchymal transition in non-small cell lung cancer via ROCK1
    Respir. Res. (IF 3.829) Pub Date : 2019-10-21
    Wenwen Du; Haicheng Tang; Zhe Lei; Jianjie Zhu; Yuanyuan Zeng; Zeyi Liu; Jian-an Huang

    Significant evidence has shown that the miRNA pathway is an important component in the downstream signaling cascades of TGF-β1 pathway. Our previous study has indicated that miR-335-5p expression was significantly down-regulated and acted as a vital player in the metastasis of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), however the underlying mechanism remained unclear. The differential expression level of miR-335-5p and ROCK1 were determined by qRT-PCR and IHC analysis in human tissue samples with or without lymph node metastasis. Transwell assay was conducted to determine cell ability of migration and invasion. SiRNA interference, microRNA transfection and western blot analysis were utilized to clarify the underlying regulatory mechanism. We showed that down-regulated expression of miR-335-5p and up-regulated expression of ROCK1 in NSCLC tissues were associated with lymph node metastasis. Over-expresion of miR-335-5p significantly inhibited TGF-β1-mediated NSCLC migration and invasion. Furthermore, luciferase reporter assays proved that miR-335-5p can bind to 3′-UTR of ROCK1 directly. Moreover, we confirmed that siRNA-mediated silencing of ROCK1 significantly diminished TGF-β1-mediated EMT and migratory and invasive capabilities of A549 and SPC-A1 cells. This is the first time to report that miR-335-5p regulates ROCK1 and impairs its functions, thereby playing a key role in TGF-β1-induced EMT and cell migration and invasion in NSCLC.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Computed tomography-derived area and density of pectoralis muscle associated disease severity and longitudinal changes in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a case control study
    Respir. Res. (IF 3.829) Pub Date : 2019-10-21
    So Hyeon Bak; Sung Ok Kwon; Seon-Sook Han; Woo Jin Kim

    Muscle wasting is associated with prognosis in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The cross-sectional area of skeletal muscles on computed tomography (CT) could serve as a method to evaluate body composition. The present study aimed to determine the ability of CT-derived pectoralis muscle area (PMA) and pectoralis muscle density (PMD) to determine the severity of COPD and change in longitudinal pulmonary function in patients with COPD. A total of 293 participants were enrolled in this study, a whom 222 had undergone at least two spirometry measurements within 3 years after baseline data acquisition. PMA and PMD were measured from a single axial slice of chest CT above the aortic arch at baseline. The emphysema index and bronchial wall thickness were quantitatively assessed in all scans. The generalized linear model was used to determine the correlation between PMA and PMD measurements and pulmonary function. PMA and PMD were significantly associated with baseline lung function and the severity of emphysema (P < 0.05). Patients with the lowest PMA and PMD exhibited significantly more severe airflow obstruction (β = − 0.06; 95% confidence interval: − 0.09 to − 0.03]. PMA was statistically associated with COPD assessment test (CAT) score (P = 0.033). However, PMD did not exhibit statistically significant correlation with either CAT scores or modified Medical Research Council scores (P > 0.05). Furthermore, neither PMA nor PMD were associated with changes in forced expiratory volume in 1 s over a 3-year periods. CT-derived features of the pectoralis muscle may be helpful in predicting disease severity in patients with COPD, but are not necessarily associated with longitudinal changes in lung function.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Peripheral blood proteomic profiling of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis biomarkers in the multicentre IPF-PRO Registry
    Respir. Res. (IF 3.829) Pub Date : 2019-10-22
    Jamie L. Todd; Megan L. Neely; Robert Overton; Katey Durham; Mridu Gulati; Howard Huang; Jesse Roman; L. Kristin Newby; Kevin R. Flaherty; Richard Vinisko; Yi Liu; Janine Roy; Ramona Schmid; Benjamin Strobel; Christian Hesslinger; Thomas B. Leonard; Imre Noth; John A. Belperio; Scott M. Palmer

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive lung disease for which diagnosis and management remain challenging. Defining the circulating proteome in IPF may identify targets for biomarker development. We sought to quantify the circulating proteome in IPF, determine differential protein expression between subjects with IPF and controls, and examine relationships between protein expression and markers of disease severity. This study involved 300 patients with IPF from the IPF-PRO Registry and 100 participants without known lung disease. Plasma collected at enrolment was analysed using aptamer-based proteomics (1305 proteins). Linear regression was used to determine differential protein expression between participants with IPF and controls and associations between protein expression and disease severity measures (percent predicted values for forced vital capacity [FVC] and diffusion capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide [DLco]; composite physiologic index [CPI]). Multivariable models were fit to select proteins that best distinguished IPF from controls. Five hundred fifty one proteins had significantly different levels between IPF and controls, of which 47 showed a |log2(fold-change)| > 0.585 (i.e. > 1.5-fold difference). Among the proteins with the greatest difference in levels in patients with IPF versus controls were the glycoproteins thrombospondin 1 and von Willebrand factor and immune-related proteins C-C motif chemokine ligand 17 and bactericidal permeability-increasing protein. Multivariable classification modelling identified nine proteins that, when considered together, distinguished IPF versus control status with high accuracy (area under receiver operating curve = 0.99). Among participants with IPF, 14 proteins were significantly associated with FVC % predicted, 23 with DLco % predicted, 14 with CPI. Four proteins (roundabout homolog-2, spondin-1, polymeric immunoglobulin receptor, intercellular adhesion molecule 5) demonstrated the expected relationship across all three disease severity measures. When considered in pathways analyses, proteins associated with the presence or severity of IPF were enriched in pathways involved in platelet and haemostatic responses, vascular or platelet derived growth factor signalling, immune activation, and extracellular matrix organisation. Patients with IPF have a distinct circulating proteome and can be distinguished using a nine-protein profile. Several proteins strongly associate with disease severity. The proteins identified may represent biomarker candidates and implicate pathways for further investigation. ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01915511).

    更新日期:2019-11-28
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