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  • Dysregulation of histone methyltransferases in breast cancer – Opportunities for new targeted therapies?
    Mol. Oncol. (IF 5.962) Pub Date : 2016-09-23
    Ewa M. Michalak, Jane E. Visvader

    Histone methyltransferases (HMTs) catalyze the methylation of lysine and arginine residues on histone tails and non-histone targets. These important post-translational modifications are exquisitely regulated and affect chromatin compaction and transcriptional programs leading to diverse biological outcomes. There is accumulating evidence that genetic alterations of several HMTs impinge on oncogenic or tumor-suppressor functions and influence both cancer initiation and progression. HMTs therefore represent an opportunity for therapeutic targeting in those patients with tumors in which HMTs are dysregulated, to reverse the histone marks and transcriptional programs associated with aggressive tumor behavior. In this review, we describe the known histone methyltransferases and their emerging roles in breast cancer tumorigenesis.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Autophagy inhibition upregulates CD4+ tumor infiltrating lymphocyte expression via miR-155 regulation and TRAIL activation
    Mol. Oncol. (IF 5.962) Pub Date : 2016-09-16
    Paul Zarogoulidis, Savvas Petanidis, Kalliopi Domvri, Efrosini Kioseoglou, Doxakis Anestakis, Lutz Freitag, Konstantinos Zarogoulidis, Wolfgang Hohenforst-Schmidt, Wilfried Eberhardt
    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • mRNA expression profiles of colorectal liver metastases as a novel biomarker for early recurrence after partial hepatectomy
    Mol. Oncol. (IF 5.962) Pub Date : 2016-09-20
    E.P. van der Stok, M. Smid, A.M. Sieuwerts, P.B. Vermeulen, S. Sleijfer, N. Ayez, D.J. Grünhagen, J.W.M. Martens, C. Verhoef

    Background Identification of specific risk groups for recurrence after surgery for isolated colorectal liver metastases (CRLM) remains challenging due to the heterogeneity of the disease. Classical clinicopathologic parameters have limited prognostic value. The aim of this study was to identify a gene expression signature measured in CRLM discriminating early from late recurrence after partial hepatectomy. Methods CRLM from two patient groups were collected: I) with recurrent disease ≤12 months after surgery (N = 33), and II) without recurrences and disease free for ≥36 months (N = 30). The patients were clinically homogeneous; all had a low clinical risk score (0–2) and did not receive (neo-) adjuvant chemotherapy. Total RNA was hybridised to Illumina arrays, and processed for analysis. A leave-one-out cross validation (LOOCV) analysis was performed to identify a prognostic gene expression signature. Results LOOCV yielded an 11-gene profile with prognostic value in relation to recurrent disease ≤12 months after partial hepatectomy. This signature had a sensitivity of 81.8%, with a specificity of 66.7% for predicting recurrences (≤12 months) versus no recurrences for at least 36 months after surgery (X2 P < 0.0001). Conclusion The current study yielded an 11-gene signature at mRNA level in CRLM discriminating early from late or no relapse after partial hepatectomy.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • miR-634 exhibits anti-tumor activities toward hepatocellular carcinoma via Rab1A and DHX33
    Mol. Oncol. (IF 5.962) Pub Date : 2016-09-20
    Chris Zhiyi Zhang, Yun Cao, Jia Fu, Jing-Ping Yun, Mei-Fang Zhang

    Deregulation of microRNAs contributes to the aberrant growth of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Here, we showed that miR-634 expression was frequently decreased in HCC. Low miR-634 expression was significantly associated with larger tumor size, poorer tumor differentiation, advanced TNM stage, vascular invasion, absence of tumor capsule and unfavorable overall survival. Overexpression of miR-634 markedly attenuated cell viability, colony formation, tumor growth and metastasis, whereas miR-634 inhibition resulted in the opposite phenotypes. Furthermore, re-introduction of miR-634 induced cell apoptosis in vitro and in vivo. Mechanistically, miR-634 inhibited the expression of Rab1A and DHX33 via directly binding to the 3′-UTR of both genes. In clinical samples, the expression of Rab1A or DHX33 was reversely correlated with miR-634. Re-expression of Rab1A or DHX33 abrogated the miR-634-mediated inhibition of cell proliferation and migration. Collectively, our data suggest a tumor suppressor role of miR-634 in HCC. The newly identified miR-634/Rab1A or miR-634/DHX33 axis serves as a potential therapeutic target for the clinical management.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Concordance of immune checkpoints within tumor immune contexture and their prognostic significance in gastric cancer
    Mol. Oncol. (IF 5.962) Pub Date : 2016-09-24
    Congqi Dai, Ruixuan Geng, Chenchen Wang, Angela Wong, Min Qing, Jianjun Hu, Yu Sun, A.W.I. Lo, Jin Li

    Checkpoint blockade therapy has emerged as a novel approach for cancer immunotherapy in several malignancies. However, patient prognosis and disease progression relevant to immune checkpoints in gastric tumor microenvironment are not defined. This study aims to investigate the expression and prognostic significance of immune checkpoints within gastric cancer. In the study, a cohort of 398 cancer tissues from stage I to IV gastric cancer patients were assessed for programmed cell death 1 ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression and tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte (TIL) infiltration using immunohistochemistry to ascertain their survival correlation. The data revealed that higher TIL density correlated with less risk of disease progression, and exhibited survival benefits in gastric cancer patients, and PD-L1 positivity showed a significant association with the presence of high TIL infiltration. Furthermore, real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction was performed to detect expression of multiple immune checkpoints with the relation to clinical outcome in 139 samples randomly selected from the same cohort, and higher messenger RNA levels of most immune checkpoints were associated with favorable outcome, while consistently showing a positive correlation with interferon gamma levels. In situ hybridization was used to determine the localization of Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) in 97 specimens, and showed EBV-positive gastric cancer samples correlated with PD-L1 expression and increased TIL density. These results suggest that induction of immune checkpoint within gastric cancer patients reflects a high immune infiltration density, especially in those with EBV-associated gastric cancer, which may direct patient selection for checkpoint blockade therapy.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Somatic mutation detection using various targeted detection assays in paired samples of circulating tumor DNA, primary tumor and metastases from patients undergoing resection of colorectal liver metastases
    Mol. Oncol. (IF 5.962) Pub Date : 2016-10-10
    Nick Beije, Jean C. Helmijr, Marjolein J.A. Weerts, Corine M. Beaufort, Matthew Wiggin, Andre Marziali, Cornelis Verhoef, Stefan Sleijfer, Maurice P.H.M. Jansen, John W.M. Martens

    Assessing circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) is a promising method to evaluate somatic mutations from solid tumors in a minimally-invasive way. In a group of twelve metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) patients undergoing liver metastasectomy, from each patient DNA from cell-free DNA (cfDNA), the primary tumor, metastatic liver tissue, normal tumor-adjacent colon or liver tissue, and whole blood were obtained. Investigated was the feasibility of a targeted NGS approach to identify somatic mutations in ctDNA. This targeted NGS approach was also compared with NGS preceded by mutant allele enrichment using synchronous coefficient of drag alteration technology embodied in the OnTarget assay, and for selected mutations with digital PCR (dPCR). All tissue and cfDNA samples underwent IonPGM sequencing for a CRC-specific 21-gene panel, which was analyzed using a standard and a modified calling pipeline. In addition, cfDNA, whole blood and normal tissue DNA were analyzed with the OnTarget assay and with dPCR for specific mutations in cfDNA as detected in the corresponding primary and/or metastatic tumor tissue. NGS with modified calling was superior to standard calling and detected ctDNA in the cfDNA of 10 patients harboring mutations in APC, ATM, CREBBP, FBXW7, KRAS, KMT2D, PIK3CA and TP53. Using this approach, variant allele frequencies in plasma ranged predominantly from 1 to 10%, resulting in limited concordance between ctDNA and the primary tumor (39%) and the metastases (55%). Concordance between ctDNA and tissue markedly improved when ctDNA was evaluated for KRAS, PIK3CA and TP53 mutations by the OnTarget assay (80%) and digital PCR (93%). Additionally, using these techniques mutations were observed in tumor-adjacent tissue with normal morphology in the majority of patients, which were not observed in whole blood. In conclusion, in these mCRC patients with oligometastatic disease NGS on cfDNA was feasible, but had limited sensitivity to detect all somatic mutations present in tissue. Digital PCR and mutant allele enrichment before NGS appeared to be more sensitive to detect somatic mutations.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • 更新日期:2019-11-18
  • A pilot study exploring the molecular architecture of the tumor microenvironment in human prostate cancer using laser capture microdissection and reverse phase protein microarray
    Mol. Oncol. (IF 5.962) Pub Date : 2016-10-14
    Elisa Pin, Steven Stratton, Claudio Belluco, Lance Liotta, Ray Nagle, K. Alex Hodge, Jianghong Deng, Ting Dong, Elisa Baldelli, Emanuel Petricoin, Mariaelena Pierobon

    The cross-talk between tumor epithelium and surrounding stromal/immune microenvironment is essential to sustain tumor growth and progression and provides new opportunities for the development of targeted treatments focused on disrupting the tumor ecology. Identification of novel approaches to study these interactions is of primary importance. Using laser capture microdissection (LCM) coupled with reverse phase protein microarray (RPPA) based protein signaling activation mapping we explored the molecular interconnection between tumor epithelium and surrounding stromal microenvironment in 18 prostate cancer (PCa) specimens. Four specimen-matched cellular compartments (normal-appearing epithelium and its adjacent stroma, and malignant epithelium and its adjacent stroma) were isolated for each case. The signaling network analysis of the four compartments unraveled a number of molecular mechanisms underlying the communication between tumor cells and stroma in the context of the tumor microenvironment. In particular, differential expression of inflammatory mediators like IL-8 and IL-10 by the stroma cells appeared to modulate specific cross-talks between the tumor cells and surrounding microenvironment.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Exosomal proteins as prognostic biomarkers in non-small cell lung cancer
    Mol. Oncol. (IF 5.962) Pub Date : 2016-10-21
    B. Sandfeld-Paulsen, N. Aggerholm-Pedersen, R. Bæk, K.R. Jakobsen, P. Meldgaard, B.H. Folkersen, T.R. Rasmussen, K. Varming, M.M. Jørgensen, B.S. Sorensen

    Background Use of exosomes as biomarkers in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is an intriguing approach in the liquid-biopsy era. Exosomes are nano-sized vesicles with membrane-bound proteins that reflect their originating cell. Prognostic biomarkers are needed to improve patient selection for optimal treatment. We here evaluate exosomes by protein phenotyping as a prognostic biomarker in NSCLC. Methods Exosomes from plasma of 276 NSCLC patients were phenotyped using the Extracellular Vesicle Array; 49 antibodies captured the proteins on the exosomes, and a cocktail of biotin-conjugated antibodies binding the general exosome markers CD9, CD81 and CD63 was used to visualise the captured exosomes. For each individual membrane-bound protein, results were analysed based on presence, in a concentration-dependent manner, and correlated to overall survival (OS). Results The 49 proteins attached to the exosomal membrane were evaluated. NY-ESO-1, EGFR, PLAP, EpCam and Alix had a significant concentration-dependent impact on inferior OS. Due to multiple testing, NY-ESO-1 was the only marker that maintained a significant impact on inferior survival (hazard rate (HR) 1.78 95% (1.78–2.44); p = 0.0001) after Bonferroni correction. Results were adjusted for clinico-pathological characteristics, stage, histology, age, sex and performance status. Conclusion We illustrate the promising aspects associated with the use of exosomal membrane-bound proteins as a biomarker and demonstrate that they are a strong prognostic biomarker in NSCLC.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Impact of selective anti-BMP9 treatment on tumor cells and tumor angiogenesis
    Mol. Oncol. (IF 5.962) Pub Date : 2016-10-20
    Verena Brand, Christian Lehmann, Christian Umkehrer, Stefan Bissinger, Martina Thier, Mariana de Wouters, Romi Raemsch, Ute Jucknischke, Alexander Haas, Sebastian Breuer, Fabian Birzele, Tomas Racek, Marco Reis, Erica Lorenzon, Frank Herting, Michael Stürzl, Stefan Lorenz, Yvonne Kienast

    The role of bone morphogenic protein 9 (BMP9) signaling in angiogenesis has been controversial, with a number of studies showing that it acts either as a pro-angiogenic or, conversely, as an anti-angiogenic factor in a context-dependent manner. Notably, BMP9 was also reported to function in both pro- or anti-tumorigenic roles during tumor progression. It has therefore remained unclear, whether selective BMP9 inhibition is a useful target for antibody therapy of cancer. To shed light on these questions, we characterized BMP9 expression in plasma of patients with different cancer indications and found elevated levels of pro-domains and precursor BMP9 with a strong response in renal cell carcinoma (RCC). These studies prompted us to evaluate the potential of selective anti-BMP9 cancer therapy in RCC. We generated a novel monoclonal therapeutic antibody candidate, mAb BMP9-0093, that selectively targets all different BMP9 variants but does not bind to the closest homolog BMP10. In vitro, mAb BMP9-0093 treatment inhibited signaling, endothelin-1 (ET-1) production and spreading of endothelial cells and restored BMP9-induced decrease in pericyte migration and attachment. Furthermore, BMP9-mediated epithelial–mesenchymal transition of renal cell carcinoma cells was reversed by mAb BMP9-0093 treatment in vitro. In vivo, mAb BMP9-0093 showed significant anti-tumor activity that was associated with an increase in apoptosis as well as a decrease in tumor cell proliferation and ET-1 release. Furthermore, mAb BMP9-0093 induced mural cell coverage of endothelial cells, which was corroborated by a reduction in vascular permeability, demonstrated by a diminished penetration of omalizumab-Alexa 647 into tumor tissue. Our findings provide new evidence for a better understanding of BMP9 contribution in tumor progression and angiogenesis that may result in the development of effective targeted therapeutic interventions.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Prospective validation of a blood-based 9-miRNA profile for early detection of breast cancer in a cohort of women examined by clinical mammography
    Mol. Oncol. (IF 5.962) Pub Date : 2016-11-01
    Maria B. Lyng, Annette R. Kodahl, Harald Binder, Henrik J. Ditzel

    Mammography is the predominant screening method for early detection of breast cancer, but has limitations and could be rendered more accurate by combination with a blood-based biomarker profile. Circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) are increasingly recognized as strong biomarkers, and we previously developed a 9-miRNA profile using serum and LNA-based qPCR that effectively stratified patients with early stage breast cancer vs. healthy women. To further develop the test into routine clinical practice, we collected serum of women examined by clinical mammography (N = 197) according to standard operational procedures (SOPs) of the Danish Cancer Biobank. The performance of the circulating 9-miRNA profile was analyzed in 116 of these women, including 36 with breast cancer (aged 50–74), following a standardized protocol that mimicked a routine clinical set-up. We confirmed that the profile is significantly different between women with breast cancer and controls (p-value <0.0001), with an AUC of 0.61. Significantly, one woman whose 9-miRNA profile predicted a 73% probability of having breast cancer indeed developed the disease within one year despite being categorized as clinically healthy at the time of blood sample collection and mammography. We propose that this miRNA profile combined with mammography will increase the overall accuracy of early detection of breast cancer.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • TR1801-ADC: a highly potent cMet antibody-drug conjugate with high activity in patient-derived xenograft models of solid tumors.
    Mol. Oncol. (IF 5.962) Pub Date : 2019-11-19
    Marco Gymnopoulos,Oscar Betancourt,Vincent Blot,Ryo Fujita,Diana Galvan,Vincent Lieuw,Sophie Nguyen,Jeanette Snedden,Christine Stewart,Jose Villicana,Jon Wojciak,Eley Wong,Raul Pardo,Neki Patel,Francois D'Hooge,Balakumar Vijayakrishnan,Conor Barry,John A Hartley,Philip W Howard,Roland Newman,Julia Coronella

    cMet is a well-characterized oncogene that is the target of many drugs including small molecule and biologic pathway inhibitors, and, more recently, antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs). However, the clinical benefit from cMet-targeted therapy has been limited. We developed a novel cMet-targeted 'third-generation' ADC, TR1801-ADC, that was optimized at different levels including specificity, stability, toxin-linker, conjugation site, and in vivo efficacy. Our nonagonistic cMet antibody was site-specifically conjugated to the pyrrolobenzodiazepine (PBD) toxin-linker tesirine and has picomolar activity in cancer cell lines derived from different solid tumors including lung, colorectal, and gastric cancers. The potency of our cMet ADC is independent of MET gene copy number, and its antitumor activity was high not only in high cMet-expressing cell lines but also in medium-to-low cMet cell lines (40 000-90 000 cMet/cell) in which a cMet ADC with tubulin inhibitor payload was considerably less potent. In vivo xenografts with low-medium cMet expression were also very responsive to TR1801-ADC at a single dose, while a cMet ADC using a tubulin inhibitor showed a substantially reduced efficacy. Furthermore, TR1801-ADC had excellent efficacy with significant antitumor activity in 90% of tested patient-derived xenograft models of gastric, colorectal, and head and neck cancers: 7 of 10 gastric models, 4 of 10 colorectal cancer models, and 3 of 10 head and neck cancer models showed complete tumor regression after a single-dose administration. Altogether, TR1801-ADC is a new generation cMet ADC with best-in-class preclinical efficacy and good tolerability in rats.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Integrin α5 subunit is required for the tumor supportive role of fibroblasts in colorectal adenocarcinoma and serves as a potential stroma prognostic marker.
    Mol. Oncol. (IF 5.962) Pub Date : 2019-10-11
    Ling Lu,Ruting Xie,Rong Wei,Chunmiao Cai,Dexi Bi,Dingzi Yin,Hu Liu,Jiayi Zheng,Youhua Zhang,Feifei Song,Yaohui Gao,Linhua Tan,Qing Wei,Huanlong Qin

    The tumorigenesis of colorectal cancer (CRC) is a complicated process, involving interactions between cancer cells and the microenvironment. The role of α5 integrin subunit in CRC remains controversial, and previous studies mainly focused on cancer cells. Herein, we report an important role of α5 in stroma fibroblasts in the tumorigenesis of CRC. The expression of α5 was found to be located in colorectal tumor stroma rather than in epithelia cancer cells. Immunofluorescence colocalization and gene correlation analysis confirmed that α5 was mainly expressed in cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs). Moreover, experimental evidence showed that α5 expression was required for the tumor-promoting effect of fibroblast cells. In an in vivo xenograft nude mice model, α5 depletion in fibroblasts dramatically suppressed fibroblast-induced tumor growth. In an in vitro cell coculture assay, α5 depletion or knockdown reduced the ability of fibroblasts to promote cancer cell migration and invasion compared with wild-type fibroblasts; moreover, we observed that the expression and assembly of fibronectin were downregulated after α5 depletion or knockdown in fibroblasts. Analysis of the RNA-Seq data of the Cancer Genome Atlas cohort revealed that high expression of ITGA5 (α5 integrin subunit) was correlated with poor overall survival in colorectal adenocarcinoma, which was further confirmed by immunohistochemistry in an independent cohort of 355 patients. Thus, our study identifies α5 integrin subunit as a novel stroma molecular marker for colorectal adenocarcinoma, offers a fresh insight into colorectal adenocarcinoma progression, and shows that α5 expression in stroma fibroblasts underlies its ability to promote the tumorigenesis of colorectal adenocarcinoma.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Antitumor and antiangiogenic activity of the novel chimeric inhibitor animacroxam in testicular germ cell cancer.
    Mol. Oncol. (IF 5.962) Pub Date : 2019-10-05
    Gustav Steinemann,Alexandra Dittmer,Jacob Schmidt,David Josuttis,Michael Fähling,Bernhard Biersack,Nicola Beindorff,Eva Jolante Koziolek,Rainer Schobert,Winfried Brenner,Thomas Müller,Bianca Nitzsche,Michael Höpfner

    Chimeric inhibitors, which merge two drug pharmacophores in a single molecule have become a prominent approach for the design of novel anticancer compounds. Here, we examined animacroxam, which combines histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitory and cytoskeleton-interfering pharmacophores, in testicular germ cell tumors (TGCT). The effectiveness of animacroxam was compared to that of the commonly applied chemotherapeutic cisplatin as well as the clinically approved HDAC inhibitor vorinostat. The antineoplastic and antiangiogenic effects of animacroxam on TGCT in vivo were assessed through exploratory animal studies and a modified chorioallantoic membrane assay, revealing that animacroxam has significant antitumor activity in TGCT. A novel positron emission tomography/MR-imaging approach was applied to determine tumor volume and glucose [2-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose (18F-FDG)] uptake in TGCT tumors, revealing reduced glucose uptake in animacroxam-treated TGCTs and showing a dose-dependent suppression of glycolytic enzymes, which led to a breakdown in glycolytic energy production. Furthermore, the observed antiangiogenic effects of animacroxam were related to its ability to inhibit endothelial cell-cell communication, as the expression of gap junction-forming connexin 43 was strongly suppressed, and gap-junctional intercellular mass transport was reduced. Our data suggest that the chimeric HDAC inhibitor animacroxam may become a promising candidate for the treatment of solid cancers and may serve as an interesting alternative to platinum-based therapies.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • MiR-195 and miR-497 suppress tumorigenesis in lung cancer by inhibiting SMURF2-induced TGF-β receptor I ubiquitination.
    Mol. Oncol. (IF 5.962) Pub Date : 2019-10-04
    Dong-Kyu Chae,Jinyoung Park,Moonsoo Cho,Eunmi Ban,Mihue Jang,Young Sook Yoo,Eunice EunKyeong Kim,Ja-Hyun Baik,Eun Joo Song

    SMURF2 is a member of the HECT family of E3 ubiquitin ligases that have important roles as a negative regulator of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) signaling through ubiquitin-mediated degradation of TGF-β receptor I. However, the regulatory mechanism of SMURF2 is largely unknown. In this study, we identified that micro(mi)R-195 and miR-497 putatively target SMURF2 using several target prediction databases. Both miR-195 and miR-497 bind to the 3'-UTR of the SMURF2 mRNA and inhibit SMURF2 expression. Furthermore, miR-195 and miR-497 regulate SMURF2-dependent TβRI ubiquitination and cause the activation of the TGF-β signaling pathway in lung cancer cells. Upregulation of miR-195 and miR-497 significantly reduced cell viability and colony formation through the activation of TGF-β signaling. Interestingly, miR-195 and miR-497 also reduced the invasion ability of lung cancer cells when cells were treated with TGF-β1. Subsequent in vivo studies in xenograft nude mice model revealed that miR-195 and miR-497 repress tumor growth. These findings demonstrate that miR-195 and miR-497 act as a tumor suppressor by suppressing ubiquitination-mediated degradation of TGF-β receptors through SMURF2, and suggest that miR-195 and miR-497 are potential therapeutic targets for lung cancer.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Metallopeptidase inhibitor 1 (TIMP-1) promotes receptor tyrosine kinase c-Kit signaling in colorectal cancer.
    Mol. Oncol. (IF 5.962) Pub Date : 2019-09-24
    Cathrine Nordgaard,Sophia Doll,Ana Laura de Souza Almeida Matos,Mikkel Høeberg,Julhash Uddin Kazi,Stine Friis,Jan Stenvang,Lars Rönnstrand,Matthias Mann,José Manuel Afonso Moreira

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most prevalent cancer worldwide causing an estimated 700 000 deaths annually. Different types of treatment are available for patients with advanced metastatic colorectal cancer, including targeted biological agents, such as cetuximab, a monoclonal antibody that targets EGFR. We have previously reported a study indicating multiple levels of interaction between metallopeptidase inhibitor 1 (TIMP-1) and the epidermal growth factor (EGF) signaling axis, which could explain how TIMP-1 levels can affect the antitumor effects of EGFR inhibitors. We also reported an association between TIMP-1-mediated cell invasive behavior and KRAS status. To gain insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of TIMP-1 in CRC, we examined by transcriptomics, proteomics, and kinase activity profiling a matched pair of isogenic human CRC isogenic DLD-1 CRC cell clones, bearing either an hemizygous KRAS wild-type allele or KRAS G13D mutant allele, exposed, or not, to TIMP-1. Omics analysis of the two cell lines identified the receptor tyrosine kinase c-Kit, a proto-oncogene that can modulate cell proliferation and invasion in CRC, as a target for TIMP-1. We found that exposure of DLD-1 CRC cells to exogenously added TIMP-1 promoted phosphorylation of c-Kit, indicative of a stimulatory effect of TIMP-1 on the c-Kit signaling axis. In addition, TIMP-1 inhibited c-Kit shedding in CRC cells grown in the presence of exogenous TIMP-1. Given the regulatory roles that c-Kit plays in cell proliferation and migration, and the realization that c-Kit is an important oncogene in CRC, it is likely that some of the biological effects of TIMP-1 overexpression in CRC may be exerted through its effect on c-Kit signaling.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Prospective detection of mutations in cerebrospinal fluid, pleural effusion, and ascites of advanced cancer patients to guide treatment decisions.
    Mol. Oncol. (IF 5.962) Pub Date : 2019-09-19
    Sergio Villatoro,Clara Mayo-de-Las-Casas,Núria Jordana-Ariza,Santiago Viteri-Ramírez,Mónica Garzón-Ibañez,Irene Moya-Horno,Beatriz García-Peláez,María González-Cao,Umberto Malapelle,Ariadna Balada-Bel,Alejandro Martínez-Bueno,Raquel Campos,Noemí Reguart,Margarita Majem,Remei Blanco,Ana Blasco,María J Catalán,Xavier González,Giancarlo Troncone,Niki Karachaliou,Rafael Rosell,Miguel A Molina-Vila

    Many advanced cases of cancer show central nervous system, pleural, or peritoneal involvement. In this study, we prospectively analyzed if cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), pleural effusion (PE), and/or ascites (ASC) can be used to detect driver mutations and guide treatment decisions. We collected 42 CSF, PE, and ASC samples from advanced non-small-cell lung cancer and melanoma patients. Cell-free DNA (cfDNA) was purified and driver mutations analyzed and quantified by PNA-Q-PCR or next-generation sequencing. All 42 fluid samples were evaluable; clinically relevant mutations were detected in 41 (97.6%). Twenty-three fluids had paired blood samples, 22 were mutation positive in fluid but only 14 in blood, and the abundance of the mutant alleles was significantly higher in fluids. Of the 34 fluids obtained at progression to different therapies, EGFR resistance mutations were detected in nine and ALK acquired mutations in two. The results of testing of CSF, PE, and ASC were used to guide treatment decisions, such as initiation of osimertinib treatment or selection of specific ALK tyrosine-kinase inhibitors. In conclusion, fluids close to metastatic sites are superior to blood for the detection of relevant mutations and can offer valuable clinical information, particularly in patients progressing to targeted therapies.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Factors that influence the androgen receptor cistrome in benign and malignant prostate cells.
    Mol. Oncol. (IF 5.962) Pub Date : 2019-09-15
    Ben T Copeland,Juan Du,Sumanta K Pal,Jeremy O Jones

    The androgen receptor (AR) plays key roles in the development of prostate tissue and the development and progression of prostate cancer (PC). AR guides cytodifferentiation and homeostasis in benign luminal epithelial cells; however, in PC, AR instead drives the uncontrolled proliferation of these cells. This 'AR malignancy shift' (AMS) is a central event in tumorigenesis. Using a ChIP-seq approach in primary human tissues, cell lines, and mouse models, we demonstrate that the AMS occurs in every sample analyzed, suggesting that it is necessary for PC development. Using molecular and genetic techniques, we demonstrate that forkhead box (FOX)A1, HOXB13, GATA2, and c-JUN are involved in the regulation of the AMS. AR-binding sites (ARBS) are enriched for FOX, HOX, and GATA motifs in PC cells but not for c-JUN motifs in benign cells. We show that the SPOP mutation commonly found in localized PCs can cause the AMS but is not transformative on its own and must be coupled to another mutation to transform cells. We show that the AMS occurs in mouse models of PC as well and that chronic low T, which is associated with increased PC risk and aggressiveness in humans, also causes the AMS in mice. We have discovered a previously unrecognized, fundamental tenet of PC, one which explains how and why AR signaling is different in cancer and benign cells. Our work has the potential to be used to stratify patients with localized PC for specific treatments. Furthermore, our work suggests that the AMS is a novel target for the treatment and/or prevention of PC.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Identification of microRNAs involved in pathways which characterize the expression subtypes of NSCLC.
    Mol. Oncol. (IF 5.962) Pub Date : 2019-09-11
    Ann Rita Halvorsen,Miriam Ragle Aure,Åsa Kristina Õjlert,Odd Terje Brustugun,Steinar Solberg,Daniel Nebdal,Åslaug Helland

    Dysregulation of microRNAs is a common mechanism in the development of lung cancer, but the relationship between microRNAs and expression subtypes in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is poorly explored. Here, we analyzed microRNA expression from 241 NSCLC samples and correlated this with the expression subtypes of adenocarcinomas (AD) and squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) to identify microRNAs specific for each subtype. Gene set variation analysis and the hallmark gene set were utilized to calculate gene set scores specific for each sample, and these were further correlated with the expression of the subtype-specific microRNAs. In ADs, we identified nine aberrantly regulated microRNAs in the terminal respiratory unit (TRU), three in the proximal inflammatory (PI), and nine in the proximal proliferative subtype (PP). In SCCs, 1, 5, 5, and 9 microRNAs were significantly dysregulated in the basal, primitive, classical, and secretory subtypes, respectively. The subtype-specific microRNAs were highly correlated to specific gene sets, and a distinct pattern of biological processes with high immune activity for the AD PI and SCC secretory subtypes, and upregulation of cell cycle-related processes in AD PP, SCC primitive, and SCC classical subtypes were found. Several in silico predicted targets within the gene sets were identified for the subtype-specific microRNAs, underpinning the findings. The results were significantly validated in the LUAD (n = 492) and LUSC (n = 380) TCGA dataset (False discovery rates-corrected P-value < 0.05). Our study provides novel insight into how expression subtypes determined with discrete biological processes may be regulated by subtype-specific microRNAs. These results may have importance for the development of combinatory therapeutic strategies for lung cancer patients.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Single-cell RNA-seq reveals the invasive trajectory and molecular cascades underlying glioblastoma progression.
    Mol. Oncol. (IF 5.962) Pub Date : 2019-09-06
    Bo Pang,Jinyuan Xu,Jing Hu,Fenghua Guo,Linyun Wan,Mingjiang Cheng,Lin Pang

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common and aggressive primary brain tumor, in which GBM stem cells (GSCs) were identified to contribute to aggressive phenotypes and poor prognosis. Yet, how GSCs progress to invasive cells remains largely unexplored. Here, we revealed the cell subpopulations with distinct functional status and the existence of cells with high invasive potential within heterogeneous primary GBM tumors. We reconstructed a branched trajectory by pseudotemporal ordering of single tumor cells, in which the root showed GSC-like phenotype while the end displayed high invasive activity. Thus, we further determined a path along which GSCs gradually transformed to invasive cells, called the 'stem-to-invasion path'. Along this path, cells showed incremental expression of GBM invasion-associated signatures and diminishing expression of GBM stem cell markers. These findings were validated in an independent single-cell data set of GBM. Through analyzing the molecular cascades underlying the path, we identify crucial factors controlling the attainment of invasive potential of tumor cells, including transcription factors and long noncoding RNAs. Our work provides novel insights into GBM progression, especially the attainment of invasive potential in primary tumor cells, and supports the cancer stem cell model, with valuable implications for GBM therapy.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • miR-367 as a therapeutic target in stem-like cells from embryonal central nervous system tumors.
    Mol. Oncol. (IF 5.962) Pub Date : 2019-08-14
    Carolini Kaid,Dione Jordan,Heloisa Maria de Siqueira Bueno,Bruno Henrique Silva Araujo,Amanda Assoni,Oswaldo Keith Okamoto

    Aberrant expression of the pluripotency factor OCT4A in embryonal tumors of the central nervous system (CNS) is a key factor that contributes to tumor aggressiveness and correlates with poor patient survival. OCT4A overexpression has been shown to up-regulate miR-367, a microRNA (miRNA) that regulates pluripotency in embryonic stem cells and stem-like aggressive traits in cancer cells. Here, we show that (a) miR-367 is carried in microvesicles derived from embryonal CNS tumor cells expressing OCT4A; and (b) inhibition of miR-367 in these cells attenuates their aggressive traits. miR-367 silencing in OCT4A-overexpressing tumor cells significantly reduced their proliferative and invasive behavior, clonogenic activity, and tumorsphere generation capability. In vivo, targeting of miR-367 through direct injections of a specific inhibitor into the cerebrospinal fluid of Balb/C nude mice bearing OCT4A-overexpressing tumor xenografts inhibited tumor development and improved overall survival. miR-367 was also shown to target SUZ12, one of the core components of the polycomb repressive complex 2 known to be involved in epigenetic silencing of pluripotency-related genes, including POU5F1, which encodes OCT4A. Our findings reveal possible clinical applications of a cancer stemness pathway, highlighting miR-367 as a putative liquid biopsy biomarker that could be further explored to improve early diagnosis and prognosis prediction, and potentially serve as a therapeutic target in aggressive embryonal CNS tumors.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Down-regulation of long noncoding RNA PVT1 inhibits esophageal carcinoma cell migration and invasion and promotes cell apoptosis via microRNA-145-mediated inhibition of FSCN1.
    Mol. Oncol. (IF 5.962) Pub Date : 2019-08-02
    Si-Ning Shen,Ke Li,Ying Liu,Cheng-Liang Yang,Chun-Yu He,Hao-Rang Wang

    Accumulating evidence has established that long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) plasmacytoma variant translocation 1 (PVT1) is a tumor regulator in many cancers. Here, we aimed to investigate the possible function of lncRNA PVT1 in esophageal carcinoma (EC) via targeting of microRNA-145 (miR-145). Initially, microarray-based gene expression profiling of EC was employed to identify differentially expressed genes. Moreover, the expression of lncRNA PVT1 was examined and the cell line presenting with the highest level of lncRNA PVT1 expression was selected for subsequent experiments. We then proceeded to examine interaction among lncRNA PVT1, FSCN1, and miR-145. The effect of lncRNA PVT1 on viability, migration, invasion, apoptosis, and tumorigenesis of transfected cells was examined with gain-of-function and loss-of-function experiments. We observed that lncRNA PVT1 was robustly induced in EC. lncRNA PVT1 could bind to miR-145 and regulate its expression, and FSCN1 is a target gene of miR-145. Overexpression of miR-145 or silencing of lncRNA PVT1 was revealed to suppress cell viability, migration, and invasion abilities, while also stimulating cell apoptosis. Furthermore, our in vivo results showed that overexpression of miR-145 or silencing of lncRNA PVT1 resulted in decreased tumor growth in nude mice. In conclusion, our research reveals that down-regulation of lncRNA PVT1 could potentially promote expression of miR-145 to repress cell migration and invasion, and promote cell apoptosis through the inhibition of FSCN1. This highlights the potential of lncRNA PVT1 as a therapeutic target for EC treatment.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • FHR4-based immunoconjugates direct complement-dependent cytotoxicity and phagocytosis towards HER2-positive cancer cells.
    Mol. Oncol. (IF 5.962) Pub Date : 2019-08-01
    Carole Seguin-Devaux,Jean-Marc Plesseria,Charlène Verschueren,Cécile Masquelier,Gilles Iserentant,Marie Fullana,Mihály Józsi,Jacques H M Cohen,Xavier Dervillez

    Directing selective complement activation towards tumour cells is an attractive strategy to promote their elimination. In the present work, we have generated heteromultimeric immunoconjugates that selectively activate the complement alternative pathway (AP) on tumour cells. We used the C4b-binding protein C-terminal-α-/β-chain scaffold for multimerisation to generate heteromultimeric immunoconjugates displaying (a) a multivalent-positive regulator of the AP, the human factor H-related protein 4 (FHR4) with; (b) a multivalent targeting function directed against erbB2 (HER2); and (c) a monovalent enhanced GFP tracking function. Two distinct VH H targeting two different epitopes against HER2 and competing either with trastuzumab or with pertuzumab-recognising epitopes [VH H(T) or VH H(P)], respectively, were used as HER2 anchoring moieties. Optimised high-FHR4 valence heteromultimeric immunoconjugates [FHR4/VH H(T) or FHR4/VH H(P)] were selected by sequential cell cloning and a selective multistep His-Trap purification. Optimised FHR4-heteromultimeric immunoconjugates successfully overcame FH-mediated complement inhibition threshold, causing increased C3b deposition on SK-OV-3, BT474 and SK-BR3 tumour cells, and increased formation of lytic membrane attack complex densities and complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC). CDC varies according to the pattern expression and densities of membrane-anchored complement regulatory proteins on tumour cell surfaces. In addition, opsonised BT474 tumour cells were efficiently phagocytosed by macrophages through complement-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity. We showed that the degree of FHR4-multivalency within the multimeric immunoconjugates was the key element to efficiently compete and deregulate FH and FH-mediated convertase decay locally on tumour cell surface. FHR4 can thus represent a novel therapeutic molecule, when expressed as a multimeric entity and associated with an anchoring system, to locally shift the complement steady-state towards activation on tumour cell surface.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Impact of circulating tumor DNA mutant allele fraction on prognosis in RAS-mutant metastatic colorectal cancer.
    Mol. Oncol. (IF 5.962) Pub Date : 2019-07-20
    Elena Elez,Chiara Chianese,Enrique Sanz-García,Erica Martinelli,Alba Noguerido,Francesco Mattia Mancuso,Ginevra Caratù,Judit Matito,Julieta Grasselli,Claudia Cardone,Riziero Esposito Abate,Giulia Martini,Cristina Santos,Teresa Macarulla,Guillem Argilés,Jaume Capdevila,Ariadna Garcia,Nuria Mulet,Evaristo Maiello,Nicola Normanno,Frederick Jones,Josep Tabernero,Fortunato Ciardello,Ramon Salazar,Ana Vivancos

    Despite major advances in the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC), the survival rate remains very poor. This study aims at exploring the prognostic value of RAS-mutant allele fraction (MAF) in plasma in mCRC. Forty-seven plasma samples from 37 RAS-mutated patients with nonresectable metastases were tested for RAS in circulating tumor DNA using BEAMing before first- and/or second-line treatment. RAS MAF was correlated with several clinical parameters (number of metastatic sites, hepatic volume, carcinoembryonic antigen, CA19-9 levels, primary site location, and treatment line) and clinical outcome [progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS)]. An independent cohort of 32 patients from the CAPRI-GOIM trial was assessed for clinical outcome based on plasma baseline MAF. RAS MAF analysis at baseline revealed a significant correlation with longer OS [Hazard ratios (HR) = 3.514; P = 0.00066]. Patients with lower MAF also showed a tendency to longer PFS, although not statistically significant. Multivariate analysis showed RAS MAFs as an independent prognostic factor in both OS (HR = 2.73; P = 0.006) and first-line PFS (HR = 3.74; P = 0.049). Tumor response to treatment in patients with higher MAF was progression disease (P = 0.007). Patients with low MAFs at baseline in the CAPRI-GOIM group also showed better OS [HR = 3.84; 95% confidence intervals (CI) 1.5-9.6; P = 0.004] and better PFS (HR = 2.5; 95% CI: 1.07-5.62; P = 0.033). This minimally invasive test may help in adding an independent factor to better estimate outcomes before initiating treatment. Further prospective studies using MAF as a stratification factor could further validate its utility in clinical practice.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • RAC1 inhibition reverses cisplatin resistance in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and induces downregulation of glycolytic enzymes.
    Mol. Oncol. (IF 5.962) Pub Date : 2019-07-18
    Rui-Jie Zeng,Chun-Wen Zheng,Jing-E Gu,Hai-Xia Zhang,Lei Xie,Li-Yan Xu,En-Min Li

    Development of chemoresistance remains a major challenge in treating esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) patients despite treatment advances. However, the role of RAC1 in chemoresistance of ESCC and the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. In this study, we found that higher levels of RAC1 expression were associated with poorer prognosis in ESCC patients. Enhanced RAC1 expression increased cell proliferation, migration, and chemoresistance in vitro. Combination therapy using RAC1 inhibitor EHop-016 and cisplatin significantly promoted cell viability inhibition, G2/M phase cycle arrest, and apoptosis when compared to each monotherapy. Mechanistically, glycolysis was significantly downregulated in the RAC1 inhibitor monotherapy group and the combination group via inhibiting AKT/FOXO3a signaling when compared to the control group. Moreover, the silencing of RAC1 inhibited AKT/FOXO3a signaling and cell glycolysis while the upregulation of RAC1 produced an opposite effect. In murine xenograft models, the tumor volume and the expression of glycolytic enzymes were significantly reduced in combination therapy when compared to each monotherapy group. Overall, our study demonstrates that targeting RAC1 with an inhibitor overcomes cisplatin resistance in ESCC by suppressing glycolytic enzymes, which provides a promising strategy for treatment of ESCC in clinical practice.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Elevated N-methyltransferase expression induced by hepatic stellate cells contributes to the metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma via regulation of the CD44v3 isoform.
    Mol. Oncol. (IF 5.962) Pub Date : 2019-07-12
    Jie Li,Song You,Sheng Zhang,Qing Hu,Fuqiang Wang,Xiaoqin Chi,Wenxiu Zhao,Chengrong Xie,Changmao Zhang,Yaqi Yu,Jianmin Liu,Yue Zhao,Pingguo Liu,Yi Zhang,Xujin Wei,Qiu Li,Xiaomin Wang,Zhenyu Yin

    The cross-talk between hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) and hepatic carcinoma cells contributes to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) progression, but the underlying mechanism is largely unknown. We report here that activated HSCs induce upregulation of nicotinamide N-methyltransferase (NNMT), which is known to regulate multiple metabolic pathways in hepatoma cells of the liver. High levels of NNMT in HCC tissues were positively correlated with vascular invasion, increased serum HBV-DNA levels, and distant metastasis. In addition, functional assays showed that NNMT promoted HCC cell invasion and metastasis by altering the histone H3 methylation on 27 methylation pattern and transcriptionally activating cluster of differentiation 44 (CD44). NNMT-mediated N6-methyladenosine modification of CD44 mRNA resulted in the formation of a CD44v3 splice variant, while its product 1-methyl-nicotinamide stabilized CD44 protein by preventing ubiquitin-mediated degradation. Finally, NNMT was also shown to be a target of statins that inhibited metastasis of hepatoma cells. Taken together, our study shows for the first time that the NNMT/CD44v3 axis regulates HCC metastasis and presents NNMT as a promising prognostic biomarker and therapeutic target for HCC.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Parathyroid hormone-like hormone plays a dual role in neuroblastoma depending on PTH1R expression.
    Mol. Oncol. (IF 5.962) Pub Date : 2019-07-12
    Marta García,Carlos Javier Rodríguez-Hernández,Silvia Mateo-Lozano,Sara Pérez-Jaume,Eliana Gonçalves-Alves,Cinzia Lavarino,Jaume Mora,Carmen de Torres

    We have previously reported the expression of parathyroid hormone-like hormone (PTHLH) in well-differentiated, Schwannian stroma-rich neuroblastic tumors. The aim of this study was to functionally assess the role of PTHLH and its receptor, PTH1R, in neuroblastoma. Stable knockdown of PTHLH and PTH1R was conducted in neuroblastoma cell lines to investigate the succeeding phenotype induced both in vitro and in vivo. Downregulation of PTHLH reduced MYCN expression and subsequently induced cell cycle arrest, senescence, and migration and invasion impairment in a MYCN-amplified, TP53-mutated neuroblastoma cell line. These phenotypes were associated with reduced tumorigenicity in a murine model. We also show that PTHLH expression is not under the control of the calcium-sensing receptor in neuroblastoma. Conversely, its production is stimulated by epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Accordingly, irreversible EGFR inhibition with canertinib abolished PTHLH expression. The oncogenic role of PTHLH appeared to be a consequence of its intracrine function, as downregulation of its receptor, PTH1R, increased anchorage-independent growth and induced a more undifferentiated, invasive phenotype. Respectively, high PTH1R mRNA expression was found in MYCN nonamplified primary tumors and also significantly associated with other prognostic factors of good outcome. This study provides the first evidence of the dual role of PTHLH in the behavior of neuroblastomas. Moreover, the identification of EGFR as a transcriptional regulator of PTHLH in neuroblastoma provides a novel therapeutic opportunity to promote a less aggressive tumor phenotype through irreversible inhibition of EGFR tyrosine kinase activity.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • p32 is a negative regulator of p53 tetramerization and transactivation.
    Mol. Oncol. (IF 5.962) Pub Date : 2019-07-12
    Nikhil Baban Ghate,Jinman Kim,Yonghwan Shin,Alan Situ,Tobias S Ulmer,Woojin An

    p53 is a sequence-specific transcription factor, and proper regulation of p53 transcriptional activity is critical for orchestrating different tumor-suppressive mechanisms. p32 is a multifunctional protein which interacts with a large number of viral proteins and transcription factors. Here, we investigate the effect of p32 on p53 transactivation and identify a novel mechanism by which p32 alters the functional characteristics of p53. Specifically, p32 attenuates p53-dependent transcription through impairment of p53 binding to its response elements on target genes. Upon p32 expression, p53 levels bound at target genes are decreased, and p53 target genes are inactivated, strongly indicating that p32 restricts p53 occupancy and function at target genes. The primary mechanism contributing to the observed action of p32 is the ability of p32 to interact with the p53 tetramerization domain and to block p53 tetramerization, which in turn enhances nuclear export and degradation of p53, leading to defective p53 transactivation. Collectively, these data establish p32 as a negative regulator of p53 function and suggest the therapeutic potential of targeting p32 for cancer treatment.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • PIK3CA hotspot mutations in circulating tumor cells and paired circulating tumor DNA in breast cancer: a direct comparison study.
    Mol. Oncol. (IF 5.962) Pub Date : 2019-06-30
    Eleni Tzanikou,Athina Markou,Eleni Politaki,Anastasios Koutsopoulos,Amanda Psyrri,Dimitris Mavroudis,Vassilis Georgoulias,Evi Lianidou

    Liquid biopsy analysis, mainly based on circulating tumor cells (CTCs) and circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA), provides an extremely powerful tool for the molecular profiling of cancer patients in real time. In this study, we directly compared PIK3CA hotspot mutations (E545K, H1047R) in EpCAM-positive CTCs and paired plasma-ctDNA in breast cancer (BrCa). PIK3CA hotspot mutations in CTCs and ctDNA were analyzed using our previously developed highly sensitive (0.05%), specific, and validated assay in plasma-ctDNA from 77 early and 73 metastatic BrCa patients and 40 healthy donors. We further analyzed and directly compared PIK3CA hotspot mutations in DNAs isolated from CellSearch® cartridges (CTCs) and paired plasma-ctDNA, in 56 cases of early and 27 cases of metastatic breast cancer, and 16 corresponding primary tumors. In plasma-ctDNA, PIK3CA hotspot mutations were identified in 30/77(39.0%) early and 35/73(47.9%) metastatic BrCa cases; none (0/40, 0%) of the healthy donors' plasma-ctDNA samples were positive. Our direct comparison study in DNAs isolated from CellSearch® cartridges (CTCs) and paired plasma-ctDNA from the same blood draws has shown a lack of concordance in early BrCa (27/56, 48.2%), while the concordance in the metastatic setting was higher (18/27, 66.6%). Our results were validated by ddPCR methodology, and the concordance between our assay and ddPCR for PIK3CA E545K hotspot mutation was 30/37 (81.1%). In many cases, PIK3CA hotspot mutations were detected in samples found to be negative for CTCs in CellSearch® . Our data demonstrated for the first time that (a) PIK3CA hotspot mutations are present at high frequencies in CTCs isolated from CellSearch® cartridges and paired plasma-ctDNA both in early and metastatic BrCa, (b) the detection and concordance of PIK3CA hotspot mutations between plasma-ctDNA and CTCs are higher in the metastatic setting, (c) PIK3CA mutational status significantly changes after therapeutic intervention, and (d) PIK3CA mutation detection in CTCs and plasma-ctDNA provides complementary information.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Detection of mutational patterns in cell-free DNA of colorectal cancer by custom amplicon sequencing.
    Mol. Oncol. (IF 5.962) Pub Date : 2019-06-30
    Simon Herrmann,Tianzuo Zhan,Johannes Betge,Benedikt Rauscher,Sebastian Belle,Tobias Gutting,Nadine Schulte,Ralf Jesenofsky,Nicolai Härtel,Timo Gaiser,Ralf-Dieter Hofheinz,Matthias P Ebert,Michael Boutros

    Monitoring the mutational patterns of solid tumors during cancer therapy is a major challenge in oncology. Analysis of mutations in cell-free (cf) DNA offers a noninvasive approach to detect mutations that may be prognostic for disease survival or predictive for primary or secondary drug resistance. A main challenge for the application of cfDNA as a diagnostic tool is the diverse mutational landscape of cancer. Here, we developed a flexible end-to-end experimental and bioinformatic workflow to analyze mutations in cfDNA using custom amplicon sequencing. Our approach relies on open-software tools to select primers suitable for multiplex PCR using minimal cfDNA as input. In addition, we developed a robust linear model to identify specific genetic alterations from sequencing data of cfDNA. We used our workflow to design a custom amplicon panel suitable for detection of hotspot mutations relevant for colorectal cancer and analyzed mutations in serial cfDNA samples from a pilot cohort of 34 patients with advanced colorectal cancer. Using our method, we could detect recurrent and patient-specific mutational patterns in the majority of patients. Furthermore, we show that dynamic changes of mutant allele frequencies in cfDNA correlate well with disease progression. Finally, we demonstrate that sequencing of cfDNA can reveal mechanisms of resistance to anti-Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor(EGFR) antibody treatment. Thus, our approach offers a simple and highly customizable method to explore genetic alterations in cfDNA.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Liquid biopsy in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma: current status of circulating tumor cells and circulating tumor DNA.
    Mol. Oncol. (IF 5.962) Pub Date : 2019-06-28
    Jee-Soo Lee,Sung Sup Park,Young Kyung Lee,Jeffrey A Norton,Stefanie S Jeffrey

    Reliable biomarkers are required to evaluate and manage pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. Circulating tumor cells and circulating tumor DNA are shed into blood and can be relatively easily obtained from minimally invasive liquid biopsies for serial assays and characterization, thereby providing a unique potential for early diagnosis, forecasting disease prognosis, and monitoring of therapeutic response. In this review, we provide an overview of current technologies used to detect circulating tumor cells and circulating tumor DNA and describe recent advances regarding the multiple clinical applications of liquid biopsy in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Methylation-associated miR-193b silencing activates master drivers of aggressive prostate cancer.
    Mol. Oncol. (IF 5.962) Pub Date : 2019-06-22
    Ying Z Mazzu,Yuki Yoshikawa,Subhiksha Nandakumar,Goutam Chakraborty,Joshua Armenia,Lina E Jehane,Gwo-Shu Mary Lee,Philip W Kantoff

    Epigenetic silencing of miRNA is a primary mechanism of aberrant miRNA expression in cancer, and hypermethylation of miRNA promoters has been reported to contribute to prostate cancer initiation and progression. Recent data have shown that the miR-193b promoter is hypermethylated in prostate cancer compared with normal tissue, but studies assessing its functional significance have not been performed. We aimed to elucidate the function of miR-193b and identify its critical targets in prostate cancer. We observed an inverse correlation between miR-193b level and methylation of its promoter in The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) cohort. Overexpression of miR-193b in prostate cancer cell lines inhibited invasion and induced apoptosis. We found that a majority of the top 150 genes downregulated when miR-193b was overexpressed in liposarcoma are overexpressed in metastatic prostate cancer and that 41 miR-193b target genes overlapped with the 86 genes in the aggressive prostate cancer subtype 1 (PCS1) signature. Overexpression of miR-193b led to the inhibition of the majority of the 41 genes in prostate cancer cell lines. High expression of the 41 genes was correlated with recurrence of prostate cancer. Knockdown of miR-193b targets FOXM1 and RRM2 in prostate cancer cells phenocopied overexpression of miR-193b. Dual treatment with DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) and histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors decreased miR-193b promoter methylation and restored inhibition of FOXM1 and RRM2. Our data suggest that silencing of miR-193b through promoter methylation may release the inhibition of PCS1 genes, contributing to prostate cancer progression and suggesting a possible therapeutic strategy for aggressive prostate cancer.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Mevalonate pathway activity as a determinant of radiation sensitivity in head and neck cancer.
    Mol. Oncol. (IF 5.962) Pub Date : 2019-06-22
    Natalia Ricco,Amy Flor,Don Wolfgeher,Elena V Efimova,Aishwarya Ramamurthy,Oliver K Appelbe,Jacqueline Brinkman,Andrew W Truman,Michael T Spiotto,Stephen J Kron

    Radioresistance is a major hurdle in the treatment of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Here, we report that concomitant treatment of HNSCCs with radiotherapy and mevalonate pathway inhibitors (statins) may overcome resistance. Proteomic profiling and comparison of radioresistant to radiosensitive HNSCCs revealed differential regulation of the mevalonate biosynthetic pathway. Consistent with this finding, inhibition of the mevalonate pathway by pitavastatin sensitized radioresistant SQ20B cells to ionizing radiation and reduced their clonogenic potential. Overall, this study reinforces the view that the mevalonate pathway is a promising therapeutic target in radioresistant HNSCCs.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The identification of a TNBC liver metastasis gene signature by sequential CTC-xenograft modeling.
    Mol. Oncol. (IF 5.962) Pub Date : 2019-06-20
    Monika Vishnoi,Nikki Haowen Liu,Wei Yin,Debasish Boral,Antonio Scamardo,David Hong,Dario Marchetti

    Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) liver metastasis is associated with poor prognosis and low patient survival. It occurs when tumor cells disseminate from primary tumors, circulate in blood/lymph [circulating tumor cells (CTCs)], and acquire distinct characteristics during disease progression toward the metastatic phenotype. The purpose of this study was to decipher the genomic/transcriptomic properties of TNBC liver metastasis and its recurrence for potential therapeutic targeting. We employed a negative depletion strategy to isolate and interrogate CTCs from the blood of patients with TNBC, and to establish sequential generations of CTC-derived xenografts (CDXs) through injection of patient CTCs in immunodeficient mice. The isolation and validation of CDX-derived cell populations [analyses of CTCs were paired with bone marrow-resident cells (BMRTCs) and liver tissue cells obtained from the same animal] were performed by multiparametric flow cytometry, immune phenotyping, and genomic sequencing of putative CTCs. Comprehensive characterization of gene expression arrays from sequentially generated CDX-derived cell populations, online gene expression arrays, and TCGA databases were employed to discover a CTC-driven, liver metastasis-associated TNBC signature. We discovered a distinct transcriptomic signature of TNBC patient-isolated CTCs from primary TNBCs, which was consistent throughout sequential CDX modeling. We established a novel TNBC liver metastasis-specific CDX model that selectively recapitulates CTC biology for four sequential generations of mice. The evaluation of online databases and CDX-derived populations revealed 597 genes specific to the TNBC liver metastasis signatures. Further investigation of the TNBC liver metastasis signature predicted 16 hub genes, 6 biomarkers with clinically available drugs, and 22 survival genes. The sequential interrogation of CDX-CTCs is an innovative liquid biopsy-based approach for the discovery of organ metastasis-specific signatures of CTCs. This represents the first step for mechanistic and analytical validation in their application as prognostic indicators and therapeutic targets. Targeting CTC drug candidate biomarkers along with combination therapy can improve the clinical outcome of TNBC patients in general and recurrence of liver metastasis in particular.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Tumor-proximal liquid biopsy to improve diagnostic and prognostic performances of circulating tumor cells.
    Mol. Oncol. (IF 5.962) Pub Date : 2019-06-20
    Etienne Buscail,Laurence Chiche,Christophe Laurent,Véronique Vendrely,Quentin Denost,Jérôme Denis,Matthieu Thumerel,Jean-Marc Lacorte,Aurélie Bedel,François Moreau-Gaudry,Sandrine Dabernat,Catherine Alix-Panabières

    Circulating tumor cell (CTC) detection and numeration are becoming part of the common clinical practice, especially for breast, colon, and prostate cancer. However, their paucity in peripheral blood samples is an obstacle for their identification. Several groups have tried to improve CTC recovery rate by developing highly sensitive cellular and molecular detection methods. However, CTCs are still difficult to detect in peripheral blood. Therefore, their recovery rate could be increased by obtaining blood samples from vessels close to the drainage territories of the invaded organ, when the anatomical situation is favorable. This approach has been tested mostly during tumor resection surgery, when the vessels nearest to the tumor are easily accessible. Moreover, radiological (including echo-guided based and endovascular techniques) and/or endoscopic routes could be utilized to obtain CTC samples close to the tumor in a less invasive way than conventional biopsies. The purpose of this article is to summarize the available knowledge on CTC recovery from blood samples collected close to the tumor (i.e., in vessels located in the drainage area of the primary tumor or metastases). The relevance of such an approach for diagnostic and prognostic evaluations will be discussed, particularly for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, colorectal adenocarcinoma, hepatocellular carcinoma, and non-small-cell lung cancer.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Diabetes-mediated promotion of colon mucosa carcinogenesis is associated with mitochondrial dysfunction.
    Mol. Oncol. (IF 5.962) Pub Date : 2019-06-15
    Laura Del Puerto-Nevado,Aranzazu Santiago-Hernandez,Sonia Solanes-Casado,Nieves Gonzalez,Marta Ricote,Marta Corton,Isabel Prieto,Sebastian Mas,Ana Belen Sanz,Oscar Aguilera,Carmen Gomez-Guerrero,Carmen Ayuso,Alberto Ortiz,Federico Rojo,Jesus Egido,Jesus Garcia-Foncillas,Pablo Minguez,Gloria Alvarez-Llamas,

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has been associated with an increased risk of cancer, including colon cancer (CC). However, we recently reported no influence of T2DM on CC prognosis, suggesting that any effect might be at the early stages of tumor development. We hypothesized that T2DM may create an environment in the healthy tissue, which acts as a carcinogenesis driver in agreement with the field of cancerization concept. Here, we focused on early carcinogenesis by analyzing paired tumor and normal colonic mucosa samples from the same patients. The proteome of CC and paired mucosa was quantitatively analyzed in 28 individuals (12 diabetics and 16 nondiabetics) by mass spectrometry with isobaric labeling. Out of 3076 identified proteins, 425 were differentially expressed at the tumor in diabetics compared with nondiabetics. In the adjacent mucosa, 143 proteins were differentially expressed in diabetics and nondiabetics. An enrichment analysis of this signature pointed to mitochondria, ribosome, and translation. Only six proteins were upregulated by diabetes both in tumor and mucosa, of which five were mitochondrial proteins. Differential expression in diabetic versus nondiabetic mucosa was confirmed for MRPL53, MRPL18, and TIMM8B. Higher levels of MRPL18, TIMM8B, and EIF1A were also found in normal colon epithelial cells exposed to high-glucose conditions. We conclude that T2DM is associated with specific molecular changes in the normal mucosa of CC patients, consistent with field of cancerization in a diabetic environment. The mitochondrial protein signature identifies a potential therapeutic target that could underlie the higher risk of CC in diabetics.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Aberrantly expressed PLOD1 promotes cancer aggressiveness in bladder cancer: a potential prognostic marker and therapeutic target.
    Mol. Oncol. (IF 5.962) Pub Date : 2019-06-15
    Yasutaka Yamada,Mayuko Kato,Takayuki Arai,Hiroki Sanada,Akifumi Uchida,Shunsuke Misono,Shinichi Sakamoto,Akira Komiya,Tomohiko Ichikawa,Naohiko Seki

    Bladder cancer (BC) is the ninth most malignant tumor worldwide. Some BC patients will develop muscle-invasive BC (MIBC), which has a 5-year survival rate of approximately 60% due to metastasis. As such, there is an urgent need for novel therapeutic and diagnostic targets for MIBC. Analysis of novel antitumor microRNA (miRNA)-mediated cancer networks is an effective strategy for exploring therapeutic targets and prognostic markers in cancers. Our previous miRNA analysis revealed that miR-140-5p acts as an antitumor miRNA in BC cells. Here, we investigated miR-140-5p regulation of BC molecular pathogenesis. Procollagen-lysine, 2-oxoglutarate 5-dioxygenase 1 (PLOD1) was found to be directly regulated by miR-140-5p, and aberrant expression of PLOD1 was observed in BC clinical specimens. High PLOD1 expression was significantly associated with a poor prognosis (disease-free survival: P = 0.0204; overall survival: P = 0.000174). Multivariate analysis showed PLOD1 expression to be an independent prognostic factor in BC patients (hazard ratio = 1.51, P = 0.0099). Furthermore, downregulation of PLOD1 by siRNAs and a specific inhibitor significantly decreased BC cell aggressiveness. Aberrant expression of PLOD1 was closely associated with BC pathogenesis. In summary, the present study showed that PLOD1 may be a potential prognostic marker and therapeutic target for BC.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • SGLT1 is required for the survival of triple-negative breast cancer cells via potentiation of EGFR activity.
    Mol. Oncol. (IF 5.962) Pub Date : 2019-06-15
    Huiquan Liu,Ayse Ertay,Ping Peng,Juanjuan Li,Dian Liu,Hua Xiong,Yanmei Zou,Hong Qiu,David Hancock,Xianglin Yuan,Wei-Chien Huang,Rob M Ewing,Julian Downward,Yihua Wang

    Sodium/glucose cotransporter 1 (SGLT1), an essential active glucose transport protein that helps maintain high intracellular glucose levels, was previously shown to interact with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR); the SGLT1-EGFR interaction maintains intracellular glucose levels to promote survival of cancer cells. Here, we explore the role of SGLT1 in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), which is the most aggressive type of breast cancer. We performed TCGA analysis coupled to in vitro experiments in TNBC cell lines as well as in vivo xenografts established in the mammary fat pad of female nude mice. Tissue microarrays of TNBC patients with information of clinical-pathological parameters were also used to investigate the expression and function of SGLT1 in TNBC. We show that high levels of SGLT1 are associated with greater tumour size in TNBC. Knockdown of SGLT1 compromises cell growth in vitro and in vivo. We further demonstrate that SGLT1 depletion results in decreased levels of phospho-EGFR, and as a result, the activity of downstream signalling pathways (such as AKT and ERK) is inhibited. Hence, targeting SGLT1 itself or the EGFR-SGLT1 interaction may provide novel therapeutics against TNBC.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • AR splice variants in circulating tumor cells of patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer: relation with outcome to cabazitaxel.
    Mol. Oncol. (IF 5.962) Pub Date : 2019-06-11
    Anieta M Sieuwerts,Wendy Onstenk,Jaco Kraan,Corine M Beaufort,Mai Van,Bram De Laere,Luc Y Dirix,Paul Hamberg,Aart Beeker,Hielke J Meulenbeld,Geert-Jan Creemers,Wytske M van Weerden,Guido W Jenster,Annemieke J M Nieuweboer,Ron H J Mathijssen,Ronald de Wit,John W M Martens,Stefan Sleijfer

    The androgen receptor splice variant (AR-V) 7 in circulating tumor cells (CTCs) is a predictor for resistance to anti-AR-targeted treatment, but not to taxane-based chemotherapy in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). In this study, we investigated whether the presence of two constitutively active variants (AR-V3, AR-V7) and two other conditionally activated variants (AR-V1, AR-V9) vs full-length androgen receptor (AR-FL) measured in CTCs from patients with mCRPC were associated with outcome to therapy with the taxane cabazitaxel. Blood was collected at baseline and after two cycles of cabazitaxel from 118 mCRPC patients starting cabazitaxel in a prospective phase II trial. CellSearch-enriched CTCs were enumerated and in parallel characterized for the presence of the AR-Vs by reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Correlations with CTC and prostate-specific antigen response to cabazitaxel as well as associations with overall survival (OS) were investigated. All AR-Vs were frequently present and co-expressed at frequencies of 31-48% at baseline and at 19-40% after two cycles of cabazitaxel. No specific directions of change in the measured variants were detected between the start of treatment and after two cycles of cabazitaxel. No associations between the presence of AR-V3 and AR-V7 and outcome to cabazitaxel were observed. While a reduction in CTCs to < 5 CTCs during treatment (CTC5-response) was less often observed in patients with AR-V9-positive CTCs at baseline (P = 0.004), the CTC5-adjusted detection of AR-V1 after two cycles of cabazitaxel was an independent prognostic factor for OS [HR 2.4 (95% CI 1.1-5.1, P = 0.03)]. These novel findings are expected to contribute to more personalized treatment approaches in mCRPC patients.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Estrogen therapy induces an unfolded protein response to drive cell death in ER+ breast cancer.
    Mol. Oncol. (IF 5.962) Pub Date : 2019-06-11
    Sarah R Hosford,Kevin Shee,Jason D Wells,Nicole A Traphagen,Jennifer L Fields,Riley A Hampsch,Arminja N Kettenbach,Eugene Demidenko,Todd W Miller

    Estrogens have been shown to elicit anticancer effects against estrogen receptor α (ER)-positive breast cancer. We sought to determine the mechanism underlying the therapeutic response. Response to 17β-estradiol was assessed in ER+ breast cancer models with resistance to estrogen deprivation: WHIM16 patient-derived xenografts, C7-2-HI and C4-HI murine mammary adenocarcinomas, and long-term estrogen-deprived MCF-7 cells. As another means to reactivate ER, the anti-estrogen fulvestrant was withdrawn from fulvestrant-resistant MCF-7 cells. Transcriptional, growth, apoptosis, and molecular alterations in response to ER reactivation were measured. 17β-estradiol treatment and fulvestrant withdrawal induced transcriptional activation of ER, and cells adapted to estrogen deprivation or fulvestrant were hypersensitive to 17β-estradiol. ER transcriptional response was followed by an unfolded protein response and apoptosis. Such apoptosis was dependent upon the unfolded protein response, p53, and JNK signaling. Anticancer effects were most pronounced in models exhibiting genomic amplification of the gene encoding ER (ESR1), suggesting that engagement of ER at high levels is cytotoxic. These data indicate that long-term adaptation to estrogen deprivation or ER inhibition alters sensitivity to ER reactivation. In such adapted cells, 17β-estradiol treatment and anti-estrogen withdrawal hyperactivate ER, which drives an unfolded protein response and subsequent growth inhibition and apoptosis. 17β-estradiol treatment should be considered as a therapeutic option for anti-estrogen-resistant disease, particularly in patients with tumors harboring ESR1 amplification or ER overexpression. Furthermore, therapeutic strategies that enhance an unfolded protein response may increase the therapeutic effects of ER reactivation.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Negative regulation of miR-1275 by H3K27me3 is critical for glial induction of glioblastoma cells.
    Mol. Oncol. (IF 5.962) Pub Date : 2019-06-05
    Jialuo Mai,Jiayu Gu,Ying Liu,Xincheng Liu,Ke Sai,Zhijie Chen,Wanjun Lu,Xiaozhi Yang,Jingyi Wang,Cui Guo,Shuxin Sun,Fan Xing,Longxiang Sheng,Bingzheng Lu,Zhu Zhu,Hongjiaqi Sun,Dongdong Xue,Yuan Lin,Jing Cai,Yaqian Tan,Chuntao Li,Wei Yin,Lin Cao,Ying Ou-Yang,Pengxin Qiu,Xingwen Su,Guangmei Yan,Jiankai Liang,Wenbo Zhu

    Activation of the cyclic adenosine monophosphate/protein kinase A (cAMP/PKA) pathway induces glial differentiation of glioblastoma (GBM) cells, but the mechanism by which microRNA (miRNA) regulate this process remains poorly understood. In this study, by performing miRNA genomics and loss- and gain-of-function assays in dibutyryl-cAMP-treated GBM cells, we identified a critical negative regulator, hsa-miR-1275, that modulates a set of genes involved in cancer progression, stem cell maintenance, and cell maturation and differentiation. Additionally, we confirmed that miR-1275 directly and negatively regulates the protein expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), a marker of mature astrocytes. Of note, tri-methyl-histone H3 (Lys27) (H3K27me3), downstream of the PKA/polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) pathway, accounts for the downregulation of miR-1275. Furthermore, decreased miR-1275 expression and induction of GFAP expression were also observed in dibutyryl-cAMP-treated primary cultured GBM cells. In a patient-derived glioma stem cell tumor model, a cAMP elevator and an inhibitor of H3K27me3 methyltransferase inhibited tumor growth, induced differentiation, and reduced expression of miR-1275. In summary, our study shows that epigenetic inhibition of miR-1275 by the cAMP/PKA/PRC2/H3K27me3 pathway mediates glial induction of GBM cells, providing a new mechanism and novel targets for differentiation-inducing therapy.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Gene expression profiles define molecular subtypes of prostate cancer bone metastases with different outcomes and morphology traceable back to the primary tumor.
    Mol. Oncol. (IF 5.962) Pub Date : 2019-06-05
    Elin Thysell,Linda Vidman,Erik Bovinder Ylitalo,Emma Jernberg,Sead Crnalic,Diego Iglesias-Gato,Amilcar Flores-Morales,Pär Stattin,Lars Egevad,Anders Widmark,Patrik Rydén,Anders Bergh,Pernilla Wikström

    Bone metastasis is the lethal end-stage of prostate cancer (PC), but the biology of bone metastases is poorly understood. The overall aim of this study was therefore to explore molecular variability in PC bone metastases of potential importance for therapy. Specifically, genome-wide expression profiles of bone metastases from untreated patients (n = 12) and patients treated with androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT, n = 60) were analyzed in relation to patient outcome and to morphological characteristics in metastases and paired primary tumors. Principal component analysis and unsupervised classification were used to identify sample clusters based on mRNA profiles. Clusters were characterized by gene set enrichment analysis and related to histological and clinical parameters using univariate and multivariate statistics. Selected proteins were analyzed by immunohistochemistry in metastases and matched primary tumors (n = 52) and in transurethral resected prostate (TUR-P) tissue of a separate cohort (n = 59). Three molecular subtypes of bone metastases (MetA-C) characterized by differences in gene expression pattern, morphology, and clinical behavior were identified. MetA (71% of the cases) showed increased expression of androgen receptor-regulated genes, including prostate-specific antigen (PSA), and glandular structures indicating a luminal cell phenotype. MetB (17%) showed expression profiles related to cell cycle activity and DNA damage, and a pronounced cellular atypia. MetC (12%) exhibited enriched stroma-epithelial cell interactions. MetB patients had the lowest serum PSA levels and the poorest prognosis after ADT. Combined analysis of PSA and Ki67 immunoreactivity (proliferation) in bone metastases, paired primary tumors, and TUR-P samples was able to differentiate MetA-like (high PSA, low Ki67) from MetB-like (low PSA, high Ki67) tumors and demonstrate their different prognosis. In conclusion, bone metastases from PC patients are separated based on gene expression profiles into molecular subtypes with different morphology, biology, and clinical outcome. These findings deserve further exploration with the purpose of improving treatment of metastatic PC.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Consistency analysis of microRNA-arm expression reveals microRNA-369-5p/3p as tumor suppressors in gastric cancer.
    Mol. Oncol. (IF 5.962) Pub Date : 2019-06-05
    Lei Dong,Zhengyi Zhang,Jiayue Xu,Fang Wang,Yanni Ma,Feng Li,Chao Shen,Ziwen Liu,Junwu Zhang,Changzheng Liu,Ping Yi,Jia Yu

    The 5p and 3p arms of microRNA (miRNA) are typically generated from the same precursor, and one arm influences protein output, while the other has a short half-life. However, a few miR-5p/3p pairs have been reported to co-exist in cancer cells. Here, we performed a genome-wide analysis of miRNA expression in gastric cancer (GC) cells to systematically investigate the co-expression profile of miR-5p/3p in gastric tumorigenesis. We discovered that only 41 miR-5p/3p pairs out of 1749 analyzed miRNA were co-expressed. Specifically, abnormal expression of miR-369-5p and miR-369-3p was correlated with GC progression. Importantly, both in vitro and in vivo assays revealed that miR-369-5p and miR-369-3p exhibited tumor-suppressive roles by regulating jun proto-oncogene and v-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog 1 function in GC cells, respectively. Moreover, we observed that miR-369 was inactivated in GC tissues due to DNA methylation. We also showed that inhibition of miR-369-5p/3p attenuated the effect of azacitidine (AZA) treatment on suppressing cell growth and invasion. These results suggest that the therapeutic efficacy of AZA in GC is at least partly attributable to miR-369 activation. Overall, our findings provide convincing evidence that both the 5p and 3p arms of miRNA co-expressed in GC and DNA methylation-induced miR-369 signaling contribute to GC progression.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Alternative splicing in human cancer cells is modulated by the amiloride derivative 3,5-diamino-6-chloro-N-(N-(2,6-dichlorobenzoyl)carbamimidoyl)pyrazine-2-carboxide.
    Mol. Oncol. (IF 5.962) Pub Date : 2019-06-04
    Chien-Chin Lee,Wen-Hsin Chang,Ya-Sian Chang,Jinn-Moon Yang,Chih-Shiang Chang,Kai-Cheng Hsu,Yun-Ti Chen,Ting-Yuan Liu,Yu-Chia Chen,Shyr-Yi Lin,Yang-Chang Wu,Jan-Gowth Chang

    Alternative splicing (AS) is a process that enables the generation of multiple protein isoforms with different biological properties from a single mRNA. Cancer cells often use the maneuverability conferred by AS to produce proteins that contribute to growth and survival. In our previous studies, we identified that amiloride modulates AS in cancer cells. However, the effective concentration of amiloride required to modulate AS is too high for use in cancer treatment. In this study, we used computational algorithms to screen potential amiloride derivatives for their ability to regulate AS in cancer cells. We found that 3,5-diamino-6-chloro-N-(N-(2,6-dichlorobenzoyl)carbamimidoyl)pyrazine-2-carboxamide (BS008) can regulate AS of apoptotic gene transcripts, including HIPK3, SMAC, and BCL-X, at a lower concentration than amiloride. This splicing regulation involved various splicing factors, and it was accompanied by a change in the phosphorylation state of serine/arginine-rich proteins (SR proteins). RNA sequencing was performed to reveal that AS of many other apoptotic gene transcripts, such as AATF, ATM, AIFM1, NFKB1, and API5, was also modulated by BS008. In vivo experiments further indicated that treatment of tumor-bearing mice with BS008 resulted in a marked decrease in tumor size. BS008 also had inhibitory effects in vitro, either alone or in a synergistic combination with the cytotoxic chemotherapeutic agents sorafenib and nilotinib. BS008 enabled sorafenib dose reduction without compromising antitumor activity. These findings suggest that BS008 may possess therapeutic potential for cancer treatment.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Circular RNA Cdr1as sensitizes bladder cancer to cisplatin by upregulating APAF1 expression through miR-1270 inhibition.
    Mol. Oncol. (IF 5.962) Pub Date : 2019-05-28
    Wenbo Yuan,Rui Zhou,Jingzi Wang,Jie Han,Xiao Yang,Hao Yu,Hongcheng Lu,Xiaolei Zhang,Pengchao Li,Jun Tao,Jifu Wei,Qiang Lu,Haiwei Yang,Min Gu

    Circular RNAs (circRNAs) have recently emerged as essential regulators in carcinogenesis and cancer progression. Previous studies have shown that Cdr1as functions as a microRNA (miRNA) sponge in various cancer types. However, the role of Cdr1as in cisplatin chemosensitivity in bladder cancer remains unclear. Here, we used real-time PCR to examine miRNA and gene expression in bladder cancer tissues and cell lines. The abilities of Cdr1as and its downstream regulatory molecules to induce apoptosis and promote cisplatin-induced chemosensitivity of bladder cancer cells were determined by flow cytometry and cell counting kit. Bioinformatic analysis was utilized to predict potential miRNA target sites, and biotin-coupled miRNA capture, biotin-coupled probe pull-down assay, and RNA fluorescent in situ hybridization were used to study the interaction between Cdr1as and target miRNAs. Dual-luciferase reporter assay was also used to validate the target genes of miRNAs. The expression level of apoptotic protease-activating factor 1 (APAF1) in bladder cancer cells was identified via western blot. Finally, the sensitivity of Cdr1as to cisplatin chemotherapy in nude mice xenografts was evaluated in terms of the size, volume of tumors, and the survival of mice. We report that Cdr1as induced the apoptosis and enhanced the cisplatin chemosensitivity of bladder cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo. Silencing of APAF1 reduced the sensitivity of bladder cancer cells to cisplatin chemotherapy. Furthermore, Cdr1as could directly sponge miR-1270 and abolish its effect on APAF1. Our study verified that Cdr1as exerts a cisplatin-chemosensitization effect on bladder cancer cells through the Cdr1as/miR-1270/APAF1 axis. This newly identified axis may be a potential therapeutic target for bladder cancer patients.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • PARP1 expression in soft tissue sarcomas is a poor-prognosis factor and a new potential therapeutic target.
    Mol. Oncol. (IF 5.962) Pub Date : 2019-05-28
    François Bertucci,Pascal Finetti,Audrey Monneur,Delphine Perrot,Christine Chevreau,Axel Le Cesne,Jean-Yves Blay,Olivier Mir,Daniel Birnbaum

    Soft tissue sarcomas (STSs) are aggressive tumors with few efficient systemic therapies. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP1) inhibitors represent an emerging therapeutic option in tumors with genomic instability. The genomics of STSs is complex in more than half of cases, suggesting a high level of inherent DNA damage and genomic instability. Thus, STSs could be efficiently targeted with PARP inhibitors. Promising preclinical results have been reported, but few data are available regarding PARP1 expression in clinical samples. We examined PARP1 mRNA expression in 1464 clinical samples of STS, including 1432 primary tumors and 32 relapses, and searched for correlations with clinicopathological features, including metastasis-free survival (MFS). Expression was heterogeneous across the samples, not different between primary and secondary tumors, and was correlated to PARP1 DNA copy number. In the 1432 primary tumors, the 'PARP1-high' samples were associated with younger patients, more frequent locations at the extremities, superficial trunk and head and neck, more leiomyosarcomas and other STSs and less liposarcomas and myxofibrosarcomas, more grade 3, more high-risk CINSARC tumors, and more 'chromosomically instable' tumors. They were associated with shorter MFS, independently of other significant prognostic features, including the CINSARC signature. We found a strong involvement of genes overexpressed in the 'PARP1-high' samples in cell cycle, DNA replication, and DNA repair. PARP1 expression refines the prediction of MFS in STSs, and similar expression exists in secondary and primary tumors, supporting the development of PARP1 inhibitors.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Targeting of DDR1 with antibody-drug conjugates has antitumor effects in a mouse model of colon carcinoma.
    Mol. Oncol. (IF 5.962) Pub Date : 2019-05-23
    Yiran Tao,Ruixue Wang,Qinhuai Lai,Mengdan Wu,Yuxi Wang,Xiaohua Jiang,Lishi Zeng,Shijie Zhou,Zhongping Li,Tinghan Yang,Yuqin Yao,Yangping Wu,Lin Yu,Yuyin Fu,Weirong Lai,Yujia Peng,Ying Lu,Zhixiong Zhang,Cuiyu Guo,Guangbing Zhang,Lantu Gou,Jinliang Yang

    DDR1 has been identified as a cancer-associated receptor tyrosine kinase that is highly expressed in several malignancies relative to normal tissues. Clinically approved multi-kinase inhibitors, such as nilotinib, inhibit DDR1-mediated tumor growth in xenograft models, suggesting DDR1 might be a potential target for cancer treatments. Here, we employed an antibody-based strategy with a novel anti-DDR1 antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) for colon carcinoma treatment. We developed T4 H11 -DM4, an ADC targeting DDR1 which carries the tubulin inhibitor payload DM4. Immunohistochemical analysis of a tissue microarray containing 100 colon cancer specimens revealed that DDR1 was highly expressed in 81% of tumor tissues. Meanwhile, high expression of DDR1 was associated with poor survival in patients. In vitro, T4 H11 -DM4 exhibited potent anti-proliferative activity with half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50 ) values in the nanomolar range in a panel of colon cancer cell lines. In vivo, the antitumor efficacy of T4 H11 -DM4 was evaluated in three colon cancer cell lines expressing different levels of DDR1. T4 H11 -DM4 achieved complete tumor regression at doses of 5 and 10 mg·kg-1 in HT-29 and HCT116 tumor models. Moreover, a correlation between in vivo efficacy of T4 H11 -DM4 and the levels of DDR1 expression on the cell surface was observed. Tumor cell proliferation was caused by the induction of mitotic arrest, indicating that the antitumor effect in vivo was mediated by DM4. In addition, T4 H11 -DM4 was efficacious in oxaliplatin-resistant colon cancer models. In exploratory safety studies, T4 H11 -DM4 exhibited no overt toxicities when multi-doses were administered at 10 mg·kg-1 into BALB/c nude mice or when a single dose up to 50 mg·kg-1 was administered into BALB/c mice. Overall, our findings highlight the potential of DDR1-targeted ADC and may facilitate the development of a new effective therapeutic strategy for colon cancer.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Detection of circulating tumor cells in colorectal cancer patients using the GILUPI CellCollector: results from a prospective, single-center study.
    Mol. Oncol. (IF 5.962) Pub Date : 2019-05-23
    Levent Dizdar,Georg Fluegen,Guus van Dalum,Ellen Honisch,Rui P Neves,Dieter Niederacher,Hans Neubauer,Tanja Fehm,Alexander Rehders,Andreas Krieg,Wolfram T Knoefel,Nikolas H Stoecklein

    The GILUPI CellCollector (CC) is a novel in vivo circulating tumor cell (CTC) detection device reported to overcome the limitations of small blood sample volumes. The aim of this prospective, blinded study was to evaluate the clinical application of the CC and to compare its performance to the CellSearch (CS) system in M0 and M1 colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. A total of 80 patients (31 M0, 49 M1) with CRC were enrolled. CTCs were simultaneously measured in the peripheral blood using CS and the CC, and the results of both assays were correlated to clinicopathological variables and overall survival. The total number of detected CTCs and CTC-positive patients did not significantly differ between both assays. In the M0 patients, the CC detected CTCs more frequently than CS. There was no significant difference in total CTC numbers detected with the CC between M0 and M1 patients. In addition, no significant correlation with clinicopathological parameters or overall survival was observed with CC CTCs. In contrast, detection of CTCs with CS was significantly correlated with Union for International Cancer Control stage and reduced overall survival. There was no correlation between CTCs detected by the CC and the CS system. Using in silico analysis, we estimate that CC screens a volume of 0.33-18 mL during in vivo application, in contrast to much higher volumes reported elsewhere. In conclusion, while being safe and easy to use, the CC did not outperform CS in terms of CTC yield or sensitivity. While CTC detection in M0 CRC patients was significantly increased with the CC, the clinical relevance of these CTCs appears inferior to the cells identified by the CS system.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Genomic signatures defining responsiveness to allopurinol and combination therapy for lung cancer identified by systems therapeutics analyses.
    Mol. Oncol. (IF 5.962) Pub Date : 2019-05-23
    Iman Tavassoly,Yuan Hu,Shan Zhao,Chiara Mariottini,Aislyn Boran,Yibang Chen,Lisa Li,Rosa E Tolentino,Gomathi Jayaraman,Joseph Goldfarb,James Gallo,Ravi Iyengar

    The ability to predict responsiveness to drugs in individual patients is limited. We hypothesized that integrating molecular information from databases would yield predictions that could be experimentally tested to develop transcriptomic signatures for specific drugs. We analyzed lung adenocarcinoma patient data from The Cancer Genome Atlas and identified a subset of patients in which xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH) expression correlated with decreased survival. We tested allopurinol, an FDA-approved drug that inhibits XDH, on human non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines obtained from the Broad Institute Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia and identified sensitive and resistant cell lines. We utilized the transcriptomic profiles of these cell lines to identify six-gene signatures for allopurinol-sensitive and allopurinol-resistant cell lines. Transcriptomic networks identified JAK2 as an additional target in allopurinol-resistant lines. Treatment of resistant cell lines with allopurinol and CEP-33779 (a JAK2 inhibitor) resulted in cell death. The effectiveness of allopurinol alone or allopurinol and CEP-33779 was verified in vivo using tumor formation in NCR-nude mice. We utilized the six-gene signatures to predict five additional allopurinol-sensitive NSCLC cell lines and four allopurinol-resistant cell lines susceptible to combination therapy. We searched the transcriptomic data from a library of patient-derived NSCLC tumors from the Jackson Laboratory to identify tumors that would be predicted to be sensitive to allopurinol or allopurinol + CEP-33779 treatment. Patient-derived tumors showed the predicted drug sensitivity in vivo. These data indicate that we can use integrated molecular information from cancer databases to predict drug responsiveness in individual patients and thus enable precision medicine.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Joint action of miR-126 and MAPK/PI3K inhibitors against metastatic melanoma.
    Mol. Oncol. (IF 5.962) Pub Date : 2019-05-23
    Francesca Pedini,Gabriele De Luca,Federica Felicetti,Rossella Puglisi,Alessandra Boe,Maria Beatrice Arasi,Federica Fratini,Gianfranco Mattia,Massimo Spada,Simona Caporali,Mauro Biffoni,Alessandro Giuliani,Alessandra Carè,Nadia Felli

    Emerging data support the rationale of combined therapies in advanced melanoma. Specifically, the combined use of drugs with different mechanisms of action can reduce the probability of selecting resistant clones. To identify agents active against melanoma cells, we screened a library of 349 anti-cancer compounds, currently in clinical use or trials, and selected PIK-75, an inhibitor of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B (PI3K/AKT) pathway, as the 'top active' drug. PIK-75 was then used alone or in combination with vemurafenib, the first BRAF inhibitor approved for patients with melanoma harboring BRAF mutations. We identified a combined dose of PIK-75 and vemurafenib that inhibited both the PI3K/AKT and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways, thereby overcoming any compensatory activation. In view of the important tumor suppressor function induced by restoring expression of microRNA (miR)-126 in metastatic melanoma cells, we examined whether miR-126 has a synergistic role when included in a triple combination alongside PIK-75 and vemurafenib. We found that enforced expression of miR-126 (which alone can reduce tumorigenicity) significantly increased PIK-75 activity when used as either a single agent or in combination with vemurafenib. Interestingly, PIK-75 proved to be effective against early passage cell lines derived from patients' biopsies and on melanoma cell lines resistant to either vemurafenib or dabrafenib, thus suggesting that it potentially has the capability to overcome drug resistance. Finally, the synergistic role played by miR-126 in combination with vemurafenib and/or PIK-75 was demonstrated in vivo in mouse xenograft models, in which tumor growth inhibition was associated with increased apoptosis. These results not only show the efficacy of PIK-75 and vemurafenib co-treatment but also indicate that restoration of miR-126 expression in advanced melanoma can enhance their antitumor activity, which may possibly allow dose reduction to decrease adverse events without reducing the therapeutic benefits.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Increased expression of the HDAC9 gene is associated with antiestrogen resistance of breast cancers.
    Mol. Oncol. (IF 5.962) Pub Date : 2019-05-18
    Aurélien Linares,Said Assou,Marion Lapierre,Erwan Thouennon,Céline Duraffourd,Carole Fromaget,Abdelhay Boulahtouf,Gao Tian,Jiafu Ji,Ozgur Sahin,Eric Badia,Nathalie Boulle,Vincent Cavaillès

    Estrogens play a pivotal role in breast cancer etiology, and endocrine therapy remains the main first line treatment for estrogen receptor-alpha (ERα)-positive breast cancer. ER are transcription factors whose activity is finely regulated by various regulatory complexes, including histone deacetylases (HDACs). Here, we investigated the role of HDAC9 in ERα signaling and response to antiestrogens in breast cancer cells. Various Michigan Cancer Foundation-7 (MCF7) breast cancer cell lines that overexpress class IIa HDAC9 or that are resistant to the partial antiestrogen 4-hydroxy-tamoxifen (OHTam) were used to study phenotypic changes in response to ER ligands by using transcriptomic and gene set enrichment analyses. Kaplan-Meier survival analyses were performed using public transcriptomic datasets from human breast cancer biopsies. In MCF7 breast cancer cells, HDAC9 decreased ERα mRNA and protein expression and inhibited its transcriptional activity. Conversely, HDAC9 mRNA was strongly overexpressed in OHTam-resistant MCF7 cells and in ERα-negative breast tumor cell lines. Moreover, HDAC9-overexpressing cells were less sensitive to OHTam antiproliferative effects compared with parental MCF7 cells. Several genes (including MUC1, SMC3 and S100P) were similarly deregulated in OHTam-resistant and in HDAC9-overexpressing MCF7 cells. Finally, HDAC9 expression was positively associated with genes upregulated in endocrine therapy-resistant breast cancers and high HDAC9 levels were associated with worse prognosis in patients treated with OHTam. These results demonstrate the complex interactions of class IIa HDAC9 with ERα signaling in breast cancer cells and its effect on the response to hormone therapy.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Fibroblast growth factor signals regulate transforming growth factor-β-induced endothelial-to-myofibroblast transition of tumor endothelial cells via Elk1.
    Mol. Oncol. (IF 5.962) Pub Date : 2019-05-17
    Yuichi Akatsu,Naoya Takahashi,Yasuhiro Yoshimatsu,Shiori Kimuro,Tomoki Muramatsu,Akihiro Katsura,Nako Maishi,Hiroshi I Suzuki,Johji Inazawa,Kyoko Hida,Kohei Miyazono,Tetsuro Watabe

    The tumor microenvironment contains various components, including cancer cells, tumor vessels, and cancer-associated fibroblasts, the latter of which are comprised of tumor-promoting myofibroblasts and tumor-suppressing fibroblasts. Multiple lines of evidence indicate that transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) induces the formation of myofibroblasts and other types of mesenchymal (non-myofibroblastic) cells from endothelial cells. Recent reports show that fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) modulates TGF-β-induced mesenchymal transition of endothelial cells, but the molecular mechanisms behind the signals that control transcriptional networks during the formation of different groups of fibroblasts remain largely unclear. Here, we studied the roles of FGF2 during the regulation of TGF-β-induced mesenchymal transition of tumor endothelial cells (TECs). We demonstrated that auto/paracrine FGF signals in TECs inhibit TGF-β-induced endothelial-to-myofibroblast transition (End-MyoT), leading to suppressed formation of contractile myofibroblast cells, but on the other hand can also collaborate with TGF-β in promoting the formation of active fibroblastic cells which have migratory and proliferative properties. FGF2 modulated TGF-β-induced formation of myofibroblastic and non-myofibroblastic cells from TECs via transcriptional regulation of various mesenchymal markers and growth factors. Furthermore, we observed that TECs treated with TGF-β were more competent in promoting in vivo tumor growth than TECs treated with TGF-β and FGF2. Mechanistically, we showed that Elk1 mediated FGF2-induced inhibition of End-MyoT via inhibition of TGF-β-induced transcriptional activation of α-smooth muscle actin promoter by myocardin-related transcription factor-A. Our data suggest that TGF-β and FGF2 oppose and cooperate with each other during the formation of myofibroblastic and non-myofibroblastic cells from TECs, which in turn determines the characteristics of mesenchymal cells in the tumor microenvironment.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • HDAC7-mediated control of tumour microenvironment maintains proliferative and stemness competence of human mammary epithelial cells.
    Mol. Oncol. (IF 5.962) Pub Date : 2019-05-14
    Valentina Cutano,Eros Di Giorgio,Martina Minisini,Raffaella Picco,Emiliano Dalla,Claudio Brancolini

    HDAC7 is a pleiotropic transcriptional coregulator that controls different cellular fates. Here, we demonstrate that in human mammary epithelial cells, HDAC7 sustains cell proliferation and favours a population of stem-like cells, by maintaining a proficient microenvironment. In particular, HDAC7 represses a repertoire of cytokines and other environmental factors, including elements of the insulin-like growth factor signalling pathway, IGFBP6 and IGFBP7. This HDAC7-regulated secretome signature predicts negative prognosis for luminal A breast cancers. ChIP-seq experiments revealed that HDAC7 binds locally to the genome, more frequently distal from the transcription start site. HDAC7 can colocalize with H3K27-acetylated domains and its deletion further increases H3K27ac at transcriptionally active regions. HDAC7 levels are increased in RAS-transformed cells, in which this protein was required not only for proliferation and cancer stem-like cell growth, but also for invasive features. We show that an important direct target of HDAC7 is IL24, which is sufficient to suppress the growth of cancer stem-like cells.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Gene expression and promoter methylation of angiogenic and lymphangiogenic factors as prognostic markers in melanoma.
    Mol. Oncol. (IF 5.962) Pub Date : 2019-05-10
    Ana Carolina Monteiro,Julienne K Muenzner,Fernando Andrade,Flávia Eichemberger Rius,Christian Ostalecki,Carol I Geppert,Abbas Agaimy,Arndt Hartmann,André Fujita,Regine Schneider-Stock,Miriam Galvonas Jasiulionis

    The high mortality rate of melanoma is broadly associated with its metastatic potential. Tumor cell dissemination is strictly dependent on vascularization; therefore, angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis play an essential role in metastasis. Hence, a better understanding of the players of tumor vascularization and establishing them as new molecular biomarkers might help to overcome the poor prognosis of melanoma patients. Here, we further characterized a linear murine model of melanoma progression and showed that the aggressiveness of melanoma cells is closely associated with high expression of angiogenic factors, such as Vegfc, Angpt2, and Six1, and that blockade of the vascular endothelial growth factor pathway by the inhibitor axitinib abrogates their tumorigenic potential in vitro and in the in vivo chicken chorioallantoic membrane assay. Furthermore, analysis of The Cancer Genome Atlas data revealed that the expression of the angiogenic factor ANGPT2 (P-value = 0.044) and the lymphangiogenic receptor VEGFR-3 (P-value = 0.002) were independent prognostic factors of overall survival in melanoma patients. Enhanced reduced representation bisulfite sequencing-based methylome profiling revealed for the first time a link between abnormal VEGFC, ANGPT2, and SIX1 gene expression and promoter hypomethylation in melanoma cells. In patients, VEGFC (P-value = 0.031), ANGPT2 (P-value < 0.001), and SIX1 (P-value = 0.009) promoter hypomethylation were independent prognostic factors of shorter overall survival. Hence, our data suggest that these angio- and lymphangiogenesis factors are potential biomarkers of melanoma prognosis. Moreover, these findings strongly support the applicability of our melanoma progression model to unravel new biomarkers for this aggressive human disease.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Smyd2 conformational changes in response to p53 binding: role of the C-terminal domain.
    Mol. Oncol. (IF 5.962) Pub Date : 2019-05-10
    Balasubramanian Chandramouli,Gerry Melino,Giovanni Chillemi

    Smyd2 lysine methyltransferase regulates monomethylation of histone and nonhistone lysine residues using S-adenosylmethionine cofactor as the methyl donor. The nonhistone interactors include several tumorigenic targets, including p53. Understanding this interaction would allow the structural principles that underpin Smyd2-mediated p53 methylation to be elucidated. Here, we performed μ-second molecular dynamics (MD) simulations on binary Smyd2-cofactor and ternary Smyd2-cofactor-p53 peptide complexes. We considered both unmethylated and monomethylated p53 peptides (at Lys370 and Lys372). The results indicate that (a) the degree of conformational freedom of the C-terminal domain of Smyd2 is restricted by the presence of the p53 peptide substrate, (b) the Smyd2 C-terminal domain shows distinct dynamic properties when interacting with unmethylated and methylated p53 peptides, and (c) Lys372 methylation confines the p53 peptide conformation, with detectable influence on Lys370 accessibility to the cofactor. These MD results are therefore of relevance for studying the biology of p53 in cancer progression.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Hypoxia-induced secretion stimulates breast cancer stem cell regulatory signalling pathways.
    Mol. Oncol. (IF 5.962) Pub Date : 2019-05-09
    Hanna Jacobsson,Hannah Harrison,Éamon Hughes,Emma Persson,Sara Rhost,Paul Fitzpatrick,Anna Gustafsson,Daniel Andersson,Pernilla Gregersson,Ylva Magnusson,Anders Ståhlberg,Göran Landberg

    It is well known that tumour cells are dependent on communication with the tumour microenvironment. Previously, it has been shown that hypoxia (HX) induces pronounced, diverse and direct effects on cancer stem cell (CSC) qualities in different breast cancer subtypes. Here, we describe the mechanism by which HX-induced secretion influences the spreading of CSCs. Conditioned media (CM) from estrogen receptor (ER)-α-positive hypoxic breast cancer cell cultures increased the fraction of CSCs compared to normal growth conditions, as determined using sets of CSC assays and model systems. In contrast, media from ERα-negative hypoxic cell cultures instead decreased this key subpopulation of cancer cells. Further, there was a striking overrepresentation of JAK-STAT-associated cytokines in both the ERα-positive and ERα-negative linked hypoxic responses as determined by a protein screen of the CM. JAK-STAT inhibitors and knockdown experiments further supported the hypothesis that this pathway is critical for the CSC-activating and CSC-inactivating effects induced by hypoxic secretion. We also observed that the interleukin-6-JAK2-STAT3 axis was specifically central for the ERα-negative hypoxic behaviour. Our results underline the importance of considering breast cancer subtypes in treatments targeting JAK-STAT or HX-associated processes and indicate that HX is not only a confined tumour biological event, but also influences key tumour properties in widespread normoxic microenvironments.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • c-MYB- and PGC1a-dependent metabolic switch induced by MYBBP1A loss in renal cancer.
    Mol. Oncol. (IF 5.962) Pub Date : 2019-05-09
    Blanca Felipe-Abrio,Eva M Verdugo-Sivianes,Amancio Carnero

    The tumor microenvironment may alter the original tumorigenic potential of tumor cells. Under harsh environmental conditions, genetic alterations conferring selective advantages may initiate the growth of tumor subclones, providing new opportunities for these tumors to grow. We performed a genetic loss-of-function screen to identify genetic alterations able to promote tumor cell growth in the absence of glucose. We identified that downregulation of MYBBP1A increases tumorigenic properties under nonpermissive conditions. MYBBP1A downregulation simultaneously activates PGC1α, directly by alleviating direct repression and indirectly by increasing PGC1α mRNA levels through c-MYB, leading to a metabolic switch from glycolysis to OXPHOS and increased tumorigenesis in low-glucose microenvironments. We have also identified reduced MYBBP1A expression in human renal tumor samples, which show high expression levels of genes involved in oxidative metabolism. In summary, our data support the role of MYBBP1A as a tumor suppressor by regulating c-MYB and PGC1α. Therefore, loss of MYBBP1A increases adaptability spanning of tumors through metabolic switch.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • New insights into YAP/TAZ nucleo-cytoplasmic shuttling: new cancer therapeutic opportunities?
    Mol. Oncol. (IF 5.962) Pub Date : 2019-05-03
    Michal Shreberk-Shaked,Moshe Oren

    Yes-associated protein (YAP) and transcriptional co-activator with PDZ-binding motif (TAZ), the main effectors of the Hippo pathway, are emerging as important players in cancer biology and therapy response. The intracellular localization of YAP/TAZ is a key determinant in the regulation of their activity and their roles in signal transduction. This is particularly relevant for cancer: Aberrant nuclear localization of YAP and TAZ has been observed in numerous human cancers and may therefore represent an attractive target for cancer therapy. In this review, we describe the mechanisms that regulate the nucleo-cytoplasmic shuttling of YAP/TAZ and their implications for cancer, and discuss how the new insights about this process may pave the way for novel therapeutic strategies.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Combined use of subclinical hydroxyurea and CHK1 inhibitor effectively controls melanoma and lung cancer progression, with reduced normal tissue toxicity compared to gemcitabine.
    Mol. Oncol. (IF 5.962) Pub Date : 2019-05-03
    Zay Yar Oo,Martina Proctor,Alexander J Stevenson,Deborah Nazareth,Madushan Fernando,Sheena M Daignault,Catherine Lanagan,Sebastian Walpole,Vanessa Bonazzi,Dubravka Škalamera,Cameron Snell,Nikolas K Haass,Jill E Larsen,Brian Gabrielli

    Drugs such as gemcitabine that increase replication stress are effective chemotherapeutics in a range of cancer settings. These drugs effectively block replication and promote DNA damage, triggering a cell cycle checkpoint response through the ATR-CHK1 pathway. Inhibiting this signalling pathway sensitises cells to killing by replication stress-inducing drugs. Here, we investigated the effect of low-level replication stress induced by low concentrations (> 0.2 mm) of the reversible ribonucleotide reductase inhibitor hydroxyurea (HU), which slows S-phase progression but has little effect on cell viability or proliferation. We demonstrate that HU effectively synergises with CHK1, but not ATR inhibition, in > 70% of melanoma and non-small-cell lung cancer cells assessed, resulting in apoptosis and complete loss of proliferative potential in vitro and in vivo. Normal fibroblasts and haemopoietic cells retain viability and proliferative potential following exposure to CHK1 inhibitor plus low doses of HU, but normal cells exposed to CHK1 inhibitor combined with submicromolar concentrations of gemcitabine exhibited complete loss of proliferative potential. The effects of gemcitabine on normal tissue correlate with irreversible ATR-CHK1 pathway activation, whereas low doses of HU reversibly activate CHK1 independently of ATR. The combined use of CHK1 inhibitor and subclinical HU also triggered an inflammatory response involving the recruitment of macrophages in vivo. These data indicate that combining CHK1 inhibitor with subclinical HU is superior to combination with gemcitabine, as it provides equal anticancer efficacy but with reduced normal tissue toxicity. These data suggest a significant proportion of melanoma and lung cancer patients could benefit from treatment with this drug combination.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • AMPK activation induced in pemetrexed-treated cells is associated with development of drug resistance independently of target enzyme expression.
    Mol. Oncol. (IF 5.962) Pub Date : 2019-04-30
    Yiyang Qin,Ikuo Sekine,Michiko Hanazono,Takao Morinaga,Mengmeng Fan,Yuichi Takiguchi,Yuji Tada,Masato Shingyoji,Naoto Yamaguchi,Masatoshi Tagawa

    Pemetrexed (PEM) inhibits DNA and RNA synthesis and is currently one of the first-line agents for mesothelioma. PEM suppresses the activities of several enzymes involved in purine and pyrimidine synthesis, and elevated activity of these enzymes in tumors is often linked with resistance to PEM. The agent also stimulates AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and consequently influences the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) pathways. Nevertheless, it remains unclear whether PEM resistance is linked to the AMPK or mTORC1 pathways. Here, we established two independent PEM-resistant mesothelioma cell lines in which expression of the PEM-target enzymes was not elevated, and found that levels of phosphorylated AMPK and p70S6K and, to a lesser extent, levels of phosphorylated AKT and p53, were increased in these cells as compared with the respective parent cells. PEM stimulation also augmented phosphorylation of AMPK, p70S6K, AKT and p53 in most cases. An AMPK activator increased phosphorylation and PEM resistance in parental cells, and the inhibitor decreased the resistance of PEM-resistant cells. In contrast, inhibitors for p70S6K and AKT did not influence PEM resistance; furthermore, increased levels of endogenous p53 did not affect PEM sensitivity. These data collectively indicate that constitutive activation of AMPK is associated with PEM resistance, and that this is unconnected with elevated DNA and RNA synthesis.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
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