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  • p66ShcA functions as a contextual promoter of breast cancer metastasis
    Breast Cancer Res. (IF 5.676) Pub Date : 2020-01-15
    Kyle Lewis; Alex Kiepas; Jesse Hudson; Julien Senecal; Jacqueline R. Ha; Elena Voorand; Matthew G. Annis; Valerie Sabourin; Ryuhjin Ahn; Rachel La Selva; Sébastien Tabariès; Brian E. Hsu; Matthew J. Siegel; Matthew Dankner; Eduardo Cepeda Canedo; Mathieu Lajoie; Ian R. Watson; Claire M. Brown; Peter M. Siegel; Josie Ursini-Siegel

    The p66ShcA redox protein is the longest isoform of the Shc1 gene and is variably expressed in breast cancers. In response to a variety of stress stimuli, p66ShcA becomes phosphorylated on serine 36, which allows it to translocate from the cytoplasm to the mitochondria where it stimulates the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Conflicting studies suggest both pro- and anti-tumorigenic functions for p66ShcA, which prompted us to examine the contribution of tumor cell-intrinsic functions of p66ShcA during breast cancer metastasis. We tested whether p66ShcA impacts the lung-metastatic ability of breast cancer cells. Breast cancer cells characteristic of the ErbB2+/luminal (NIC) or basal (4T1) subtypes were engineered to overexpress p66ShcA. In addition, lung-metastatic 4T1 variants (4T1-537) were engineered to lack endogenous p66ShcA via Crispr/Cas9 genomic editing. p66ShcA null cells were then reconstituted with wild-type p66ShcA or a mutant (S36A) that cannot translocate to the mitochondria, thereby lacking the ability to stimulate mitochondrial-dependent ROS production. These cells were tested for their ability to form spontaneous metastases from the primary site or seed and colonize the lung in experimental (tail vein) metastasis assays. These cells were further characterized with respect to their migration rates, focal adhesion dynamics, and resistance to anoikis in vitro. Finally, their ability to survive in circulation and seed the lungs of mice was assessed in vivo. We show that p66ShcA increases the lung-metastatic potential of breast cancer cells by augmenting their ability to navigate each stage of the metastatic cascade. A non-phosphorylatable p66ShcA-S36A mutant, which cannot translocate to the mitochondria, still potentiated breast cancer cell migration, lung colonization, and growth of secondary lung metastases. However, breast cancer cell survival in the circulation uniquely required an intact p66ShcA S36 phosphorylation site. This study provides the first evidence that both mitochondrial and non-mitochondrial p66ShcA pools collaborate in breast cancer cells to promote their maximal metastatic fitness.

    更新日期:2020-01-15
  • Nutrient-wide association study of 92 foods and nutrients and breast cancer risk
    Breast Cancer Res. (IF 5.676) Pub Date : 2020-01-13
    Alicia K. Heath; David C. Muller; Piet A. van den Brandt; Nikos Papadimitriou; Elena Critselis; Marc Gunter; Paolo Vineis; Elisabete Weiderpass; Guy Fagherazzi; Heiner Boeing; Pietro Ferrari; Anja Olsen; Anne Tjønneland; Patrick Arveux; Marie-Christine Boutron-Ruault; Francesca Romana Mancini; Tilman Kühn; Renée Turzanski-Fortner; Matthias B. Schulze; Anna Karakatsani; Paschalis Thriskos; Antonia Trichopoulou; Giovanna Masala; Paolo Contiero; Fulvio Ricceri; Salvatore Panico; Bas Bueno-de-Mesquita; Marije F. Bakker; Carla H. van Gils; Karina Standahl Olsen; Guri Skeie; Cristina Lasheras; Antonio Agudo; Miguel Rodríguez-Barranco; Maria-José Sánchez; Pilar Amiano; María-Dolores Chirlaque; Aurelio Barricarte; Isabel Drake; Ulrika Ericson; Ingegerd Johansson; Anna Winkvist; Tim Key; Heinz Freisling; Mathilde His; Inge Huybrechts; Sofia Christakoudi; Merete Ellingjord-Dale; Elio Riboli; Konstantinos K. Tsilidis; Ioanna Tzoulaki

    Several dietary factors have been reported to be associated with risk of breast cancer, but to date, unequivocal evidence only exists for alcohol consumption. We sought to systematically assess the association between intake of 92 foods and nutrients and breast cancer risk using a nutrient-wide association study. Using data from 272,098 women participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study, we assessed dietary intake of 92 foods and nutrients estimated by dietary questionnaires. Cox regression was used to quantify the association between each food/nutrient and risk of breast cancer. A false discovery rate (FDR) of 0.05 was used to select the set of foods and nutrients to be replicated in the independent Netherlands Cohort Study (NLCS). Six foods and nutrients were identified as associated with risk of breast cancer in the EPIC study (10,979 cases). Higher intake of alcohol overall was associated with a higher risk of breast cancer (hazard ratio (HR) for a 1 SD increment in intake = 1.05, 95% CI 1.03–1.07), as was beer/cider intake and wine intake (HRs per 1 SD increment = 1.05, 95% CI 1.03–1.06 and 1.04, 95% CI 1.02–1.06, respectively), whereas higher intakes of fibre, apple/pear, and carbohydrates were associated with a lower risk of breast cancer (HRs per 1 SD increment = 0.96, 95% CI 0.94–0.98; 0.96, 95% CI 0.94–0.99; and 0.96, 95% CI 0.95–0.98, respectively). When evaluated in the NLCS (2368 cases), estimates for each of these foods and nutrients were similar in magnitude and direction, with the exception of beer/cider intake, which was not associated with risk in the NLCS. Our findings confirm a positive association of alcohol consumption and suggest an inverse association of dietary fibre and possibly fruit intake with breast cancer risk.

    更新日期:2020-01-13
  • Identification and transfer of spatial transcriptomics signatures for cancer diagnosis
    Breast Cancer Res. (IF 5.676) Pub Date : 2020-01-13
    Niyaz Yoosuf; José Fernández Navarro; Fredrik Salmén; Patrik L. Ståhl; Carsten O. Daub

    Distinguishing ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) from invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) regions in clinical biopsies constitutes a diagnostic challenge. Spatial transcriptomics (ST) is an in situ capturing method, which allows quantification and visualization of transcriptomes in individual tissue sections. In the past, studies have shown that breast cancer samples can be used to study their transcriptomes with spatial resolution in individual tissue sections. Previously, supervised machine learning methods were used in clinical studies to predict the clinical outcomes for cancer types. We used four publicly available ST breast cancer datasets from breast tissue sections annotated by pathologists as non-malignant, DCIS, or IDC. We trained and tested a machine learning method (support vector machine) based on the expert annotation as well as based on automatic selection of cell types by their transcriptome profiles. We identified expression signatures for expert annotated regions (non-malignant, DCIS, and IDC) and build machine learning models. Classification results for 798 expression signature transcripts showed high coincidence with the expert pathologist annotation for DCIS (100%) and IDC (96%). Extending our analysis to include all 25,179 expressed transcripts resulted in an accuracy of 99% for DCIS and 98% for IDC. Further, classification based on an automatically identified expression signature covering all ST spots of tissue sections resulted in prediction accuracy of 95% for DCIS and 91% for IDC. This concept study suggest that the ST signatures learned from expert selected breast cancer tissue sections can be used to identify breast cancer regions in whole tissue sections including regions not trained on. Furthermore, the identified expression signatures can classify cancer regions in tissue sections not used for training with high accuracy. Expert-generated but even automatically generated cancer signatures from ST data might be able to classify breast cancer regions and provide clinical decision support for pathologists in the future.

    更新日期:2020-01-13
  • A window-of-opportunity trial of the CXCR1/2 inhibitor reparixin in operable HER-2-negative breast cancer
    Breast Cancer Res. (IF 5.676) Pub Date : 2020-01-10
    Lori J. Goldstein; Raymond P. Perez; Denise Yardley; Linda K. Han; James M. Reuben; Hui Gao; Susan McCanna; Beth Butler; Pier Adelchi Ruffini; Yi Liu; Roberto R. Rosato; Jenny C. Chang

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are purported to be responsible for tumor initiation, treatment resistance, disease recurrence, and metastasis. CXCR1, one of the receptors for CXCL8, was identified on breast cancer (BC) CSCs. Reparixin, an investigational allosteric inhibitor of CXCR1, reduced the CSC content of human BC xenograft in mice. In this multicenter, single-arm trial, women with HER-2-negative operable BC received reparixin oral tablets 1000 mg three times daily for 21 days before surgery. Primary objectives evaluated the safety of reparixin and the effects of reparixin on CSC and tumor microenvironment in core biopsies taken at baseline and at treatment completion. Signal of activity was defined as a reduction of ≥ 20% in ALDH+ or CD24−/CD44+ CSC by flow cytometry, with consistent reduction by immunohistochemistry. Twenty patients were enrolled and completed the study. There were no serious adverse reactions. CSC markers ALDH+ and CD24−/CD44+ measured by flow cytometry decreased by ≥ 20% in 4/17 and 9/17 evaluable patients, respectively. However, these results could not be confirmed by immunofluorescence due to the very low number of CSC. Reparixin appeared safe and well-tolerated. CSCs were reduced in several patients as measured by flow cytometry, suggesting targeting of CXCR1 on CSC. Clinicaltrials.gov, NCT01861054. Registered on April 18, 2013.

    更新日期:2020-01-11
  • Anillin regulates breast cancer cell migration, growth, and metastasis by non-canonical mechanisms involving control of cell stemness and differentiation
    Breast Cancer Res. (IF 5.676) Pub Date : 2020-01-07
    Dongdong Wang; Nayden G. Naydenov; Mikhail G. Dozmorov; Jennifer E. Koblinski; Andrei I. Ivanov

    Breast cancer metastasis is driven by a profound remodeling of the cytoskeleton that enables efficient cell migration and invasion. Anillin is a unique scaffolding protein regulating major cytoskeletal structures, such as actin filaments, microtubules, and septin polymers. It is markedly overexpressed in breast cancer, and high anillin expression is associated with poor prognosis. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of anillin in breast cancer cell migration, growth, and metastasis. CRISPR/Cas9 technology was used to deplete anillin in highly metastatic MDA-MB-231 and BT549 cells and to overexpress it in poorly invasive MCF10AneoT cells. The effects of anillin depletion and overexpression on breast cancer cell motility in vitro were examined by wound healing and Matrigel invasion assays. Assembly of the actin cytoskeleton and matrix adhesion were evaluated by immunofluorescence labeling and confocal microscopy. In vitro tumor development was monitored by soft agar growth assays, whereas cancer stem cells were examined using a mammosphere formation assay and flow cytometry. The effects of anillin knockout on tumor growth and metastasis in vivo were determined by injecting control and anillin-depleted breast cancer cells into NSG mice. Loss-of-function and gain-of-function studies demonstrated that anillin is necessary and sufficient to accelerate migration, invasion, and anchorage-independent growth of breast cancer cells in vitro. Furthermore, loss of anillin markedly attenuated primary tumor growth and metastasis of breast cancer in vivo. In breast cancer cells, anillin was localized in the nucleus; however, knockout of this protein affected the cytoplasmic/cortical events, e.g., the organization of actin cytoskeleton and cell-matrix adhesions. Furthermore, we observed a global transcriptional reprogramming of anillin-depleted breast cancer cells that resulted in suppression of their stemness and induction of the mesenchymal to epithelial trans-differentiation. Such trans-differentiation was manifested by the upregulation of basal keratins along with the increased expression of E-cadherin and P-cadherin. Knockdown of E-cadherin restored the impaired migration and invasion of anillin-deficient breast cancer cells. Our study demonstrates that anillin plays essential roles in promoting breast cancer growth and metastatic dissemination in vitro and in vivo and unravels novel functions of anillin in regulating breast cancer stemness and differentiation.

    更新日期:2020-01-07
  • A phase I/II study of epertinib plus trastuzumab with or without chemotherapy in patients with HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer
    Breast Cancer Res. (IF 5.676) Pub Date : 2019-12-31
    Iain R. Macpherson; Pavlina Spiliopoulou; Saeed Rafii; Matilde Saggese; Richard D. Baird; Javier Garcia-Corbacho; Antoine Italiano; Jacques Bonneterre; Mario Campone; Nicola Cresti; John Posner; Yousuke Takeda; Akinori Arimura; James Spicer

    Epertinib (S-222611) is a potent reversible inhibitor of HER2, EGFR and HER4. This trial evaluated the safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics and antitumour activity of daily oral epertinib combined with trastuzumab (arm A), with trastuzumab plus vinorelbine (arm B) or with trastuzumab plus capecitabine (arm C), in patients with HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer (MBC). Eligible patients, with or without brain metastases, had received prior HER2-directed therapy. A dose-escalation phase determined the tolerability of each combination and established a dose for further study. Further, patients were recruited to expansion cohorts in each of the 3 arms to further explore efficacy and safety. The recommended doses of epertinib were 600 mg, 200 mg and 400 mg in arms A, B and C, respectively. The most frequent grade 3/4 adverse event (AE) was diarrhoea in all arms, which was manageable with medical intervention and dose modification. The objective response rate (complete response [CR] plus partial response [PR]) in heavily pre-treated HER2-positive MBC patients at the recommended doses of epertinib combined with trastuzumab was 67% (N = 9), with trastuzumab plus vinorelbine was 0% (N = 5) and with trastuzumab plus capecitabine was 56% (N = 9). Notably, 4 of 6 patients previously treated with T-DM1 responded in the arm A expansion cohort (epertinib plus trastuzumab). In the arm C expansion cohort (epertinib plus trastuzumab plus capecitabine), 4 of 7 patients responded despite previous exposure to capecitabine. Measurable regression of brain metastases was observed in patients with CNS target lesions treated in both arms A and C. We observed safety, tolerability and encouraging antitumour activity of epertinib combined with trastuzumab, or with trastuzumab plus capecitabine. This supports further evaluation of these combinations in patients with pre-treated HER2-positive MBC, with or without brain metastases. EudraCT Number: 2013-003894-87; registered 09-September-2013.

    更新日期:2019-12-31
  • Impact of aromatase inhibitor treatment on global gene expression and its association with antiproliferative response in ER+ breast cancer in postmenopausal patients
    Breast Cancer Res. (IF 5.676) Pub Date : 2019-12-31
    Qiong Gao; Elena López-Knowles; Maggie Chon U. Cheang; James Morden; Ricardo Ribas; Kally Sidhu; David Evans; Vera Martins; Andrew Dodson; Anthony Skene; Chris Holcombe; Elizabeth Mallon; Abigail Evans; Judith M. Bliss; John Robertson; Ian Smith; Lesley-Ann Martin; Mitch Dowsett

    Endocrine therapy reduces breast cancer mortality by 40%, but resistance remains a major clinical problem. In this study, we sought to investigate the impact of aromatase inhibitor (AI) therapy on gene expression and identify gene modules representing key biological pathways that relate to early AI therapy resistance. Global gene expression was measured on pairs of core-cut biopsies taken at baseline and at surgery from 254 patients with ER-positive primary breast cancer randomised to receive 2-week presurgical AI (n = 198) or no presurgical treatment (control n = 56) from the POETIC trial. Data from the AI group was adjusted to eliminate artefactual process-related changes identified in the control group. The response was assessed by changes in the proliferation marker, Ki67. High baseline ESR1 expression associated with better AI response in HER2+ tumours but not HER2− tumours. In HER2− tumours, baseline expression of 48 genes associated with poor antiproliferative response (p < 0.005) including PERP and YWHAQ, the two most significant, and the transcription co-regulators (SAP130, HDAC4, and NCOA7) which were among the top 16 most significant. Baseline gene signature scores measuring cell proliferation, growth factor signalling (ERBB2-GS, RET/GDNF-GS, and IGF-1-GS), and immune activity (STAT1-GS) were significantly higher in poor AI responders. Two weeks of AI caused downregulation of genes involved in cell proliferation and ER signalling, as expected. Signature scores of E2F activation and TP53 dysfunction after 2-week AI were associated with poor AI response in both HER2− and HER2+ patients. There is a high degree of heterogeneity in adaptive mechanisms after as little as 2-week AI therapy; however, all appear to converge on cell cycle regulation. Our data support the evaluation of whether an E2F signatures after short-term exposure to AI may identify those patients most likely to benefit from the early addition of CDK4/6 inhibitors. ISRCTN, ISRCTN63882543, registered on 18 December 2007.

    更新日期:2019-12-31
  • S100a4 upregulation in Pik3caH1047R;Trp53R270H;MMTV-Cre-driven mammary tumors promotes metastasis
    Breast Cancer Res. (IF 5.676) Pub Date : 2019-12-27
    Wenlin Yuan; Leonard D. Goldstein; Steffen Durinck; Ying-Jiun Chen; Thong T. Nguyen; Noelyn M. Kljavin; Ethan S. Sokol; Eric W. Stawiski; Benjamin Haley; James Ziai; Zora Modrusan; Somasekar Seshagiri

    PIK3CA mutations are frequent in human breast cancer. Pik3caH1047R mutant expression in mouse mammary gland promotes tumorigenesis. TP53 mutations co-occur with PIK3CA mutations in human breast cancers. We previously generated a conditionally activatable Pik3caH1047R;MMTV-Cre mouse model and found a few malignant sarcomatoid (spindle cell) carcinomas that had acquired spontaneous dominant-negative Trp53 mutations. A Pik3caH1047R;Trp53R270H;MMTV-Cre double mutant mouse breast cancer model was generated. Tumors were characterized by histology, marker analysis, transcriptional profiling, single-cell RNA-seq, and bioinformatics. Cell lines were developed from mutant tumors and used to identify and confirm genes involved in metastasis. We found Pik3caH1047R and Trp53R270H cooperate in driving oncogenesis in mammary glands leading to a shorter latency than either alone. Double mutant mice develop multiple histologically distinct mammary tumors, including adenocarcinoma and sarcomatoid (spindle cell) carcinoma. We found some tumors to be invasive and a few metastasized to the lung and/or the lymph node. Single-cell RNA-seq analysis of the tumors identified epithelial, stromal, myeloid, and T cell groups. Expression analysis of the metastatic tumors identified S100a4 as a top candidate gene associated with metastasis. Metastatic tumors contained a much higher percentage of epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT)-signature positive and S100a4-expressing cells. CRISPR/CAS9-mediated knockout of S100a4 in a metastatic tumor-derived cell line disrupted its metastatic potential indicating a role for S100a4 in metastasis. Pik3caH1047R;Trp53R270H;MMTV-Cre mouse provides a preclinical model to mimic a subtype of human breast cancers that carry both PIK3CA and TP53 mutations. It also allows for understanding the cooperation between the two mutant genes in tumorigenesis. Our model also provides a system to study metastasis and develop therapeutic strategies for PIK3CA/TP53 double-positive cancers. S100a4 found involved in metastasis in this model can be a potential diagnostic and therapeutic target.

    更新日期:2019-12-30
  • Endocrine-responsive lobular carcinoma of the breast: features associated with risk of late distant recurrence
    Breast Cancer Res. (IF 5.676) Pub Date : 2019-12-30
    Fabio Conforti; Laura Pala; Eleonora Pagan; Giuseppe Viale; Vincenzo Bagnardi; Giulia Peruzzotti; Tommaso De Pas; Nadia Bianco; Rossella Graffeo; Elena Guerini Rocco; Andrea Vingiani; Richard D. Gelber; Alan S. Coates; Marco Colleoni; Aron Goldhirsch

    Invasive lobular carcinomas (ILCs) account for 10–15% of all breast cancers. They are characterized by an elevated endocrine responsiveness and by a long lasting risk of relapse over time. Here we report for the first time an analysis of clinical and pathological features associated with the risk of late distant recurrence in ILCs. We retrospectively analyzed all consecutive patients with hormone receptor–positive ILC operated at the European Institute of Oncology (EIO) between June 1994 and December 2010 and scheduled to receive at least 5 years of endocrine treatment. The aim was to identify clinical and pathological variables that provide prognostic information in the period beginning 5 years after definitive surgery. The cumulative incidence of distant metastases (CI-DM) from 5 years after surgery was the prospectively defined primary endpoint. One thousand eight hundred seventy-two patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The median follow-up was 8.7 years. Increased tumor size and positive nodal status were significantly associated with higher risk of late distant recurrence, but nodal status had a significant lower prognostic value in late follow-up period (DM-HR, 3.21; 95% CI, 2.06–5.01) as compared with the first 5 years of follow-up (DM-HR, 9.55; 95% CI, 5.64–16.2; heterogeneity p value 0.002). Elevated Ki-67 labeling index (LI) retained a significant and independent prognostic value even after the first 5 years from surgery (DM-HR, 1.81; 95% CI 1.19–2.75), and it also stratified the prognosis of ILC patients subgrouped according to lymph node status. A combined score, obtained integrating the previously validated Clinical Treatment Score post 5 years (CTS5) and Ki-67 LI, had a strong association with the risk of late distant recurrence of ILCs. We identified factors associated with the risk of late distant recurrence in ER-positive ILCs and developed a simple prognostic score, based on data that are readily available, which warrants further validation.

    更新日期:2019-12-30
  • Estrogen receptor coregulator binding modulator (ERX-11) enhances the activity of CDK4/6 inhibitors against estrogen receptor-positive breast cancers
    Breast Cancer Res. (IF 5.676) Pub Date : 2019-12-26
    Suryavathi Viswanadhapalli; Shihong Ma; Gangadhara Reddy Sareddy; Tae-Kyung Lee; Mengxing Li; Collin Gilbreath; Xihui Liu; Yiliao Luo; Uday P. Pratap; Mei Zhou; Eliot B. Blatt; Kara Kassees; Carlos Arteaga; Prasanna Alluri; Manjeet Rao; Susan T. Weintraub; Rajeshwar Rao Tekmal; Jung-Mo Ahn; Ganesh V. Raj; Ratna K. Vadlamudi

    CDK4/6 inhibitors in combination with endocrine therapy (AE/AI/SERDs) are approved for the treatment of ER+ advanced breast cancer (BCa). However, not all patients benefit from CDK4/6 inhibitors therapy. We previously reported a novel therapeutic agent, ERX-11, that binds to the estrogen receptor (ER) and modulates ER-coregulator interactions. Here, we tested if the combination of ERX-11 with agents approved for ER+ BCa would be more potent. We tested the effect of combination therapy using BCa cell line models, including those that have acquired resistance to tamoxifen, letrozole, or CDK4/6 inhibitors or have been engineered to express mutant forms of the ER. In vitro activity was tested using Cell Titer-Glo, MTT, and apoptosis assays. Mechanistic studies were conducted using western blot, reporter gene assays, RT-qPCR, and mass spectrometry approaches. Xenograft, patient-derived explants (PDEs), and xenograft-derived explants (XDE) were used for preclinical evaluation and toxicity. ERX-11 inhibited the proliferation of therapy-resistant BCa cells in a dose-dependent manner, including ribociclib resistance. The combination of ERX-11 and CDK4/6 inhibitor was synergistic in decreasing the proliferation of both endocrine therapy-sensitive and endocrine therapy-resistant BCa cells, in vitro, in xenograft models in vivo, xenograft-derived explants ex vivo, and in primary patient-derived explants ex vivo. Importantly, the combination caused xenograft tumor regression in vivo. Unbiased global mass spectrometry studies demonstrated profound decreases in proliferation markers with combination therapy and indicated global proteomic changes in E2F1, ER, and ER coregulators. Mechanistically, the combination of ERX-11 and CDK4/6 inhibitor decreased the interaction between ER and its coregulators, as evidenced by immunoprecipitation followed by mass spectrometry studies. Biochemical studies confirmed that the combination therapy significantly altered the expression of proteins involved in E2F1 and ER signaling, and this is primarily driven by a transcriptional shift, as noted in gene expression studies. Our results suggest that ERX-11 inhibited the proliferation of BCa cells resistant to both endocrine therapy and CDK4/6 inhibitors in a dose-dependent manner and that the combination of ERX-11 with a CDK4/6 inhibitor may represent a viable therapeutic approach.

    更新日期:2019-12-27
  • Comprehensive evaluation of methods to assess overall and cell-specific immune infiltrates in breast cancer
    Breast Cancer Res. (IF 5.676) Pub Date : 2019-12-26
    Iris Nederlof; Davide De Bortoli; Yacine Bareche; Bastien Nguyen; Michiel de Maaker; Gerrit K. J. Hooijer; Laurence Buisseret; Marleen Kok; Marcel Smid; Gert G. G. M. Van den Eynden; Arie B. Brinkman; Jan Hudecek; Jan Koster; Christos Sotiriou; Denis Larsimont; John W. M. Martens; Marc J. van de Vijver; Hugo M. Horlings; Roberto Salgado; Elia Biganzoli; Christine Desmedt

    Breast cancer (BC) immune infiltrates play a critical role in tumor progression and response to treatment. Besides stromal tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (sTILs) which have recently reached level 1B evidence as a prognostic marker in triple negative BC, a plethora of methods to assess immune infiltration exists, and it is unclear how these compare to each other and if they can be used interchangeably. Two experienced pathologists scored sTIL, intra-tumoral TIL (itTIL), and 6 immune cell types (CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, CD20+, CD68+, FOXP3+) in the International Cancer Genomics Consortium breast cancer cohort using hematoxylin and eosin-stained (n = 243) and immunohistochemistry-stained tissue microarrays (n = 254) and whole slides (n = 82). The same traits were evaluated using transcriptomic- and methylomic-based deconvolution methods or signatures. The concordance correlation coefficient (CCC) between pathologists for sTIL was very good (0.84) and for cell-specific immune infiltrates slightly lower (0.63–0.66). Comparison between tissue microarray and whole slide pathology scores revealed systematically higher values in whole slides (ratio 2.60–5.98). The Spearman correlations between microscopic sTIL and transcriptomic- or methylomic-based assessment of immune infiltrates were highly variable (r = 0.01–0.56). Similar observations were made for cell type-specific quantifications (r = 0.001–0.54). We observed a strong inter-method variability between the omics-derived estimations, which is further cell type dependent. Finally, we demonstrated that most methods more accurately identify highly infiltrated (sTIL ≥ 60%; area under the curve, AUC, 0.64–0.99) as compared to lowly infiltrated tumors (sTIL ≤ 10%; AUC 0.52–0.82). There is a lower inter-pathologist concordance for cell-specific quantification as compared to overall infiltration quantification. Microscopic assessments are underestimated when considering small cores (tissue microarray) instead of whole slides. Results further highlight considerable differences between the microscopic-, transcriptomic-, and methylomic-based methods in the assessment of overall and cell-specific immune infiltration in BC. We therefore call for extreme caution when assessing immune infiltrates using current methods and emphasize the need for standardized immune characterization beyond TIL.

    更新日期:2019-12-27
  • Immune gene expression profiling reveals heterogeneity in luminal breast tumors
    Breast Cancer Res. (IF 5.676) Pub Date : 2019-12-19
    Bin Zhu; Lap Ah Tse; Difei Wang; Hela Koka; Tongwu Zhang; Mustapha Abubakar; Priscilla Lee; Feng Wang; Cherry Wu; Koon Ho Tsang; Wing-cheong Chan; Sze Hong Law; Mengjie Li; Wentao Li; Suyang Wu; Zhiguang Liu; Bixia Huang; Han Zhang; Eric Tang; Zhengyan Kan; Soohyeon Lee; Yeon Hee Park; Seok Jin Nam; Mingyi Wang; Xuezheng Sun; Kristine Jones; Bin Zhu; Amy Hutchinson; Belynda Hicks; Ludmila Prokunina-Olsson; Jianxin Shi; Montserrat Garcia-Closas; Stephen Chanock; Xiaohong R. Yang

    Heterogeneity of immune gene expression patterns of luminal breast cancer (BC), which is clinically heterogeneous and overall considered as low immunogenic, has not been well studied especially in non-European populations. Here, we aimed at characterizing the immune gene expression profile of luminal BC in an Asian population and associating it with patient characteristics and tumor genomic features. We performed immune gene expression profiling of tumor and adjacent normal tissue in 92 luminal BC patients from Hong Kong using RNA-sequencing data and used unsupervised consensus clustering to stratify tumors. We then used luminal patients from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA, N = 564) and a Korean breast cancer study (KBC, N = 112) as replication datasets. Based on the expression of 130 immune-related genes, luminal tumors were stratified into three distinct immune subtypes. Tumors in one subtype showed higher level of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs), characterized by T cell gene activation, higher expression of immune checkpoint genes, higher nonsynonymous mutation burden, and higher APOBEC-signature mutations, compared with other luminal tumors. The high-TIL subtype was also associated with lower ESR1/ESR2 expression ratio and increasing body mass index. The comparison of the immune profile in tumor and matched normal tissue suggested a tumor-derived activation of specific immune responses, which was only seen in high-TIL patients. Tumors in a second subtype were characterized by increased expression of interferon-stimulated genes and enrichment for TP53 somatic mutations. The presence of three immune subtypes within luminal BC was replicated in TCGA and KBC, although the pattern was more similar in Asian populations. The germline APOBEC3B deletion polymorphism, which is prevalent in East Asian populations and was previously linked to immune activation, was not associated with immune subtypes in our study. This result does not support the hypothesis that the germline APOBEC3B deletion polymorphism is the driving force for immune activation in breast tumors in Asian populations. Our findings suggest that immune gene expression and associated genomic features could be useful to further stratify luminal BC beyond the current luminal A/B classification and a subset of luminal BC patients may benefit from checkpoint immunotherapy, at least in Asian populations.

    更新日期:2019-12-20
  • Plasma cell-free DNA (cfDNA) as a predictive and prognostic marker in patients with metastatic breast cancer
    Breast Cancer Res. (IF 5.676) Pub Date : 2019-12-19
    Daniel Fernandez-Garcia; Allison Hills; Karen Page; Robert K. Hastings; Bradley Toghill; Kate S. Goddard; Charlotte Ion; Olivia Ogle; Anna Rita Boydell; Kelly Gleason; Mark Rutherford; Adrian Lim; David S. Guttery; R. Charles Coombes; Jacqueline A. Shaw

    Breast cancer (BC) is the most common cancer in women, and despite the introduction of new screening programmes, therapies and monitoring technologies, there is still a need to develop more useful tests for monitoring treatment response and to inform clinical decision making. The purpose of this study was to compare circulating cell-free DNA (cfDNA) and circulating tumour cells (CTCs) with conventional breast cancer blood biomarkers (CA15-3 and alkaline phosphatase (AP)) as predictors of response to treatment and prognosis in patients with metastatic breast cancer (MBC). One hundred ninety-four female patients with radiologically confirmed MBC were recruited to the study. Total cfDNA levels were determined by qPCR and compared with CELLSEARCH® CTC counts and CA15-3 and alkaline phosphatase (AP) values. Blood biomarker data were compared with conventional tumour markers, treatment(s) and response as assessed by RECIST and survival. Non-parametric statistical hypothesis tests were used to examine differences, correlation analysis and linear regression to determine correlation and to describe its effects, logistic regression and receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC curve) to estimate the strength of the relationship between biomarkers and clinical outcomes and value normalization against standard deviation to make biomarker values comparable. Kaplan–Meier estimator and Cox regression models were used to assess survival. Univariate and multivariate models were performed where appropriate. Multivariate analysis showed that both the amount of total cfDNA (p value = 0.024, HR = 1.199, CI = 1.024–1.405) and the number of CTCs (p value = 0.001, HR = 1.243, CI = 1.088–1.421) are predictors of overall survival (OS), whereas total cfDNA levels is the sole predictor for progression-free survival (PFS) (p value = 0.042, HR = 1.193, CI = 1.007–1.415) and disease response when comparing response to non-response to treatment (HR = 15.917, HR = 12.481 for univariate and multivariate analysis, respectively). Lastly, combined analysis of CTCs and cfDNA is more informative than the combination of two conventional biomarkers (CA15-3 and AP) for prediction of OS. Measurement of total cfDNA levels, which is a simpler and less expensive biomarker than CTC counts, is associated with PFS, OS and response in MBC, suggesting potential clinical application of a cheap and simple blood-based test.

    更新日期:2019-12-20
  • NEDD4 expression is associated with breast cancer progression and is predictive of a poor prognosis
    Breast Cancer Res. (IF 5.676) Pub Date : 2019-12-19
    Lingfeng Wan; Tao Liu; Zhipeng Hong; You Pan; Steven T. Sizemore; Junran Zhang; Zhefu Ma

    A role for neural precursor cell-expressed developmentally downregulated gene 4 (NEDD4) in tumorigenesis has been suggested. However, information is lacking on its role in breast tumor biology. The purpose of this study was to determine the role of NEDD4 in the promotion of the growth and progression of breast cancer (BC) and to evaluate the clinicopathologic and prognostic significance of NEDD4. The impact of NEDD4 expression in BC cell growth was determined by Cell Counting Kit-8 and colony formation assays. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded specimens were collected from 133 adjacent normal tissues (ANTs), 445 BC cases composed of pre-invasive ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS, n = 37), invasive ductal carcinomas (IDC, n = 408, 226 without and 182 with lymph node metastasis), and 116 invaded lymph nodes. The expression of NEDD4 was analyzed by immunohistochemistry. The association between NEDD4 expression and clinicopathological characteristics was analyzed by chi-square test. Survival was evaluated using the Kaplan–Meier method, and curves were compared using a log-rank test. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed using the Cox regression method. NEDD4 promoted BC growth in vitro. In clinical retrospective studies, 16.5% of ANTs (22/133) demonstrated positive NEDD4 staining. Strikingly, the proportion of cases showing NEDD4-positive staining increased to 51.4% (19/37) in DCIS, 58.4% (132/226) in IDC without lymph node metastasis, and 73.1% (133/182) in BC with lymph node metastasis (BCLNM). In addition, NEDD4-positive staining was associated with clinical parameters, including tumor size (P = 0.030), nodal status (P = 0.001), estrogen receptor status (P = 0.035), and progesterone receptor status (P = 0.023). Moreover, subset analysis in BCLNM revealed that high NEDD4 expression correlated with an elevated risk of relapse (P = 0.0276). Further, NEDD4 expression was an independent prognostic predictor. Lastly, the rates for 10-year overall survival and disease-free survival were significantly lower in patients with positive NEDD4 staining than those in BC patients with negative NEDD4 staining BC (P = 0.0024 and P = 0.0011, respectively). NEDD4 expression is elevated in BC and is associated with BC growth. NEDD4 correlated with clinicopathological parameters and predicts a poor prognosis. Thus, NEDD4 is a potential biomarker of poor prognosis and a potential therapeutic target for BC treatment.

    更新日期:2019-12-19
  • Neutrophil extracellular traps in breast cancer and beyond: current perspectives on NET stimuli, thrombosis and metastasis, and clinical utility for diagnosis and treatment
    Breast Cancer Res. (IF 5.676) Pub Date : 2019-12-18
    Hunter T. Snoderly; Brian A. Boone; Margaret F. Bennewitz

    The formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), known as NETosis, was first observed as a novel immune response to bacterial infection, but has since been found to occur abnormally in a variety of other inflammatory disease states including cancer. Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed malignancy in women. In breast cancer, NETosis has been linked to increased disease progression, metastasis, and complications such as venous thromboembolism. NET-targeted therapies have shown success in preclinical cancer models and may prove valuable clinical targets in slowing or halting tumor progression in breast cancer patients. We will briefly outline the mechanisms by which NETs may form in the tumor microenvironment and circulation, including the crosstalk between neutrophils, tumor cells, endothelial cells, and platelets as well as the role of cancer-associated extracellular vesicles in modulating neutrophil behavior and NET extrusion. The prognostic implications of cancer-associated NETosis will be explored in addition to development of novel therapeutics aimed at targeting NET interactions to improve outcomes in patients with breast cancer.

    更新日期:2019-12-19
  • Elacestrant (RAD1901) exhibits anti-tumor activity in multiple ER+ breast cancer models resistant to CDK4/6 inhibitors
    Breast Cancer Res. (IF 5.676) Pub Date : 2019-12-18
    Hitisha K. Patel; Nianjun Tao; Kyung-Min Lee; Mariela Huerta; Heike Arlt; Tara Mullarkey; Steven Troy; Carlos L. Arteaga; Teeru Bihani

    Addition of CDK4/6 inhibitors (CDK4/6i) to endocrine therapy significantly increased progression-free survival, leading to their approval and incorporation into the metastatic breast cancer treatment paradigm. With these inhibitors being routinely used for patients with advanced estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) breast cancer, resistance to these agents and its impact on subsequent therapy needs to be understood. Considering the central role of ER in driving the growth of ER+ breast cancers, and thus endocrine agents being a mainstay in the treatment paradigm, the effects of prior CDK4/6i exposure on ER signaling and the relevance of ER-targeted therapy are important to investigate. The objective of this study was to evaluate the anti-tumor activity of elacestrant, a novel oral selective estrogen receptor degrader (SERD), in preclinical models of CDK4/6i resistance. Elacestrant was evaluated as a single agent, and in combination with alpelisib or everolimus, in multiple in vitro models and patient-derived xenografts that represent acquired and “de novo” CDK4/6i resistance. Elacestrant demonstrated growth inhibition in cells resistant to all three approved CDK4/6i (palbociclib, abemaciclib, ribociclib) in both ESR1 wild-type and mutant backgrounds. Furthermore, we demonstrated that elacestrant, as a single agent and in combination, inhibited growth of patient-derived xenografts that have been derived from a patient previously treated with a CDK4/6i or exhibit de novo resistance to CDK4/6i. While the resistant lines demonstrate distinct alterations in cell cycle modulators, this did not affect elacestrant’s anti-tumor activity. In fact, we observe that elacestrant downregulates several key cell cycle players and halts cell cycle progression in vitro and in vivo. We demonstrate that breast cancer tumor cells continue to rely on ER signaling to drive tumor growth despite exposure to CDK4/6i inhibitors. Importantly, elacestrant can inhibit this ER-dependent growth despite previously reported mechanisms of CDK4/6i resistance observed such as Rb loss, CDK6 overexpression, upregulated cyclinE1 and E2F1, among others. These data provide a scientific rationale for the evaluation of elacestrant in a post-CDK4/6i patient population. Additionally, elacestrant may also serve as an endocrine backbone for rational combinations to combat resistance.

    更新日期:2019-12-19
  • Prediction and clinical utility of a contralateral breast cancer risk model
    Breast Cancer Res. (IF 5.676) Pub Date : 2019-12-17
    Daniele Giardiello; Ewout W. Steyerberg; Michael Hauptmann; Muriel A. Adank; Delal Akdeniz; Carl Blomqvist; Stig E. Bojesen; Manjeet K. Bolla; Mariël Brinkhuis; Jenny Chang-Claude; Kamila Czene; Peter Devilee; Alison M. Dunning; Douglas F. Easton; Diana M. Eccles; Peter A. Fasching; Jonine Figueroa; Henrik Flyger; Montserrat García-Closas; Lothar Haeberle; Christopher A. Haiman; Per Hall; Ute Hamann; John L. Hopper; Agnes Jager; Anna Jakubowska; Audrey Jung; Renske Keeman; Iris Kramer; Diether Lambrechts; Loic Le Marchand; Annika Lindblom; Jan Lubiński; Mehdi Manoochehri; Luigi Mariani; Heli Nevanlinna; Hester S. A. Oldenburg; Saskia Pelders; Paul D. P. Pharoah; Mitul Shah; Sabine Siesling; Vincent T. H. B. M. Smit; Melissa C. Southey; William J. Tapper; Rob A. E. M. Tollenaar; Alexandra J. van den Broek; Carolien H. M. van Deurzen; Flora E. van Leeuwen; Chantal van Ongeval; Laura J. Van’t Veer; Qin Wang; Camilla Wendt; Pieter J. Westenend; Maartje J. Hooning; Marjanka K. Schmidt

    Breast cancer survivors are at risk for contralateral breast cancer (CBC), with the consequent burden of further treatment and potentially less favorable prognosis. We aimed to develop and validate a CBC risk prediction model and evaluate its applicability for clinical decision-making. We included data of 132,756 invasive non-metastatic breast cancer patients from 20 studies with 4682 CBC events and a median follow-up of 8.8 years. We developed a multivariable Fine and Gray prediction model (PredictCBC-1A) including patient, primary tumor, and treatment characteristics and BRCA1/2 germline mutation status, accounting for the competing risks of death and distant metastasis. We also developed a model without BRCA1/2 mutation status (PredictCBC-1B) since this information was available for only 6% of patients and is routinely unavailable in the general breast cancer population. Prediction performance was evaluated using calibration and discrimination, calculated by a time-dependent area under the curve (AUC) at 5 and 10 years after diagnosis of primary breast cancer, and an internal-external cross-validation procedure. Decision curve analysis was performed to evaluate the net benefit of the model to quantify clinical utility. In the multivariable model, BRCA1/2 germline mutation status, family history, and systemic adjuvant treatment showed the strongest associations with CBC risk. The AUC of PredictCBC-1A was 0.63 (95% prediction interval (PI) at 5 years, 0.52–0.74; at 10 years, 0.53–0.72). Calibration-in-the-large was -0.13 (95% PI: -1.62–1.37), and the calibration slope was 0.90 (95% PI: 0.73–1.08). The AUC of Predict-1B at 10 years was 0.59 (95% PI: 0.52–0.66); calibration was slightly lower. Decision curve analysis for preventive contralateral mastectomy showed potential clinical utility of PredictCBC-1A between thresholds of 4–10% 10-year CBC risk for BRCA1/2 mutation carriers and non-carriers. We developed a reasonably calibrated model to predict the risk of CBC in women of European-descent; however, prediction accuracy was moderate. Our model shows potential for improved risk counseling, but decision-making regarding contralateral preventive mastectomy, especially in the general breast cancer population where limited information of the mutation status in BRCA1/2 is available, remains challenging.

    更新日期:2019-12-18
  • Current treatment landscape for patients with locally recurrent inoperable or metastatic triple-negative breast cancer: a systematic literature review
    Breast Cancer Res. (IF 5.676) Pub Date : 2019-12-16
    Claire H. Li; Vassiliki Karantza; Gursel Aktan; Mallika Lala

    Metastatic triple-negative breast cancer (mTNBC), an aggressive histological subtype, has poor prognosis. Chemotherapy remains standard of care for mTNBC, although no agent has been specifically approved for this breast cancer subtype. Instead, chemotherapies approved for metastatic breast cancer (MBC) are used for mTNBC (National Comprehensive Cancer Network Guidelines [NCCN] v1.2019). Atezolizumab in combination with nab-paclitaxel was recently approved for programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1)–positive locally advanced or metastatic TNBC. Published historical data were reviewed to characterize the efficacy of NCCN-recommended (v1.2016) agents as first-line (1L) and second-line or later (2L+) treatment for patients with locally recurrent inoperable or metastatic TNBC (collectively termed mTNBC herein). A systematic literature review was performed, examining clinical efficacy of therapies for mTNBC based on NCCN v1.2016 guideline recommendations. Data from 13 studies, either published retrospective mTNBC subgroup analyses based on phase III trials in MBC or phase II trials in mTNBC, were included. A meta-analysis of mTNBC subgroups from three phase III trials in 1L MBC reported pooled objective response rate (ORR) of 23%, median overall survival (OS) of 17.5 months, and median progression-free survival (PFS) of 5.4 months with single-agent chemotherapy. In two subgroup analyses from a phase III study and a phase II trial (n = 40 each), median duration of response (DOR) to 1L chemotherapy for mTNBC was 4.4–6.6 months; therefore, responses were not durable. A meta-analysis of seven cohorts showed the pooled ORR for 2L+ chemotherapy was 11% (95% CI, 9–14%). Median DOR to 2L+ chemotherapy in mTNBC was also limited (4.2–5.9 months) per two subgroup analyses from a phase III study. No combination chemotherapy regimens recommended by NCCN v1.2016 for treatment of MBC showed superior OS to single agents. Chemotherapies have limited effectiveness and are associated with unfavorable toxicity profiles, highlighting a considerable unmet medical need for improved therapeutic options in mTNBC. In addition to the recently approved combination of atezolizumab and nab-paclitaxel for PD-L1–positive mTNBC, new treatments resulting in durable clinical responses, prolonged survival, and manageable safety profile would greatly benefit patients with mTNBC.

    更新日期:2019-12-17
  • The atypical cyclin-like protein Spy1 overrides p53-mediated tumour suppression and promotes susceptibility to breast tumourigenesis
    Breast Cancer Res. (IF 5.676) Pub Date : 2019-12-11
    Bre-Anne Fifield; Ingrid Qemo; Evie Kirou; Robert D. Cardiff; Lisa Ann Porter

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer to affect women and one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths. Proper regulation of cell cycle checkpoints plays a critical role in preventing the accumulation of deleterious mutations. Perturbations in the expression or activity of mediators of cell cycle progression or checkpoint activation represent important events that may increase susceptibility to the onset of carcinogenesis. The atypical cyclin-like protein Spy1 was isolated in a screen for novel genes that could bypass the DNA damage response. Clinical data demonstrates that protein levels of Spy1 are significantly elevated in ductal and lobular carcinoma of the breast. We hypothesized that elevated Spy1 would override protective cell cycle checkpoints and support the onset of mammary tumourigenesis. We generated a transgenic mouse model driving expression of Spy1 in the mammary epithelium. Mammary development, growth characteristics and susceptibility to tumourigenesis were studied. In vitro studies were conducted to investigate the relationship between Spy1 and p53. We found that in the presence of wild-type p53, Spy1 protein is held ‘in check’ via protein degradation, representing a novel endogenous mechanism to ensure protected checkpoint control. Regulation of Spy1 by p53 is at the protein level and is mediated in part by Nedd4. Mutation or abrogation of p53 is sufficient to allow for accumulation of Spy1 levels resulting in mammary hyperplasia. Sustained elevation of Spy1 results in elevated proliferation of the mammary gland and susceptibility to tumourigenesis. This mouse model demonstrates for the first time that degradation of the cyclin-like protein Spy1 is an essential component of p53-mediated tumour suppression. Targeting cyclin-like protein activity may therefore represent a mechanism of re-sensitizing cells to important cell cycle checkpoints in a therapeutic setting.

    更新日期:2019-12-11
  • Characterization of organoid cultured human breast cancer
    Breast Cancer Res. (IF 5.676) Pub Date : 2019-12-11
    Nadine Goldhammer; Jiyoung Kim; Vera Timmermans-Wielenga; Ole William Petersen

    Organoid cultures are increasingly used to model human cancers experimentally with a view to tailoring personalized medicine and predicting drug responses. Breast cancer is no exception, but in particular, primary breast cancer poses some inherent difficulties due to the frequent presence of residual non-malignant cells in the biopsies. We originally developed an assay for the distinction between malignant and non-malignant structures in primary breast cancer organoid cultures (Petersen et al., Proc Natl Acad Sci (USA) 89(19):9064–8, 1992). Here, we apply this assay to assess the frequency of normal-like organoids in primary breast carcinoma cultures and the cellular composition as a consequence of passaging. We find that in consecutively collected samples of primary human breast cancers, residual non-malignant tissues were observed histologically in five out of ten biopsies. Based on relevant morphogenesis and correct polarization as recorded by expression in luminal epithelial cells of mucin 1 (Muc1), occludin, and keratin 19 (K19) and expression in basal cells of integrin β4, p63, and K14, non-malignant organoids were present in all primary human breast cancer-derived cultures. Furthermore, passaging in a contemporary culture medium was in favor of the selective expansion of basal-like cells. We conclude that organoid cultures of human breast cancers are most representative of the tissue origin in primary culture.

    更新日期:2019-12-11
  • Human leucocyte antigen class I in hormone receptor-positive, HER2-negative breast cancer: association with response and survival after neoadjuvant chemotherapy
    Breast Cancer Res. (IF 5.676) Pub Date : 2019-12-11
    Bruno Valentin Sinn; Karsten E. Weber; Wolfgang Daniel Schmitt; Peter A. Fasching; William Fraser Symmans; Jens-Uwe Blohmer; Thomas Karn; Eliane Tabea Taube; Frederick Klauschen; Frederik Marmé; Christian Schem; Elmar Stickeler; Beyhan Ataseven; Jens Huober; Gunter von Minckwitz; Barbara Seliger; Carsten Denkert; Sibylle Loibl

    Clinical application of cancer immunotherapy requires a better understanding of tumor immunogenicity and the tumor microenvironment. HLA class I molecules present antigens to CD8+ cytotoxic cells. Their loss or downregulation is frequently found in tumors resulting in reduced T cell responses and worse prognosis. We evaluated HLA class I heavy chain expression by immunohistochemistry in 863 biopsies (GeparTrio trial). Patients received neoadjuvant chemotherapy and adjuvant endocrine treatment if tumors were hormone receptor-positive (HR+). In parallel, the expression of HLA-A was analyzed using a microarray cohort of 320 breast cancer patients from the MD Anderson Cancer Center. We evaluated its association with clinical outcome, tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs), and immune cell metagenes. In HR+/HER2− breast cancer, HLA class I heavy chain expression was associated with increased TILs and better response to chemotherapy (7% vs. 14% pCR rate, P = 0.029), but worse disease-free survival (hazard ratio (HR) 1.6 (1.1–2.4); P = 0.024). The effect was significant in a multivariate model adjusted for clinical and pathological variables (HR 1.7 (1.1–2.6); P = 0.016) and was confirmed by analysis of HLA-A in a microarray cohort. HLA-A was correlated to most immune cell metagenes. There was no association with response or survival in triple-negative or HER2+ disease. The study confirms the negative prognostic role of lymphocytes in HR+ breast cancer and points at a complex interaction between chemotherapy, endocrine treatment, and tumor immunogenicity. The results point at a subtype-specific and potentially treatment-specific role of tumor-immunological processes in breast cancer with different implications in triple-negative and hormone receptor-positive disease.

    更新日期:2019-12-11
  • Psychiatric disorders and cardiovascular diseases during the diagnostic workup of potential breast cancer: a population-based cohort study in Skåne, Sweden
    Breast Cancer Res. (IF 5.676) Pub Date : 2019-12-10
    Qing Shen; Anna Jöud; Maria E. C. Schelin; Arvid Sjölander; Yang Cao; Pär Sparén; Katja Fall; Kamila Czene; Unnur Valdimarsdóttir; Fang Fang

    An increasing number of women are evaluated for potential breast cancer and may experience mental distress during evaluation. We aim to assess the risks of psychiatric disorders and cardiovascular diseases during the diagnostic workup of potential breast cancer. All women with a new diagnosis of unspecified lump in breast (N = 15,714), benign tumor or breast cancer in situ (N = 4435), or breast cancer (N = 8512) during 2005–2014 in Skåne, Sweden, were considered as exposed to a breast diagnostic workup. We used multivariable Poisson regression to compare rates of psychiatric disorders and cardiovascular diseases during the 6 weeks before the date of diagnosis of these women with the corresponding rates of women not undergoing such workup. The commonest waiting time for breast cancer patients was 6 weeks during the study period. A within-individual comparison was performed to control for potential unmeasured time-stationary confounders. Compared to the reference, we found a higher rate of psychiatric disorders during the 6 weeks before diagnosis of benign tumor or breast cancer in situ (incidence rate ratio [IRR], 1.3; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1 to 1.5) and breast cancer (IRR, 1.4; 95% CI, 1.2 to 1.6). A higher rate was also noted for cardiovascular diseases (IRR, 1.3; 95% CI, 1.1 to 1.6 for benign tumor or breast cancer in situ, and IRR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.8 to 2.0 for breast cancer). The rate increases for breast cancer were greater comparing a diagnostic workup due to symptoms to a workup due to screening. Little rate increase of neither psychiatric disorders nor cardiovascular diseases was noted during the 6 weeks before the diagnosis of unspecified lump in breast. The within-individual comparison largely confirmed these findings. Women with benign and malignant breast tumor had increased rates of psychiatric disorders and cardiovascular diseases during the waiting for a final diagnosis.

    更新日期:2019-12-11
  • CGRRF1, a growth suppressor, regulates EGFR ubiquitination in breast cancer
    Breast Cancer Res. (IF 5.676) Pub Date : 2019-12-04
    Yu-Ju Lee; Shiuh-Rong Ho; Joshua D. Graves; Yang Xiao; Shixia Huang; Weei-Chin Lin

    CGRRF1 is a growth suppressor and consists of a transmembrane domain and a RING-finger domain. It functions as a RING domain E3 ubiquitin ligase involved in endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation. The expression of CGRRF1 is decreased in cancer tissues; however, the role of CGRRF1 in breast cancer and the mechanism(s) of its growth suppressor function remain to be elucidated. To investigate whether CGRRF1 inhibits the growth of breast cancer, we performed MTT assays and a xenograft experiment. Tumors harvested from mice were further analyzed by reverse phase protein array (RPPA) analysis to identify potential substrate(s) of CGRRF1. Co-immunoprecipitation assay was used to verify the interaction between CGRRF1 and its substrate, followed by in vivo ubiquitination assays. Western blot, subcellular fractionation, and reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) were performed to understand the mechanism of CGRRF1 action in breast cancer. Publicly available breast cancer datasets were analyzed to examine the association between CGRRF1 and breast cancer. We show that CGRRF1 inhibits the growth of breast cancer in vitro and in vivo, and the RING-finger domain is important for its growth-inhibitory activity. To elucidate the mechanism of CGRRF1, we identified EGFR as a new substrate of CGRRF1. CGRRF1 ubiquitinates EGFR through K48-linked ubiquitination, which leads to proteasome degradation. In addition to regulating the stability of EGFR, knockout of CGRRF1 enhances AKT phosphorylation after EGF stimulation. By analyzing the breast cancer database, we found that patients with low CGRRF1 expression have shorter survival. As compared to normal breast tissues, the mRNA levels of CGRRF1 are lower in breast carcinomas, especially in HER2-positive and basal-like breast cancers. We further noticed that CGRRF1 promoter methylation is increased in breast cancer as compared to that in normal breast tissue, suggesting that CGRRF1 is epigenetically modified in breast cancer. Treatment of 5-azactidine and panobinostat restored CGRRF1 expression, supporting that the promoter of CGRRF1 is epigenetically modified in breast cancer. Since 5-azactidine and panobinostat can increase CGRRF1 expression, they might be potential therapies for breast cancer treatment. We demonstrated a tumor-suppressive function of CGRRF1 in breast cancer and identified EGFR as its target.

    更新日期:2019-12-05
  • Combination of mTORC1/2 inhibitor vistusertib plus fulvestrant in vitro and in vivo targets oestrogen receptor-positive endocrine-resistant breast cancer
    Breast Cancer Res. (IF 5.676) Pub Date : 2019-12-04
    Sunil Pancholi; Mariana Ferreira Leal; Ricardo Ribas; Nikiana Simigdala; Eugene Schuster; Sophie Chateau-Joubert; Lila Zabaglo; Margaret Hills; Andrew Dodson; Qiong Gao; Stephen R. Johnston; Mitch Dowsett; Sabina C. Cosulich; Elisabetta Maragoni; Lesley-Ann Martin

    Endocrine therapies are still the main strategy for the treatment of oestrogen receptor-positive (ER+) breast cancers (BC), but resistance remains problematic. Cross-talk between ER and PI3K/AKT/mTORC has been associated with ligand-independent transcription of ER. We have previously reported the anti-proliferative effects of the combination of everolimus (an mTORC1 inhibitor) with endocrine therapy in resistance models, but potential routes of escape via AKT signalling can lead to resistance; therefore, the use of dual mTORC1/2 inhibitors has met with significant interest. To address this, we tested the effect of vistusertib, a dual mTORC1 and mTORC2 inhibitor, in a panel of endocrine-resistant and endocrine-sensitive ER+ BC cell lines, with varying PTEN, PIK3CA and ESR1 mutation status. End-points included proliferation, cell signalling, cell cycle and effect on ER-mediated transcription. Two patient-derived xenografts (PDX) modelling endocrine resistance were used to assess the efficacy of vistusertib, fulvestrant or the combination on tumour progression, and biomarker studies were conducted using immunohistochemistry and RNA-seq technologies. Vistusertib caused a dose-dependent decrease in proliferation of all the cell lines tested and reduced abundance of mTORC1, mTORC2 and cell cycle markers, but caused an increase in abundance of EGFR, IGF1R and ERBB3 in a context-dependent manner. ER-mediated transcription showed minimal effect of vistusertib. Combined therapy of vistusertib with fulvestrant showed synergy in two ER+ PDX models of resistance to endocrine therapy and delayed tumour progression after cessation of therapy. These data support the notion that models of acquired endocrine resistance may have a different sensitivity to mTOR inhibitor/endocrine therapy combinations.

    更新日期:2019-12-05
  • Limited role of DWI with apparent diffusion coefficient mapping in breast lesions presenting as non-mass enhancement on dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI
    Breast Cancer Res. (IF 5.676) Pub Date : 2019-12-04
    Daly Avendano; Maria Adele Marino; Doris Leithner; Sunitha Thakur; Blanca Bernard-Davila; Danny F. Martinez; Thomas H. Helbich; Elizabeth A. Morris; Maxine S. Jochelson; Pascal A. T. Baltzer; Paola Clauser; Panagiotis Kapetas; Katja Pinker

    Available data proving the value of DWI for breast cancer diagnosis is mainly for enhancing masses; DWI may be less sensitive and specific in non-mass enhancement (NME) lesions. The objective of this study was to assess the diagnostic accuracy of DWI using different ROI measurement approaches and ADC metrics in breast lesions presenting as NME lesions on dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI. In this retrospective study, 95 patients who underwent multiparametric MRI with DCE and DWI from September 2007 to July 2013 and who were diagnosed with a suspicious NME (BI-RADS 4/5) were included. Twenty-nine patients were excluded for lesion non-visibility on DWI (n = 24: 12 benign and 12 malignant) and poor DWI quality (n = 5: 1 benign and 4 malignant). Two readers independently assessed DWI and DCE-MRI findings in two separate randomized readings using different ADC metrics and ROI approaches. NME lesions were classified as either benign (> 1.3 × 10−3 mm2/s) or malignant (≤ 1.3 × 10−3 mm2/s). Histopathology was the standard of reference. ROC curves were plotted, and AUCs were determined. Concordance correlation coefficient (CCC) was measured. There were 39 malignant (59%) and 27 benign (41%) lesions in 66 (65 women, 1 man) patients (mean age, 51.8 years). The mean ADC value of the darkest part of the tumor (Dptu) achieved the highest diagnostic accuracy, with AUCs of up to 0.71. Inter-reader agreement was highest with Dptu ADC max (CCC 0.42) and lowest with the point tumor (Ptu) ADC min (CCC = − 0.01). Intra-reader agreement was highest with Wtu ADC mean (CCC = 0.44 for reader 1, 0.41 for reader 2), but this was not associated with the highest diagnostic accuracy. Diagnostic accuracy of DWI with ADC mapping is limited in NME lesions. Thirty-one percent of lesions presenting as NME on DCE-MRI could not be evaluated with DWI, and therefore, DCE-MRI remains indispensable. Best results were achieved using Dptu 2D ROI measurement and ADC mean.

    更新日期:2019-12-05
  • Association of a novel circulating tumor DNA next-generating sequencing platform with circulating tumor cells (CTCs) and CTC clusters in metastatic breast cancer
    Breast Cancer Res. (IF 5.676) Pub Date : 2019-12-04
    Andrew A. Davis; Qiang Zhang; Lorenzo Gerratana; Ami N. Shah; Youbin Zhan; Wenan Qiang; Brian S. Finkelman; Lisa Flaum; Amir Behdad; William J. Gradishar; Leonidas C. Platanias; Massimo Cristofanilli

    Liquid biopsies, including circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) and circulating tumor cells (CTCs), can be used to understand disease prognosis, tumor heterogeneity, and dynamic response to treatment in metastatic breast cancer (MBC). We explored a novel, 180-gene ctDNA panel and the association of this platform with CTCs and CTC clusters. A total of 40 samples from 22 patients with MBC were included in the study. For the primary analysis, all patients had ctDNA sequencing using the PredicinePLUS™ platform. CTCs and CTC clusters were examined using the CellSearch™ System. Clinical and pathological variables were reported using descriptive analyses. Associations between CTC count and specific genomic alterations were tested using the Mann-Whitney U test. Of 43 sequenced patients, 40 (93%) had at least one detectable genomic alteration with a median of 6 (range 1–22). Fifty-seven different genes were altered, and the landscape of genomic alterations was representative of MBC, including the commonly encountered alterations TP53, PTEN, PIK3CA, ATM, BRCA1, CCND1, ESR1, and MYC. In patients with predominantly hormone-receptor-positive MBC, the number of CTCs was significantly associated with alterations in ESR1 (P < 0.005), GATA3 (P < 0.05), CDH1 (P < 0.0005), and CCND1 (P < 0.05) (Mann-Whitney U test). Thirty-six percent of patients had CTC clusters, which were associated with alterations in CDH1, CCND1, and BRCA1 (all P < 0.05, Mann-Whitney U test). In an independent validation cohort, CTC enumeration confirmed significant associations with ESR1 and GATA3, while CTC clusters were significantly associated with CDH1. We report on a novel ctDNA platform that detected genomic alterations in the vast majority of tested patients, further indicating potential clinical utility for capturing disease heterogeneity and for disease monitoring. Detection of CTCs and CTC clusters was associated with particular genomic profiles.

    更新日期:2019-12-05
  • Inhibition of the histone demethylase, KDM5B, directly induces re-expression of tumor suppressor protein HEXIM1 in cancer cells
    Breast Cancer Res. (IF 5.676) Pub Date : 2019-12-05
    Monica M. Montano; I-Ju Yeh; Yinghua Chen; Chris Hernandez; Janna G. Kiselar; Maria de la Fuente; Adriane M. Lawes; Marvin T. Nieman; Philip D. Kiser; James Jacobberger; Agata A. Exner; Matthew C. Lawes

    The tumor suppressor actions of hexamethylene bis-acetamide (HMBA)-inducible protein 1 (HEXIM1) in the breast, prostate, melanomas, and AML have been reported by our group and others. Increased HEXIM1 expression caused differentiation and inhibited proliferation and metastasis of cancer cells. Historically, HEXIM1 has been experimentally induced with the hybrid polar compound HMBA, but HMBA is a poor clinical candidate due to lack of a known target, poor pharmacological properties, and unfavorable ADMETox characteristics. Thus, HEXIM1 induction is an intriguing therapeutic approach to cancer treatment, but requires better chemical tools than HMBA. We identified and verified KDM5B as a target of HEXIM1 inducers using a chemical proteomics approach, biotin–NeutrAvidin pull-down assays, surface plasmon resonance, and molecular docking. The regulation of HEXIM1 by KDM5B and KDM5B inhibitors was assessed using chromatin immunoprecipitation assays, RT-PCR, western blotting, and depletion of KDM5B with shRNAs. The regulation of breast cancer cell phenotype by KDM5B inhibitors was assessed using western blots, differentiation assays, proliferation assays, and a mouse model of breast cancer metastasis. The relative role of HEXIM1 in the action of KDM5B inhibitors was determined by depleting HEXIM1 using shRNAs followed by western blots, differentiation assays, and proliferation assays. We have identified a highly druggable target, KDM5B, which is inhibited by small molecule inducers of HEXIM1. RNAi knockdown of KDM5B induced HEXIM1 expression, thus validating the specific negative regulation of tumor suppressor HEXIM1 by the H3K4me3/2 demethylase KDM5B. Known inhibitors of KDM5B were also able to induce HEXIM1 expression, inhibit cell proliferation, induce differentiation, potentiate sensitivity to cancer chemotherapy, and inhibit breast tumor metastasis. HMBA and 4a1 induce HEXIM1 expression by inhibiting KDM5B. Upregulation of HEXIM1 expression levels plays a critical role in the inhibition of proliferation of breast cancer cells using KDM5B inhibitors. Based on the novel molecular scaffolds that we identified which more potently induced HEXIM1 expression and data in support that KDM5B is a target of these compounds, we have opened up new lead discovery and optimization directions.

    更新日期:2019-12-05
  • NSABP FB-7: a phase II randomized neoadjuvant trial with paclitaxel + trastuzumab and/or neratinib followed by chemotherapy and postoperative trastuzumab in HER2+ breast cancer
    Breast Cancer Res. (IF 5.676) Pub Date : 2019-12-03
    Samuel A. Jacobs; André Robidoux; Jame Abraham; José Manuel Pérez-Garcia; Nicla La Verde; James M. Orcutt; Marina E. Cazzaniga; Fanny Piette; Silvia Antolín; Elena Aguirre; Javier Cortes; Antonio Llombart-Cussac; Serena Di Cosimo; Rim S. Kim; Huichen Feng; Corey Lipchik; Peter C. Lucas; Ashok Srinivasan; Ying Wang; Nan Song; Patrick G. Gavin; April D. Balousek; Soonmyung Paik; Carmen J. Allegra; Norman Wolmark; Katherine L. Pogue-Geile

    The primary aim of NSABP FB-7 was to determine the pathologic complete response (pCR) rate in locally advanced HER2-positive (HER2+) breast cancer patients treated with neoadjuvant trastuzumab or neratinib or the combination and weekly paclitaxel followed by standard doxorubicin plus cyclophosphamide. The secondary aims include biomarker analyses. pCR was tested for association with treatment, gene expression, and a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the Fc fragment of the IgG receptor IIIa-158V/F (FCGR3A). Pre-treatment biopsies and residual tumors were also compared to identify molecular changes. The numerical pCR rate in the trastuzumab plus neratinib arm (50% [95%CI 34–66%]) was greater than that for single-targeted therapies with trastuzumab (38% [95%CI 24–54]) or neratinib (33% [95%CI 20–50]) in the overall cohort but was not statistically significant. Hormone receptor-negative (HR−) tumors had a higher pCR rate than HR+ tumors in all three treatment arms, with the highest pCR rate in the combination arm. Diarrhea was the most frequent adverse event and occurred in virtually all patients who received neratinib-based therapy. Grade 3 diarrhea was reported in 31% of patients; there were no grade 4 events. Our 8-gene signature, previously validated for trastuzumab benefit in two different clinical trials in the adjuvant setting, was correlated with pCR across all arms of NSABP FB-7. Specifically, patients predicted to receive no trastuzumab benefit had a significantly lower pCR rate than did patients predicted to receive the most benefit (P = 0.03). FCGR genotyping showed that patients who were homozygous for the Fc low-binding phenylalanine (F) allele for FCGR3A-158V/F were less likely to achieve pCR. Combining trastuzumab plus neratinib with paclitaxel increased the absolute pCR rate in the overall cohort and in HR− patients. The 8-gene signature, which is validated for predicting trastuzumab benefit in the adjuvant setting, was associated with pCR in the neoadjuvant setting, but remains to be validated as a predictive marker in a larger neoadjuvant clinical trial. HR status, and the FCGR3A-158V/F genotype, also warrant further investigation to identify HER2+ patients who may benefit from additional anti-HER2 therapies beyond trastuzumab. All of these markers will require further validation in the neoadjuvant setting. ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01008150. Retrospectively registered on October 5, 2010.

    更新日期:2019-12-04
  • Development of clinically relevant in vivo metastasis models using human bone discs and breast cancer patient-derived xenografts
    Breast Cancer Res. (IF 5.676) Pub Date : 2019-11-29
    Diane Lefley; Faith Howard; Fawaz Arshad; Steven Bradbury; Hannah Brown; Claudia Tulotta; Rachel Eyre; Denis Alférez; J. Mark Wilkinson; Ingunn Holen; Robert B. Clarke; Penelope Ottewell

    Late-stage breast cancer preferentially metastasises to bone; despite advances in targeted therapies, this condition remains incurable. The lack of clinically relevant models for studying breast cancer metastasis to a human bone microenvironment has stunted the development of effective treatments for this condition. To address this problem, we have developed humanised mouse models in which breast cancer patient-derived xenografts (PDXs) metastasise to human bone implants with low variability and high frequency. To model the human bone environment, bone discs from femoral heads of patients undergoing hip replacement surgery were implanted subcutaneously into NOD/SCID mice. For metastasis studies, 7 patient-derived xenograft tumours (PDX: BB3RC32, ER+ PR+ HER2−; BB2RC08, ER+ PR+ ER2−; BB6RC37, ER− PR− HER2− and BB6RC39, ER+ PR+ HER2+), MDA-MB-231-luc2, T47D-luc2 or MCF7-Luc2 cells were injected into the 4th mammary ducts and metastases monitored by luciferase imaging and confirmed on histological sections. Bone integrity, viability and vascularisation were assessed by uCT, calcein uptake and histomorphometry. Expression profiling of genes/proteins during different stages of metastasis were assessed by whole genome Affymetrix array, real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry. Importance of IL-1 was confirmed following anakinra treatment. Implantation of femoral bone provided a metabolically active, human-specific site for tumour cells to metastasise to. After 4 weeks, bone implants were re-vascularised and demonstrated active bone remodelling (as evidenced by the presence of osteoclasts, osteoblasts and calcein uptake). Restricting bone implants to the use of subchondral bone and introduction of cancer cells via intraductal injection maximised metastasis to human bone implants. MDA-MB-231 cells specifically metastasised to human bone (70% metastases) whereas T47D, MCF7, BB3RC32, BB2RC08, and BB6RC37 cells metastasised to both human bone and mouse bones. Importantly, human bone was the preferred metastatic site especially from ER+ PDX (100% metastasis human bone compared with 20–75% to mouse bone), whereas ER-ve PDX developed metastases in 20% of human and 20% of mouse bone. Breast cancer cells underwent a series of molecular changes as they progressed from primary tumours to bone metastasis including altered expression of IL-1B, IL-1R1, S100A4, CTSK, SPP1 and RANK. Inhibiting IL-1B signalling significantly reduced bone metastasis. Our reliable and clinically relevant humanised mouse models provide significant advancements in modelling of breast cancer bone metastasis.

    更新日期:2019-11-30
  • Cross-talk between SIM2s and NFκB regulates cyclooxygenase 2 expression in breast cancer
    Breast Cancer Res. (IF 5.676) Pub Date : 2019-11-29
    Garhett L. Wyatt; Lyndsey S. Crump; Chloe M. Young; Veronica M. Wessells; Cole M. McQueen; Steven W. Wall; Tanya L. Gustafson; Yang-Yi Fan; Robert S. Chapkin; Weston W. Porter; Traci R. Lyons

    Breast cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related death for women in the USA. Thus, there is an increasing need to investigate novel prognostic markers and therapeutic methods. Inflammation raises challenges in treating and preventing the spread of breast cancer. Specifically, the nuclear factor kappa b (NFκB) pathway contributes to cancer progression by stimulating proliferation and preventing apoptosis. One target gene of this pathway is PTGS2, which encodes for cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) and is upregulated in 40% of human breast carcinomas. COX-2 is an enzyme involved in the production of prostaglandins, which mediate inflammation. Here, we investigate the effect of Singleminded-2s (SIM2s), a transcriptional tumor suppressor that is implicated in inhibition of tumor growth and metastasis, in regulating NFκB signaling and COX-2. For in vitro experiments, reporter luciferase assays were utilized in MCF7 cells to investigate promoter activity of NFκB and SIM2. Real-time PCR, immunoblotting, immunohistochemistry, and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays were performed in SUM159 and MCF7 cells. For in vivo experiments, MCF10DCIS.COM cells stably expressing SIM2s-FLAG or shPTGS2 were injected into SCID mice and subsequent tumors harvested for immunostaining and analysis. Our results reveal that SIM2 attenuates the activation of NFκB as measured using NFκB-luciferase reporter assay. Furthermore, immunostaining of lysates from breast cancer cells overexpressing SIM2s showed reduction in various NFκB signaling proteins, as well as pAkt, whereas knockdown of SIM2 revealed increases in NFκB signaling proteins and pAkt. Additionally, we show that NFκB signaling can act in a reciprocal manner to decrease expression of SIM2s. Likewise, suppressing NFκB translocation in DCIS.COM cells increased SIM2s expression. We also found that NFκB/p65 represses SIM2 in a dose-dependent manner, and when NFκB is suppressed, the effect on the SIM2 is negated. Additionally, our ChIP analysis confirms that NFκB/p65 binds directly to SIM2 promoter site and that the NFκB sites in the SIM2 promoter are required for NFκB-mediated suppression of SIM2s. Finally, overexpression of SIM2s decreases PTGS2 in vitro, and COX-2 staining in vivo while decreasing PTGS2 and/or COX-2 activity results in re-expression of SIM2. Our findings identify a novel role for SIM2s in NFκB signaling and COX-2 expression.

    更新日期:2019-11-30
  • High expression of NR1D1 is associated with good prognosis in triple-negative breast cancer patients treated with chemotherapy
    Breast Cancer Res. (IF 5.676) Pub Date : 2019-11-28
    Hyelin Na; Jinil Han; Na-Lee Ka; Min-Ho Lee; Yoon-La Choi; Young Kee Shin; Mi-Ock Lee

    Nuclear receptor subfamily 1, group D, member 1 (NR1D1) is a ligand-regulated nuclear receptor and transcriptional factor. Although recent studies have implicated NR1D1 as a regulator of DNA repair and proliferation in breast cancers, its potential as a therapeutic target for breast cancer has not been assessed in terms of clinical outcomes. Thus, this study aims to analyze NR1D1 expression in breast cancer patients and to evaluate its potential prognostic value. NR1D1 expression was analyzed by immunohistochemistry using an anti-NR1D1 antibody in 694 breast cancer samples. Survival analyses were performed using the Kaplan–Meier method with the log-rank test to investigate the association of NR1D1 expression with clinical outcome. One hundred thirty-nine of these samples exhibited high NR1D1 expression, mostly in the nucleus of breast cancer cells. NR1D1 expression correlated significantly with histological grade and estrogen receptor status. Overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) did not correlate significantly with NR1D1 expression in breast cancer patients regardless of whether they had received chemotherapy. Subgroup analysis performed according to molecular subtype of breast cancer showed a significant influence of high NR1D1 expression on OS (P = 0.002) and DFS (P = 0.007) in patients with triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) treated with chemotherapy. High NR1D1 expression level had a favorable impact on OS and DFS in patients with TNBC treated with chemotherapy. NR1D1 should be investigated further as a possible prognostic marker in TNBC patients receiving chemotherapeutic treatment and as a target in the development of chemotherapeutic approaches to treating TNBC.

    更新日期:2019-11-29
  • Alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking, and familial breast cancer risk: findings from the Prospective Family Study Cohort (ProF-SC)
    Breast Cancer Res. (IF 5.676) Pub Date : 2019-11-28
    Nur Zeinomar; Julia A. Knight; Jeanine M. Genkinger; Kelly-Anne Phillips; Mary B. Daly; Roger L. Milne; Gillian S. Dite; Rebecca D. Kehm; Yuyan Liao; Melissa C. Southey; Wendy K. Chung; Graham G. Giles; Sue-Anne McLachlan; Michael L. Friedlander; Prue C. Weideman; Gord Glendon; Stephanie Nesci; Irene L. Andrulis; Saundra S. Buys; Esther M. John; Robert J. MacInnis; John L. Hopper; Mary Beth Terry

    Alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking are associated with an increased risk of breast cancer (BC), but it is unclear whether these associations vary by a woman’s familial BC risk. Using the Prospective Family Study Cohort, we evaluated associations between alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking, and BC risk. We used multivariable Cox proportional hazard models to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). We examined whether associations were modified by familial risk profile (FRP), defined as the 1-year incidence of BC predicted by Breast Ovarian Analysis of Disease Incidence and Carrier Estimation Algorithm (BOADICEA), a pedigree-based algorithm. We observed 1009 incident BC cases in 17,435 women during a median follow-up of 10.4 years. We found no overall association of smoking or alcohol consumption with BC risk (current smokers compared with never smokers HR 1.02, 95% CI 0.85–1.23; consuming ≥ 7 drinks/week compared with non-regular drinkers HR 1.10, 95% CI 0.92–1.32), but we did observe differences in associations based on FRP and by estrogen receptor (ER) status. Women with lower FRP had an increased risk of ER-positive BC associated with consuming ≥ 7 drinks/week (compared to non-regular drinkers), whereas there was no association for women with higher FRP. For example, women at the 10th percentile of FRP (5-year BOADICEA = 0.15%) had an estimated HR of 1.46 (95% CI 1.07–1.99), whereas there was no association for women at the 90th percentile (5-year BOADICEA = 4.2%) (HR 1.07, 95% CI 0.80–1.44). While the associations with smoking were not modified by FRP, we observed a positive multiplicative interaction by FRP (pinteraction = 0.01) for smoking status in women who also consumed alcohol, but not in women who were non-regular drinkers. Moderate alcohol intake was associated with increased BC risk, particularly for women with ER-positive BC, but only for those at lower predicted familial BC risk (5-year BOADICEA < 1.25). For women with a high FRP (5-year BOADICEA ≥ 6.5%) who also consumed alcohol, being a current smoker was associated with increased BC risk.

    更新日期:2019-11-29
  • Ductal tree ablation by local delivery of ethanol prevents tumor formation in an aggressive mouse model of breast cancer
    Breast Cancer Res. (IF 5.676) Pub Date : 2019-11-28
    Elizabeth Kenyon; Jennifer J. Westerhuis; Maximilian Volk; Jeremy Hix; Shatadru Chakravarty; Ethan Claucherty; Erin Zaluzec; Lisa Ramsey; Zach Madaj; Galen Hostetter; Bryn Eagleson; Erik Shapiro; Anna Moore; Lorenzo F. Sempere

    Prophylactic mastectomy is the most effective intervention to prevent breast cancer. However, this major surgery has life-changing consequences at the physical, emotional, psychological, and social levels. Therefore, only high-risk individuals consider this aggressive procedure, which completely removes the mammary epithelial cells from which breast cancer arises along with surrounding tissue. Here, we seek to develop a minimally invasive procedure as an alternative to prophylactic mastectomy by intraductal (ID) delivery of a cell-killing solution that locally ablates the mammary epithelial cells before they become malignant. After ID injection of a 70% ethanol-containing solution in FVB/NJ female animals, ex vivo dual stained whole-mount tissue analysis and in vivo X-ray microcomputed tomography imaging were used to visualize ductal tree filling, and histological and multiplex immunohistochemical assays were used to characterize ablative effects and quantitate the number of intact epithelial cells and stroma. After ID injection of 70% ethanol or other solutions in cancer-prone FVB-Tg-C3(1)-TAg female animals, mammary glands were palpated weekly to establish tumor latency and examined after necropsy to record tumor incidence. Statistical difference in median tumor latency and tumor incidence between experimental groups was analyzed by log-rank test and logistic mixed-effects model, respectively. We report that ID injection of 70% ethanol effectively ablates the mammary epithelia with limited collateral damage to surrounding stroma and vasculature in the murine ductal tree. ID injection of 70% ethanol into the mammary glands of the C3(1)-TAg multifocal breast cancer model significantly delayed tumor formation (median latency of 150 days in the untreated control group [n = 25] vs. 217 days in the ethanol-treated group [n = 13], p value < 0.0001) and reduced tumor incidence (34% of glands with tumors [85 of 250] in the untreated control group vs. 7.3% of glands with tumor [7 of 95] in the ethanol-treated group, risk ratio = 4.76 [95% CI 1.89 to 11.97, p value < 0.0001]). This preclinical study demonstrates the feasibility of local ductal tree ablation as a novel strategy for primary prevention of breast cancer. Given the existing clinical uses of ethanol, ethanol-based ablation protocols could be readily implemented in first-in-human clinical trials for high-risk individuals.

    更新日期:2019-11-29
  • Gene expression signature of atypical breast hyperplasia and regulation by SFRP1
    Breast Cancer Res. (IF 5.676) Pub Date : 2019-06-27
    Kelly J. Gregory; Amy L. Roberts; Erin M. Conlon; Jacob A. Mayfield; Mary J. Hagen; Giovanna M. Crisi; Brooke A. Bentley; Jeffrey J. Kane; Grace Makari-Judson; Holly S. Mason; Jun Yu; Lihua Julie Zhu; Karl Simin; Jacob P. S. Johnson; Ashraf Khan; Ben R. Schneider; Sallie S. Schneider; D. Joseph Jerry

    Atypical breast hyperplasias (AH) have a 10-year risk of progression to invasive cancer estimated at 4–7%, with the overall risk of developing breast cancer increased by ~ 4-fold. AH lesions are estrogen receptor alpha positive (ERα+) and represent risk indicators and/or precursor lesions to low grade ERα+ tumors. Therefore, molecular profiles of AH lesions offer insights into the earliest changes in the breast epithelium, rendering it susceptible to oncogenic transformation. In this study, women were selected who were diagnosed with ductal or lobular AH, but no breast cancer prior to or within the 2-year follow-up. Paired AH and histologically normal benign (HNB) tissues from patients were microdissected. RNA was isolated, amplified linearly, labeled, and hybridized to whole transcriptome microarrays to determine gene expression profiles. Genes that were differentially expressed between AH and HNB were identified using a paired analysis. Gene expression signatures distinguishing AH and HNB were defined using AGNES and PAM methods. Regulation of gene networks was investigated using breast epithelial cell lines, explant cultures of normal breast tissue and mouse tissues. A 99-gene signature discriminated the histologically normal and AH tissues in 81% of the cases. Network analysis identified coordinated alterations in signaling through ERα, epidermal growth factor receptors, and androgen receptor which were associated with the development of both lobular and ductal AH. Decreased expression of SFRP1 was also consistently lower in AH. Knockdown of SFRP1 in 76N-Tert cells resulted altered expression of 13 genes similarly to that observed in AH. An SFRP1-regulated network was also observed in tissues from mice lacking Sfrp1. Re-expression of SFRP1 in MCF7 cells provided further support for the SFRP1-regulated network. Treatment of breast explant cultures with rSFRP1 dampened estrogen-induced progesterone receptor levels. The alterations in gene expression were observed in both ductal and lobular AH suggesting shared underlying mechanisms predisposing to AH. Loss of SFRP1 expression is a significant regulator of AH transcriptional profiles driving previously unidentified changes affecting responses to estrogen and possibly other pathways. The gene signature and pathways provide insights into alterations contributing to AH breast lesions.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • A kinase inhibitor screen identifies a dual cdc7/CDK9 inhibitor to sensitise triple-negative breast cancer to EGFR-targeted therapy
    Breast Cancer Res. (IF 5.676) Pub Date : 2019-07-01
    Ronan P. McLaughlin; Jichao He; Vera E. van der Noord; Jevin Redel; John A. Foekens; John W. M. Martens; Marcel Smid; Yinghui Zhang; Bob van de Water

    The effective treatment of triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) remains a profound clinical challenge. Despite frequent epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) overexpression and reliance on downstream signalling pathways in TNBC, resistance to EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) remains endemic. Therefore, the identification of targeted agents, which synergise with current therapeutic options, is paramount. Compound-based, high-throughput, proliferation screening was used to profile the response of TNBC cell lines to EGFR-TKIs, western blotting and siRNA transfection being used to examine the effect of inhibitors on EGFR-mediated signal transduction and cellular dependence on such pathways, respectively. A kinase inhibitor combination screen was used to identify compounds that synergised with EGFR-TKIs in TNBC, utilising sulphorhodamine B (SRB) assay as read-out for proliferation. The impact of drug combinations on cell cycle arrest, apoptosis and signal transduction was assessed using flow cytometry, automated live-cell imaging and western blotting, respectively. RNA sequencing was employed to unravel transcriptomic changes elicited by this synergistic combination and to permit identification of the signalling networks most sensitive to co-inhibition. We demonstrate that a dual cdc7/CDK9 inhibitor, PHA-767491, synergises with multiple EGFR-TKIs (lapatinib, erlotinib and gefitinib) to overcome resistance to EGFR-targeted therapy in various TNBC cell lines. Combined inhibition of EGFR and cdc7/CDK9 resulted in reduced cell proliferation, accompanied by induction of apoptosis, G2-M cell cycle arrest, inhibition of DNA replication and abrogation of CDK9-mediated transcriptional elongation, in contrast to mono-inhibition. Moreover, high expression of cdc7 and RNA polymerase II Subunit A (POLR2A), the direct target of CDK9, is significantly correlated with poor metastasis-free survival in a cohort of breast cancer patients. RNA sequencing revealed marked downregulation of pathways governing proliferation, transcription and cell survival in TNBC cells treated with the combination of an EGFR-TKI and a dual cdc7/CDK9 inhibitor. A number of genes enriched in these downregulated pathways are associated with poor metastasis-free survival in TNBC. Our results highlight that dual inhibition of cdc7 and CDK9 by PHA-767491 is a potential strategy for targeting TNBC resistant to EGFR-TKIs.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Phase II trial of AKT inhibitor MK-2206 in patients with advanced breast cancer who have tumors with PIK3CA or AKT mutations, and/or PTEN loss/PTEN mutation
    Breast Cancer Res. (IF 5.676) Pub Date : 2019-07-05
    Yan Xing; Nancy U. Lin; Matthew A. Maurer; Huiqin Chen; Armeen Mahvash; Aysegul Sahin; Argun Akcakanat; Yisheng Li; Vandana Abramson; Jennifer Litton; Mariana Chavez-MacGregor; Vicente Valero; Sarina A. Piha-Paul; David Hong; Kim-Anh Do; Emily Tarco; Dianna Riall; Agda Karina Eterovic; Gerburg M. Wulf; Lewis C. Cantley; Gordon B. Mills; L. Austin Doyle; Eric Winer; Gabriel N. Hortobagyi; Ana Maria Gonzalez-Angulo; Funda Meric-Bernstam

    The PI3K/AKT pathway is activated through PIK3CA or AKT1 mutations and PTEN loss in breast cancer. We conducted a phase II trial with an allosteric AKT inhibitor MK-2206 in patients with advanced breast cancer who had tumors with PIK3CA/AKT1 mutations and/or PTEN loss/mutation. The primary endpoint was objective response rate (ORR). Secondary endpoints were 6-month progression-free survival (6 m PFS), predictive and pharmacodynamic markers, safety, and tolerability. Patients had pre-treatment and on-treatment biopsies as well as collection of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and platelet-rich plasma (PRP). Next-generation sequencing, immunohistochemistry, and reverse phase protein arrays (RPPA) were performed. Twenty-seven patients received MK-2206. Eighteen patients were enrolled into the PIK3CA/AKT1 mutation arm (cohort A): 13 had PIK3CA mutations, four had AKT1 mutations, and one had a PIK3CA mutation as well as PTEN loss. ORR and 6 m PFS were both 5.6% (1/18), with one patient with HR+ breast cancer and a PIK3CA E542K mutation experiencing a partial response (on treatment for 36 weeks). Nine patients were enrolled on the PTEN loss/mutation arm (cohort B). ORR was 0% and 6 m PFS was 11% (1/9), observed in a patient with triple-negative breast cancer and PTEN loss. The study was stopped early due to futility. The most common adverse events were fatigue (48%) and rash (44%). On pre-treatment biopsy, PIK3CA and AKT1 mutation status was concordant with archival tissue testing. However, two patients with PTEN loss based on archival testing had PTEN expression on the pre-treatment biopsy. MK-2206 treatment was associated with a significant decline in pAKT S473 and pAKT T308 and PI3K activation score in PBMC and PRPs, but not in tumor biopsies. By IHC, there was no significant decrease in median pAKT S473 or Ki-67 staining, but a drop was observed in both responders. MK-2206 monotherapy had limited clinical activity in advanced breast cancer patients selected for PIK3CA/AKT1 or PTEN mutations or PTEN loss. This may, in part, be due to inadequate target inhibition at tolerable doses in heavily pre-treated patients with pathway activation, as well as tumor heterogeneity and evolution in markers such as PTEN conferring challenges in patient selection. ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01277757 . Registered 13 January 2011.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Epigenetic silencing of TGFBI confers resistance to trastuzumab in human breast cancer
    Breast Cancer Res. (IF 5.676) Pub Date : 2019-07-05
    Sònia Palomeras; Ángel Diaz-Lagares; Gemma Viñas; Fernando Setien; Humberto J. Ferreira; Glòria Oliveras; Ana B. Crujeiras; Alejandro Hernández; David H. Lum; Alana L. Welm; Manel Esteller; Teresa Puig

    Acquired resistance to trastuzumab is a major clinical problem in the treatment of HER2-positive (HER2+) breast cancer patients. The selection of trastuzumab-resistant patients is a great challenge of precision oncology. The aim of this study was to identify novel epigenetic biomarkers associated to trastuzumab resistance in HER2+ BC patients. We performed a genome-wide DNA methylation (450K array) and a transcriptomic analysis (RNA-Seq) comparing trastuzumab-sensitive (SK) and trastuzumab-resistant (SKTR) HER2+ human breast cancer cell models. The methylation and expression levels of candidate genes were validated by bisulfite pyrosequencing and qRT-PCR, respectively. Functional assays were conducted in the SK and SKTR models by gene silencing and overexpression. Methylation analysis in 24 HER2+ human BC samples with complete response or non-response to trastuzumab-based treatment was conducted by bisulfite pyrosequencing. Epigenomic and transcriptomic analysis revealed the consistent hypermethylation and downregulation of TGFBI, CXCL2, and SLC38A1 genes in association with trastuzumab resistance. The DNA methylation and expression levels of these genes were validated in both sensitive and resistant models analyzed. Of the genes, TGFBI presented the highest hypermethylation-associated silencing both at the transcriptional and protein level. Ectopic expression of TGFBI in the SKTR model suggest an increased sensitivity to trastuzumab treatment. In primary tumors, TGFBI hypermethylation was significantly associated with trastuzumab resistance in HER2+ breast cancer patients. Our results suggest for the first time an association between the epigenetic silencing of TGFBI by DNA methylation and trastuzumab resistance in HER2+ cell models. These results provide the basis for further clinical studies to validate the hypermethylation of TGFBI promoter as a biomarker of trastuzumab resistance in HER2+ breast cancer patients.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Abrupt involution induces inflammation, estrogenic signaling, and hyperplasia linking lack of breastfeeding with increased risk of breast cancer
    Breast Cancer Res. (IF 5.676) Pub Date : 2019-07-17
    Mustafa M. Basree; Neelam Shinde; Christopher Koivisto; Maria Cuitino; Raleigh Kladney; Jianying Zhang; Julie Stephens; Marilly Palettas; Allen Zhang; Hee Kyung Kim; Santiago Acero-Bedoya; Anthony Trimboli; Daniel G. Stover; Thomas Ludwig; Ramesh Ganju; Daniel Weng; Peter Shields; Jo Freudenheim; Gustavo W. Leone; Gina M. Sizemore; Sarmila Majumder; Bhuvaneswari Ramaswamy

    A large collaborative analysis of data from 47 epidemiological studies concluded that longer duration of breastfeeding reduces the risk of developing breast cancer. Despite the strong epidemiological evidence, the molecular mechanisms linking prolonged breastfeeding to decreased risk of breast cancer remain poorly understood. We modeled two types of breastfeeding behaviors in wild type FVB/N mice: (1) normal or gradual involution of breast tissue following prolonged breastfeeding and (2) forced or abrupt involution following short-term breastfeeding. To accomplish this, pups were gradually weaned between 28 and 31 days (gradual involution) or abruptly at 7 days postpartum (abrupt involution). Mammary glands were examined for histological changes, proliferation, and inflammatory markers by immunohistochemistry. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting was used to quantify mammary epithelial subpopulations. Gene set enrichment analysis was used to analyze gene expression data from mouse mammary luminal progenitor cells. Similar analysis was done using gene expression data generated from human breast samples obtained from parous women enrolled on a tissue collection study, OSU-2011C0094, and were undergoing reduction mammoplasty without history of breast cancer. Mammary glands from mice that underwent abrupt involution exhibited denser stroma, altered collagen composition, higher inflammation and proliferation, increased estrogen receptor α and progesterone receptor expression compared to those that underwent gradual involution. Importantly, when aged to 4 months postpartum, mice that were in the abrupt involution cohort developed ductal hyperplasia and squamous metaplasia. Abrupt involution also resulted in a significant expansion of the luminal progenitor cell compartment associated with enrichment of Notch and estrogen signaling pathway genes. Breast tissues obtained from healthy women who breastfed for < 6 months vs ≥ 6 months showed significant enrichment of Notch signaling pathway genes, along with a trend for enrichment for luminal progenitor gene signature similar to what is observed in BRCA1 mutation carriers and basal-like breast tumors. We report here for the first time that forced or abrupt involution of the mammary glands following pregnancy and lack of breastfeeding results in expansion of luminal progenitor cells, higher inflammation, proliferation, and ductal hyperplasia, a known risk factor for developing breast cancer.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Relationship of circulating insulin-like growth factor-I and binding proteins 1–7 with mammographic density among women undergoing image-guided diagnostic breast biopsy
    Breast Cancer Res. (IF 5.676) Pub Date : 2019-07-23
    Manila Hada; Hannah Oh; Ruth M. Pfeiffer; Roni T. Falk; Shaoqi Fan; Maeve Mullooly; Michael Pollak; Berta Geller; Pamela M. Vacek; Donald Weaver; John Shepherd; Jeff Wang; Bo Fan; Amir Pasha Mahmoudzadeh; Serghei Malkov; Sally Herschorn; Louise A. Brinton; Mark E. Sherman; Gretchen L. Gierach

    Mammographic density (MD) is a strong breast cancer risk factor that reflects fibroglandular and adipose tissue composition, but its biologic underpinnings are poorly understood. Insulin-like growth factor binding proteins (IGFBPs) are markers that may be associated with MD given their hypothesized role in breast carcinogenesis. IGFBPs sequester IGF-I, limiting its bioavailability. Prior studies have found positive associations between circulating IGF-I and the IGF-I:IGFBP-3 ratio and breast cancer risk. We evaluated the associations of IGF-I, IGFBP-3, and six other IGFBPs with MD. Serum IGF measures were quantified in 296 women, ages 40–65, undergoing diagnostic image-guided breast biopsy. Volumetric density measures (MD-V) were assessed in pre-biopsy digital mammograms using single X-ray absorptiometry. Area density measures (MD-A) were estimated by computer-assisted thresholding software. Age, body mass index (BMI), and BMI2-adjusted linear regression models were used to examine associations of serum IGF measures with MD. Effect modification by BMI was also assessed. IGF-I and IGFBP-3 were not strongly associated with MD after BMI adjustment. In multivariable analyses among premenopausal women, IGFBP-2 was positively associated with both percent MD-V (β = 1.49, p value = 0.02) and MD-A (β = 1.55, p value = 0.05). Among postmenopausal women, positive relationships between IGFBP-2 and percent MD-V (β = 2.04, p = 0.003) were observed; the positive associations between IGFBP-2 and percent MD-V were stronger among lean women (BMI < 25 kg/m2) (β = 5.32, p = 0.0002; p interaction = 0.0003). In this comprehensive study of IGFBPs and MD, we observed a novel positive association between IGFBP-2 and MD, particularly among women with lower BMI. In concert with in vitro studies suggesting a dual role of IGFBP-2 on breast tissue, promoting cell proliferation as well as inhibiting tumorigenesis, our findings suggest that further studies assessing the role of IGFBP-2 in breast tissue composition, in addition to IGF-1 and IGFBP-3, are warranted.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Glucocorticoid receptor modulation decreases ER-positive breast cancer cell proliferation and suppresses wild-type and mutant ER chromatin association
    Breast Cancer Res. (IF 5.676) Pub Date : 2019-07-24
    Eva Tonsing-Carter; Kyle M. Hernandez; Caroline R. Kim; Ryan V. Harkless; Alyce Oh; Kathleen R. Bowie; Diana C. West-Szymanski; Mayra A. Betancourt-Ponce; Bradley D. Green; Ricardo R. Lastra; Gini F. Fleming; Sarat Chandarlapaty; Suzanne D. Conzen

    Non-ER nuclear receptor activity can alter estrogen receptor (ER) chromatin association and resultant ER-mediated transcription. Consistent with GR modulation of ER activity, high tumor glucocorticoid receptor (GR) expression correlates with improved relapse-free survival in ER+ breast cancer (BC) patients. In vitro cell proliferation assays were used to assess ER-mediated BC cell proliferation following GR modulation. ER chromatin association following ER/GR co-liganding was measured using global ChIP sequencing and directed ChIP analysis of proliferative gene enhancers. We found that GR liganding with either a pure agonist or a selective GR modulator (SGRM) slowed estradiol (E2)-mediated proliferation in ER+ BC models. SGRMs that antagonized transcription of GR-unique genes both promoted GR chromatin association and inhibited ER chromatin localization at common DNA enhancer sites. Gene expression analysis revealed that ER and GR co-activation decreased proliferative gene activation (compared to ER activation alone), specifically reducing CCND1, CDK2, and CDK6 gene expression. We also found that ligand-dependent GR occupancy of common ER-bound enhancer regions suppressed both wild-type and mutant ER chromatin association and decreased corresponding gene expression. In vivo, treatment with structurally diverse SGRMs also reduced MCF-7 Y537S ER-expressing BC xenograft growth. These studies demonstrate that liganded GR can suppress ER chromatin occupancy at shared ER-regulated enhancers, including CCND1 (Cyclin D1), regardless of whether the ligand is a classic GR agonist or antagonist. Resulting GR-mediated suppression of ER+ BC proliferative gene expression and cell division suggests that SGRMs could decrease ER-driven gene expression.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • A whole slide image-based machine learning approach to predict ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) recurrence risk
    Breast Cancer Res. (IF 5.676) Pub Date : 2019-07-29
    Sergey Klimov; Islam M. Miligy; Arkadiusz Gertych; Yi Jiang; Michael S. Toss; Padmashree Rida; Ian O. Ellis; Andrew Green; Uma Krishnamurti; Emad A. Rakha; Ritu Aneja

    Breast ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) represent approximately 20% of screen-detected breast cancers. The overall risk for DCIS patients treated with breast-conserving surgery stems almost exclusively from local recurrence. Although a mastectomy or adjuvant radiation can reduce recurrence risk, there are significant concerns regarding patient over-/under-treatment. Current clinicopathological markers are insufficient to accurately assess the recurrence risk. To address this issue, we developed a novel machine learning (ML) pipeline to predict risk of ipsilateral recurrence using digitized whole slide images (WSI) and clinicopathologic long-term outcome data from a retrospectively collected cohort of DCIS patients (n = 344) treated with lumpectomy at Nottingham University Hospital, UK. The cohort was split case-wise into training (n = 159, 31 with 10-year recurrence) and validation (n = 185, 26 with 10-year recurrence) sets. The sections from primary tumors were stained with H&E, then digitized and analyzed by the pipeline. In the first step, a classifier trained manually by pathologists was applied to digital slides to annotate the areas of stroma, normal/benign ducts, cancer ducts, dense lymphocyte region, and blood vessels. In the second step, a recurrence risk classifier was trained on eight select architectural and spatial organization tissue features from the annotated areas to predict recurrence risk. The recurrence classifier significantly predicted the 10-year recurrence risk in the training [hazard ratio (HR) = 11.6; 95% confidence interval (CI) 5.3–25.3, accuracy (Acc) = 0.87, sensitivity (Sn) = 0.71, and specificity (Sp) = 0.91] and independent validation [HR = 6.39 (95% CI 3.0–13.8), p < 0.0001;Acc = 0.85, Sn = 0.5, Sp = 0.91] cohorts. Despite the limitations of our cohorts, and in some cases inferior sensitivity performance, our tool showed superior accuracy, specificity, positive predictive value, concordance, and hazard ratios relative to tested clinicopathological variables in predicting recurrences (p < 0.0001). Furthermore, it significantly identified patients that might benefit from additional therapy (validation cohort p = 0.0006). Our machine learning-based model fills an unmet clinical need for accurately predicting the recurrence risk for lumpectomy-treated DCIS patients.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Vitamin D receptor expression in invasive breast tumors and breast cancer survival
    Breast Cancer Res. (IF 5.676) Pub Date : 2019-07-29
    Linnea Huss; Salma Tunå Butt; Signe Borgquist; Karin Elebro; Malte Sandsveden; Ann Rosendahl; Jonas Manjer

    Vitamin D has been suggested to prevent and improve the prognosis of several cancers, including breast cancer. We have previously shown a U-shaped association between pre-diagnostic serum levels of vitamin D and risk of breast cancer-related death, with poor survival in patients with the lowest and the highest levels respectively, as compared to the intermediate group. Vitamin D exerts its functions through the vitamin D receptor (VDR), and the aim of the current study was to investigate if the expression of VDR in invasive breast tumors is associated with breast cancer prognosis. VDR expression was evaluated in a tissue microarray of 718 invasive breast tumors. Covariation between VDR expression and established prognostic factors for breast cancer was analyzed, as well as associations between VDR expression and breast cancer mortality. We found that positive VDR expression in the nuclei and cytoplasm of breast cancer cells was associated with favorable tumor characteristics such as smaller size, lower grade, estrogen receptor positivity and progesterone receptor positivity, and lower expression of Ki67. In addition, both intranuclear and cytoplasmic VDR expression were associated with a low risk of breast cancer mortality, hazard ratios 0.56 (95% CI 0.34–0.91) and 0.59 (0.30–1.16) respectively. This study found that high expression of VDR in invasive breast tumors is associated with favorable prognostic factors and a low risk of breast cancer death. Hence, a high VDR expression is a positive prognostic factor.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Claudin-low-like mouse mammary tumors show distinct transcriptomic patterns uncoupled from genomic drivers
    Breast Cancer Res. (IF 5.676) Pub Date : 2019-07-31
    Christian Fougner; Helga Bergholtz; Raoul Kuiper; Jens Henrik Norum; Therese Sørlie

    Claudin-low breast cancer is a molecular subtype associated with poor prognosis and without targeted treatment options. The claudin-low subtype is defined by certain biological characteristics, some of which may be clinically actionable, such as high immunogenicity. In mice, the medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) and 7,12-dimethylbenzanthracene (DMBA)-induced mammary tumor model yields a heterogeneous set of tumors, a subset of which display claudin-low features. Neither the genomic characteristics of MPA/DMBA-induced claudin-low tumors nor those of human claudin-low breast tumors have been thoroughly explored. The transcriptomic characteristics and subtypes of MPA/DMBA-induced mouse mammary tumors were determined using gene expression microarrays. Somatic mutations and copy number aberrations in MPA/DMBA-induced tumors were identified from whole exome sequencing data. A publicly available dataset was queried to explore the genomic characteristics of human claudin-low breast cancer and to validate findings in the murine tumors. Half of MPA/DMBA-induced tumors showed a claudin-low-like subtype. All tumors carried mutations in known driver genes. While the specific genes carrying mutations varied between tumors, there was a consistent mutational signature with an overweight of T>A transversions in TG dinucleotides. Most tumors carried copy number aberrations with a potential oncogenic driver effect. Overall, several genomic events were observed recurrently; however, none accurately delineated claudin-low-like tumors. Human claudin-low breast cancers carried a distinct set of genomic characteristics, in particular a relatively low burden of mutations and copy number aberrations. The gene expression characteristics of claudin-low-like MPA/DMBA-induced tumors accurately reflected those of human claudin-low tumors, including epithelial-mesenchymal transition phenotype, high level of immune activation, and low degree of differentiation. There was an elevated expression of the immunosuppressive genes PTGS2 (encoding COX-2) and CD274 (encoding PD-L1) in human and murine claudin-low tumors. Our findings show that the claudin-low breast cancer subtype is not demarcated by specific genomic aberrations, but carries potentially targetable characteristics warranting further research.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • The prognostic value of JUNB-positive CTCs in metastatic breast cancer: from bioinformatics to phenotypic characterization
    Breast Cancer Res. (IF 5.676) Pub Date : 2019-08-01
    Galatea Kallergi; Vasileia Tsintari; Stelios Sfakianakis; Ekaterini Bei; Eleni Lagoudaki; Anastasios Koutsopoulos; Nefeli Zacharopoulou; Saad Alkahtani; Saud Alarifi; Christos Stournaras; Michalis Zervakis; Vassilis Georgoulias

    Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are important for metastatic dissemination of cancer. They can provide useful information, regarding biological features and tumor heterogeneity; however, their detection and characterization are difficult due to their limited number in the bloodstream and their mesenchymal characteristics. Therefore, new biomarkers are needed to address these questions. Bioinformatics functional enrichment analysis revealed a subgroup of 24 genes, potentially overexpressed in CTCs. Among these genes, the chemokine receptor CXCR4 plays a central role. After prioritization according to the CXCR4 corresponding pathways, five molecules (JUNB, YWHAB, TYROBP, NFYA, and PRDX1) were selected for further analysis in biological samples. The SKBR3, MDA-MB231, and MCF7 cell lines, as well as PBMCs from normal (n = 10) blood donors, were used as controls to define the expression pattern of all the examined molecules. Consequently, 100 previously untreated metastatic breast cancer (mBC) patients (n = 100) were analyzed using the following combinations of antibodies: CK (cytokeratin)/CXCR4/JUNB, CK/NFYA/ΥWHΑΒ (14-3-3), and CK/TYROBP/PRDX1. A threshold value for every molecule was considered the mean expression in normal PBMCs. Quantification of CXCR4 revealed overexpression of the receptor in SKBR3 and in CTCs, following the subsequent scale (SKBR3>CTCs>Hela>MCF7>MDA-MB231). JUNB was also overexpressed in CTCs (SKBR3>CTCs>MCF7>MDA-MB231>Hela). According to the defined threshold for each molecule, CXCR4-positive CTCs were identified in 90% of the patients with detectable tumor cells in their blood. In addition, 65%, 75%, 14.3%, and 12.5% of the patients harbored JUNB-, TYROBP-, NFYA-, and PRDX-positive CTCs, respectively. Conversely, none of the patients revealed YWHAB-positive CTCs. Interestingly, JUNB expression in CTCs was phenotypically and statistically enhanced compared to patients’ blood cells (p = 0.002) providing a possible new biomarker for CTCs. Furthermore, the detection of JUNB-positive CTCs in patients was associated with poorer PFS (p = 0.015) and OS (p = 0.002). Moreover, JUNB staining of 11 primary and 4 metastatic tumors from the same cohort of patients revealed a dramatic increase of JUNB expression in metastasis. CXCR4, JUNB, and TYROBP were overexpressed in CTCs, but only the expression of JUNB was associated with poor prognosis, providing a new biomarker and a potential therapeutic target for the elimination of CTCs.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Profiling molecular regulators of recurrence in chemorefractory triple-negative breast cancers
    Breast Cancer Res. (IF 5.676) Pub Date : 2019-08-05
    Bradley A. Hancock; Yu-Hsiang Chen; Jeffrey P. Solzak; Mufti N. Ahmad; David C. Wedge; Dumitru Brinza; Charles Scafe; James Veitch; Rajesh Gottimukkala; Walt Short; Rutuja V. Atale; Mircea Ivan; Sunil S. Badve; Bryan P. Schneider; Xiongbin Lu; Kathy D. Miller; Milan Radovich

    Approximately two thirds of patients with localized triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) harbor residual disease (RD) after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) and have a high risk-of-recurrence. Targeted therapeutic development for TNBC is of primary significance as no targeted therapies are clinically indicated for this aggressive subset. In view of this, we conducted a comprehensive molecular analysis and correlated molecular features of chemorefractory RD tumors with recurrence for the purpose of guiding downstream therapeutic development. We assembled DNA and RNA sequencing data from RD tumors as well as pre-operative biopsies, lymphocytic infiltrate, and survival data as part of a molecular correlative to a phase II post-neoadjuvant clinical trial. Matched somatic mutation, gene expression, and lymphocytic infiltrate were assessed before and after chemotherapy to understand how tumors evolve during chemotherapy. Kaplan-Meier survival analyses were conducted categorizing cancers with TP53 mutations by the degree of loss as well as by the copy number of a locus of 18q corresponding to the SMAD2, SMAD4, and SMAD7 genes. Analysis of matched somatic genomes pre-/post-NAC revealed chaotic acquisition of copy gains and losses including amplification of prominent oncogenes. In contrast, significant gains in deleterious point mutations and insertion/deletions were not observed. No trends between clonal evolution and recurrence were identified. Gene expression data from paired biopsies revealed enrichment of actionable regulators of stem cell-like behavior and depletion of immune signaling, which was corroborated by total lymphocytic infiltrate, but was not associated with recurrence. Novel characterization of TP53 mutation revealed prognostically relevant subgroups, which were linked to MYC-driven transcriptional amplification. Finally, somatic gains in 18q were associated with poor prognosis, likely driven by putative upregulation of TGFß signaling through the signal transducer SMAD2. We conclude TNBCs are dynamic during chemotherapy, demonstrating complex plasticity in subclonal diversity, stem-like qualities, and immune depletion, but somatic alterations of TP53/MYC and TGFß signaling in RD samples are prominent drivers of recurrence, representing high-yield targets for additional interrogation.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Vasculogenic mimicry is associated with trastuzumab resistance of HER2-positive breast cancer
    Breast Cancer Res. (IF 5.676) Pub Date : 2019-08-06
    Ami Hori; Masafumi Shimoda; Yasuto Naoi; Naofumi Kagara; Tomonori Tanei; Tomohiro Miyake; Kenzo Shimazu; Seung Jin Kim; Shinzaburo Noguchi

    Trastuzumab is a drug that targets the receptor tyrosine kinase HER2 and is essential for the treatment of HER2-positive breast cancer. Resistance to the drug leads to severe consequences, including disease recurrence, tumor enlargement, and metastasis. We hypothesized that trastuzumab treatment might be associated with phenotypic switching in HER2-positive breast cancer cells (BCCs), enabling them to escape and survive the effect of trastuzumab. We conducted comprehensive immunophenotyping to detect phenotypic changes in HER2-positive BCCs treated with trastuzumab, based on criteria determined a priori. Based on immunophenotyping results, we characterized the vascular phenotypes of HER2-positive BCCs by western blotting, real-time RT-PCR, and tube formation assay. The vascular phenotype of tumor cells from clinical samples was evaluated by staining with periodic acid-Schiff and an anti-CD31 antibody. We explored small molecule inhibitors that suppress tube formation and determined the inhibitory mechanism. Out of 242 cell surface antigens, 9 antigens were significantly upregulated and 3 were significantly downregulated by trastuzumab treatment. All upregulated antigens were related to endothelial and stem cell phenotypes, suggesting that trastuzumab treatment might be correlated to switching to a vascular phenotype, namely, vasculogenic mimicry (VM). Several VM markers were upregulated in trastuzumab-treated cells, but these cells did not form tubes on Matrigel, a functional hallmark of VM. Upon analysis of three trastuzumab-resistant HER2-positive cell lines, we found that all three cell lines showed tube formation on Matrigel in the presence of angiogenic growth factors including EGF, FGF2, IGF1, or VEGF. Clinically, VM channels significantly increased in surviving cancer cell clusters of surgically removed tumors pretreated with trastuzumab and chemotherapy compared to both surgically removed tumors without prior systemic treatment and tumors biopsied before presurgical treatment with trastuzumab. Finally, we found that salinomycin completely suppressed VM in all three trastuzumab-resistant cell lines through disruption of actin cytoskeletal integrity. VM promotes metastasis and worsens patient outcomes. The present study indicates that HER2-positive BCCs can exhibit VM in an angiogenic microenvironment after eventually acquiring trastuzumab resistance. The clinical finding supports this in vitro observation. Thus, targeting VM might provide a therapeutic benefit to patients with HER2-positive breast cancer.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Dynamically decreased miR-671-5p expression is associated with oncogenic transformation and radiochemoresistance in breast cancer
    Breast Cancer Res. (IF 5.676) Pub Date : 2019-08-07
    Xiaohui Tan; Zhongwu Li; Shuchang Ren; Katayoon Rezaei; Qing Pan; Andrew T. Goldstein; Charles J. Macri; Dengfeng Cao; Rachel F. Brem; Sidney W. Fu

    Understanding the molecular alterations associated with breast cancer (BC) progression may lead to more effective strategies for both prevention and management. The current model of BC progression suggests a linear, multistep process from normal epithelial to atypical ductal hyperplasia (ADH), to ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), and then invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC). Up to 20% ADH and 40% DCIS lesions progress to invasive BC if left untreated. Deciphering the molecular mechanisms during BC progression is therefore crucial to prevent over- or under-treatment. Our previous work demonstrated that miR-671-5p serves as a tumor suppressor by targeting Forkhead box protein M1 (FOXM1)-mediated epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in BC. Here, we aim to explore the role of miR-671-5p in the progression of BC oncogenic transformation and treatment. The 21T series cell lines, which were originally derived from the same patient with metastatic BC, including normal epithelia (H16N2), ADH (21PT), primary DCIS (21NT), and cells derived from pleural effusion of lung metastasis (21MT), and human BC specimens were used. Microdissection, miRNA transfection, dual-luciferase, radio- and chemosensitivity, and host-cell reactivation (HCR) assays were performed. Expression of miR-671-5p displays a gradual dynamic decrease from ADH, to DCIS, and to IDC. Interestingly, the decreased expression of miR-671-5p detected in ADH coexisted with advanced lesions, such as DCIS and/or IDC (cADH), but not in simple ADH (sADH). Ectopic transfection of miR-671-5p significantly inhibited cell proliferation in 21NT (DCIS) and 21MT (IDC), but not in H16N2 (normal) and 21PT (ADH) cell lines. At the same time, the effect exhibited in time- and dose-dependent manner. Interestingly, miR-671-5p significantly suppressed invasion in 21PT, 21NT, and 21MT cell lines. Furthermore, miR-671-5p suppressed FOXM1-mediated EMT in all 21T cell lines. In addition, miR-671-5p sensitizes these cell lines to UV and chemotherapeutic exposure by reducing the DNA repair capability. miR-671-5p displays a dynamic decrease expression during the oncogenic transition of BC by suppressing FOXM1-mediated EMT and DNA repair. Therefore, miR-671-5p may serve as a novel biomarker for early BC detection as well as a therapeutic target for BC management.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Cancer-immune interactions in ER-positive breast cancers: PI3K pathway alterations and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes
    Breast Cancer Res. (IF 5.676) Pub Date : 2019-08-07
    Marcelo Sobral-Leite; Izhar Salomon; Mark Opdam; Dinja T. Kruger; Karin J. Beelen; Vincent van der Noort; Ronald L. P. van Vlierberghe; Erik J. Blok; Daniele Giardiello; Joyce Sanders; Koen Van de Vijver; Hugo M. Horlings; Peter J. K. Kuppen; Sabine C. Linn; Marjanka K. Schmidt; Marleen Kok

    The presence of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) is correlated with good prognosis and outcome after (immuno)therapy in triple-negative and HER2-positive breast cancer. However, the role of TILs in luminal breast cancer is less clear. Emerging evidence has now demonstrated that genetic aberrations in malignant cells influence the immune landscape of tumors. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) is the most common altered pathway in ER-positive breast cancer. It is unknown whether changes in the PI3K pathway result in a different composition of the breast tumor microenvironment. Here we present the retrospective analysis of a prospective randomized trial in ER-positive breast cancer on the prognostic and predictive value of specific tumor-associated lymphocytes in the context of PI3K alterations. We included 563 ER-positive tumors from a multicenter trial for stage I to III postmenopausal breast cancer patients, who were randomized to tamoxifen or no adjuvant therapy. The amount of CD8-, CD4-, and FOXP3-positive cells was evaluated by immunohistochemistry and quantified by imaging-analysis software. We analyzed the associations between PIK3CA hotspot mutations, PTEN expression, phosphorylated proteins of the PI3K and MAPK pathway (p-AKT, p-ERK1/2, p-4EBP1, p-p70S6K), and recurrence-free interval after adjuvant tamoxifen or no adjuvant treatment. CD8-positive lymphocytes were significantly more abundant in PIK3CA-mutated tumors (OR = 1.65; 95% CI 1.03–2.68). While CD4 and FOXP3 were not significantly associated with prognosis, patients with tumors classified as CD8-high had increased risk of recurrence (HR = 1.98; 95% CI 1.14–3.41; multivariable model including PIK3CA status, treatment arm, and other standard clinicopathological variables). Lymphocytes were more often present in tumors with increased PI3K downstream phosphorylation. This was most pronounced for FOXP3-positive cells. These exploratory analyses of a prospective trial in luminal breast cancer suggest high CD8 infiltration is associated with unfavorable outcome and that PI3K pathway alterations might be associated with the composition of the tumor microenvironment.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Investigating the feasibility of stratified breast cancer screening using a masking risk predictor
    Breast Cancer Res. (IF 5.676) Pub Date : 2019-08-09
    Olivier Alonzo-Proulx; James G. Mainprize; Jennifer A. Harvey; Martin J. Yaffe

    Women with dense breasts face a double risk for breast cancer; they are at a higher risk for development of breast cancer than those with less dense breasts, and there is a greater chance that mammography will miss detection of a cancer in dense breasts due to the masking effect of surrounding fibroglandular tissue. These women may be candidates for supplemental screening. In this study, a masking risk model that was previously developed is tested on a cohort of cancer-free women to assess potential efficiency of stratification. Three masking risk models based on (1) BI-RADS density, (2) volumetric breast density (VBD), and (3) a combination of VBD and detectability were applied to stratify the mammograms of 1897 cancer-free women. The fraction of cancer-free women whose mammograms were deemed by the algorithm to be masked and who would be considered for supplemental imaging was computed as was the corresponding fraction in a screened population of interval (masked) cancers that would be potentially detected by supplemental imaging. Of the models tested, the combined VBD/detectability model offered the highest efficiency for stratification to supplemental imaging. It predicted that 725 supplemental screens would be performed per interval cancer potentially detected, at an operating point that allowed detection of 64% of the interval cancers. In comparison, stratification based on the upper two BI-RADS density categories required 1117 supplemental screenings per interval cancer detected to capture 64% of interval cancers. The combined VBD/detectability models perform better than BI-RADS and offer a continuum of operating points, suggesting that this model may be effective in guiding a stratified screening environment.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Development of a prediction model for breast cancer based on the national cancer registry in Taiwan
    Breast Cancer Res. (IF 5.676) Pub Date : 2019-08-13
    Ching-Chieh Huang; Soa-Yu Chan; Wen-Chung Lee; Chun-Ju Chiang; Tzu-Pin Lu; Skye Hung-Chun Cheng

    This study aimed to develop a prognostic model to predict the breast cancer-specific survival and overall survival for breast cancer patients in Asia and to demonstrate a significant difference in clinical outcomes between Asian and non-Asian patients. We developed our prognostic models by applying a multivariate Cox proportional hazards model to Taiwan Cancer Registry (TCR) data. A data-splitting strategy was used for internal validation, and a multivariable fractional polynomial approach was adopted for prognostic continuous variables. Subjects who were Asian, black, or white in the US-based Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database were analyzed for external validation. Model discrimination and calibration were evaluated in both internal and external datasets. In the internal validation, both training data and testing data calibrated well and generated good area under the ROC curves (AUC; 0.865 in training data and 0.846 in testing data). In the external validation, although the AUC values were larger than 0.85 in all populations, a lack of model calibration in non-Asian groups revealed that racial differences had a significant impact on the prediction of breast cancer mortality. For the calibration of breast cancer-specific mortality, P values < 0.001 at 1 year and 0.018 at 4 years in whites, and P values ≤ 0.001 at 1 and 2 years and 0.032 at 3 years in blacks, indicated that there were significant differences (P value < 0.05) between the predicted mortality and the observed mortality. Our model generally underestimated the mortality of the black population. In the white population, our model underestimated mortality at 1 year and overestimated it at 4 years. And in the Asian population, all P values > 0.05, indicating predicted mortality and actual mortality at 1 to 4 years were consistent. We developed and validated a pioneering prognostic model that especially benefits breast cancer patients in Asia. This study can serve as an important reference for breast cancer prediction in the future.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Inequities in breast cancer treatment in sub-Saharan Africa: findings from a prospective multi-country observational study
    Breast Cancer Res. (IF 5.676) Pub Date : 2019-08-13
    Milena Foerster; Benjamin O. Anderson; Fiona McKenzie; Moses Galukande; Angelica Anele; Charles Adisa; Annelle Zietsman; Joachim Schuz; Isabel dos Santos Silva; Valerie McCormack

    Improving breast cancer survival in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is urgently needed, requiring early diagnosis and improved access to treatment. However, data on the types of and barriers to receiving breast cancer therapy in this region are limited and have not been compared between different SSA countries and treatment settings. In different health care settings across Uganda, Nigeria and Namibian sites of the prospective African Breast Cancer - Disparities in Outcomes cohort study, we assessed the percentage of newly diagnosed breast cancer patients who received treatment (systemic, surgery and/or radiotherapy) for cancer and their socio-demographic and clinical determinants. Treatment data were systematically extracted from medical records, as well as self-reported by women during 6-month follow-up interviews, and were used to generate a binary indicator of treatment received within 12 months of diagnosis (yes/no), which was analysed via logistic regression. Of 1325 women, cancer treatment had not been initiated treatment within 1 year of diagnosis for 227 (17%) women and 185 (14%) of women with stage I–III disease. Untreated percentages were highest in two Nigerian regional hospitals where 38% of 314 women were not treated (32% among stage I–III). At a national referral hospital in Uganda, 18% of 430 women were not treated (15% among stage I–III). In contrast, at a cancer care centre in Windhoek, Namibia, where treatment is provided free to the patient, all non-black (100%) and almost all (98.7%) black women had initiated treatment. Percentages of untreated women were higher in women from lower socio-economic groups, women who believed in traditional medicine and, in Uganda, in HIV+ women. Self-reported treatment barriers confirmed treatment costs and treatment refusal as contributors to not receiving treatment. Financial support to ensure treatment access and education of treatment benefits are needed to improve treatment access for breast cancer patients across sub-Saharan Africa, especially at regional treatment centres, for lower socio-economic groups, and for the HIV-positive woman with breast cancer.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Neoadjuvant neratinib promotes ferroptosis and inhibits brain metastasis in a novel syngeneic model of spontaneous HER2+ve breast cancer metastasis
    Breast Cancer Res. (IF 5.676) Pub Date : 2019-08-13
    Aadya Nagpal; Richard P. Redvers; Xiawei Ling; Scott Ayton; Miriam Fuentes; Elnaz Tavancheh; Irmina Diala; Alshad Lalani; Sherene Loi; Steven David; Robin L. Anderson; Yvonne Smith; Delphine Merino; Delphine Denoyer; Normand Pouliot

    Human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2)-targeted therapies prolong survival in HER2-positive breast cancer patients. Benefit stems primarily from improved control of systemic disease, but up to 50% of patients progress to incurable brain metastases due to acquired resistance and/or limited permeability of inhibitors across the blood-brain barrier. Neratinib, a potent irreversible pan-tyrosine kinase inhibitor, prolongs disease-free survival in the extended adjuvant setting, and several trials evaluating its efficacy alone or combination with other inhibitors in early and advanced HER2-positive breast cancer patients are ongoing. However, its efficacy as a first-line therapy against HER2-positive breast cancer brain metastasis has not been fully explored, in part due to the lack of relevant pre-clinical models that faithfully recapitulate this disease. Here, we describe the development and characterisation of a novel syngeneic model of spontaneous HER2-positive breast cancer brain metastasis (TBCP-1) and its use to evaluate the efficacy and mechanism of action of neratinib. TBCP-1 cells were derived from a spontaneous BALB/C mouse mammary tumour and characterised for hormone receptors and HER2 expression by flow cytometry, immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry. Neratinib was evaluated in vitro and in vivo in the metastatic and neoadjuvant setting. Its mechanism of action was examined by transcriptomic profiling, function inhibition assays and immunoblotting. TBCP-1 cells naturally express high levels of HER2 but lack expression of hormone receptors. TBCP-1 tumours maintain a HER2-positive phenotype in vivo and give rise to a high incidence of spontaneous and experimental metastases in the brain and other organs. Cell proliferation/viability in vitro is inhibited by neratinib and by other HER2 inhibitors, but not by anti-oestrogens, indicating phenotypic and functional similarities to human HER2-positive breast cancer. Mechanistically, neratinib promotes a non-apoptotic form of cell death termed ferroptosis. Importantly, metastasis assays demonstrate that neratinib potently inhibits tumour growth and metastasis, including to the brain, and prolongs survival, particularly when used as a neoadjuvant therapy. The TBCP-1 model recapitulates the spontaneous spread of HER2-positive breast cancer to the brain seen in patients and provides a unique tool to identify novel therapeutics and biomarkers. Neratinib-induced ferroptosis provides new opportunities for therapeutic intervention. Further evaluation of neratinib neoadjuvant therapy is warranted.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Disease trajectories and mortality among women diagnosed with breast cancer
    Breast Cancer Res. (IF 5.676) Pub Date : 2019-08-16
    Haomin Yang; Yudi Pawitan; Wei He; Louise Eriksson; Natalie Holowko; Per Hall; Kamila Czene

    Breast cancer is a common disease with a relatively good prognosis. Therefore, understanding the spectrum of diseases and mortality among breast cancer patients is important, though currently incomplete. We systematically examined the incidence and mortality of all diseases following a breast cancer diagnosis, as well as the sequential association of disease occurrences (trajectories). In this national cohort study, 57,501 breast cancer patients (2001–2011) were compared to 564,703 matched women from the general Swedish population and followed until 2012. The matching criteria included year of birth, county of residence, and socioeconomic status. Based on information from the Swedish Patient and Cause of Death Registries, hazard ratios (HR) were estimated for disease incidence and mortality. Conditional logistic regression models were used to identify disease trajectories among breast cancer patients. Among 225 diseases, 45 had HRs > 1.5 and p < 0.0002 when comparing breast cancer patients with the general population. Diseases with highest HRs included lymphedema, radiodermatitis, and neutropenia, which are side effects of surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy. Other than breast cancer, the only significantly increased cause of death was other solid cancers (HR = 1.16, 95% CI = 1.08–1.24). Two main groups of disease trajectories were identified, which suggest menopausal disorders as indicators for other solid cancers, and both neutropenia and dorsalgia as diseases and symptoms preceding death due to breast cancer. While an increased incidence of other diseases was found among breast cancer patients, increased mortality was only due to other solid cancers. Preventing death due to breast cancer should be a priority to prolong life in breast cancer patients, but closer surveillance of other solid cancers is also needed.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Environmental exposures during windows of susceptibility for breast cancer: a framework for prevention research
    Breast Cancer Res. (IF 5.676) Pub Date : 2019-08-20
    Mary Beth Terry; Karin B. Michels; Julia Green Brody; Celia Byrne; Shiuan Chen; D. Joseph Jerry; Kristen M. C. Malecki; Mary Beth Martin; Rachel L. Miller; Susan L. Neuhausen; Kami Silk; Amy Trentham-Dietz

    The long time from exposure to potentially harmful chemicals until breast cancer occurrence poses challenges for designing etiologic studies and for implementing successful prevention programs. Growing evidence from animal and human studies indicates that distinct time periods of heightened susceptibility to endocrine disruptors exist throughout the life course. The influence of environmental chemicals on breast cancer risk may be greater during several windows of susceptibility (WOS) in a woman’s life, including prenatal development, puberty, pregnancy, and the menopausal transition. These time windows are considered as specific periods of susceptibility for breast cancer because significant structural and functional changes occur in the mammary gland, as well as alterations in the mammary micro-environment and hormone signaling that may influence risk. Breast cancer research focused on these breast cancer WOS will accelerate understanding of disease etiology and prevention. Despite the plausible heightened mechanistic influences of environmental chemicals on breast cancer risk during time periods of change in the mammary gland’s structure and function, most human studies of environmental chemicals are not focused on specific WOS. This article reviews studies conducted over the past few decades that have specifically addressed the effect of environmental chemicals and metals on breast cancer risk during at least one of these WOS. In addition to summarizing the broader evidence-base specific to WOS, we include discussion of the NIH-funded Breast Cancer and the Environment Research Program (BCERP) which included population-based and basic science research focused on specific WOS to evaluate associations between breast cancer risk and particular classes of endocrine-disrupting chemicals—including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, perfluorinated compounds, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, and phenols—and metals. We outline ways in which ongoing transdisciplinary BCERP projects incorporate animal research and human epidemiologic studies in close partnership with community organizations and communication scientists to identify research priorities and effectively translate evidence-based findings to the public and policy makers. An integrative model of breast cancer research is needed to determine the impact and mechanisms of action of endocrine disruptors at different WOS. By focusing on environmental chemical exposure during specific WOS, scientists and their community partners may identify when prevention efforts are likely to be most effective.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Addition of zoledronic acid to neoadjuvant chemotherapy is not beneficial in patients with HER2-negative stage II/III breast cancer: 5-year survival analysis of the NEOZOTAC trial (BOOG 2010-01)
    Breast Cancer Res. (IF 5.676) Pub Date : 2019-08-28
    Stefanie de Groot; Hanno Pijl; Ayoub Charehbili; Saskia van de Ven; Vincent T. H. B. M. Smit; Elma Meershoek-Klein Kranenbarg; Joan B. Heijns; Laurence J. C. van Warmerdam; Lonneke W. Kessels; M. Wouter Dercksen; Manon J. A. E. Pepels; Hanneke W. M. van Laarhoven; Birgit E. P. J. Vriens; Hein Putter; Marta Fiocco; Gerrit-Jan Liefers; Jacobus J. M. van der Hoeven; Johan W. R. Nortier; Judith R. Kroep

    Adjuvant bisphosphonates are associated with improved breast cancer survival in postmenopausal patients. Addition of zoledronic acid (ZA) to neoadjuvant chemotherapy did not improve pathological complete response in the phase III NEOZOTAC trial. Here we report the results of the secondary endpoints, disease-free survival, (DFS) and overall survival (OS). Patients with HER2-negative, stage II/III breast cancer were randomized to receive the standard 6 cycles of neoadjuvant TAC (docetaxel/doxorubicin/cyclophosphamide) chemotherapy with or without 4 mg intravenous (IV) ZA administered within 24 h of chemotherapy. This was repeated every 21 days for 6 cycles. Cox regression models were used to evaluate the effect of ZA and covariates on DFS and OS. Regression models were used to examine the association between insulin, glucose, insulin growth factor-1 (IGF-1) levels, and IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R) expression with survival outcomes. Two hundred forty-six women were eligible for inclusion. After a median follow-up of 6.4 years, OS for all patients was significantly worse for those who received ZA (HR 0.468, 95% CI 0.226–0.967, P = 0.040). DFS was not significantly different between the treatment arms (HR 0.656, 95% CI 0.371–1.160, P = 0.147). In a subgroup analysis of postmenopausal women, no significant difference in DFS or OS was found for those who received ZA compared with the control group (HR 0.464, 95% CI 0.176–1.222, P = 0.120; HR 0.539, 95% CI 0.228–1.273, P = 0.159, respectively). The subgroup analysis of premenopausal patients was not significantly different for DFS and OS ((HR 0.798, 95% CI 0.369–1.725, P = 0.565; HR 0.456, 95% CI 0.156–1.336, P = 0.152, respectively). Baseline IGF-1R expression was not significantly associated with DFS or OS. In a predefined additional study, lower serum levels of insulin were associated with improved DFS (HR 1.025, 95% CI 1.005–1.045, P = 0.014). Our results suggest that ZA in combination with neoadjuvant chemotherapy was associated with a worse OS in breast cancer (both pre- and postmenopausal patients). However, in a subgroup analysis of postmenopausal patients, ZA treatment was not associated with DFS or OS. Also, DFS was not significantly different between both groups. IGF-1R expression in tumor tissue before and after neoadjuvant treatment did not predict survival. ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01099436 , April 2010.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Investigating circulating tumor cells and distant metastases in patient-derived orthotopic xenograft models of triple-negative breast cancer
    Breast Cancer Res. (IF 5.676) Pub Date : 2019-08-28
    Vishnu C. Ramani; Clementine A. Lemaire; Melanie Triboulet; Kerriann M. Casey; Kyra Heirich; Corinne Renier; José G. Vilches-Moure; Rakhi Gupta; Aryana M. Razmara; Haiyu Zhang; George W. Sledge; Elodie Sollier; Stefanie S. Jeffrey

    Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) represent a temporal “snapshot” of a patient’s cancer and changes that occur during disease evolution. There is an extensive literature studying CTCs in breast cancer patients, and particularly in those with metastatic disease. In parallel, there is an increasing use of patient-derived models in preclinical investigations of human cancers. Yet studies are still limited demonstrating CTC shedding and metastasis formation in patient-derived models of breast cancer. We used seven patient-derived orthotopic xenograft (PDOX) models generated from triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) patients to study CTCs and distant metastases. Tumor fragments from PDOX tissue from each of the seven models were implanted into 57 NOD scid gamma (NSG) mice, and tumor growth and volume were monitored. Human CTC capture from mouse blood was first optimized on the marker-agnostic Vortex CTC isolation platform, and whole blood was processed from 37 PDOX tumor-bearing mice. Staining and imaging revealed the presence of CTCs in 32/37 (86%). The total number of CTCs varied between different PDOX tumor models and between individual mice bearing the same PDOX tumors. CTCs were heterogeneous and showed cytokeratin (CK) positive, vimentin (VIM) positive, and mixed CK/VIM phenotypes. Metastases were detected in the lung (20/57, 35%), liver (7/57, 12%), and brain (1/57, less than 2%). The seven different PDOX tumor models displayed varying degrees of metastatic potential, including one TNBC PDOX tumor model that failed to generate any detectable metastases (0/8 mice) despite having CTCs present in the blood of 5/5 tested, suggesting that CTCs from this particular PDOX tumor model may typify metastatic inefficiency. PDOX tumor models that shed CTCs and develop distant metastases represent an important tool for investigating TNBC.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Calcium-sensing stromal interaction molecule 2 upregulates nuclear factor of activated T cells 1 and transforming growth factor-β signaling to promote breast cancer metastasis
    Breast Cancer Res. (IF 5.676) Pub Date : 2019-08-29
    Yutian Miao; Qiang Shen; Siheng Zhang; Hehai Huang; Xiaojing Meng; Xianchong Zheng; Zhuocheng Yao; Zhanxin He; Sitong Lu; Chunqing Cai; Fei Zou

    Stromal interaction molecule (STIM) 2 is a key calcium-sensing molecule that regulates the stabilization of calcium ions (Ca2+) and therefore regulates downstream Ca2+-associated signaling and cellular events. We hypothesized that STIM2 regulates epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) to promote breast cancer metastasis. We determined the effects of gain, loss, and rescue of STIM2 on cellular motility, levels of EMT-related proteins, and secretion of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β). We also conducted bioinformatics analyses and in vivo assessments of breast cancer growth and metastasis using xenograft models. We found a significant association between STIM2 overexpression and metastatic breast cancer. STIM2 overexpression activated the nuclear factor of activated T cells 1 (NFAT1) and TGF-β signaling. Knockdown of STIM2 inhibited the motility of breast cancer cells by inhibiting EMT via specific suppression of NFAT1 and inhibited mammary tumor metastasis in mice. In contrast, STIM2 overexpression promoted metastasis. These findings were validated in human tissue arrays of 340 breast cancer samples for STIM2. Taken together, our results demonstrated that STIM2 specifically regulates NFAT1, which in turn regulates the expression and secretion of TGF-β1 to promote EMT in vitro and in vivo, leading to metastasis of breast cancer.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • A randomized, controlled phase II trial of neoadjuvant ado-trastuzumab emtansine, lapatinib, and nab-paclitaxel versus trastuzumab, pertuzumab, and paclitaxel in HER2-positive breast cancer (TEAL study)
    Breast Cancer Res. (IF 5.676) Pub Date : 2019-09-02
    Tejal A. Patel; Joe E. Ensor; Sarah L. Creamer; Toniva Boone; Angel A. Rodriguez; Poly A. Niravath; Jorge G. Darcourt; Jane L. Meisel; Xiaoxian Li; Jing Zhao; John G. Kuhn; Roberto R. Rosato; Wei Qian; Anna Belcheva; Mary R. Schwartz; Virginia G. Kaklamani; Jenny C. Chang

    Neoadjuvant dual human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER2) blockade with trastuzumab and pertuzumab plus paclitaxel leads to an overall pathologic complete response (pCR) rate of 46%. Dual HER2 blockade with ado-trastuzumab emtansine (T-DM1) and lapatinib plus nab-paclitaxel has shown efficacy in patients with metastatic HER2-positive breast cancer. To test neoadjuvant effectiveness of this regimen, an open-label, multicenter, randomized, phase II trial was conducted comparing T-DM1, lapatinib, and nab-paclitaxel with trastuzumab, pertuzumab, and paclitaxel in patients with early-stage HER2-positive breast cancer. Stratification by estrogen receptor (ER) status occurred prior to randomization. Patients in the experimental arm received 6 weeks of targeted therapies (T-DM1 and lapatinib) followed by T-DM1 every 3 weeks, lapatinib daily, and nab-paclitaxel weekly for 12 weeks. In the standard arm, patients received 6 weeks of trastuzumab and pertuzumab followed by trastuzumab weekly, pertuzumab every 3 weeks, and paclitaxel weekly for 12 weeks. The primary objective was to evaluate the proportion of patients with residual cancer burden (RCB) 0 or I. Key secondary objectives included pCR rate, safety, and change in tumor size at 6 weeks. Hypothesis-generating correlative assessments were also performed. The 30 evaluable patients were well-balanced in patient and tumor characteristics. The proportion of patients with RCB 0 or I was higher in the experimental arm (100% vs. 62.5% in the standard arm, p = 0.0035). In the ER-positive subset, all patients in the experimental arm achieved RCB 0-I versus 25% in the standard arm (p = 0.0035). Adverse events were similar between the two arms. In early-stage HER2-positive breast cancer, the neoadjuvant treatment with T-DM1, lapatinib, and nab-paclitaxel was more effective than the standard treatment, particularly in the ER-positive cohort. Clinicaltrials.gov NCT02073487 , February 27, 2014.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Clonality of circulating tumor cells in breast cancer brain metastasis patients
    Breast Cancer Res. (IF 5.676) Pub Date : 2019-09-03
    Carlotta Riebensahm; Simon A. Joosse; Malte Mohme; Annkathrin Hanssen; Jakob Matschke; Yvonne Goy; Isabell Witzel; Katrin Lamszus; Jolanthe Kropidlowski; Cordula Petersen; Anja Kolb-Kokocinski; Sascha Sauer; Kerstin Borgmann; Markus Glatzel; Volkmar Müller; Manfred Westphal; Sabine Riethdorf; Klaus Pantel; Harriet Wikman

    The incidence of brain metastases in breast cancer (BCBM) patients is increasing. These patients have a very poor prognosis, and therefore, identification of blood-based biomarkers, such as circulating tumor cells (CTCs), and understanding the genomic heterogeneity could help to personalize treatment options. Both EpCAM-dependent (CellSearch® System) and EpCAM-independent Ficoll-based density centrifugation methods were used to detect CTCs from 57 BCBM patients. DNA from individual CTCs and corresponding primary tumors and brain metastases were analyzed by next-generation sequencing (NGS) in order to evaluate copy number aberrations and single nucleotide variations (SNVs). CTCs were detected after EpCAM-dependent enrichment in 47.7% of the patients (≥ 5 CTCs/7.5 ml blood in 20.5%). The CTC count was associated with ERBB2 status (p = 0.029) of the primary tumor as well as with the prevalence of bone metastases (p = 0.021). EpCAM-independent enrichment revealed CTCs in 32.6% of the patients, especially among triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) patients (70.0%). A positive CTC status after enrichment of either method was significantly associated with decreased overall survival time (p < 0.05). Combining the results of both enrichment methods, 63.6% of the patients were classified as CTC positive. In three patients, the matched tumor tissue and single CTCs were analyzed by NGS showing chromosomal aberrations with a high genomic clonality and mutations in pathways potentially important in brain metastasis formation. The detection of CTCs, regardless of the enrichment method, is of prognostic relevance in BCBM patients and in combination with molecular analysis of CTCs can help defining patients with higher risk of early relapse and suitability for targeted treatment.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Diffusion tensor imaging for characterizing tumor microstructure and improving diagnostic performance on breast MRI: a prospective observational study
    Breast Cancer Res. (IF 5.676) Pub Date : 2019-09-04
    Jing Luo; Daniel S. Hippe; Habib Rahbar; Sana Parsian; Mara H. Rendi; Savannah C. Partridge

    Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) can increase breast MRI diagnostic specificity due to the tendency of malignancies to restrict diffusion. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) provides further information over conventional DWI regarding diffusion directionality and anisotropy. Our study evaluates DTI features of suspicious breast lesions detected on MRI to determine the added diagnostic value of DTI for breast imaging. With IRB approval, we prospectively enrolled patients over a 3-year period who had suspicious (BI-RADS category 4 or 5) MRI-detected breast lesions with histopathological results. Patients underwent multiparametric 3 T MRI with dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) and DTI sequences. Clinical factors (age, menopausal status, breast density, clinical indication, background parenchymal enhancement) and DCE-MRI lesion parameters (size, type, presence of washout, BI-RADS category) were recorded prospectively by interpreting radiologists. DTI parameters (apparent diffusion coefficient [ADC], fractional anisotropy [FA], axial diffusivity [λ1], radial diffusivity [(λ2 + λ3)/2], and empirical difference [λ1 − λ3]) were measured retrospectively. Generalized estimating equations (GEE) and least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) methods were used for univariate and multivariate logistic regression, respectively. Diagnostic performance was internally validated using the area under the curve (AUC) with bootstrap adjustment. The study included 238 suspicious breast lesions (95 malignant, 143 benign) in 194 women. In univariate analysis, lower ADC, axial diffusivity, and radial diffusivity were associated with malignancy (OR = 0.37–0.42 per 1-SD increase, p < 0.001 for each), as was higher FA (OR = 1.45, p = 0.007). In multivariate analysis, LASSO selected only ADC (OR = 0.41) as a predictor for a DTI-only model, while both ADC (OR = 0.41) and FA (OR = 0.88) were selected for a model combining clinical and imaging parameters. Post-hoc analysis revealed varying association of FA with malignancy depending on the lesion type. The combined model (AUC = 0.81) had a significantly better performance than Clinical/DCE-MRI-only (AUC = 0.76, p < 0.001) and DTI-only (AUC = 0.75, p = 0.002) models. DTI significantly improves diagnostic performance in multivariate modeling. ADC is the most important diffusion parameter for distinguishing benign and malignant breast lesions, while anisotropy measures may help further characterize tumor microstructure and microenvironment.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
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