当前期刊: Parasites & Vectors Go to current issue    加入关注   
显示样式:        排序: 导出
我的关注
我的收藏
您暂时未登录!
登录
  • Using cluster analysis to reconstruct dengue exposure patterns from cross-sectional serological studies in Singapore
    Parasites Vectors (IF 3.031) Pub Date : 2020-01-17
    Sorawat Sangkaew; Li Kiang Tan; Lee Ching Ng; Neil M. Ferguson; Ilaria Dorigatti

    Dengue is a mosquito-borne viral disease caused by one of four serotypes (DENV1-4). Infection provides long-term homologous immunity against reinfection with the same serotype. Plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) is the gold standard to assess serotype-specific antibody levels. We analysed serotype-specific antibody levels obtained by PRNT in two serological surveys conducted in Singapore in 2009 and 2013 using cluster analysis, a machine learning technique that was used to identify the most common histories of DENV exposure. We explored the use of five distinct clustering methods (i.e. agglomerative hierarchical, divisive hierarchical, K-means, K-medoids and model-based clustering) with varying number (from 4 to 10) of clusters for each method. Weighted rank aggregation, an evaluating technique for a set of internal validity metrics, was adopted to determine the optimal algorithm, comprising the optimal clustering method and the optimal number of clusters. The K-means algorithm with six clusters was selected as the algorithm with the highest weighted rank aggregation. The six clusters were characterised by (i) dominant DENV2 PRNT titres; (ii) co-dominant DENV1 and DENV2 titres with average DENV2 titre > average DENV1 titre; (iii) co-dominant DENV1 and DENV2 titres with average DENV1 titre > average DENV2 titre; (iv) low PRNT titres against DENV1-4; (v) intermediate PRNT titres against DENV1-4; and (vi) dominant DENV1-3 titres. Analyses of the relative size and age-stratification of the clusters by year of sample collection and the application of cluster analysis to the 2009 and 2013 datasets considered separately revealed the epidemic circulation of DENV2 and DENV3 between 2009 and 2013. Cluster analysis is an unsupervised machine learning technique that can be applied to analyse PRNT antibody titres (without pre-established cut-off thresholds to indicate protection) to explore common patterns of DENV infection and infer the likely history of dengue exposure in a population.

    更新日期:2020-01-17
  • The mosquito electrocuting trap as an exposure-free method for measuring human-biting rates by Aedes mosquito vectors
    Parasites Vectors (IF 3.031) Pub Date : 2020-01-15
    Leonardo D. Ortega-López; Emilie Pondeville; Alain Kohl; Renato León; Mauro Pazmiño Betancourth; Floriane Almire; Sergio Torres-Valencia; Segundo Saldarriaga; Nosrat Mirzai; Heather M. Ferguson

    Entomological monitoring of Aedes vectors has largely relied on surveillance of larvae, pupae and non-host-seeking adults, which have been poorly correlated with human disease incidence. Exposure to mosquito-borne diseases can be more directly estimated using human landing catches (HLC), although this method is not recommended for Aedes-borne arboviruses. We evaluated a new method previously tested with malaria vectors, the mosquito electrocuting trap (MET) as an exposure-free alternative for measuring landing rates of Aedes mosquitoes on people. Aims were to (i) compare the MET to the BG-sentinel (BGS) trap gold standard approach for sampling host-seeking Aedes vectors; and (ii) characterize the diel activity of Aedes vectors and their association with microclimatic conditions. The study was conducted over 12 days in Quinindé (Ecuador) in May 2017. Mosquito sampling stations were set up in the peridomestic area of four houses. On each day of sampling, each house was allocated either a MET or a BGS trap, which were rotated amongst the four houses daily in a Latin square design. Mosquito abundance and microclimatic conditions were recorded hourly at each sampling station between 7:00–19:00 h to assess variation between vector abundance, trapping methods, and environmental conditions. All Aedes aegypti females were tested for the presence of Zika (ZIKV), dengue (DENV) and chikungunya (CHIKV) viruses. A higher number of Ae. aegypti females were found in MET than in BGS collections, although no statistically significant differences in mean Ae. aegypti abundance between trapping methods were found. Both trapping methods indicated female Ae. aegypti had bimodal patterns of host-seeking, being highest during early morning and late afternoon hours. Mean Ae. aegypti daily abundance was negatively associated with daily temperature. No infection by ZIKV, DENV or CHIKV was detected in any Aedes mosquitoes caught by either trapping method. We conclude the MET performs at least as well as the BGS standard and offers the additional advantage of direct measurement of per capita human-biting rates. If detection of arboviruses can be confirmed in MET-collected Aedes in future studies, this surveillance method could provide a valuable tool for surveillance and prediction on human arboviral exposure risk.

    更新日期:2020-01-15
  • Efficacy of lotilaner (Credelio™) against the adult cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis and flea eggs following oral administration to dogs
    Parasites Vectors (IF 3.031) Pub Date : 2020-01-14
    Lisa Young; Daniela Karadzovska; Scott Wiseman; Rainer Helbig

    A blinded, randomized, negative controlled laboratory study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of lotilaner (CredelioTM, Elanco) when administered orally to dogs, against experimentally induced adult flea infestations and flea egg production. Twenty dogs were selected for the study and allocated to two treatment groups. Ten dogs were treated with lotilaner (at the lower half of the recommended dose range of 20–43 mg/kg) on Day 0. Ten dogs treated with placebo tablets served as the control group. Each dog was infested with 100 unfed adult C. felis fleas on days -1, 6, 13, 20 and 29. At 24 h post-treatment or post-infestation, each dog was combed for the removal and counting of adult live fleas. Flea eggs were also collected and counted from the pan under each dog cage. Dogs in the lotilaner treated group received a mean dose of 22.6 mg/kg (range 20.2–25.9 mg/kg) and no adverse events were observed in any dog in this study. At each evaluation time point, the lotilaner group provided 100% efficacy against adult live flea counts as compared to the placebo control group. Egg production from lotilaner treated dogs was reduced by 98.5% (geometric mean; 97.4% arithmetic mean) 24 h post-treatment (and 48 h post-flea infestation). No eggs (100% efficacy) were available for collection following infestations on Day 6 onwards from the lotilaner treated dogs. At each evaluation time point, adult live flea counts from the lotilaner treated dogs were significantly lower (P < 0.0001) than from the placebo control group. In dogs treated with a single dose of lotilaner (mean dose 22.6 mg/kg), 100% of adult fleas were killed within 24 h post-treatment or post-subsequent infestations as compared to the placebo control group, thereby demonstrating that lotilaner kills fleas before they can lay eggs thus preventing subsequent flea infestations for 30 days after treatment. There were no reported adverse events in any dogs, demonstrating that lotilaner tablets were well tolerated at the dose rates assessed in this study.

    更新日期:2020-01-15
  • Improved detection of house infestations with triatomines using sticky traps: a paired-comparison trial in the Argentine Chaco
    Parasites Vectors (IF 3.031) Pub Date : 2020-01-14
    Gustavo Fabián Enriquez; María Carla Cecere; Julián Antonio Alvarado-Otegui; Alejandra Alvedro; María Sol Gaspe; Mariano Alberto Laiño; Ricardo Esteban Gürtler; Marta Victoria Cardinal

    We conducted a matched-pairs trial of three methods for detecting house infestation with triatominae bugs in a well-defined endemic rural area in the Argentine Chaco. The three methods included a simple double-sided adhesive tape (ST) installed near host resting sites; timed-manual collections with a dislodging aerosol (TMC, the reference method used by vector control programmes), and householders’ bug notifications (HN). Triatomine infestations were evaluated in 103 sites of 54 houses, including domiciles, kitchens and storerooms. In domiciles where Triatoma infestans was collected, sensitivity of each single method decreased from 79% by ST and 77% by HN, to 57% by TMC, and increased to 92% when ST was combined with HN. In peridomestic kitchens and storerooms, TMC was relatively as sensitive as ST and significantly more sensitive than HN. On average, the number of bugs recovered by ST was 0.94 times that collected by TMC. The ST mainly collected early-instar nymphs whereas TMC yielded late (larger) stages. Triatomines caught by ST had significantly lower mean weight-to-length ratios and lower blood-feeding rates than those caught by TMC, suggesting the ST intercepted and trapped vectors seeking a blood meal host. The ST may effectively replace TMC for detecting T. infestans in domiciles, and is especially apt for early detection of low-density domestic infestations in the frame of community-based surveillance or elimination programmes; decision making on whether an area should be targeted for full-coverage insecticide spraying, and to corroborate that extant conditions are compatible with the interruption of vector-borne transmission.

    更新日期:2020-01-15
  • Native parasite affecting an introduced host in aquaculture: cardiac henneguyosis in the red seabream Pagrus major Temminck & Schlegel (Perciformes: Sparidae) caused by Henneguya aegea n. sp. (Myxosporea: Myxobolidae)
    Parasites Vectors (IF 3.031) Pub Date : 2020-01-14
    Pantelis Katharios; Panos Varvarigos; Kleoniki Keklikoglou; Maja Ruetten; Jerry Sojan; Morgina Akter; Maria Chiara Cascarano; Maria Ioanna Tsertou; Constantina Kokkari

    Henneguya Thélohan, 1892 (Myxobolidae) is one of the most species-rich genera of myxosporean parasites infecting fish. Although common in nature, there are few reports of these parasites causing important disease in aquaculture. In this paper, we describe a new species of Henneguya infecting Pagrus major (Temminck & Schlegel), a fish host introduced to the Mediterranean Sea from Japan in the late 1980s. Large plasmodia of the parasite were found in the bulbus arteriosus and in the ventricle of the infected fish. Spores were found mainly in the kidney and heart and were accompanied by melanized macrophages or vascular intimal proliferation mixed with a mild non-suppurative response, respectively. Comparisons of morphometric data for spore and polar capsule length and width, suggest a unique combination of features in the newly described species. Molecular analysis, based on 18S rDNA sequence of the parasite, followed by phylogenetic analysis, indicated that the parasite described here is a novel species of Henneguya, clustered with the marine congeneric species. Henneguya aegea n. sp. infects in aquaculture P. major, a host introduced as eggs to the Mediterranean from Japan. Despite the high host specificity of the myxobolid parasites, H. aegea n. sp. seems to be able to use P. major as a host and propagate successfully, causing morbidity and mortality. This could result in spillback of the new species from high density cultured non-native P. major to native fish hosts.

    更新日期:2020-01-15
  • Identification and molecular characterization of Wolbachia strains in natural populations of Aedes albopictus in China
    Parasites Vectors (IF 3.031) Pub Date : 2020-01-14
    Yaping Hu; Zhiyong Xi; Xiaobo Liu; Jun Wang; Yuhong Guo; Dongsheng Ren; Haixia Wu; Xiaohua Wang; Bin Chen; Qiyong Liu

    Aedes albopictus is naturally infected with Wolbachia spp., maternally transmitted bacteria that influence the reproduction of hosts. However, little is known regarding the prevalence of infection, multiple infection status, and the relationship between Wolbachia density and dengue outbreaks in different regions. Here, we assessed Wolbachia infection in natural populations of Ae. albopictus in China and compared Wolbachia density between regions with similar climates, without dengue and with either imported or local dengue. To explore the prevalence of Wolbachia infection, Wolbachia DNA was detected in mosquito samples via PCR amplification of the 16S rRNA gene and the surface protein gene wsp. We found that 93.36% of Ae. albopictus in China were positive for Wolbachia. After sequencing gatB, coxA, hcpA, ftsZ, fbpA and wsp genes of Wolbachia strains, we identified a new sequence type (ST) of wAlbB (464/465). Phylogenetic analysis indicated that wAlbA and wAlbB strains formed a cluster with strains from other mosquitoes in a wsp-based maximum likelihood (ML) tree. However, in a ML tree based on multilocus sequence typing (MLST), wAlbB STs (464/465) did not form a cluster with Wolbachia strains from other mosquitoes. To better understand the association between Wolbachia spp. and dengue infection, the prevalence of Wolbachia in Ae. albopictus from different regions (containing local dengue cases, imported dengue cases and no dengue cases) was determined. We found that the prevalence of Wolbachia was lower in regions with only imported dengue cases. The natural prevalence of Wolbachia infections in China was much lower than in other countries or regions. The phylogenetic relationships among Wolbachia spp. isolated from field-collected Ae. albopictus reflected the presence of dominant and stable strains. However, wAlbB (464/465) and Wolbachia strains did not form a clade with Wolbachia strains from other mosquitoes. Moreover, lower densities of Wolbachia in regions with only imported dengue cases suggest a relationship between fluctuations in Wolbachia density in field-collected Ae. albopictus and the potential for dengue invasion into these regions.

    更新日期:2020-01-15
  • Comparative vector competence of North American Lyme disease vectors
    Parasites Vectors (IF 3.031) Pub Date : 2020-01-14
    Lisa I. Couper; Youyun Yang; Xiaofeng Frank Yang; Andrea Swei

    Understanding the drivers of Lyme disease incidence at broad spatial scales is critical for predicting and mitigating human disease risk. Previous studies have identified vector phenology and behavior, host community composition, and landscape features as drivers of variable Lyme disease risk. However, while the Lyme disease transmission cycles in the eastern and western USA involve different vector species (Ixodes scapularis and Ixodes pacificus, respectively), the role of vector-specific differences in transmission efficiency has not been directly examined. By comparing the performance of traits involved in vector competence between these two species, this study aims to identify how vector competence contributes to variable Lyme disease risk. We used a suite of laboratory experiments to compare the performance of traits related to vector competence for the two USA Lyme disease vectors. For each species, we measured the rate of attachment to a common rodent host, the engorgement weight, and the efficiency of pathogen acquisition (host to tick) and pathogen transmission (tick to host) from laboratory mice. In measuring pathogen acquisition and transmission, we used two different pathogen strains, one sympatric with I. scapularis and one sympatric with I. pacificus, to assess the importance of vector-pathogen coevolutionary history in transmission dynamics. We found I. pacificus had significantly higher host attachment success and engorgement weights, but significantly lower pathogen transmission efficiency relative to I. scapularis. Molting success and pathogen acquisition did not differ between these two species. However, pathogen acquisition efficiency was significantly higher for both sympatric vector and pathogen strains than the allopatric pairings. This study identified species-specific vector traits as a potential driver of broad scale variation in Lyme disease risk in the USA. In particular, the exceedingly low rates of pathogen transmission from tick to host observed for I. pacificus may limit Lyme disease transmission efficiency in the western USA. Further, observed variation in pathogen acquisition between sympatric and allopatric vector-pathogen strains indicate that vector-pathogen coevolutionary history may play a key role in transmission dynamics. These findings underscore the need to consider vector traits and vector-pathogen coevolution as important factors governing regional Lyme disease risk.

    更新日期:2020-01-15
  • Prevalence of Blastocystis sp. infection in several hosts in Brazil: a systematic review and meta-analysis
    Parasites Vectors (IF 3.031) Pub Date : 2020-01-14
    Andernice dos Santos Zanetti; Antonio Francisco Malheiros; Tatiane Amorim de Matos; Fabiana Gulin Longhi; Luciana Melhorança Moreira; Samuel Laudelino Silva; Solange Kimie Ikeda Castrillon; Silvana Margarida Benevides Ferreira; Eliane Ignotti; Omar Ariel Espinosa

    Blastocystis sp. affects a wide variety of animals and is the most common protozoan in human fecal samples with potential pandemic distribution. In the present study, a systematic review and meta-analysis were conducted to determine the prevalence and distribution of Blastocystis sp. in different classes of hosts in Brazil. Studies that analyzed hosts of various classes, including humans, domestic animals, wild animals or captive animals, were considered. The pooled prevalence of Blastocystis sp. infection was estimated by random effects models. For humans, similar prevalence rates were found for males (31.0%, 95% CI: 17.0–45.0%; weight 10%) and females (28.0%, 95% CI: 16.0–41.0%; weight 10%); the state of Mato Grosso do Sul showed the highest prevalence, with 41.0% positivity (95% CI: 36.0–46.0%; weight 2.9%). The prevalence among immunocompromised patients was 5.0% (95% CI: 3.0–7.0%; weight 10%), and the most common cause of immunosuppression was hemodialysis, with 23.0% (95% CI: 17.0–29.0%; weight 12.4%). Among classifications according to interaction with humans, wild and domestic animals presented values of 19.0% (95% CI: 7.0–31.0%; weight 42.6%) and 17.0% (95% CI: 13.0–21.0%; weight 29.6%), respectively. Among these animals, mammals (39.0%, 95% CI: 21.0–56.0%; weight 47.3%) and birds (18.0%, 95% CI: 10.0–27.0%; weight 39.3%) exhibited the highest prevalence. Phylogenetic analysis of Blastocystis sp. revealed greater genetic diversity for clades of subtypes (STs) ST1, ST2 and ST3. The overall prevalence of Blastocystis sp. in the Brazilian human population was 24%, which reflects the reality in the South, Southeast and Midwest regions, where prevalence rates of up to 40% were found. Among animals, mammals and birds exhibited the highest prevalence.

    更新日期:2020-01-15
  • Prevalence of Trypanosoma evansi in livestock in Palestine
    Parasites Vectors (IF 3.031) Pub Date : 2020-01-13
    Suheir Ereqat; Abdelmajeed Nasereddin; Amer Al-Jawabreh; Hanan Al-Jawabreh; Nahed Al-Laham; Ziad Abdeen

    Trypanosoma evansi is the causative agent of surra, a disease that occurs in many animal species. The disease is responsible for substantial losses in global production and can be fatal if not diagnosed early. This study aims to determine the prevalence of T. evansi in livestock, equids and dromedary camels in Palestine. Blood samples were collected during 2015–2017 from domesticated animals (n = 259 animals; 77% females and 23% males) including camels (n = 87), horses (n = 46), donkeys (n = 28), mules (n = 2), sheep (n = 49) and goats (n = 48) from eight districts: Ariha (Jericho), Nablus, Bethlehem, Deir Al Balah, Jenin, Rafah, Tubas, and Khan Yunis. Parasite prevalence was determined using PCR and blood smear microscopy. PCR-positive samples were further phylogenetically analyzed using DNA sequences of the 18S ribosomal RNA gene. The overall infection prevalence was 18% (46/259). The positivity rates according to PCR and microscopy examination were 17% (45/259) and 2.7% (7/259), respectively. The infection rates were as follows: camels, 26/61 (30%); horses, 8/46 (17%); donkeys, 3/28 (11%); mules, 1/2 (50%); sheep, 2/42 (4%); and goats, 6/42 (13%). Phylogenetic analyses of the 18S rRNA gene showed that 24 positive T. evansi samples from Palestine formed a monophyletic cluster with seven T. evansi sequences from Africa, Asia and South America, and three T. brucei sequences from Africa retrieved from GenBank. The spatial analysis showed three statistically significant foci of T. evansi infection in Jenin, Tubas (P = 0.02) and Ariha (Jericho) (P = 0.04). No statistically significant foci were detected in the Gaza Strip. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first confirmation of high levels of infection with T. evansi as a causative agent of surra in Palestine. Our study emphasizes the need for a stringent surveillance system and risk assessment studies as prerequisites for control measures. Further investigations focusing on vectors and evaluation of risk factors are needed.

    更新日期:2020-01-14
  • Does Bangkok have a central role in the dengue dynamics of Thailand?
    Parasites Vectors (IF 3.031) Pub Date : 2020-01-13
    Zhiwei Xu; Hilary Bambrick; Puntani Pongsumpun; I. Ming Tang; Laith Yakob; Gregor Devine; Francesca D. Frentiu; Gail Williams; Wenbiao Hu

    Bangkok plays a central role in the commerce of Thailand. This study aimed to characterize the district-level spatial-temporal patterns of dengue in Thailand and explore if a dengue peak in Bangkok led the peaks of dengue in other Thai provinces. Monthly dengue data at district level in Thailand from January 2004 to December 2017 were obtained and used to assess the spatial and seasonal patterns of dengue in Thailand. As our seasonal decomposition and cross-correlation analyses showed that dengue in Bangkok peaked in November, which was a few months after the dengue peak in most other provinces, we used a time-series generalized linear model to explore if there was another province in which the dengue case number was most predictive of dengue case numbers in other Thai provinces. The highest district-level annual dengue incidence rates (per 10,000) in the three time periods (i.e. 2004–2008, 2009–2013 and 2014–2017) were 58.08 (Samphanthawong), 85.93 (Mueang Krabi), and 66.60 (Mae Sariang), respectively. Dengue incidence rates in the western part of Northern Thailand, southern part of Central Thailand, southern part of Eastern Thailand, and Southern Thailand were higher than in other regions. Dengue in most districts of Thailand peaked in June, July or August, but dengue peaks in all districts of Bangkok occurred in November. The number of dengue cases in Nakhon Ratchasima was most predictive of the number of dengue cases in other provinces in Thailand by a one-month lag. Our results suggest that the dengue peak in Bangkok did not lead the peaks of dengue in other Thai provinces. Future research exploring how changes in socio-ecological factors (e.g. road network and climate factors) in Nakhon Ratchasima have affected the transmission of dengue in Thailand might shed some new light on the prevention and control of dengue.

    更新日期:2020-01-14
  • Effects of fungal infection on the survival of parasitic bat flies
    Parasites Vectors (IF 3.031) Pub Date : 2020-01-13
    Tamara Szentiványi; Péter Estók; Romain Pigeault; Philippe Christe; Olivier Glaizot

    Parasites are able to alter numerous aspects of their hosts’ life history, behaviour and distribution. One central question in parasitology is to determine the degree of impact that parasites have on their hosts. Laboulbeniales (Fungi: Ascomycota) are ectoparasitic fungi of arthropods. Even though these fungi are widely distributed, little is known about their ecology and their possible physiological effects on their hosts. We used a highly specific bat fly-fungi association to assess the effect of these fungal parasites on their dipteran hosts. We collected bat flies (Diptera: Nycteribiidae) belonging to two species, Nycteribia schmidlii and Penicillidia conspicua from their bat host Miniopterus schreibersii (Chiroptera: Miniopteridae). We experimentally tested the effect of infection on the lifespan of bat flies. The prevalence of Laboulbeniales fungi was 17.9% in N. schmidlii and 64.8% in P. conspicua. Two fungi species were identified, Arthrorhynchus eucampsipodae and A. nycteribiae, both showing strict host specificity with N. schmidlii and P. conspicua, respectively. We found that fungal infection reduced by half the survival rate of P. conspicua regardless of sex, whereas N. schmidlii was not affected by the infection. Moreover, the intensity of infection showed negative correlation with the lifespan of P. conspicua. To our knowledge, this is the first indication that fungal infection can alter bat fly survival and thus may play a significant role in the population dynamics of these bat ectoparasites.

    更新日期:2020-01-14
  • Cutaneous and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis: experience of a Mediterranean hospital
    Parasites Vectors (IF 3.031) Pub Date : 2020-01-13
    Marta Garrido-Jareño; Antonio Sahuquillo-Torralba; Rabab Chouman-Arcas; Iván Castro-Hernández; José Miguel Molina-Moreno; Margarita Llavador-Ros; María Dolores Gómez-Ruiz; José Luis López-Hontangas; Rafael Botella-Estrada; Miguel Salavert-Lleti; Javier Pemán-García

    Leishmaniasis, considered by the World Health Organization as one of the most important tropical diseases, is endemic in the Mediterranean Basin. The aim of this study was to evaluate epidemiological and clinical characteristics of cutaneous (CL) and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (MCL) in La Fe University Hospital, Valencia, Spain. The particular focus was on diagnosis techniques and clinical differences according to the immunological status of the patients. An eleven-year retrospective observational study of CL and MCL episodes at the hospital was performed. Epidemiological, clinical and therapeutic variables of each case, together with the microbiological and anatomopathological diagnosis, were analyzed. A total of 42 patients were included, 30 of them were male and 28 were immunocompetent. Most of the cases (36/42) were diagnosed in the last 5 years (2013–2017). The incidence of CL and MCL increased from 3.6/100,000 (2006–2012) to 13.58/100,000 (2013–2017). The majority of the patients (37/42) exhibited CL, in 30 cases as single lesions (30/37). Ulcerative lesions were more common in immunosuppressed patients (13/14) than in immunocompetent patients (20/28), (P = 0.2302). The length of lesion presence before diagnosis was 7.36 ± 6.72 months in immunocompetent patients and 8.79 ± 6.9 months in immunosuppressed patients (P = 0.1863). Leishmania DNA detection (92.3%) was the most sensitive diagnostic technique followed by Giemsa stain (65%) and histopathological examination (53.8%). Twelve patients (12/42) had close contact with dogs or were living near to kennels, and 10 of them did not present underlying conditions. Intralesional glucantime (21/42) and liposomal amphotericin B (7/42) were the most common treatments administered in monotherapy. All patients evolved successfully and no relapse was reported. Some interesting clinical and epidemiological differences were found in our series between immunocompetent and immunosuppressed patients. Future studies can take these results further especially by studying patients with biological therapy. Skin biopsies combining NAAT with histological techniques are the most productive techniques for CL or MCL diagnosis.

    更新日期:2020-01-14
  • Gene copy number and function of the APL1 immune factor changed during Anopheles evolution
    Parasites Vectors (IF 3.031) Pub Date : 2020-01-13
    Christian Mitri; Emmanuel Bischoff; Karin Eiglmeier; Inge Holm; Constentin Dieme; Emma Brito-Fravallo; Abbasali Raz; Sedigheh Zakeri; Mahdokht I. K. Nejad; Navid D. Djadid; Kenneth D. Vernick; Michelle M. Riehle

    The recent reference genome assembly and annotation of the Asian malaria vector Anopheles stephensi detected only one gene encoding the leucine-rich repeat immune factor APL1, while in the Anopheles gambiae and sibling Anopheles coluzzii, APL1 factors are encoded by a family of three paralogs. The phylogeny and biological function of the unique APL1 gene in An. stephensi have not yet been specifically examined. The APL1 locus was manually annotated to confirm the computationally predicted single APL1 gene in An. stephensi. APL1 evolution within Anopheles was explored by phylogenomic analysis. The single or paralogous APL1 genes were silenced in An. stephensi and An. coluzzii, respectively, followed by mosquito survival analysis, experimental infection with Plasmodium and expression analysis. APL1 is present as a single ancestral gene in most Anopheles including An. stephensi but has expanded to three paralogs in an African lineage that includes only the Anopheles gambiae species complex and Anopheles christyi. Silencing of the unique APL1 copy in An. stephensi results in significant mosquito mortality. Elevated mortality of APL1-depleted An. stephensi is rescued by antibiotic treatment, suggesting that pathology due to bacteria is the cause of mortality, and indicating that the unique APL1 gene is essential for host survival. Successful Plasmodium development in An. stephensi depends upon APL1 activity for protection from high host mortality due to bacteria. In contrast, silencing of all three APL1 paralogs in An. coluzzii does not result in elevated mortality, either with or without Plasmodium infection. Expression of the single An. stephensi APL1 gene is regulated by both the Imd and Toll immune pathways, while the two signaling pathways regulate different APL1 paralogs in the expanded APL1 locus. APL1 underwent loss and gain of functions concomitant with expansion from a single ancestral gene to three paralogs in one lineage of African Anopheles. We infer that activity of the unique APL1 gene promotes longevity in An. stephensi by conferring protection from or tolerance to an effect of bacterial pathology. The evolution of an expanded APL1 gene family could be a factor contributing to the exceptional levels of malaria transmission mediated by human-feeding members of the An. gambiae species complex in Africa.

    更新日期:2020-01-13
  • Yeast-encapsulated essential oils: a new perspective as an environmentally friendly larvicide
    Parasites Vectors (IF 3.031) Pub Date : 2020-01-13
    Michael J. Workman; Bruno Gomes; Ju-Lin Weng; Linnea K. Ista; Camila P. Jesus; Mariana R. David; Marcelo Ramalho-Ortigao; Fernando A. Genta; Scott K. Matthews; Ravi Durvasula; Ivy Hurwitz

    Effective mosquito control approaches incorporate both adult and larval stages. For the latter, physical, biological, and chemical control have been used with varying results. Successful control of larvae has been demonstrated using larvicides including insect growth regulators, e.g. the organophosphate temephos, as well as various entomopathogenic microbial species. However, a variety of health and environmental issues are associated with some of these. Laboratory trials of essential oils (EO) have established the larvicidal activity of these substances, but there are currently no commercially available EO-based larvicides. Here we report on the development of a new approach to mosquito larval control using a novel, yeast-based delivery system for EO. Food-grade orange oil (OO) was encapsulated into yeast cells following an established protocol. To prevent environmental contamination, a proprietary washing strategy was developed to remove excess EO that is adsorbed to the cell exterior during the encapsulation process. The OO-loaded yeast particles were then characterized for OO loading, and tested for efficacy against Aedes aegypti larvae. The composition of encapsulated OO extracted from the yeast microparticles was demonstrated not to differ from that of un-encapsulated EO when analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography. After lyophilization, the oil in the larvicide comprised 26–30 percentage weight (wt%), and is consistent with the 60–65% reduction in weight observed after the drying process. Quantitative bioassays carried with Liverpool and Rockefeller Ae. aegypti strains in three different laboratories presented LD50 of 5.1 (95% CI: 4.6–5.6) to 27.6 (95% CI: 26.4–28.8) mg/l, for L1 and L3/L4 mosquito larvae, respectively. LD90 ranged between 18.9 (95% CI: 16.4–21.7) mg/l (L1 larvae) to 76.7 (95% CI: 69.7–84.3) mg/l (L3/L4 larvae). The larvicide based on OO encapsulated in yeast was shown to be highly active (LD50 < 50 mg/l) against all larval stages of Ae. aegypti. These results demonstrate its potential for incorporation in an integrated approach to larval source management of Ae. aegypti. This novel approach can enable development of affordable control strategies that may have significant impact on global health.

    更新日期:2020-01-13
  • Clonorchis sinensis MF6p/HDM (CsMF6p/HDM) induces pro-inflammatory immune response in RAW 264.7 macrophage cells via NF-κB-dependent MAPK pathways
    Parasites Vectors (IF 3.031) Pub Date : 2020-01-13
    Jung-Mi Kang; Won Gi Yoo; Hương Giang Lê; Jinyoung Lee; Woon-Mok Sohn; Byoung-Kuk Na

    MF6p/host defense molecules (HDMs) are a broad family of small proteins secreted by helminth parasites. Although the physiological role of MF6p/HDMs in trematode parasites is not fully understood, their potential biological function in maintaining heme homeostasis and modulating host immune response has been proposed. A gene encoding the MF6p/HDM of Clonorchis sinensis (CsMF6p/HDM) was cloned. Recombinant CsMF6p/HDM (rCsMF6p/HDM) was expressed in Escherichia coli. The biochemical and immunological properties of rCsMF6/HDM were analyzed. CsMF6p/HDM induced pro-inflammatory response in RAW 264.7 cells was analyzed by cytokine array assay, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The structural feature of CsMF6p/HDM was analyzed by three-dimensional modeling and molecular docking simulations. The CsMF6p/HDM shares a high level of amino acid sequence similarity with orthologs from other trematodes and is expressed in diverse developmental stages of the parasite. The rCsMF6p/HDM bound to bacteria-derived lipopolysaccharide (LPS), without effectively neutralizing LPS-induced inflammatory response in RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. Rather, the rCsMF6p/HDM induced pro-inflammatory immune response, which is characterized by the expression of TNF-α and IL-6, in RAW 264.7 cells. The rCsMF6p/HDM-induced pro-inflammatory immune response was regulated by JNK and p38 MAPKs, and was effectively down-regulated via inhibition of NF-κB. The structural analysis of CsMF6p/HDM and the docking simulation with LPS suggested insufficient capture of LPS by CsMF6p/HDM, which suggested that rCsMF6p/HDM could not effectively neutralize LPS-induced inflammatory response in RAW 264.7 cells. Although rCsMF6p/HDM binds to LPS, the binding affinity may not be sufficient to maintain a stable complex of rCsMF6p/HDM and LPS. Moreover, the rCsMF6p/HDM-induced pro-inflammatory response is characterized by the release of IL-6 and TNF-α in RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. The pro-inflammatory response induced by rCsMF6p/HDM is mediated via NF-κB-dependent MAPK signaling pathway. These results collectively suggest that CsMF6p/HDM mediates C. sinensis-induced inflammation cascades that eventually lead to hepatobiliary diseases.

    更新日期:2020-01-13
  • Rickettsiae in the common pipistrelle Pipistrellus pipistrellus (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae) and the bat soft tick Argas vespertilionis (Ixodida: Argasidae)
    Parasites Vectors (IF 3.031) Pub Date : 2020-01-09
    Shuo Zhao; Meihua Yang; Gang Liu; Sándor Hornok; Shanshan Zhao; Chunli Sang; Wenbo Tan; Yuanzhi Wang

    Increasing molecular evidence supports that bats and/or their ectoparasites may harbor vector-borne bacteria, such as bartonellae and borreliae. However, the simultaneous occurrence of rickettsiae in bats and bat ticks has been poorly studied. In this study, 54 bat carcasses and their infesting soft ticks (n = 67) were collected in Shihezi City, northwestern China. The heart, liver, spleen, lung, kidney, small intestine and large intestine of bats were dissected, followed by DNA extraction. Soft ticks were identified both morphologically and molecularly. All samples were examined for the presence of rickettsiae by amplifying four genetic markers (17-kDa, gltA, ompA and ompB). All bats were identified as Pipistrellus pipistrellus, and their ticks as Argas vespertilionis. Molecular analyses showed that DNA of Rickettsia parkeri, R. lusitaniae, R. slovaca and R. raoultii was present in bat organs/tissues. In addition, nine of the 67 bat soft ticks (13.43%) were positive for R. raoultii (n = 5) and R. rickettsii (n = 4). In the phylogenetic analysis, these bat-associated rickettsiae clustered together with conspecific sequences reported from other host and tick species, confirming the above results. To the best of our knowledge, DNA of R. parkeri, R. slovaca and R. raoultii was detected for the first time in bat organs/tissues. This is also the first molecular evidence for the presence of R. raoultii and R. rickettsii in bat ticks. To our knowledge, R. parkeri was not known to occur in Asia. Our results highlight the need to assess rickettsial agents in a broader range of bat species and associated tick species.

    更新日期:2020-01-11
  • Bionomics and insecticide resistance of Aedes albopictus in Shandong, a high latitude and high-risk dengue transmission area in China
    Parasites Vectors (IF 3.031) Pub Date : 2020-01-09
    Hongmei Liu; Luhong Liu; Peng Cheng; Linlin Yang; Junhu Chen; Yao Lu; Haifang Wang; Xiao-Guang Chen; Maoqing Gong

    Dengue fever outbreaks tend to spread northward in China, and Jining is the northernmost region where local dengue fever cases have been detected. Therefore, it is important to investigate the density of Aedes albopictus and its resistance to deltamethrin. The Breteau index (BI) and container index (CI) were calculated to assess the larval density of Ae. albopictus and human-baited double net trap (HDN) surveillance was performed in six subordinate counties (Rencheng, Yanzhou, Sishui, Liangshan, Zoucheng and Jiaxiang) of Jining City in 2017 and 2018. The resistance of Ae. albopictus adults to deltamethrin was evaluated using the World Health Organization (WHO) standard resistance bioassay. The mutations at Vgsc codons 1532 and 1534 were also analysed to determine the association between kdr mutations and phenotypic resistance in adult mosquitoes. The average BI, CI and biting rate at Jining were 45.30, 16.02 and 1.97 (female /man/hour) in 2017 and 15.95, 7.86 and 0.59 f/m/h in 2018, respectively. In August 26, 2017, when the first dengue fever case was diagnosed, the BI at Qianli village in Jiaxiang County was 107.27. The application of prevention and control measures by the government sharply decreased the BI to a value of 4.95 in September 3, 2017. The mortality of field-collected Ae. albopictus females from Jiaxiang was 41.98%. I1532T, F1534L and F1534S mutations were found in domain III of the Vgsc gene. This study provides the first demonstration that both I1532T and F1534S mutations are positively correlated with the deltamethrin-resistant phenotype. Mosquito density surveillance, resistance monitoring and risk assessment should be strengthened in areas at risk for dengue to ensure the sustainable control of Ae. albopictus and thus the prevention and control of dengue transmission.

    更新日期:2020-01-11
  • Mosquito diversity and dog heartworm prevalence in suburban areas
    Parasites Vectors (IF 3.031) Pub Date : 2020-01-10
    Meredith R. Spence Beaulieu; Jennifer L. Federico; Michael H. Reiskind

    Urbanization is occurring rapidly on a global scale and is altering mosquito communities, creating assemblages that are characteristically less diverse. Despite high rates of urbanization and ample examples of vector-borne diseases transmitted by multiple species, the effects of urbanization-driven mosquito diversity losses on disease transmission has not been well explored. We investigated this question using the dog heartworm, a filarial parasite vectored by numerous mosquito species. We trapped host-seeking mosquitoes in undeveloped areas and neighborhoods of different ages in Wake County, North Carolina, USA, analyzing captured mosquitoes for heartworm DNA. We compared within-mosquito heartworm infection across land-use types by Kruskal–Wallis and likelihood ratio tests. Using zip code level data acquired from dogs in a local shelter, we performed linear regressions of within-host heartworm prevalence by within-mosquito heartworm prevalence as well as by three mosquito diversity measures. We also determined the best predictor of host-level prevalence among models including within-mosquito infection, mosquito diversity and abundance, and socioeconomic status as variables. Suburban areas had lower within-mosquito heartworm prevalence and lower likelihood of heartworm-positive mosquitoes than did undeveloped field sites, although no differences were seen between suburban and undeveloped wooded sites. No relationships were noted between within-mosquito and within-host heartworm prevalence. However, mosquito diversity metrics were positively correlated with host heartworm prevalence. Model selection revealed within-host prevalence was best predicted by a positive relationship with mosquito Shannon–Wiener diversity and a negative relationship with household income. Our results demonstrate that decreases in mosquito diversity due to urbanization alter vector-borne disease risk. With regard to dog heartworm disease, this loss of mosquito diversity is associated with decreased heartworm prevalence within both the vector and the host. Although the response is likely different for diseases transmitted by one or few species, mosquito diversity losses leading to decreased transmission could be generalizable to other pathogens with multiple vectors. This study contributes to better understanding of the effects of urbanization and the role of vector diversity in multi-vectored pathosystems.

    更新日期:2020-01-11
  • Expanding our view of Bartonella and its hosts: Bartonella in nest ectoparasites and their migratory avian hosts
    Parasites Vectors (IF 3.031) Pub Date : 2020-01-10
    Heather M. Williams; Katharina Dittmar

    Bartonella is a genus of Gram-negative facultative intracellular Alphaproteobacteria of public health importance. Although they are known to mainly infect mammalian hosts with some blood-feeding arthropods having been confirmed as vectors, there is some evidence of Bartonella association with non-mammalian hosts including birds. Here we used high-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA and Sanger sequencing of the citrate synthase (gltA) genes to test for the presence of Bartonellaceae in the blood of three migratory cavity nesting bird species, purple martins (Progne subis), tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) and eastern bluebirds (Sialia sialis) and their most prevalent and abundant nest ectoparasites, Dermanyssus prognephilus (mite), Ceratophyllus idius (flea) and Protocalliphora sialia (bird blow fly larva). We constructed maximum likelihood phylogenetic trees to verify the placement of the resulting sequences in the Bartonellaceae. We found evidence of Bartonella in all three bird species and all three arthropod species tested. We report multiple instances of identical Bartonella sequences in both birds and parasites, leading to the likely hypothesis that these ectoparasites are potential vectors of Bartonella. Our phylogenetic analysis suggests that ‘avian Bartonella’ may form its own sub-clade within the genus Bartonella. To the best of our knowledge, we provide the first confirmation of overlapping Bartonella strains among bird hosts and various species of nest-associated ectoparasites from the same system, suggesting a possible Bartonella host–vector relationship between these arthropods and a non-mammalian host. Our study adds to the growing appreciation of the Bartonellaceae as a phylogenetically diverse group with a wide range of hosts.

    更新日期:2020-01-11
  • Molecular diversity of Bulinus species in Madziwa area, Shamva district in Zimbabwe: implications for urogenital schistosomiasis transmission
    Parasites Vectors (IF 3.031) Pub Date : 2020-01-10
    Masceline Jenipher Mutsaka-Makuvaza; Xiao-Nong Zhou; Cremance Tshuma; Eniola Abe; Justen Manasa; Tawanda Manyangadze; Fiona Allan; Nyasha Chinómbe; Bonnie Webster; Nicholas Midzi

    Bulinus species are freshwater snails that transmit the parasitic trematode Schistosoma haematobium. Despite their importance, the diversity of these intermediate host snails and their evolutionary history is still unclear in Zimbabwe. Bulinus globosus and B. truncatus collected from a urogenital schistosomiasis endemic region in the Madziwa area of Zimbabwe were characterized using molecular methods. Malacological survey sites were mapped and snails were collected from water contact sites in four communities in the Madziwa area, Shamva district for a period of one year, at three-month intervals. Schistosoma haematobium infections in snails were determined by cercarial shedding and the partial mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene (cox1) was used to investigate the phylogeny and genetic variability of the Bulinus spp. collected. Among the 1570 Bulinus spp. snails collected, 30 (1.9%) B. globosus were shedding morphologically identified schistosomes. None of the B. truncatus snails were shedding. The mitochondrial cox1 data from 166 and 16 samples for B. globosus and B. truncatus, respectively, showed genetically diverse populations within the two species. Twelve cox1 haplotypes were found from the 166 B. globosus samples and three from the 16 B. truncatus samples with phylogenetic analysis showing that the haplotypes fall into well-supported clusters within their species groups. Both B. truncatus and B. globosus clustered into two distinct lineages. Overall, significant negative values for both Tajima’s D statistic and the Fu’s Fs statistic were observed for B. globosus and B. truncatus. The study provided new insights into the levels of genetic diversity within B. globosus and additional information on B. truncatus collected from a small geographical area in Zimbabwe. Low prevalence levels of infection observed in the snails may reflect the low transmission level of urogenital schistosomiasis in the area. Our results contribute towards the understanding of the distribution and population genetic structure of Bulinus spp. supporting the mapping of the transmission or risk of transmission of urogenital schistosomiasis, particularly in Zimbabwe.

    更新日期:2020-01-11
  • Genetic diversity of Blastocystis in kindergarten children in southern Xinjiang, China
    Parasites Vectors (IF 3.031) Pub Date : 2020-01-10
    Meng Qi; Zilin Wei; Ying Zhang; Qiyuan Zhang; Juanfeng Li; Longxian Zhang; Rongjun Wang

    Blastocystis is one of the most common intestinal parasites in humans and various animals worldwide. Few studies are available regarding the genetic characterization of Blastocystis infections in humans in China. In the present study, 609 fecal samples were collected from two- to six-year-old kindergarten children in southern Xinjiang and were examined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The infection rate of Blastocystis was 14.3% (87/609); no significant difference was observed among counties and between sexes. Blastocystis subtypes ST1 (n = 38), ST2 (n = 8), and ST3 (n = 41) were identified by sequence analysis of the small subunit ribosomal RNA gene. Genetic polymorphisms were observed at the intra-subtype level, including seven variations for ST1 (ST1A to ST1G), four for ST2 (ST2A to ST2D), and two for ST3 (ST3A and ST3B); with ST1F and ST2B being new variations. ST1 and ST3 are the two common Blastocystis subtypes in the study area. More extensive studies in both humans and animals in different regions are needed to better characterize the transmission of Blastocystis.

    更新日期:2020-01-11
  • Highly specific PCR-RFLP assays for karyotyping the widespread 2Rb inversion in malaria vectors of the Anopheles gambiae complex
    Parasites Vectors (IF 3.031) Pub Date : 2020-01-10
    Raquel Montanez-Gonzalez; Verena Pichler; Maria Calzetta; Rachel R. Love; Alexandra Vallera; Lydia Schaecher; Beniamino Caputo; Marco Pombi; Vincenzo Petrarca; Alessandra della Torre; Nora J. Besansky

    Chromosomal inversion polymorphisms play a role in adaptation to heterogeneous environments. Inversion polymorphisms are implicated in the very high ecological flexibility of the three main malaria vector species of the Afrotropical Anopheles gambiae complex, facilitating the exploitation of anthropogenic environmental modifications and promoting a strong association with humans. In addition to extending the species’ spatial and temporal distribution, inversions are associated with epidemiologically relevant mosquito behavior and physiology, underscoring their medical importance. We here present novel PCR-RFLP based assays strongly predictive of genotype for the cosmopolitan 2Rb inversion in An. coluzzii and An. gambiae, a development which overcomes the numerous constraints inherent to traditional cytological karyotyping. We designed PCR-RFLP genotyping assays based on tag SNPs previously computationally identified as strongly predictive (> 95%) of 2Rb genotype. We targeted those tags whose alternative allelic states destroyed or created the recognition site of a commercially available restriction enzyme, and designed assays with distinctive cleavage profiles for each inversion genotype. The assays were validated on 251 An. coluzzii and 451 An. gambiae cytologically karyotyped specimens from nine countries across Africa and one An. coluzzii laboratory colony. For three tag SNPs, PCR-RFLP assays (denoted DraIII, MspAI, and TatI) reliably produced robust amplicons and clearly distinguishable electrophoretic profiles for all three inversion genotypes. Results obtained with the DraIII assay are ≥ 95% concordant with cytogenetic assignments in both species, while MspAI and TatI assays produce patterns highly concordant with cytogenetic assignments only in An. coluzzii or An. gambiae, respectively. Joint application of species-appropriate pairs of assays increased the concordance levels to > 99% in An. coluzzii and 98% in An. gambiae. Potential sources of discordance (e.g. imperfect association between tag and inversion, allelic dropout, additional polymorphisms in the restriction target site, incomplete or failed restriction digestion) are discussed. The availability of highly specific, cost effective and accessible molecular assays for genotyping 2Rb in An. gambiae and An. coluzzii allows karyotyping of both sexes and all developmental stages. These novel tools will accelerate deeper investigations into the role of this ecologically and epidemiologically important chromosomal inversion in vector biology.

    更新日期:2020-01-11
  • Anopheles gambiae populations from Burkina Faso show minimal delayed mortality after exposure to insecticide-treated nets
    Parasites Vectors (IF 3.031) Pub Date : 2020-01-10
    Angela Hughes; Natalie Lissenden; Mafalda Viana; Kobié Hyacinthe Toé; Hilary Ranson

    The efficacy of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) in preventing malaria in Africa is threatened by insecticide resistance. Bioassays assessing 24-hour mortality post-LLIN exposure have established that resistance to the concentration of pyrethroids used in LLINs is widespread. However, although mosquitoes may no longer be rapidly killed by LLIN exposure, a delayed mortality effect has been shown to reduce the transmission potential of mosquitoes exposed to nets. This has been postulated to partially explain the continued efficacy of LLINs against pyrethroid-resistant populations. Burkina Faso is one of a number of countries with very high malaria burdens and pyrethroid-resistant vectors, where progress in controlling this disease has stagnated. We measured the impact of LLIN exposure on mosquito longevity in an area of the country with intense pyrethroid resistance to establish whether pyrethroid exposure was still shortening mosquito lifespan in this setting. We quantified the immediate and delayed mortality effects of LLIN exposure using standard laboratory WHO cone tests, tube bioassays and experimental hut trials on Anopheles gambiae populations originating from the Cascades region of Burkina Faso using survival analysis and a Bayesian state-space model. Following single and multiple exposures to a PermaNet 2.0 LLIN only one of the four mosquito populations tested showed evidence of delayed mortality. No delayed mortality was seen in experimental hut studies using LLINs. A delayed mortality effect was only observed in WHO tube bioassays when deltamethrin concentration was increased above the standard diagnostic dose. As mosquito pyrethroid-resistance increases in intensity, delayed effects from LLIN exposure are substantially reduced or absent. Given the rapid increase in resistance occurring in malaria vectors across Africa it is important to determine whether the failure of LLINs to shorten mosquito lifespan is now a widespread phenomenon as this will have important implications for the future of this pivotal malaria control tool.

    更新日期:2020-01-11
  • What does soil-transmitted helminth elimination look like? Results from a targeted molecular detection survey in Japan
    Parasites Vectors (IF 3.031) Pub Date : 2020-01-08
    Mitsuko Hasegawa; Nils Pilotte; Mihoko Kikuchi; Arianna R. Means; Marina Papaiakovou; Andrew M. Gonzalez; Jacqueline R. M. A. Maasch; Hiroshi Ikuno; Toshihiko Sunahara; Kristjana H. Ásbjörnsdóttir; Judd L. Walson; Steven A. Williams; Shinjiro Hamano

    Japan is one of the few countries believed to have eliminated soil-transmitted helminths (STHs). In 1949, the national prevalence of Ascaris lumbricoides was 62.9%, which decreased to 0.6% in 1973 due to improvements in infrastructure, socioeconomic status, and the implementation of national STH control measures. The Parasitosis Prevention Law ended in 1994 and population-level screening ceased in Japan; therefore, current transmission status of STH in Japan is not well characterized. Sporadic cases of STH infections continue to be reported, raising the possibility of a larger-scale recrudescence of STH infections. Given that traditional microscopic detection methods are not sensitive to low-intensity STH infections, we conducted targeted prevalence surveys using sensitive PCR-based assays to evaluate the current STH-transmission status and to describe epidemiological characteristics of areas of Japan believed to have achieved historical elimination of STHs. Stool samples were collected from 682 preschool- and school-aged children from six localities of Japan with previously high prevalence of STH. Caregivers of participants completed a questionnaire to ascertain access to water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH), and potential exposures to environmental contamination. For fecal testing, multi-parallel real-time PCR assays were used to detect infections of Ascaris lumbricoides, Necator americanus, Ancylostoma duodenale and Trichuris trichiura. Among the 682 children, no positive samples were identified, and participants reported high standards of WASH. To our knowledge, this is the first STH-surveillance study in Japan to use sensitive molecular techniques for STH detection. The results suggest that recrudescence of STH infections has not occurred, and that declines in prevalence have been sustained in the sampled areas. These findings suggest that reductions in prevalence below the elimination thresholds, suggestive of transmission interruption, are possible. Additionally, this study provides circumstantial evidence that multi-parallel real-time PCR methods are applicable for evaluating elimination status in areas where STH prevalence is extremely low.

    更新日期:2020-01-08
  • Species-specific differences in Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum and Besnoitia besnoiti seroprevalence in Namibian wildlife
    Parasites Vectors (IF 3.031) Pub Date : 2020-01-08
    Anne Seltmann; Gereon Schares; Ortwin H. K. Aschenborn; Sonja K. Heinrich; Susanne Thalwitzer; Bettina Wachter; Gábor Á. Czirják

    Knowledge about parasitic infections is crucial information for animal health, particularly of free-ranging species that might come into contact with livestock and humans. We investigated the seroprevalence of three tissue-cyst-forming apicomplexan parasites (Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum and Besnoitia besnoiti) in 506 individuals of 12 wildlife species in Namibia using in-house enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (indirect ELISAs applying purified antigens) for screening and immunoblots as confirmatory tests. We included six species of the suborder Feliformia, four species of the suborder Caniformia and two species of the suborder Ruminantia. For the two species for which we had most samples and life-history information, i.e. cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus, n = 250) and leopards (Panthera pardus, n = 58), we investigated T. gondii seroprevalence in relation to age class, sex, sociality (solitary, mother-offspring group, independent sibling group, coalition group) and site (natural habitat vs farmland). All but one carnivore species (bat-eared fox Otocyon megalotis, n = 4) were seropositive to T. gondii, with a seroprevalence ranging from 52.4% (131/250) in cheetahs to 93.2% (55/59) in African lions (Panthera leo). We also detected antibodies to T. gondii in 10.0% (2/20) of blue wildebeest (Connochaetes taurinus). Adult cheetahs and leopards were more likely to be seropositive to T. gondii than subadult conspecifics, whereas seroprevalence did not vary with sex, sociality and site. Furthermore, we measured antibodies to N. caninum in 15.4% (2/13) of brown hyenas (Hyaena brunnea) and 2.6% (1/39) of black-backed jackals (Canis mesomelas). Antibodies to B. besnoiti were detected in 3.4% (2/59) of African lions and 20.0% (4/20) of blue wildebeest. Our results demonstrate that Namibian wildlife species were exposed to apicomplexan parasites at different prevalences, depending on parasite and host species. In addition to serological work, molecular work is also needed to better understand the sylvatic cycle and the clear role of wildlife in the epidemiology of these parasites in southern Africa.

    更新日期:2020-01-08
  • Global evaluation of taxonomic relationships and admixture within the Culex pipiens complex of mosquitoes
    Parasites Vectors (IF 3.031) Pub Date : 2020-01-08
    Matthew L. Aardema; Bridgett M. vonHoldt; Megan L. Fritz; Steven R. Davis

    Within the Culex pipiens mosquito complex, there are six contemporarily recognized taxa: Cx. quinquefasciatus, Cx. pipiens f. pipiens, Cx. pipiens f. molestus, Cx. pipiens pallens, Cx. australicus and Cx. globocoxitus. Many phylogenetic aspects within this complex have eluded resolution, such as the relationship of the two Australian endemic taxa to the other four members, as well as the evolutionary origins and taxonomic status of Cx. pipiens pallens and Cx. pipiens f. molestus. Ultimately, insights into lineage relationships within the complex will facilitate a better understanding of differential disease transmission by these mosquitoes. To this end, we have combined publicly available data with our own sequencing efforts to examine these questions. We found that the two Australian endemic complex members, Cx. australicus and Cx. globocoxitus, comprise a monophyletic group, are genetically distinct, and are most closely related to the cosmopolitan Cx. quinquefasciatus. Our results also show that Cx. pipiens pallens is genetically distinct, but may have arisen from past hybridization. Lastly, we observed complicated patterns of genetic differentiation within and between Cx. pipiens f. pipiens and Cx. pipiens f. molestus. Two Australian endemic Culex taxa, Cx. australicus and Cx. globocoxitus, belong within the Cx. pipiens complex, but have a relatively older evolutionary origin. They likely diverged from Cx. quinquefasciatus after its colonization of Australia. The taxon Cx. pipiens pallens is a distinct evolutionary entity that likely arose from past hybridization between Cx. quinquefasciatus and Cx. pipiens f. pipiens/Cx. pipiens f. molestus. Our results do not suggest it derives from ongoing hybridization. Finally, genetic differentiation within the Cx. pipiens f. pipiens and Cx. pipiens f. molestus samples suggests that they collectively form two separate geographic clades, one in North America and one in Europe and the Mediterranean. This may indicate that the Cx. pipiens f. molestus form has two distinct origins, arising from Cx. pipiens f. pipiens in each region. However, ongoing genetic exchange within and between these taxa have obscured their evolutionary histories, and could also explain the absence of monophyly among our samples. Overall, this work suggests many avenues that warrant further investigation.

    更新日期:2020-01-08
  • Leishmania braziliensis prostaglandin F2α synthase impacts host infection
    Parasites Vectors (IF 3.031) Pub Date : 2020-01-08
    Eliza Vanessa Carneiro Alves-Ferreira; Tiago Rodrigues Ferreira; Pegine Walrad; Paul M. Kaye; Angela Kaysel Cruz

    Prostaglandins (PG) are lipid mediators derived from arachidonic acid metabolism. They are involved in cellular processes such as inflammation and tissue homeostasis. PG production is not restricted to multicellular organisms. Trypanosomatids also synthesize several metabolites of arachidonic acid. Nevertheless, their biological role in these early-branching parasites and their role in host-parasite interaction are not well elucidated. Prostaglandin F2α synthase (PGF2S) has been observed in the Leishmania braziliensis secreted proteome and in L. donovani extracellular vesicles. Furthermore, we previously reported a positive correlation between L. braziliensis PGF2S (LbrPGF2S) expression and pathogenicity in mice. LbrPGF2S gene expression and PGF2α synthesis in promastigotes were detected and quantified by western blotting and EIA assay kit, respectively. To investigate LbrPGF2S localization in amastigotes during bone marrow-derived macrophage infection, parasites expressing mCherry-LbrPGF2S were generated and followed by time-lapse imaging for 48 h post-infection. PGF2S homolog sequences from Leishmania and humans were analyzed in silico using ClustalW on Geneious v6 and EMBOSS Needle. Leishmania braziliensis promastigotes synthesize prostaglandin F2α in the presence of arachidonic acid, with peak production in the stationary growth phase under heat stress. LbrPGF2S is a cytoplasmic protein enriched in the secretory site of the parasite cell body, the flagellar pocket. It is an enzyme constitutively expressed throughout promastigote development, but overexpression of LbrPGF2S leads to an increase of infectivity in vitro. The data suggest that LbrPGF2S may be released from intracellular amastigotes into the cytoplasm of bone marrow-derived macrophages over a 48-hour infection period, using time-lapse microscopy and mCherry-PGF2S (mChPGF2S)-expressing parasites. LbrPGF2S, a parasite-derived protein, is targeted to the host cell cytoplasm. The putative transfer of this enzyme, involved in pro-inflammatory lipid mediator synthesis, to the host cell suggests a potential role in host-parasite interaction and may partially explain the increased pathogenicity associated with overexpression of LbrPGF2S in L. braziliensis. Our data provide valuable insights to help understand the importance of parasite-derived lipid mediators in pathogenesis.

    更新日期:2020-01-08
  • Gut microbiota is essential in PGRP-LA regulated immune protection against Plasmodium berghei infection
    Parasites Vectors (IF 3.031) Pub Date : 2020-01-06
    Li Gao; Xiumei Song; Jingwen Wang

    Malaria remains to be one of the deadliest infectious diseases and imposes substantial financial and social costs in the world. Mosquitoes rely on the immune system to control parasite infection. Peptidoglycan recognition proteins (PGRPs), a family of pattern-recognition receptors (PRR), are responsible for initiating and regulating immune signaling pathways. PGRP-LA is involved in the regulation of immune defense against the Plasmodium parasite, however, the underlying mechanism needs to be further elucidated. The spatial and temporal expression patterns of pgrp-la in Anopheles stephensi were analyzed by qPCR. The function of PGRP-LA was examined using a dsRNA-based RNA interference strategy. Western blot and periodic acid schiff (PAS) staining were used to assess the structural integrity of peritrophic matrix (PM). The expression of pgrp-la in An. stephensi was induced in the midgut in response to the rapid proliferating gut microbiota post-blood meal. Knocking down of pgrp-la led to the downregulation of immune effectors that control gut microbiota growth. The decreased expression of these immune genes also facilitated P. berghei infection. However, such dsLA treatment did not influence the structural integrity of PM. When gut microbiota was removed by antibiotic treatment, the regulation of PGRP-LA on immune effectors was abolished and the knock down of pgrp-la failed to increase susceptibility of mosquitoes to parasite infection. PGRP-LA regulates the immune responses by sensing the dynamics of gut microbiota. A mutual interaction between gut microbiota and PGRP-LA contributes to the immune defense against Plasmodium parasites in An. stephensi.

    更新日期:2020-01-07
  • Second generation effects of larval metal pollutant exposure on reproduction, longevity and insecticide tolerance in the major malaria vector Anopheles arabiensis (Diptera: Culicidae)
    Parasites Vectors (IF 3.031) Pub Date : 2020-01-07
    Alexander C. S. N. Jeanrenaud; Basil D. Brooke; Shüné V. Oliver

    Members of the Anopheles gambiae complex breed in clean, sunlit temporary bodies of water. Anthropogenic pollution is, however, altering the breeding sites of the vectors with numerous biological effects. Although the effects of larval metal pollution have previously been examined, this study aims to assess the transgenerational effects of larval metal pollution on the major malaria vector An. arabiensis. Two laboratory strains of An. arabiensis, SENN (insecticide-susceptible) and SENN-DDT (insecticide-resistant), were used in this study. After being bred in water polluted with either cadmium chloride, copper nitrate or lead nitrate, several life history characteristics that can have epidemiological implications (fertility, apoptotic damage to reproductive structures, adult longevity and insecticide tolerance) were examined in the adults and compared to those of adults bred in clean water. All metal treatments reduced fecundity in SENN, but only lead treatment reduced fertility in SENN-DDT. Cadmium chloride exposure resulted in apoptosis and deformation of the testes in both strains. After breeding generation F0 in polluted water, F1 larvae bred in clean water showed an increase in longevity in SENN-DDT adult females. In contrast, after breeding the F0 generation in polluted water, longevity was reduced after cadmium and copper exposure in the F1 generation. Larval metal exposure resulted in an increase in insecticide tolerance in adults of the SENN strain, with SENN-DDT adults gaining the greatest fold increase in insecticide tolerance. This study demonstrates that a single exposure to metal pollution can have transgenerational effects that are not negated by subsequent breeding in clean water.

    更新日期:2020-01-07
  • First detection of Enterocytozoon bieneusi in whooper swans (Cygnus cygnus) in China
    Parasites Vectors (IF 3.031) Pub Date : 2020-01-07
    Yuexin Wang; Kaihui Zhang; Yifan Zhang; Ke Wang; Azhar Gazizova; Luyang Wang; Letian Cao; Yajun Zhang; Jianying Huang; Yuan Cui; Yuxi Zhang; Longxian Zhang

    Enterocytozoon bieneusi is a parasite that infects humans and a wide range of other animals. The large migratory waterfowl, the whooper swan (Cygnus cygnus), travels through many cities during its migration and can spread parasites. Despite receiving increasing attention worldwide, there have been no reports of E. bieneusi infection occurring in C. cygnus. Therefore, this study aims to assess the prevalence and genetic characteristics of E. bieneusi in C. cygnus in Sanmenxia, China. Altogether, 467 fresh fecal samples were collected in the Swan Wetland Park in Sanmenxia, China. Genomic DNA was extracted from fresh fecal samples (n = 467) and E. bieneusi was identified by nested PCR amplification of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region. ITS-positive sequences were aligned and phylogenetically analyzed to determine the genotypes of E. bieneusi. The overall prevalence of E. bieneusi in C. cygnus was 7.49% (35/467). Sequencing of the 35 positive samples revealed eight known genotypes (EbpA, EbpC, Henan-III, Henan-IV, BEB6, CD9, Peru6 and PtEb IX) and three novel genotypes (CSW1, CSW2 and CSW3). The phylogenetic tree constructed from the ITS sequences showed that seven genotypes (Peru6, EbpA, EbpC, Henan-III, CSW3, Henan-IV and CSW1) clustered within the zoonotic Group 1 while the remaining novel genotype CSW2 clustered within Group 5. To our knowledge, this is the first report of E. bieneusi in C. cygnus. Of public health significance, our results suggest that migratory C. cygnus might play an important role in the water-borne transmission of E. bieneusi. Effective strategies will be necessary to control E. bieneusi infection in C. cygnus, other animals and humans.

    更新日期:2020-01-07
  • Molecular identification of four Sarcocystis species in the herring gull, Larus argentatus, from Lithuania
    Parasites Vectors (IF 3.031) Pub Date : 2020-01-06
    Petras Prakas; Dalius Butkauskas; Evelina Juozaitytė-Ngugu

    Birds of the family Laridae have not been intensively examined for infections with Sarcocystis spp. To date, sarcocysts of two species, S. lari and S. wobeseri, have been identified in the muscles of gulls. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the species richness of Sarcocystis in the herring gull, Larus argentatus, from Lithuania. In the period between 2013 and 2019, leg muscles of 35 herring gulls were examined for sarcocysts of Sarcocystis spp. Sarcocystis spp. were characterised morphologically based on a light microscopy study. Four sarcocysts isolated from the muscles of each infected bird were subjected to further molecular examination. Sarcocystis species were identified by means of ITS1 sequence analysis. Sarcocysts were detected in 9/35 herring gulls (25.7%). Using light microscopy, one morphological type of sarcocysts was observed. Sarcocysts were microscopic, thread-like, had a smooth and thin (about 1 µm) cyst wall and were filled with banana-shaped bradyzoites. On the basis of ITS1 sequences, four Sarcocystis species, S. columbae, S. halieti, S. lari and S. wobeseri, were identified. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that a single infected herring gull could host two Sarcocystis species indistinguishable under light microscopy. Larus argentatus is the first bird species found to act as intermediate host of four Sarcocystis spp. According to current knowledge, five species, S. falcatula, S. calchasi, S. wobeseri, S. columbae and S. halieti can use birds belonging to different orders as intermediate hosts.

    更新日期:2020-01-06
  • Bovine ticks harbour a diverse array of microorganisms in Pakistan
    Parasites Vectors (IF 3.031) Pub Date : 2020-01-03
    Abdul Ghafar; Alejandro Cabezas-Cruz; Clemence Galon; Dasiel Obregon; Robin B. Gasser; Sara Moutailler; Abdul Jabbar

    Ticks and tick-borne pathogens (TTBP) are a major constraint to livestock production in Pakistan; despite a high prevalence of TTBPs, knowledge on the capacity of Pakistani ticks to carry pathogens and endosymbionts is limited. Furthermore, mixed infections with multiple microorganisms further complicate and limit the detection potential of traditional diagnostic methods. The present study investigated the tick-borne microorganisms in bovine ticks in Pakistan, employing a high-throughput microfluidic real-time PCR based technique. Ticks were collected from clinically healthy cattle (n = 116) and water buffaloes (n = 88) from 30 villages across six districts located in five agro-ecological zones (AEZs) of Pakistan from September to November 2017. The microfluidic real-time PCR was used to test the genomic DNA of individual ticks for the presence of 27 bacterial and eight parasitic microorganisms. Phylogenetic methods were used to assess the genetic relationship of DNA sequences determined herein. PCR detected DNA of at least one microorganism in each of 221 ticks tested (94.4%, 221/234). DNA-based detection inferred that single pathogens/endosymbionts were the most common (43.4%, 96/221) followed by double (38.9%, 86/221), triple (14.5%, 32/221), quadruple (2.3%, 5/221) and quintuple (0.9%, 2/221) mixed infections. Piroplasms (Babesia/Theileria spp.) were the most prevalent (31.6%, 74/234), followed by Ehrlichia spp. (20%, 47/234) and Anaplasma marginale (7.7%, 18/234). Anaplasma phagocytophilum, A. ovis, A. centrale, Babesia ovis, Borrelia spp., Rickettsia spp., R. massiliae, Bartonella spp. and Hepatozoon spp. were also detected. Endosymbionts such as Francisella-like (91.5%, 214/234) and Coxiella-like (1.3%, 3/234) organisms were also detected in ticks. The highest diversity of microorganisms was detected in Hyalomma anatolicum ticks (test-positive for 14/14 microorganisms), followed by Rhipicephalus microplus (4/14), Hy. hussaini (3/14) and Rh. annulatus (2/14). Ticks collected from cattle carried significantly more frequently piroplasms (41.2%, 54/131; P < 0.05) than those from buffaloes (19.4%, 20/103). However, the overall prevalence of microorganisms did not vary significantly among ticks from the two host species as well as across different AEZs. To our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate a wide range of tick-borne microorganisms in bovine ticks using a high-throughput diagnostic method from different AEZs in Pakistan. These findings will aid in establishing the distribution patterns and the control of tick-borne pathogens of bovines in Pakistan.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Efficacy of Actellic 300 CS-based indoor residual spraying on key entomological indicators of malaria transmission in Alibori and Donga, two regions of northern Benin
    Parasites Vectors (IF 3.031) Pub Date : 2019-12-30
    Albert Sourou Salako; Fortune Dagnon; Arthur Sovi; Gil Germain Padonou; Rock Aïkpon; Idelphonse Ahogni; Thomas Syme; Renaud Govoétchan; Herman Sagbohan; André Aimé Sominahouin; Bruno Akinro; Laurent Iyikirenga; Fiacre Agossa; Martin Codjo Akogbeto

    The current study shows the results of three years of IRS entomological monitoring (2016, before intervention; 2017 and 2018, after intervention) performed in Alibori and Donga, northern Benin. Mosquito collections were performed on a monthly basis using human landing catches and pyrethrum spray catches in six districts including four treated with Actellic 300 CS (Kandi, Gogounou, Djougou and Copargo) and two untreated (Bembèrèkè and Kouandé) which served as control sites. Key transmission indicators of Anopheles gambiae (s.l.) as well as the residual activity of Actellic 300 CS assessed through WHO cone tests, were determined. The residual efficacy duration of Actellic 300 CS after the two IRS campaigns (2017 and 2018) was 4–5 months (May–September). The parity rate and the sporozoite index of An. gambiae (s.l.) were 36.62% and 0.71%, respectively, after the first spray round in treated areas compared to 57.24% and 3.7%, respectively, in the control areas (P < 0.0001). The same trend was observed after the second spray round. After the first spray round, each person received 1.6 infective bites/month (ib/m) in the treated areas against 12.11 ib/m in the control areas, resulting in a reduction rate of 86.78%. Similarly, the entomological inoculation rate was 1.5 ib/m after the second spray round in the treated areas vs 9.75 ib/m in the control areas, corresponding to a reduction of 84.61%. A decrease in the parity rate (46.26%), sporozoite index (85.75%) and EIR (87.27%) was observed for An. gambiae (s.l.) after the first round of IRS (June–October 2017) compared to the pre-intervention period (June–October 2016). The density of An. gambiae (s.l.) ranged between 0.38–0.48 per house in treated areas vs 1.53–1.76 An. gambiae (s.l.) per house respectively after the first and second IRS rounds. This study showed the positive impact of IRS in reducing key entomological parameters of malaria transmission in Alibori and Donga. However, the considerable blood-feeding rate of An. gambiae (s.l.) in spray areas, stress the need for the population to sleep under long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) in addition, to prevent from mosquito bites which did not succeed in resting on sprayed walls.

    更新日期:2019-12-31
  • Salivary gland proteome analysis of developing adult female Haemaphysalis longicornis ticks: molecular motor and TCA cycle-related proteins play an important role throughout development
    Parasites Vectors (IF 3.031) Pub Date : 2019-12-30
    Shuguang Ren; Baowen Zhang; Xiaomin Xue; Xiaoshuang Wang; Huaqu Zhao; Xiaoli Zhang; Minjing Wang; Qi Xiao; Hui Wang; Jingze Liu

    Ticks are notorious blood-feeding arthropods that can spread a variety of deadly diseases. The salivary gland is an important organ for ticks to feed on blood, and this organ begins to develop rapidly when ixodid ticks suck blood. When these ticks reach a critical weight, the salivary glands stop developing and begin to degenerate. The expression levels of a large number of proteins during the development and degeneration of salivary glands change, which regulate the biological functions of the salivary glands. Furthermore, to the best of our knowledge, there are only a few reports on the role of molecular motor and TCA cycle-related proteins in the salivary glands of ticks. We used iTRAQ quantitative proteomics to study the dynamic changes in salivary gland proteins in female Haemaphysalis longicornis at four feeding stages: unfed, partially fed, semi-engorged and engorged. Using bioinformatics methods to analyze the dynamic changes of a large number of proteins, we found that molecular motor and TCA cycle-related proteins play an important role in the physiological changes of the salivary glands. The results of RNAi experiments showed that when dynein, kinesin, isocitrate dehydrogenase and citrate synthase were knocked down independently, the weight of the engorged female ticks decreased by 63.5%, 54.9%, 42.6% and 48.6%, respectively, and oviposition amounts decreased by 83.1%, 76.0%, 50.8%, and 55.9%, respectively, and the size of type III acini of females salivary glands decreased by 35.6%, 33.3%, 28.9%, and 20.0%, respectively. The results showed that the expression of different types of proteins change in different characteristics in salivary glands during the unfed to engorged process of female ticks. Corresponding expression changes of these proteins at different developmental stages of female ticks are very important to ensure the orderly development of the organ. By analyzing these changes, some proteins, such as molecular motor and TCA cycle-related proteins, were screened and RNAi carried out. When these mRNAs were knocked down, the female ticks cannot develop normally. The research results provide a new protein target for the control of ticks and tick-borne diseases.

    更新日期:2019-12-31
  • Molecular and physiological characterization of the chitin synthase B gene isolated from Culex pipiens pallens (Diptera: Culicidae)
    Parasites Vectors (IF 3.031) Pub Date : 2019-12-30
    Xiaoshan Yang; Qi Yin; Yang Xu; Xixi Li; Yan Sun; Lei Ma; Dan Zhou; Bo Shen

    The growth and development of insects is strictly dependent on the precise regulation of chitin synthase (CHS), which is absent in vertebrates and plants. Therefore, CHS represents an attractive target for insecticides. At present, the research on the CHS gene in mosquitoes, especially its biological functions, remains limited. The full-length cDNA of the chitin synthase B gene in Culex pipiens pallens (CpCHSB) was prepared and consists of 5158 nucleotides with an open reading frame (ORF) of 4722 nucleotides encoding a protein of 1573 amino acid residues. Among different tissues, CpCHSB gene is mainly expressed in the midgut tissue with the highest expression in adult mosquitoes. Knockdown of CpCHSB in the larval stage significantly lowered the chitin content (16.5%) decreased body size (reduced by 25.6% in the larval stage and by 25.6% in the adult stage), and diminished reproduction (20%). Injecting siCHSB into adult mosquito mainly decreased reproduction (27%). CpCHSB plays essential roles in growth and development, by severely reducing larval chitin content, midgut permeability, and reducing the number of female mosquito offspring. These results indicate that CHSB may serve as a potential novel target for exploring biosafe insecticides.

    更新日期:2019-12-31
  • Bats and ticks: host selection and seasonality of bat-specialist ticks in eastern Europe
    Parasites Vectors (IF 3.031) Pub Date : 2019-12-27
    Attila D. Sándor; Alexandra Corduneanu; Áron Péter; Andrei Daniel Mihalca; Levente Barti; István Csősz; Krisztina Szőke; Sándor Hornok

    Parasites may actively seek for hosts and may use a number of adaptive strategies to promote their reproductive success and host colonization. These strategies will necessarily influence their host specificity and seasonality. Ticks are important ectoparasites of vertebrates, which (in addition to directly affecting their hosts) may transmit a number of pathogens. In Europe, three hard tick species (Ixodidae: Ixodes ariadnae, I. simplex and I. vespertilionis) and at least two soft tick species (Argasidae: Argas transgariepinus and A. vespertilionis) are specialized for bats. Here we report data on the host range of these ticks and the seasonality of tick infestation on wild caught bats in south-east Europe. We collected 1803 ticks from 30 species of bats living in underground shelters (caves and mines) from Romania and Bulgaria. On the basis of tick–host associations, we tested several hypotheses on host–parasite evolutionary adaptations regulating host specificity, seasonality and sympatric speciation. We observed significant differences in host specificity and seasonality of abundance between the morphologically different bat specialist ticks (I. simplex and I. vespertilionis) likely caused by their host choice and their respective host-seeking behavior. The two highly generalist, but morphologically similar tick species (I. ariadnae and I. vespertilionis) showed temporal differences in occurrence and activity, thus exploiting significantly different host communities while occurring in geographical sympatry. We conclude that bat-specialist ticks show a wide range of adaptations to their hosts, with differences in specificity, seasonality of occurrence, the prevalence and intensity of infestation and all these contribute to a successful division of temporal niches of ticks sharing morphologically similar hosts occurring in geographical sympatry.

    更新日期:2019-12-30
  • Echinococcus multilocularis and Echinococcus granulosus in canines in North-Khorasan Province, northeastern Iran, identified using morphology and genetic characterization of mitochondrial DNA
    Parasites Vectors (IF 3.031) Pub Date : 2019-12-27
    Zahra Heidari; Mitra Sharbatkhori; Iraj Mobedi; Seyed Hossein Mirhendi; Bahram Nikmanesh; Meysam Sharifdini; Mehdi Mohebali; Zabihollah Zarei; Kourosh Arzamani; Eshrat Beigom Kia

    Canids are definitive hosts of Echinococcus multilocularis and Echinococcus granulosus. This study aimed to survey these two Echinococcus species in canids of North-Khorasan Province, northeastern Iran, using morphological criteria and genetic characterization of mitochondrial DNA. The carcasses of 106 canids, namely 61 jackals (Canis aureus), 23 foxes (Vulpes vulpes), 19 dogs (Canis familiaris) and three wolves (Canis lupus) were collected from the study area in 2013–2014 and examined for Echinococcus species. Morphological features were assessed by microscopy of adult worms. For molecular characterization, DNA was extracted, mostly from the adult worms but also from eggs. DNA fragments of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (nad1) mitochondrial genes were amplified and sequenced. Sequences were aligned and compared with reference sequences. Intraspecific and interspecific diversity were calculated and phylogenetic analysis was performed. Overall, 9.4% of the canids (eight jackals and two foxes) were found infected with E. multilocularis by molecular methods, of which seven cases were also confirmed using morphological description of the adult worms. Echinococcus granulosus was found in 6.6% of the canines (four dogs, two jackals and one wolf) as determined by both molecular methods and adult cestode morphology. All E. granulosus isolates were identified as the G1 genotype. Comparative sequence analysis indicated 0–0.7% and 0% intraspecific divergence within E. granulosus isolates and 0% and 0–0.2% within E. multilocularis isolates for cox1 and nad1, respectively. This study revealed the presence of E. multilocularis and E. granulosus in canids of North-Khorasan Province of Iran. Jackals were found infected with both E. multilocularis and E. granulosus, but infection with the former species was higher.

    更新日期:2019-12-30
  • Two-year longitudinal survey reveals high genetic diversity of Schistosoma mansoni with adult worms surviving praziquantel treatment at the start of mass drug administration in Uganda
    Parasites Vectors (IF 3.031) Pub Date : 2019-12-27
    Christina L. Faust; Marco Crotti; Arinaitwe Moses; David Oguttu; Aidah Wamboko; Moses Adriko; Elizabeth K. Adekanle; Narcis Kabatereine; Edridah M. Tukahebwa; Alice J. Norton; Charlotte M. Gower; Joanne P. Webster; Poppy H. L. Lamberton

    A key component of schistosomiasis control is mass drug administration with praziquantel. While control interventions have been successful in several endemic regions, mass drug administration has been less effective in others. Here we focus on the impact of repeated praziquantel treatment on the population structure and genetic diversity of Schistosoma mansoni. We examined S. mansoni epidemiology, population genetics, and variation in praziquantel susceptibility in parasites isolated from children across three primary schools in a high endemicity region at the onset of the Ugandan National Control Programme. Children were sampled at 11 timepoints over two years, including one week and four weeks post-praziquantel treatment to evaluate short-term impacts on clearance and evidence of natural variation in susceptibility to praziquantel. Prevalence of S. mansoni was 85% at baseline. A total of 3576 miracidia larval parasites, isolated from 203 individual children, were genotyped at seven loci. Overall, genetic diversity was high and there was low genetic differentiation, indicating high rates of parasite gene flow. Schistosome siblings were found both pre-treatment and four weeks post-treatment, demonstrating adult worms surviving treatment and natural praziquantel susceptibility variation in these populations at the beginning of mass drug administration. However, we did not find evidence for selection on these parasites. While genetic diversity decreased in the short-term (four weeks post-treatment), diversity did not decrease over the entire period despite four rounds of mass treatment. Furthermore, within-host genetic diversity was affected by host age, host sex, infection intensity and recent praziquantel treatment. Our findings suggest that praziquantel treatments have short-term impacts on these parasite populations but impacts were transient and no long-term reduction in genetic diversity was observed. High gene flow reduces the likelihood of local adaptation, so even though parasites surviving treatment were observed, these were likely to be diluted at the beginning of the Ugandan National Control Programme. Together, these results suggest that MDA in isolation may be insufficient to reduce schistosome populations in regions with high genetic diversity and gene flow.

    更新日期:2019-12-30
  • Genetic variation of Echinococcus spp. in yaks and sheep in the Tibet Autonomous Region of China based on mitochondrial DNA
    Parasites Vectors (IF 3.031) Pub Date : 2019-12-27
    John Asekhaen Ohiolei; Chen-Yang Xia; Li Li; Jian-Zhi Liu; Wen-Qiang Tang; Yan-Tao Wu; Danqulamu; Guo-Qiang Zhu; Bin Shi; Bao-Quan Fu; Hong Yin; Hong-Bin Yan; Wan-Zhong Jia

    Cystic echinococcosis (CE) in humans and livestock is caused by Echinococcus granulosus (sensu lato). In China where CE is endemic, a number of studies have shown that Echinococcus granulosus (sensu stricto) is majorly responsible for CE. However, E. canadensis (G6) which is the second leading cause of CE is now being detected in most parts of the country. In this study, the species diversity and genetic variation of Echinococcus granulosus (s.l.) in four counties in Tibet Autonomous Region of China were investigated. Infection with Echinococcus granulosus (s.s.) in yaks and sheep was identified using NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 and 5 (nad1 and nad5) mitochondrial genes while the genotype G6 of E. canadensis initially diagnosed with NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (nad1) was further confirmed by analysis of the complete mitochondrial genome and a phylogenetic network constructed based on the nad2 and nad5 genes. Out of 85 hydatid cyst samples collected from slaughtered sheep (n = 54) and yaks (n = 31), 83 were identified as E. granulosus (s.s.) G1 (n = 77), G3 (n = 6) and 2 were identified as E. canadensis G6. Analysis of the nad1/nad5 genes revealed 16/17 mutations with 9/14 parsimony informative sites resulting in 15/14 haplotypes, respectively. Haplotype diversity (Hd) and nucleotide diversity (π) of E. granulosus (s.s.) population were 0.650 and 0.00127 for nad1 and 0.782 and 0.00306 for nad5, respectively, with an overall negative Tajima’s D and Fu’s Fs. A low FST indicated no genetic difference between isolates from sheep and yaks. Pockets of infection with E. canadensis (G6, G7, G8 and G10) have been previously reported in sheep, goats, yaks and/or humans in different parts of China. While the G6 genotype has been previously reported in sheep in the Tibet Autonomous Region, the detection in a yak in the present study represents the first to the best of our knowledge. Therefore, we recommend future surveys and control efforts to comprehensively investigate other potential intermediate hosts for the prevalence and genetic diversity of the E. canadensis group (G6, G7, G8 and G10) across the country and their inclusion into the existing CE control programme.

    更新日期:2019-12-30
  • A DAF-3 co-Smad molecule functions in Haemonchus contortus development
    Parasites Vectors (IF 3.031) Pub Date : 2019-12-27
    Wenda Di; Lu Liu; Ting Zhang; Fangfang Li; Li He; Chunqun Wang; Awais Ali Ahmad; Mubashar Hassan; Rui Fang; Min Hu

    The Smad proteins function in TGF-β signalling transduction. In the model nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, the co-Smad, DAF-3 mediates R-Smads and performs a central role in DAF-7 signal transduction, regulating dauer formation and reproductive processes. Considering the divergent evolutionary patterns of the DAF-7 signalling pathway in parasitic nematodes, it is meaningful to explore the structure and function of DAF-3 in parasitic nematodes, such as Haemonchus contortus. A daf-3 gene (Hc-daf-3) and its predicted product (Hc-DAF-3) were identified from H. contortus and characterised using integrated genomic and genetic approaches. In addition to immunohistochemistry employed to localise Hc-DAF-3 within adult worm sections, real-time PCR was conducted to assess the transcriptional profiles in different developmental stages of H. contortus and RNA interference (RNAi) was performed in vitro to assess the functional importance of Hc-daf-3 in the development of H. contortus. Hc-DAF-3 sequences predicted from Hc-daf-3 displayed typical features of the co-Smad subfamily. The native Hc-DAF-3 was localised to the gonad and cuticle of adult parasites. In addition, Hc-daf-3 was transcribed in all developmental stages studied, with a higher level in the third-stage larvae (L3) and adult females. Moreover, silencing Hc-daf-3 by RNAi retarded L4 development. The findings of the present study demonstrated an important role of Hc-DAF-3 in the development of H. contortus larvae.

    更新日期:2019-12-30
  • Zoonotic parasites of dromedary camels: so important, so ignored
    Parasites Vectors (IF 3.031) Pub Date : 2019-12-27
    Alireza Sazmand; Anja Joachim; Domenico Otranto

    With a global population of about 35 million in 47 countries, dromedary camels play a crucial role in the economy of many marginal, desert areas of the world where they survive under harsh conditions. Nonetheless, there is scarce knowledge regarding camelsʼ parasite fauna which can reduce their milk and meat productions. In addition, only scattered information is available about zoonotic parasites transmitted to humans via contamination (e.g. Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia duodenalis, Balantidium coli, Blastocystis spp. and Enterocytozoon bieneusi), as foodborne infections (e.g. Toxoplasma gondii, Trichinella spp. and Linguatula serrata) or by arthropod vectors (Trypanosoma spp.). Herein, we draw attention of the scientific community and health policy-making organizations to the role camels play in the epidemiology of parasitic zoonotic diseases also in the view of an increase in their farming in desert areas worldwide.

    更新日期:2019-12-30
  • The role of microRNAs in the pathogenesis, grading and treatment of hepatic fibrosis in schistosomiasis
    Parasites Vectors (IF 3.031) Pub Date : 2019-12-30
    Qianglin Chen; Jianqiang Zhang; Ting Zheng; Hui Chen; Hao Nie; Bing Zheng; Quan Gong

    Schistosomiasis is a prevalent parasitic disease worldwide. The main pathological changes of hepatosplenic schistosomiasis are hepatic granuloma and fibrosis due to worm eggs. Portal hypertension and ascites induced by hepatic fibrosis are usually the main causes of death in patients with chronic hepatosplenic schistosomiasis. Currently, no effective vaccine exists for preventing schistosome infections. For quite a long time, praziquantel (PZQ) was widely used for the treatment of schistosomiasis and has shown benefit in treating liver fibrosis. However, drug resistance and chemical toxicity from PZQ are being increasingly reported in recent years; therefore, new and effective strategies for treating schistosomiasis-induced hepatic fibrosis are urgently needed. MicroRNA (miRNA), a non-coding RNA, has been proved to be associated with the development of many human diseases, including schistosomiasis. In this review, we present a balanced and comprehensive view of the role of miRNAs in the pathogenesis, grading, and treatment of schistosomiasis-associated hepatic fibrosis. The multiple regulatory roles of miRNAs, such as promoting or inhibiting the development of liver pathology in murine schistosomiasis are also discussed in depth. Additionally, miRNAs may serve as candidate biomarkers for diagnosing liver pathology of schistosomiasis and as novel therapeutic targets for treating schistosomiasis-associated hepatic fibrosis.

    更新日期:2019-12-30
  • Establishment of an innovative and sustainable PCR technique for 1534 locus mutation of the knockdown resistance (kdr) gene in the dengue vector Aedes albopictus
    Parasites Vectors (IF 3.031) Pub Date : 2019-12-26
    Cai-Ying Zhu; Chun-Chun Zhao; Yi-Guan Wang; De-Ling Ma; Xiu-Ping Song; Jun Wang; Feng-Xia Meng

    Mutation of the voltage-gated sodium channel (VGSC) gene, or knockdown resistance (kdr) gene, is an important resistance mechanism against DDT and pyrethroids for dengue vector Aedes albopictus. A phenylalanine to serine (F1534S), leucine (F1534L) and cysteine (F1534C) substitution were detected in many Ae. albopictus populations around the world, and the mutant allele frequencies have been increasing in recent years. Therefore, it is essential to establish a simple, time-saving and cost-effective procedure to monitor the alleles in large-scale studies. Based on the mutation genotypes of the 1534 locus in the kdr gene, F/F, F/S, F/C, F/L, S/S, C/C, L/L and S/C, we designed specific forward and reverse primers and optimized the reaction conditions for establishing of the allele-specific PCR(AS-PCR) detection technique. DNA sequencing in this study was taken as the gold standard, and used to determine the accuracy of AS-PCR. The designed AS-PCR technique showed high specificity for distinguishing the mutations at the 1534 locus, as the accuracy for F/F, F/S, F/C, F/L, S/S, C/C and S/C were 100%, 95.35%, 100%, 100%, 100%, 100% and 100%, respectively. The designed AS-PCR technique effectively distinguished individual genotypes for the mutations at the 1534 locus in the kdr gene, which could facilitate the knockdown resistance surveillance in Ae. albopictus in large-scale studies.

    更新日期:2019-12-27
  • Wide distribution of Trypanosoma cruzi-infected triatomines in the State of Bahia, Brazil
    Parasites Vectors (IF 3.031) Pub Date : 2019-12-26
    Gilmar Ribeiro; Carlos G. S. dos Santos; Fernanda Lanza; Jamylle Reis; Fernanda Vaccarezza; Camila Diniz; Diego Lopes Paim Miranda; Renato Freitas de Araújo; Gabriel Muricy Cunha; Cristiane Medeiros Moraes de Carvalho; Eduardo Oyama Lins Fonseca; Roberto Fonseca dos Santos; Orlando Marcos Farias de Sousa; Renato Barbosa Reis; Wildo Navegantes de Araújo; Rodrigo Gurgel-Gonçalves; Mitermayer G. dos Reis

    The identification of Trypanosoma cruzi and blood-meal sources in synanthropic triatomines is important to assess the potential risk of Chagas disease transmission. We identified T. cruzi infection and blood-meal sources of triatomines caught in and around houses in the state of Bahia, northeastern Brazil, and mapped the occurrence of infected triatomines that fed on humans and domestic animals. Triatominae bugs were manually captured by trained agents from the Epidemiologic Surveillance team of Bahia State Health Service between 2013 and 2014. We applied conventional PCR to detect T. cruzi and blood-meal sources (dog, cat, human and bird) in a randomized sample of triatomines. We mapped triatomine distribution and analyzed vector hotspots with kernel density spatial analysis. In total, 5906 triatomines comprising 15 species were collected from 127 out of 417 municipalities in Bahia. The molecular analyses of 695 triatomines revealed a ~10% T. cruzi infection rate, which was highest in the T. brasiliensis species complex. Most bugs were found to have fed on birds (74.2%), and other blood-meal sources included dogs (6%), cats (0.6%) and humans (1%). Trypanosoma cruzi-infected triatomines that fed on humans were detected inside houses. Spatial analysis showed a wide distribution of T. cruzi-infected triatomines throughout Bahia; triatomines that fed on dogs, humans, and cats were observed mainly in the northeast region. Synanthropic triatomines have a wide distribution and maintain the potential risk of T. cruzi transmission to humans and domestic animals in Bahia. Ten species were recorded inside houses, mainly Triatoma sordida, T. pseudomaculata, and the T. brasiliensis species complex. Molecular and spatial analysis are useful to reveal T. cruzi infection and blood-meal sources in synanthropic triatomines, identifying areas with ongoing threat for parasite transmission and improving entomological surveillance strategies.

    更新日期:2019-12-27
  • In vitro activity of 1H-phenalen-1-one derivatives against Leishmania spp. and evidence of programmed cell death
    Parasites Vectors (IF 3.031) Pub Date : 2019-12-23
    Atteneri López-Arencibia; María Reyes-Batlle; Mónica B. Freijo; Ines Sifaoui; Carlos J. Bethencourt-Estrella; Aitor Rizo-Liendo; Olfa Chiboub; Grant McNaughton-Smith; Jacob Lorenzo-Morales; Teresa Abad-Grillo; José E. Piñero

    The in vitro activity against Leishmania spp. of a novel group of compounds, phenalenone derivatives, is described in this study. Previous studies have shown that some phenalenones present leishmanicidal activity, and induce a decrease in the mitochondrial membrane potential in L. amazonensis parasites, so in order to elucidate the evidence of programmed cell death occurring inside the promastigote stage, different assays were performed in two different species of Leishmania. We focused on the determination of the programmed cell death evidence by detecting the characteristic features of the apoptosis-like process, such as phosphatidylserine exposure, mitochondrial membrane potential, and chromatin condensation among others. The results showed that four molecules activated the apoptosis-like process in the parasite. All the signals observed were indicative of the death process that the parasites were undergoing. The present results highlight the potential use of phenalenone derivatives against Leishmania species and further studies should be undertaken to establish them as novel leishmanicidal therapeutic agents.

    更新日期:2019-12-25
  • Does antennal sensilla pattern of different populations of Triatoma maculata (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) reveal phenotypic variability?
    Parasites Vectors (IF 3.031) Pub Date : 2019-12-23
    Josiane Nogueira Müller; Teresa Cristina Monte Gonçalves; Alice Helena Ricardo-Silva; Amanda Coutinho Souza; Francisco Maciel Santos; Rosangela Santos; Nathalia Coelho Vargas; Catarina Macedo Lopes; Ana Laura Carbajal-de-la-Fuente

    In Brazil, Triatoma maculata is only found in the State of Roraima and is a vector of Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent of Chagas disease. It occurs in wild, peridomestic and domestic habitats, with an urban infestation in Boa Vista, the capital of this Brazilian state. The aim of this study was to assess the morphological variability of the T. maculata antennal phenotype in three populations of Roraima State, using the antennal sensilla pattern analyzed under optical microscopy. The number and distribution of four antennal sensilla types (bristles, thin and thick walled trichoidea, and basiconic) of three Brazilian populations of T. maculata from Roraima State were compared. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed. The antenna of T. maculata presented the four types of sensilla. According to the density and distribution of the antennal sensilla characteristics, the multivariate analyses showed that the laboratory population is morphologically structured. Urban specimens showed a pronounced phenotypic variability. The main differences were observed in the pedicel segment, and between males and females. We determined the antennal phenotype in three Roraima populations of T. maculata. These results support the idea that the patterns of antennal sensilla are sensitive markers for distinct populations in the Triatominae. The infestations of T. maculata in different habitats reinforces the ability of this vector to become adapted to a variety of environments, which, could have eco-epidemiological implications for the T. cruzi transmission that are still not well understood.

    更新日期:2019-12-25
  • In vitro and in vivo immunomodulatory properties of octyl-β-d-galactofuranoside during Leishmania donovani infection
    Parasites Vectors (IF 3.031) Pub Date : 2019-12-23
    Hélène Guegan; Kevin Ory; Sorya Belaz; Aurélien Jan; Sarah Dion; Laurent Legentil; Christelle Manuel; Loïc Lemiègre; Thomas Vives; Vincent Ferrières; Jean-Pierre Gangneux; Florence Robert-Gangneux

    The chemotherapeutic arsenal available to treat visceral leishmaniasis is currently limited, in view of many drawbacks such as high cost, toxicity or emerging resistance. New therapeutic strategies are particularly needed to improve the management and the outcome in immunosuppressed patients. The combination of an immunomodulatory drug to a conventional anti-Leishmania treatment is an emerging concept to reverse the immune bias from Th2 to Th1 response to boost healing and prevent relapses. Here, immunostimulating and leishmanicidal properties of octyl-β-d-galactofuranose (Galf) were assessed in human monocyte-derived macrophages (HM) and in a murine model, after challenge with Leishmania donovani promastigotes. We recorded parasite loads and expression of various cytokines and immune effectors in HM and mouse organs (liver, spleen, bone marrow), following treatment with free (Galf) and liposomal (L-Galf) formulations. Both treatments significantly reduced parasite proliferation in HM, as well as liver parasite burden in vivo (Galf, P < 0.05). Consistent with in vitro results, we showed that Galf- and L-Galf-treated mice displayed an enhanced Th1 immune response, particularly in the spleen where pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-12 were significantly overexpressed compared to control group. The hepatic recruitment of myeloid cells was also favored by L-Galf treatment as evidenced by the five-fold increase of myeloperoxidase (MPO) induction, which was associated with a higher number of MPO-positive cells within granulomas. By contrast, the systemic level of various cytokines such as IL-1β, IL-6, IL-17A or IL-27 was drastically reduced at the end of treatment. Overall, these results suggest that Galf could be tested as an adjuvant in combination with current anti-parasitic drugs, to restore an efficient immune response against infection in a model of immunosuppressed mice.

    更新日期:2019-12-23
  • A review on the eco-epidemiology and clinical management of human granulocytic anaplasmosis and its agent in Europe
    Parasites Vectors (IF 3.031) Pub Date : 2019-12-21
    Ioana A. Matei; Agustín Estrada-Peña; Sally J. Cutler; Muriel Vayssier-Taussat; Lucía Varela-Castro; Aleksandar Potkonjak; Herve Zeller; Andrei D. Mihalca

    Anaplasma phagocytophilum is the agent of tick-borne fever, equine, canine and human granulocytic anaplasmosis. The common route of A. phagocytophilum transmission is through a tick bite, the main vector in Europe being Ixodes ricinus. Despite the apparently ubiquitous presence of the pathogen A. phagocytophilum in ticks and various wild and domestic animals from Europe, up to date published clinical cases of human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA) remain rare compared to the worldwide status. It is unclear if this reflects the epidemiological dynamics of the human infection in Europe or if the disease is underdiagnosed or underreported. Epidemiologic studies in Europe have suggested an increased occupational risk of infection for forestry workers, hunters, veterinarians, and farmers with a tick-bite history and living in endemic areas. Although the overall genetic diversity of A. phagocytophilum in Europe is higher than in the USA, the strains responsible for the human infections are related on both continents. However, the study of the genetic variability and assessment of the difference of pathogenicity and infectivity between strains to various hosts has been insufficiently explored to date. Most of the European HGA cases presented as a mild infection, common clinical signs being pyrexia, headache, myalgia and arthralgia. The diagnosis of HGA in the USA was recommended to be based on clinical signs and the patient’s history and later confirmed using specialized laboratory tests. However, in Europe since the majority of cases are presenting as mild infection, laboratory tests may be performed before the treatment in order to avoid antibiotic overuse. The drug of choice for HGA is doxycycline and because of potential for serious complication the treatment should be instituted on clinical suspicion alone.

    更新日期:2019-12-22
  • Parasitological, serological and molecular survey of camel trypanosomiasis in Somalia
    Parasites Vectors (IF 3.031) Pub Date : 2019-12-21
    Ahmed A. Hassan-Kadle; Abdalla M. Ibrahim; Hamisi S. Nyingilili; Abdulkarim A. Yusuf; Thállitha S. W. J. Vieira; Rafael F. C. Vieira

    Camel trypanosomiasis or surra is of great concern in Somalia, since the country possesses the largest one-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius) population in the world. Civil war in Somalia has resulted in the destruction of educational, research, economic and social structures, making the country scores very low for most humanitarian indicators. Previous studies on detection of Trypanosoma species in Somali camels have only been performed during the 1990s using standard trypanosome detection methods (STDM). Considering the lack of state-of-the-art knowledge on camel trypanosomiasis in Somalia, the present study aimed to assess the prevalence of Trypanosoma spp. in three districts of Somalia. A total of 182 blood samples from C. dromedarius from nomadic and dairy farms were evaluated using STDM, serological (CATT/T. evansi) and molecular (ITS1-PCR) methods. All samples were negative for Trypanosoma spp. by STDM. A total of 125/182 (68.7%, 95% CI: 61.4–75.3%) camels were seropositive for T. evansi by CATT/T. evansi. Camels reared in nomadic system were more likely to be seropositive for T. evansi than those under dairy production system (OR: 5.6, 95% CI: 2.1–15.2, P = 0.0001). Five out of 182 (2.7%, 95% CI: 0.9–6.3%) camels tested positive for Trypanosoma sp. by ITS1-PCR. Sequencing of the ITS1 region of the Trypanosoma species detected herein revealed that camels were infected with T. evansi and T. simiae. Trypanosoma evansi is highly prevalent in camels from the Banadir region of Somalia, particularly in nomadic herds. To our knowledge, this is the first study to confirm infections with T. evansi and T. simiae in Somali camels through DNA sequencing. Our data highlight the need for implementation of adequate control measures aiming to reduce the impact on camel production in the country.

    更新日期:2019-12-21
  • Assessment of differences between DNA content of cell-cultured and freely suspended oocysts of Cryptosporidium parvum and their suitability as DNA standards in qPCR
    Parasites Vectors (IF 3.031) Pub Date : 2019-12-19
    Ian D. Woolsey; Berit Blomstrand; Øivind Øines; Heidi L. Enemark

    Although more modern methods are available, quantitative PCR (qPCR) is reproducible, sensitive and specific with instruments and expertise readily available in many laboratories. As such, the use of qPCR in Cryptosporidium research is well established and still widely used by researchers globally. This method depends upon the generation of standards at different concentrations to generate standard curves subsequently used for the quantification of DNA. We assessed four types of DNA template used to generate standard curves in drug screening studies involving Cryptosporidium spp.: (i) serially diluted Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts (106–1); (ii) diluted template DNA from pure oocysts (×10–×106 dilution of 106 oocyst DNA template); (iii) oocysts incubated in human ileocecal adenocarcinoma (HCT-8) cells (105–1 and 5 × 104–50); and (iv) diluted DNA template (5 × 104) from cell culture incubated parasites (×10–×1000). Serial dilutions of both cell culture and pure oocyst suspension DNA template yielded better linearity than cell culture derived standards, with dilutions of 106 oocysts exhibiting similar quantification cycle (Cq) values to those obtained from DNA template dilutions of 106 oocysts. In contrast, cell culture incubated oocysts demonstrated significantly higher DNA content than equivalent freely suspended oocysts and diluted DNA template from both cell culture derived and freely suspended oocysts across numerous concentrations. For many studies involving Cryptosporidium, only relative DNA content is required and as such, the superior linearity afforded by freely suspended oocysts and diluted DNA template (from either cell culture derived standards or freely suspended oocysts) will allow for more accurate relative quantification in each assay. Parasite division in the cell culture standards likely explains the higher DNA content found. These standards, therefore, have the potential to more accurately reflect DNA content in cell culture assays, and despite more modern methods available for absolute quantification, i.e. droplet digital PCR (ddPCR), the ubiquity of qPCR for the foreseeable future encourages further investigation into the reduced linearity observed in these standards such as varying oocyst seeding density, non-linear growth rates and assay efficiency.

    更新日期:2019-12-20
  • High genetic diversity but no geographical structure of Aedes albopictus populations in Réunion Island
    Parasites Vectors (IF 3.031) Pub Date : 2019-12-19
    Anne C. Latreille; Pascal Milesi; Hélène Magalon; Patrick Mavingui; Célestine M. Atyame

    In recent years, the Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus has emerged as a species of major medical concern following its global expansion and involvement in many arbovirus outbreaks. On Réunion Island, Ae. albopictus was responsible for a large chikungunya outbreak in 2005–2006 and more recently an epidemic of dengue which began at the end of 2017 and is still ongoing at the time of writing. This dengue epidemic has seen a high number of human cases in south and west coastal regions, while few cases have been reported in the north and east of the island. To better understand the role of mosquito populations in such spatial patterns of dengue virus transmission in Réunion Island, we examined the genetic diversity and population structure of Ae. albopictus sampled across the island. Between November 2016 and March 2017, a total of 564 mosquitoes were collected from 19 locations in three main climatic regions (West, East and Center) of Réunion Island and were genotyped using 16 microsatellite loci. A high genetic diversity was observed with 2–15 alleles per locus and the average number of alleles per population varying between 4.70–5.90. Almost all FIS values were significantly positive and correlated to individual relatedness within populations using a hierarchical clustering approach based on principal components analyses (HCPC). However, the largest part of genetic variance was among individuals within populations (97%) while only 3% of genetic variance was observed among populations within regions. Therefore, no distinguishable population structure or isolation by distance was evidenced, suggesting high rates of gene flow at the island scale. Our results show high genetic diversity but no genetic structure of Ae. albopictus populations in Réunion Island thus reflecting frequent movements of mosquitoes between populations probably due to human activity. These data should help in the understanding of Ae. albopictus vector capacity and the design of effective mosquito control strategies.

    更新日期:2019-12-20
  • Evaluation of antibody responses to the early transcribed membrane protein family in Plasmodium vivax
    Parasites Vectors (IF 3.031) Pub Date : 2019-12-19
    Seong-Kyun Lee; Jin-Hee Han; Ji-Hoon Park; Kwon-Soo Ha; Won Sun Park; Seok-Ho Hong; Sunghun Na; Yang Cheng; Eun-Taek Han

    Malaria parasites form intracellular membranes that separate the parasite from the internal space of erythrocytes, and membrane proteins from the parasites are exported to the host via the membrane. In our previous study, Plasmodium vivax early transcribed membrane protein (PvETRAMP) 11.2, an intracellular membrane protein that is highly expressed in blood-stage parasites, was characterized as a highly immunogenic protein in P. vivax malaria patients. However, the other PvETRAMP family proteins have not yet been investigated. In this study, PvETRAMPs were expressed and evaluated to determine their immunological profiles. The protein structure and amino acid alignment were carried out using bioinformatics analysis software. A total of six PvETRAMP family proteins were successfully expressed and purified using a wheat germ cell free protein expression system and the purified proteins were used for protein microarray and immunization of mice. The localization of the protein was determined with serum against PvETRAMP4. IgG subclasses were assessed from the immunized mice. In silico analysis showed that P. vivax exhibits nine genes encoding the ETRAMP family. The ETRAMP family proteins are relatively small molecules with conserved structural features. A total of 6 recombinant ETRAMP proteins were successfully expressed and purified. The serum positivity of P. vivax malaria patients and healthy individuals was evaluated using a protein microarray method. Among the PvETRAMPs, ETRAMP4 showed the highest positivity rate of 62%, comparable to that of PvETRAMP11.2, which served as the positive control, and a typical export pattern of PvETRAMP4 was observed in the P. vivax parasite. The assessment of IgG subclasses in mice immunized with PvETRAMP4 showed high levels of IgG1 and IgG2b. PvETRAMP family proteins were identified and characterized as serological markers. The relatively high antibody responses to PvETRAMP4 as well as the specific IgG subclasses observed in immunized mice suggest that the ETRAMP family is immunogenic in pathogens and can be used as a protein marker and for vaccine development.

    更新日期:2019-12-19
  • Show us your ticks: a survey of ticks infesting dogs and cats across the USA
    Parasites Vectors (IF 3.031) Pub Date : 2019-12-19
    Meriam N. Saleh; Kellee D. Sundstrom; Kathryn T. Duncan; Michelle M. Ientile; Julia Jordy; Parna Ghosh; Susan E. Little

    A variety of tick species infest dogs and cats in North America. Although most of these species also readily feed on people, national data regarding the species and abundance of ticks on dogs and cats are lacking. Here we report a large-scale study of ticks from dogs and cats in the USA over a 12-month period. Tick submissions were invited from veterinary practices in all 50 states. Ticks were submitted with information about the pet and the attachment sites of each tick marked on a biopsy chart. Upon receipt, ticks were identified to species and stage using morphologic keys; when necessary, species identification was confirmed molecularly. From February 2018 through January 2019, 10,978 ticks were submitted from 1494 dogs and 336 cats in 49 states and ticks were collected in every month. Dog and cat infestation intensities ranged from 1 to 4765 and from 1 to 38 (median = 1, mean = 6.7 and 2.6), respectively. Dogs were primarily infested with Dermacentor variabilis (532/1494; 35.6%), Ixodes scapularis (409/1494; 27.4%), Amblyomma americanum (345/1494; 23.1%) and Rhipicephalus sanguineus (172/1494; 11.5%). Cats were primarily infested with I. scapularis (156/336; 46.4%), A. americanum (99/336; 29.5%) and D. variabilis (60/336; 17.9%). Other submitted ticks included A. maculatum, Haemaphysalis longicornis, Otobius megnini, and less common Dermacentor spp. and Ixodes spp. Co-infestations were documented in 93 dogs and 14 cats. Reported attachment sites of common tick species differed. In dogs, A. americanum was most commonly attached to the abdomen, axillary, and inguinal regions; D. variabilis and I. scapularis to the head, neck, and back; and R. sanguineus to the head, neck, abdomen, legs, and feet. In cats, I. scapularis was most commonly attached to the head and A. americanum was most commonly attached to the tail and perianal region. These data confirm that dogs and cats in the USA are at risk of tick infestation throughout the year and that tick species present in the region have apparent attachment site preferences.

    更新日期:2019-12-19
  • A novel protocol to isolate, detect and differentiate taeniid eggs in leafy greens and berries using real-time PCR with melting curve analysis
    Parasites Vectors (IF 3.031) Pub Date : 2019-12-18
    Caroline F. Frey; Jenna R. Oakley; Vladislav A. Lobanov; Nelson Marreros; Janna M. Schurer; Laura F. Lalonde

    Zoonotic taeniid cestodes are amongst the most important food-borne parasites affecting human health worldwide. Contamination of fresh produce with the eggs of Echinococcus granulosus (s.l.), Echinococcus multilocularis, and some Taenia species pose a potential food safety risk. However, very few studies have attempted to investigate the potential contamination of fresh produce with taeniid eggs and the available methods are not standardized for this purpose. Established protocols do exist for testing leafy greens and berries for contamination with protozoan parasites and are used in national surveillance programmes. This methodology could be suitable for the detection of taeniids. The objective of this project was to develop and standardize a sensitive and reliable method to detect contamination of leafy greens and berries with eggs of zoonotic taeniids and to differentiate between E. multilocularis, E. granulosus (s.l.) and Taenia spp. We compared the efficacy of different wash solutions to remove Taenia spp. eggs from spiked produce, assessed two DNA extraction kits for their performance on Taenia spp. eggs, and adapted a published conventional multiplex PCR into a real-time PCR with fluorescence melting curve analysis (MCA) that was optimized for use on produce washes. Analytical specificity of this protocol was assessed using non-spiked produce washes as well as a variety of other potentially contaminating parasites. The protocol as established in this study had an analytical sensitivity of detecting five eggs per spiked sample for both romaine lettuce and strawberries. Unequivocal identification of E. multilocularis, E. granulosus (s.l.) and Taenia spp. was possible through MCA. Amplicon sequencing allowed identification of Taenia to the species level. The real-time PCR also amplified DNA from Dicrocoelium sp., but with a clearly discernable melting curve profile. The new protocol for screening produce for taeniid contamination was highly sensitive. Melting curve analysis and the possibility of amplicon sequencing made this assay very specific. Once further validated, this method could be employed for surveillance of produce for contamination with taeniid parasites to assess potential risks for consumers.

    更新日期:2019-12-19
  • Insecticide resistance in Culex quinquefasciatus Say, 1823 in Brazil: a review
    Parasites Vectors (IF 3.031) Pub Date : 2019-12-18
    Ramon Pereira Lopes; José Bento Pereira Lima; Ademir Jesus Martins

    Culex quinquefasciatus is a successful invasive species broadly distributed in subtropical regions, including Brazil. It is an extremely annoying mosquito due to its nocturnal biting behavior, in high-density populations and it is a potential bridge between sylvatic arbovirus from birds to man in urban territories. Herein, we present a review concerning the methods of chemical control employed against Cx. quinquefasciatus in Brazil since the 1950’s and insecticide resistance data registered in the literature. As there is no specific national programme for Cx. quinquefasciatus control in Brazil, the selection of insecticide resistance is likely due in part to the well-designed chemical campaigns against Aedes aegypti and the elevated employment of insecticides by households and private companies. There are very few publications about insecticide resistance in Cx. quinquefasciatus from Brazil when compared to Ae. aegypti. Nevertheless, resistance to organophosphates, carbamate, DDT, pyrethroids and biolarvicides has been registered in Cx. quinquefasciatus populations from distinct localities of the country. Concerning physiological mechanisms selected for resistance, distinct patterns of esterases, as well as mutations in the acetylcholinesterase (ace-1) and voltage-gated sodium channel (NaV) genes, have been identified in natural populations. Given environmental changes and socioeconomical issues in the cities, in recent years we have been experiencing an increase in the number of disease cases caused by arboviruses, which may involve Cx. quinquefasciatus participation as a key vector. It is urgent to better understand the efficiency and susceptibility status to insecticides, as well as the genetic background of known resistant mechanisms already present in Cx. quinquefasciatus populations for an effective and rapid chemical control when eventually required.

    更新日期:2019-12-19
  • Proteomic analysis of the second-generation merozoites of Eimeria tenella under nitromezuril and ethanamizuril stress
    Parasites Vectors (IF 3.031) Pub Date : 2019-12-18
    Xue-Yan Li; Li-Li Liu; Min Zhang; Li-Fang Zhang; Xiao-Yang Wang; Mi Wang; Ke-Yu Zhang; Ying-Chun Liu; Chun-Mei Wang; Fei-Qun Xue; Chen-Zhong Fei

    Eimeria tenella is a highly pathogenic coccidian that causes avian coccidiosis. Both nitromezuril (NZL) and ethanamizuril (EZL) are novel triazine compounds with high anticoccidial activity, but the mechanisms of their action are still unclear. This study explored the response of E. tenella to NZL and EZL by the study of changes in protein composition of the second-generation merozoites. Label-free quantification (LFQ) proteomics of the second-generation merozoites of E. tenella following NZL and EZL treatment were studied by LC-MS/MS to explore the mechanisms of action. The identified proteins were annotated and analyzed by Gene Ontology (GO), Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis and protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks analysis. A total of 1430 proteins were identified by LC-MS/MS, of which 375 were considered as differential proteins in response to drug treatment (DPs). There were 26 only found in the NZL treatment group (N-group), 63 exclusive to the EZL treatment group (E-group), and 80 proteins were present in both drug groups. In addition, among the DPs, the abundant proteins with significantly altered expression in response to drug treatment (SDPs) were found compared with the C-group, of which 49 were upregulated and 51 were downregulated in the N-group, and 66 upregulated and 79 downregulated in the E-group. Many upregulated proteins after drug treatment were involved in transcription and protein metabolism, and surface antigen proteins (SAGs) were among the largest proportion of the downregulated SDPs. Results showed the top two enriched GO terms and the top one enriched pathway treated with EZL and NZL were related, which indicated that these two compounds had similar modes of action. LFQ proteomic analysis is a feasible method for screening drug-related proteins. Drug treatment affected transcription and protein metabolism, and SAGs were also affected significantly. This study provided new insights into the effects of triazine anticoccidials against E. tenella.

    更新日期:2019-12-19
  • Expression of a rK39 homologue from an Iranian Leishmania infantum isolate in Leishmania tarentolae for serodiagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis
    Parasites Vectors (IF 3.031) Pub Date : 2019-12-18
    Zahra Rezaei; Nick Van Reet; Gholamreza Pouladfar; Vera Kühne; Amin Ramezani; Bahador Sarkari; Bahman Pourabbas; Philippe Büscher

    Kinesin-related gene diversity among strains and species of Leishmania may impact the sensitivity and specificity of serodiagnostic tests for visceral leishmaniasis (VL). In this study, we report on the recombinant expression of this novel Iranian Leishmania infantum (MCAN14/47) homologue of rK39 (Li-rK39), in L. tarentolae. The diagnostic potential of the Li-rK39 antigen was evaluated in an ELISA, using sera from 100 VL patients, 190 healthy endemic controls, 46 non-endemic healthy controls and 47 patients with other infections. The results showed a sensitivity of 96% and a specificity of 93.8%. A commercial rK39 immunochromatographic test (ICT) was 90% sensitive and 100% specific on the same cohort. Here, we show that the K39 gene from an Iranian L. infantum isolate is heterozygous as compared to the sequence of the Brazilian L. infantum (former L. chagasi), whose antigen is incorporated in most rK39-based immunochromatographic tests. Therefore, Li-rK39 has the potential to be used as an alternative for VL diagnosis in Iran.

    更新日期:2019-12-19
  • Assessing the blood meal hosts of Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes taeniorhynchus in Isla Santa Cruz, Galápagos
    Parasites Vectors (IF 3.031) Pub Date : 2019-12-16
    Samoa Asigau; Sawsan Salah; Patricia G. Parker

    Blood meal host selection by mosquito vectors is an important component in understanding disease dynamics of pathogens that threaten endemic fauna in isolated islands such as Galápagos. Research on the feeding behavior of mosquitoes can provide clues to the hosts and vectors involved in disease transmission. This information is particularly critical for endemic wildlife fauna in island systems that have evolved without resistance to novel diseases such as avian malaria. The aims of this study were to determine the blood-feeding patterns of two species of mosquitoes found in Galápagos and discuss how their feeding behavior may influence the transmission of pathogens such as avian malaria. In the summer of 2015, we sampled two mosquito species (Aedes taeniorhynchus and Culex quinquefasciatus) across 18 different sites on Isla Santa Cruz, which is the second largest island in Galápagos and has the largest human population. We trapped mosquitoes using CDC light traps and CDC gravid traps and identified sources of blood meals for engorged mosquitoes by sequencing a portion of the vertebrate mitochondrial cytochrome b gene. Out of 947 female mosquitoes captured, 320 were blood-fed, and PCR amplifications were successful for 301 of the blood meals. Results revealed that both Aedes taeniorhynchus and Culex quinquefasciatus feed from a variety of vertebrate taxa, numerically dominated by humans on Isla Santa Cruz. The high proportion of mammalian blood meals could represent locally available and abundant hosts on Santa Cruz. However, host surveys and estimates of relative abundances of vertebrate species will need to accompany mosquito trapping studies on non-inhabited and inhabited islands in Galápagos to further validate this.

    更新日期:2019-12-17
  • Biological attributes of the kissing bug Triatoma rubrofasciata from Vietnam
    Parasites Vectors (IF 3.031) Pub Date : 2019-12-16
    Ho Viet Hieu; Le Thanh Do; Sebastián Pita; Hoang Ha; Pham Thi Khoa; Pham Anh Tuan; Ta Phuong Mai; Ngo Giang Lien; Francisco Panzera

    Triatoma rubrofasciata is the only kissing bug species distributed globally. In the Americas, this species transmits the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, responsible for Chagas disease. The presence of T. rubrofasciata in several Asian countries has greatly increased recently. In Vietnam, it is found in large numbers, closely associated with human environments. Although T. rubrofasciata from Asia is not infected with Tryp. cruzi, it carries other parasites such as Trypanosoma lewisi and Trypanosoma conorhini. Reports of bites by T. rubrofasciata have increased significantly in several places of Vietnam, becoming a public health problem as it produces severe anaphylactic reactions. Specimens of T. rubrofasciata were collected from seven provinces in central Vietnam. We analyzed different biological attributes (life-cycle, starvation resistance, feeding and reproductive capacities) and genetic characteristics (chromosomes and DNA sequences) of T. rubrofasciata from Vietnam and compared them with Brazilian specimens. Natural infection with Tryp. conorhini and Tryp. lewisi were analyzed in a sample of 100 collected insects. Species identification of T. rubrofasciata from central Vietnam was corroborated by genetic markers. Cytogenetic analyses showed that T. rubrofasciata from central Vietnam share the same chromosomal characteristics with individuals from Brazil and Hanoi. DNA sequence analyses of a mitochondrial cytochrome b gene fragment showed little variation between Old and New World specimens. Our study sample, compared with Brazilian individuals, showed a higher survival capacity revealed by a higher hatching rate (98% compared with 80.5%), a larger amount of blood taken in single meal and long-term starvation resistance. Furthermore, this species had a high natural rate of infection with Tryp. conorhini (46%) and Tryp. lewisi (27%). For T. rubrofasciata of Vietnam, a high rate of fecundity throughout the year, a high capacity for starvation, and its occurrence in synanthropic environments of urban areas with a high availability of food sources are risk factors to be taken into account by vector control campaigns. The several allergic reactions caused by their bites and their high infection with Tryp. lewisi highlight the need to implement specific control programmes for T. rubrofasciata in Vietnam.

    更新日期:2019-12-17
  • Prevalence and genetic characterization of Toxoplasma gondii in naturally infected backyard pigs intended for familial consumption in Romania
    Parasites Vectors (IF 3.031) Pub Date : 2019-12-16
    Anamaria Ioana Paştiu; Anamaria Cozma-Petruț; Aurélien Mercier; Anamaria Balea; Lokman Galal; Viorica Mircean; Dana Liana Pusta; Liviu Bogdan; Adriana Györke

    Foodborne toxoplasmosis in humans can be due to the exposure to tissue cysts of Toxoplasma gondii through the consumption of meat, including pork, of infected animals. Traditional Romanian food habits include pork as the preferred meat, while backyard pig rearing remains a common practice in many rural areas of Romania. The aims of the present study were to estimate the prevalence of T. gondii infection in naturally infected backyard pigs slaughtered for familial consumption and to genetically characterize the T. gondii strains obtained. Paired blood and heart samples were collected from 94 backyard pigs, home slaughtered for private consumption. Serum samples were analyzed using the immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT) for anti-T. gondii antibody detection. Heart samples were screened by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting the 529-bp repeat region (REP529) for T. gondii detection. In addition, heart samples from IFAT positive animals were bioassayed in mice. The T. gondii isolates were genotyped by the analysis of 15 microsatellite markers. The results showed that almost half of the pigs investigated were T. gondii seropositive (46.8%, 95% confidence interval (CI): 36.4–57.4%) and in more than a quarter of the pigs (26.6%, 95% CI: 18.0–36.7%), the parasite was detected by PCR. Three (3/44) T. gondii strains were isolated from hearts of seropositive pigs and they all belonged to genotype II. The present study showed the presence of T. gondii infection in backyard pigs in Romania, which suggests that consumption of pork from animals reared and slaughtered at home may pose a potential threat to human health and should be given attention. In addition, to our knowledge, this is the first study to provide data concerning T. gondii strains circulating in pigs from Romania.

    更新日期:2019-12-17
Contents have been reproduced by permission of the publishers.
导出
全部期刊列表>>
2020新春特辑
限时免费阅读临床医学内容
ACS材料视界
科学报告最新纳米科学与技术研究
清华大学化学系段昊泓
自然科研论文编辑服务
中国科学院大学楚甲祥
中国科学院微生物研究所潘国辉
中国科学院化学研究所
课题组网站
X-MOL
北京大学分子工程苏南研究院
华东师范大学分子机器及功能材料
中山大学化学工程与技术学院
试剂库存
天合科研
down
wechat
bug