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  • A case of brucellosis concomitant with HIV infection in China
    Infect. Dis. Poverty (IF 3.123) Pub Date : 2020-01-16
    Shuai-Bing Dong; Li-Ping Wang; Chao-Xue Wu; Fan Li; Yong Yue; Dong-Ri Piao; Hong-Yan Zhao; Hai Jiang

    Human brucellosis is a neglected public health issue in China and reports of HIV-infected individuals complicated with brucellosis are rare. This report describes the case of an HIV-infected patient complicated with brucellosis. We want to raise awareness of clinical diagnosis of brucellosis among clinicians. Furthermore, we should be more concerned about cases with pyrexia of unknown origin, especially in non-epidemic areas of brucellosis in China. We encountered the case of a 31-year-old HIV-infected male with a CD4+ T lymphocyte count of approximately 300. On May 1, 2019, the patient had onset of non-specific caustic irregular fever with body temperature reaching 41.0 °C. He was admitted to two medical institutions in Yunnan with pyrexia of unknown origin. Finally, on day 7 of hospitalization in the Public Health Clinical Medical Center in Chengdu City, he was diagnosed as having brucellosis infection based on blood culture results. This is the first reported case of brucellosis concomitant with HIV infection in China. Laboratories in infectious disease hospitals and category A level III hospitals in the southern provinces of China should be equipped with reagents for clinical diagnosis of brucellosis and to strengthen the awareness of brucellosis diagnosis in China. Secondly, in provinces with a high incidence of AIDS and brucellosis such as Xinjiang and Henan, it is recommended to implement a joint examination strategy to ensure the early detection, diagnosis, and treatment of this infection.

    更新日期:2020-01-17
  • Comorbidities between tuberculosis and common mental disorders: a scoping review of epidemiological patterns and person-centred care interventions from low-to-middle income and BRICS countries
    Infect. Dis. Poverty (IF 3.123) Pub Date : 2020-01-15
    André Janse Van Rensburg; Audry Dube; Robyn Curran; Fentie Ambaw; Jamie Murdoch; Max Bachmann; Inge Petersen; Lara Fairall

    There is increasing evidence that the substantial global burden of disease for tuberculosis unfolds in concert with dimensions of common mental disorders. Person-centred care holds much promise to ameliorate these comorbidities in low-to-middle income countries (LMICs) and emerging economies. Towards this end, this paper aims to review 1) the nature and extent of tuberculosis and common mental disorder comorbidity and 2) person-centred tuberculosis care in low-to-middle income countries and emerging economies. A scoping review of 100 articles was conducted of English-language studies published from 2000 to 2019 in peer-reviewed and grey literature, using established guidelines, for each of the study objectives. Four broad tuberculosis/mental disorder comorbidities were described in the literature, namely alcohol use and tuberculosis, depression and tuberculosis, anxiety and tuberculosis, and general mental health and tuberculosis. Rates of comorbidity varied widely across countries for depression, anxiety, alcohol use and general mental health. Alcohol use and tuberculosis were significantly related, especially in the context of poverty. The initial tuberculosis diagnostic episode had substantial socio-psychological effects on service users. While men tended to report higher rates of alcohol use and treatment default, women in general had worse mental health outcomes. Older age and a history of mental illness were also associated with pronounced tuberculosis and mental disorder comorbidity. Person-centred tuberculosis care interventions were almost absent, with only one study from Nepal identified. There is an emerging body of evidence describing the nature and extent of tuberculosis and mental disorders comorbidity in low-to-middle income countries. Despite the potential of person-centred interventions, evidence is limited. This review highlights a pronounced need to address psychosocial comorbidities with tuberculosis in LMICs, where models of person-centred tuberculosis care in routine care platforms may yield promising outcomes.

    更新日期:2020-01-15
  • Researching social innovation: is the tail wagging the dog?
    Infect. Dis. Poverty (IF 3.123) Pub Date : 2020-01-13
    Emma L. M. Rhule; Pascale A. Allotey

    Social Innovation in health initiatives have the potential to address unmet community health needs. For sustainable change to occur, we need to understand how and why a given intervention is effective. Bringing together communities, innovators, researchers, and policy makers is a powerful way to address this knowledge gap but differing priorities and epistemological backgrounds can make collaboration challenging. To overcome these barriers, stakeholders will need to design policies and work in ways that provide an enabling environment for innovative products and services. Inherently about people, the incorporation of community engagement approaches is necessary for both the development of social innovations and accompanying research methodologies. Whilst the 'appropriate' level of participation is linked to intended outcomes, researchers have a role to play in better understanding how to harness the power of community engagement and to ensure that community perspectives form part of the evidence base that informs policy and practice. To effectively operate at the intersection between policy, social innovation, and research, all collaborators need to enter the process with the mindset of learners, rather than experts. Methods – quantitative and qualitative – must be selected according to research questions. The fields of implementation research, community-based participatory research, and realist research, amongst others, have much to offer. So do other sectors, notably education and business. In all this, researchers must assume the mantel of responsibility for research and not transfer the onus to communities under the guise of participation. By leveraging the expertise and knowledge of different ecosystem actors, we can design responsive health systems that integrate innovative approaches in ways that are greater than the sum of their parts.

    更新日期:2020-01-13
  • Global dynamic spatiotemporal pattern of seasonal influenza since 2009 influenza pandemic
    Infect. Dis. Poverty (IF 3.123) Pub Date : 2020-01-03
    Zhi-Wei Xu; Zhong-Jie Li; Wen-Biao Hu

    Understanding the global spatiotemporal pattern of seasonal influenza is essential for influenza control and prevention. Available data on the updated global spatiotemporal pattern of seasonal influenza are scarce. This study aimed to assess the spatiotemporal pattern of seasonal influenza after the 2009 influenza pandemic. Weekly influenza surveillance data in 86 countries from 2010 to 2017 were obtained from FluNet. First, the proportion of influenza A in total influenza viruses (PA) was calculated. Second, weekly numbers of influenza positive virus (A and B) were divided by the total number of samples processed to get weekly positive rates of influenza A (RWA) and influenza B (RWB). Third, the average positive rates of influenza A (RA) and influenza B (RB) for each country were calculated by averaging RWA, and RWB of 52 weeks. A Kruskal-Wallis test was conducted to examine if the year-to-year change in PA in all countries were significant, and a universal kriging method with linear semivariogram model was used to extrapolate RA and RB in all countries. PA ranged from 0.43 in Zambia to 0.98 in Belarus, and PA in countries with higher income was greater than those countries with lower income. The spatial patterns of high RB were the highest in sub-Saharan Africa, Asia-Pacific region and South America. RWA peaked in early weeks in temperate countries, and the peak of RWB occurred a bit later. There were some temperate countries with non-distinct influenza seasonality (e.g., Mauritius and Maldives) and some tropical/subtropical countries with distinct influenza seasonality (e.g., Chile and South Africa). Influenza seasonality is not predictable in some temperate countries, and it is distinct in Chile, Argentina and South Africa, implying that the optimal timing for influenza vaccination needs to be chosen with caution in these unpredictable countries.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Cost-effectiveness analysis of malaria rapid diagnostic tests: a systematic review
    Infect. Dis. Poverty (IF 3.123) Pub Date : 2019-12-30
    Xiao-Xiao Ling; Jia-Jie Jin; Guo-Ding Zhu; Wei-Ming Wang; Yuan-Yuan Cao; Meng-Meng Yang; Hua-Yun Zhou; Jun Cao; Jia-Yan Huang

    Rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) can effectively manage malaria cases and reduce excess costs brought by misdiagnosis. However, few studies have evaluated the economic value of this technology. The purpose of this study is to systematically review the economic value of RDT in malaria diagnosis. A detailed search strategy was developed to identify published economic evaluations that provide evidence regarding the cost-effectiveness of malaria RDT. Electronic databases including MEDLINE, EMBASE, Biosis Previews, Web of Science and Cochrane Library were searched from Jan 2007 to July 2018. Two researchers screened studies independently based on pre-specified inclusion and exclusion criteria. The Consolidated Health Economic Evaluation Reporting Standards (CHEERS) checklist was applied to evaluate the quality of the studies. Then cost and effectiveness data were extracted and summarized in a narrative way. Fifteen economic evaluations of RDT compared to other diagnostic methods were identified. The overall quality of studies varied greatly but most of them were scored to be of high or moderate quality. Ten of the fifteen studies reported that RDT was likely to be a cost-effective approach compared to its comparisons, but the results could be influenced by the alternatives, study perspectives, malaria prevalence, and the types of RDT. Based on available evidence, RDT had the potential to be more cost-effective than either microscopy or presumptive diagnosis. Further research is also required to draw a more robust conclusion.

    更新日期:2019-12-31
  • Frequency and distribution of neglected tropical diseases in Mozambique: a systematic review
    Infect. Dis. Poverty (IF 3.123) Pub Date : 2019-12-13
    Berta Grau-Pujol; Marilia Massangaie; Jorge Cano; Carmen Maroto; Alcino Ndeve; Francisco Saute; Jose Muñoz

    Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) affect more than one billion people living in vulnerable conditions. In spite of initiatives recently contributing to fill NTDs gaps on national and local prevalence and distribution, more epidemiological data are still needed for effective control and elimination interventions. Mozambique is considered one of the countries with highest NTDs burden although available data is scarce. This study aims to conduct a systematic review on published available data about the burden and distribution of the different NTDs across Mozambique since January 1950 until December 2018. We identified manuscripts from electronic databases (Pubmed, EmBase and Global Health) and paper publications and grey literature from Mozambique Ministry of Health. Manuscripts fulfilling inclusion criteria were: cross-sectional studies, ecological studies, cohorts, reports, systematic reviews, and narrative reviews capturing epidemiological information of endemic NTDs in Mozambique. Case-control studies, letters to editor, case reports and case series of imported cases were excluded. A total of 466 manuscripts were initially identified and 98 were finally included after the revision following PRISMA guidelines. Eleven NTDs were reported in Mozambique during the study span. Northern provinces (Nampula, Cabo Delgado, Niassa, Tete and Zambezia) and Maputo province had the higher number of NTDs detected. Every disease had their own report profile: while schistosomiasis have been continuously reported since 1952 until nowadays, onchocerciasis and cysticercosis last available data is from 2007 and Echinococcosis have never been evaluated in the country. Thus, both space and time gaps on NTDs epidemiology have been identified. This review assembles NTDs burden and distribution in Mozambique. Thus, contributes to the understanding of NTDs epidemiology in Mozambique and highlights knowledge gaps. Hence, the study provides key elements to progress towards the control and interruption of transmission of these diseases in the country.

    更新日期:2019-12-13
  • Reduction patterns of Japanese encephalitis incidence following vaccine introduction into long-term expanded program on immunization in Yunnan Province, China
    Infect. Dis. Poverty (IF 3.123) Pub Date : 2019-12-10
    Xiao-Ting Hu; Qiong-Fen Li; Chao Ma; Zhi-Xian Zhao; Li-Fang He; Ting-Ting Tang; Wen Yu; Philip Owiti

    Japanese encephalitis (JE) is a leading cause of childhood viral encephalitis both at global level and in China. Vaccination is recommended as a key strategy to control JE. In China most JE cases have been reported in southwest provinces, which include Yunnan. In this study, we quantify the epidemiological shift of JE in Yunnan Province from 2005 to 2017, covering before and after the introduction of JE vaccination into routine Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) in 2007. We used routinely collected data in the case-based JE surveillance system from 2005 through 2017 in Yunnan. Cases were reported from hospital and county-level Centers for Disease Control in line with the National JE Surveillance Guideline. Epidemiological data were extracted, analysed and presented in appropriate ways. Immunization coverage was estimated from actual JE doses administered and new births for each year. A total 4780 JE cases (3077 laboratory-confirmed, 1266 clinical and 437 suspected) were reported in the study period. Incidence of JE (per 100 000 population) increased from 0.95 in 2005 to 1.69 in 2007. With increase in vaccination coverage, incidence rates decreased steadily from 1.16 in 2009 to 0.17 in 2017. However, seasonality remained similar across the years, peaking in June–September. Banna (bordering Myanmar and Laos), Dehong (bordering Myanmar), and Zhaotong (an inland prefecture) had the highest incidence rates of 2.3, 1.9, and 1.6, respectively. 97% of all cases were among local residents. As vaccination coverage increased (and incidence decreased), proportion of JE cases among children < 10 years old decreased from 70% in 2005 to 32% in 2017, while that among adults ≥20 years old increased from 12 to 48%. There were a large number of JE cases with unknown treatment outcomes, especially in the earlier years of the surveillance system. The 13-year JE surveillance data in Yunnan Province showed dramatic decrease of total incidence and a shift from children to adults. Improving vaccination coverage, including access to adults at risk, and strengthening the JE surveillance system is needed to further control or eliminate JE in the province.

    更新日期:2019-12-11
  • High insecticide resistance in the major malaria vector Anopheles coluzzii in Chad Republic
    Infect. Dis. Poverty (IF 3.123) Pub Date : 2019-12-03
    Sulaiman S. Ibrahim; Amen N. Fadel; Magellan Tchouakui; Ebai Terence; Murielle J. Wondji; Micareme Tchoupo; Clement Kérah-Hinzoumbé; Samuel Wanji; Charles S. Wondji

    The Sahel region of Chad Republic is a prime candidate for malaria pre-elimination. To facilitate pre-elimination efforts in this region, two populations of Anopheles coluzzii from Central Chad Republic were characterized, their insecticide resistance profile and the possible molecular mechanisms driving the resistance in the field investigated. Bloodfed female Anopheles gambiae s.l. resting indoor, were collected at N’djamena and Massakory, Chad in 2018 and characterized for species composition, and infection rate was determined using the TaqMan assay. Susceptibility to various insecticides was assessed using WHO tube bioassays. Cone bioassays were conducted using various long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs). Results were analysed using Chi Square test. Knockdown resistance (kdr) and ace-1 markers were investigated by TaqMan genotyping. Anopheles coluzzii was the major vector found in N’djamena (100%) and Massakory (~ 94%). No Plasmodium was found in 147 bloodfed F0 An. coluzzii (82 from N’djamena and 65 from Massakory). High intensity pyrethroid resistance was observed with mortalities of < 2% for permethrin, deltamethrin and etofenprox, and with < 50% and < 60% dead following exposure to 10× diagnostic doses of deltamethrin and permethrin, respectively. For both sites, < 10% mortalities were observed with DDT. Synergist bioassays with piperonylbutoxide significantly recovered pyrethroid susceptibility in Massakory populations, implicating CYP450s (mortality = 13.6% for permethrin, χ2 = 22.8, df = 1, P = 0.0006; mortality = 13.0% for deltamethrin, χ2 = 8.8, df = 1, P < 0.00031). Cone-bioassays established complete loss of efficacy of the pyrethroid-based LLINs; and a 100% recovery of susceptibility following exposure to the roof of PermaNet®3.0, containing piperonylbutoxide. Both populations were susceptible to malathion, but high bendiocarb resistance was observed in Massakory population. The absence of ace-1 mutation points to the role of metabolic resistance in the bendiocarb resistance. Both 1014F and 1014S mutations were found in both populations at around 60% and < 20% respectively. Sequencing of intron-1 of the voltage-gated sodium channel revealed a low genetic diversity suggesting reduced polymorphism. Multiple resistance in An. coluzzii populations from Chad highlight challenges associated with deployment of LLINs and indoor residual spraying (IRS) in the Sahel of this country. The pyrethroid-synergists LLINs (e.g. PermaNet®3.0) and organophosphate-based IRS maybe the alternatives for malaria control in this region.

    更新日期:2019-12-04
  • Identity, stigma, and HIV risk among transgender women: a qualitative study in Jiangsu Province, China
    Infect. Dis. Poverty (IF 3.123) Pub Date : 2019-12-01
    Zi-Han Yan; Jessica Lin; Wen-Jing Xiao; Keh-Ming Lin; Willi McFarland; Hong-Jing Yan; Erin Wilson

    Transgender women have multiple disparities globally, including social rejection and stigma, HIV infection and untreated mental health problems. However, few data on transgender women are available in China. Therefore, this study aimed to explore transgender women’s experiences on gender identity, disclosure, discrimination, transgender-specific medical care, and perceptions of HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STI) risk in China. A qualitative study was conducted in Nanjing and Suzhou city, China in 2018. Key informant interviews (n = 14) and focus group discussions (n = 2) with diverse transgender women were implemented. Text was transcribed and translated, and Dedoose™ software was used for coding, analysis and interpretation by the research team. Chinese transgender women share experiences with transgender women worldwide, including a long and challenging identity search, stigma and discrimination, poor access to trans-specific services and unmet needs for mental health care. Features unique to them include terms used for self-identification, culturally-shaped expectations for reproduction, and ideals of placing the familial and societal welfare over personal fulfillment. Social networks of this population appear sparse, scattered, and underground. Familial rejection was experienced by nearly all respondents. Perceptions of HIV and STI risk and history of HIV testing were notably low. Transgender women in China face high social rejection and discrimination along with unmet need for various types of healthcare. Scaling up transgender-specific services including gender-affirming medical care, mental health care and HIV/STI prevention are warranted to address the social, medical and mental health of transgender women in China.

    更新日期:2019-12-02
  • Surveillance of drug resistance tuberculosis based on reference laboratory data in Ethiopia
    Infect. Dis. Poverty (IF 3.123) Pub Date : 2019-06-14
    Getu Diriba; Abebaw Kebede; Habteyes Hailu Tola; Ayinalem Alemu; Mengistu Tadesse; Epherem Tesfaye; Zemedu Mehamed; Abiyot Meaza; Bazezew Yenew; Hilina Molalign; Biniyam Dagne; Waganeh Sinshaw; Misikir Amare; Shewki Moga; Yeshiwork Abebaw; Getachew Sied

    Both passive and active surveillance of drug resistance have an important role in tuberculosis (TB) control program. Surveillance data are important to estimate the magnitude of drug resistance TB, to know the trend of the disease, assess the performance of the program, and to forecast diagnosis and treatment supplies. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the prevalence and the proportion of drug resistant tuberculosis in Ethiopia based on passively collected data. A cross-sectional study was conducted at the National Tuberculosis Reference Laboratory and seven Regional TB laboratories in Ethiopia on a retrospective data collected from July 2017 to June, 2018. Data were collected by standardized checklist from TB culture laboratory registration book. Percentage of recovery rate, contamination rate, and prevalence of drug resistance TB were determined by Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) version 23. Of 10 134 TB suspected individuals included into this analysis, 1183 (11.7%) were culture positive. The overall contamination proportion was 5.3% and nontuberculous mycobacteria proportion was 0.98%. First-line drug susceptibility test was performed for 329 Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex isolates, and the proportion of resistance was 5.7 and 6.3% for isoniazid and rifampicin respectively. The proportion of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) was 4.3% in new patients, while 6.7% in previously treated patients. However, there was no category for 0.6% patients, and the overall proportion of MDR-TB was 11.6%. The result of this study indicated that MDR-TB is a serious public health problem in Ethiopia. Thus, strengthen prevention and control program is vital to halt the burden of drug resistant TB in the country.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Infection against infection: parasite antagonism against parasites, viruses and bacteria
    Infect. Dis. Poverty (IF 3.123) Pub Date : 2019-06-15
    Shi-Shi Shen; Xiao-Yan Qu; Wei-Zhe Zhang; Jian Li; Zhi-Yue Lv

    Infectious diseases encompass a large spectrum of diseases that threaten human health, and coinfection is of particular importance because pathogen species can interact within the host. Currently, the antagonistic relationship between different pathogens during concurrent coinfections is defined as one in which one pathogen either manages to inhibit the invasion, development and reproduction of the other pathogen or biologically modulates the vector density. In this review, we provide an overview of the phenomenon and mechanisms of antagonism of coinfecting pathogens involving parasites. This review summarizes the antagonistic interaction between parasites and parasites, parasites and viruses, and parasites and bacteria. At present, relatively clear mechanisms explaining polyparasitism include apparent competition, exploitation competition, interference competition, biological control of intermediate hosts or vectors and suppressive effect on transmission. In particular, immunomodulation, including the suppression of dendritic cell (DC) responses, activation of basophils and mononuclear macrophages and adjuvant effects of the complement system, is described in detail. In this review, we summarize antagonistic concurrent infections involving parasites and provide a functional framework for in-depth studies of the underlying mechanisms of coinfection with different microorganisms, which will hasten the development of promising antimicrobial alternatives, such as novel antibacterial vaccines or biological methods of controlling infectious diseases, thus relieving the overwhelming burden of ever-increasing antimicrobial resistance.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Prevalence and risk factors of schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiases among preschool aged children (1–5 years) in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa: a cross-sectional study
    Infect. Dis. Poverty (IF 3.123) Pub Date : 2019-06-16
    Hlengiwe Sacolo-Gwebu; Moses Chimbari; Chester Kalinda

    Despite efforts to control neglected tropical diseases (NTDs), schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiases remain widely prevalent in sub-Saharan Africa. Recent data suggest that these infections are prevalent among preschool aged children (PSAC) in poor communities. Evidence of schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminths (STH) infection patterns and prevalence among PSAC is essential for effective treatment and control programmes. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence, intensity and risk factors of schistosomiasis and STH infection among PSAC in the Ingwavuma area of uMkhanyakude District, South Africa. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1143 PSAC aged 1–5 years in 34 preschools and early childhood development (ECD) centres. Data on risk factors was collected using a semi-structured questionnaire. A Kruskal–Wallis test was used to compare the differences in infection intensity with age. Pearson Chi-square test and multivariate logistic regression were performed to assess the association between PSAC infection status, sociodemographic, household, water and sanitation variables and hygiene practices of PSAC and their caregivers. We observed a low prevalence of Schistosoma haematobium (1.0%) and S. mansoni (0.9%). The prevalence of Ascaris lumbricoides (18.3%) was high compared to Trichuris trichiura (1.2%), hookworms (1.6%) and Taenia (6.4%). The odds of schistosome infection were lowest among PSAC under younger (15–24 years) caregivers (0.1, 95% CI: 0.02–0.54) and those who used tap water (0.3, 95% CI: 0.09–0.78) for domestic purposes. Schistosome infection was however higher among PSAC who bathed in river water (17.4, 95% CI: 5.96–51.04). STH infection on the other hand was lowest among PSAC who did not play in soil (0.1, 95% CI: 0.51–0.28), were from households that used tap water for domestic purposes (0.5, 95% CI: 0.27–0.80) and PSAC under the care of younger (25–35 years) caregivers (0.3, 95% CI: 0.10–0.75). The risk of STH infection was highest among PSAC who did not wash their hands with soap (3.5, 95% CI: 1.04–11.67) and PSAC whose nails were not trimmed (3.6, 95% CI: 1.75–7.26). The findings show low prevalence and infection intensity of schistosomiasis and STH infection except A. lumbricoides among PSAC. Factors predicting schistosomiasis and STH infection among PSAC were related to caregivers’ age, educational status, water and hygiene practices. STH infection was exclusively associated with PSAC playing and handwashing habits. These findings highlight the need to include PSAC caregivers in schistosomiasis and STH prevention and control programmes.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Governance of tuberculosis control programme in Nigeria
    Infect. Dis. Poverty (IF 3.123) Pub Date : 2019-06-17
    Daniel Chukwuemeka Ogbuabor; Obinna Emmanuel Onwujekwe

    The role of governance in strengthening tuberculosis (TB) control has received little research attention. This review provides evidence of how institutional designs and organisational practices influence implementation of the national TB control programme (NTP) in Nigeria. We conducted a scoping review using a five-stage framework to review published and grey literature in English, on implementation of Nigeria’s NTP and identified themes related to governance using a health system governance framework. We included articles, of all study designs and methods, which described or analysed the processes of implementing TB control based on relevance to the research question. The review shows a dearth of studies which examined the role of governance in TB control in Nigeria. Although costed plans and policy coordination framework exist, public spending on TB control is low. While stakeholders’ involvement in TB control is increasing, institutional capacity is limited, especially in the private sector. TB-specific legislation is absent. Deployment and transfer of staff to the NTP are not transparent. Health workers are not transparent in communicating service entitlements to users. Despite existence of supportive policies, integration of TB control into the community and general health services have been weak. Willingness to pay for TB services is high, however, transaction cost and stigma among patients limit equity. Effectiveness and efficiency of the NTP was hindered by inadequate human resources, dilapidated service delivery infrastructure and weak drug supply system. Despite adhering to standardized recording and reporting format, regular monitoring and evaluation, revision of reporting formats, and electronic data management system, TB surveillance system was found to be weak. Delay in TB diagnosis and initiation of care, poor staff attitude to patients, lack of privacy, poor management of drug reactions and absence of infection control measures breach ethical standards for TB care. This scoping review of governance of TB control in Nigeria highlights two main issues. Governance for strengthening TB control programmes in low-resource, high TB burden settings like Nigeria, is imperative. Secondly, there is a need for empirical studies involving detailed analysis of different dimensions of governance of TB control.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Change patterns of oncomelanid snail burden in areas within the Yangtze River drainage after the three gorges dam operated
    Infect. Dis. Poverty (IF 3.123) Pub Date : 2019-06-18
    Si-Min Dai; Jeffrey Edwards; Zhou Guan; Shan Lv; Shi-Zhu Li; Li-Juan Zhang; Jun Feng; Ning Feng; Xiao-Nong Zhou; Jing Xu

    An “integrated control” strategy has been implemented within seven provinces at highest risk for schistosomiasis along Yangtze River in Peoples’ Republic of China (P. R. China) since 2004. Since Oncomelania hupensis is the only intermediate host of the blood fluke (Schistosoma japonicum), controlling the distribution of snails is considered an essential and effective way to reduce the risk of schistosomiasis infection. The study aimed to determine the snail area burden and annual trend among provinces with potential risk for schistosomiasis along the Yangtze River, above and below the Three Gorges Dam (TGD). This retrospective study utilized data previously collected from the National Parasitic Diseases Control Information Management System (NPDCIMS) on annual snail surveys from 2009 to 2017. Descriptive statistics were performed for analyzing the snail burden by provinces, counties, type of environmental location and year, and mapping was conducted to present the snails distribution. From 2009 to 2017, the total snail infested area decreased by 4.22%, from 372 253 hm2 to 356 553 hm2 within the seven high risk provinces. The majority of snails were found in the marshland and lake regions, outside of control embankments. The total snail burden trend remained relatively stable in upstream regions above the TGD from 2010 to 2015, while the trend decreased within downstream regions during this period. In 2016 and 2017, the total snail burden trend increased in both upstream and downstream provinces, however, upstream saw a larger increase. From 2009 to 2017, there were a total of 5990 hm2 of newly developed snail areas in the seven study provinces and the majority were concentrated in regions below the TGD, accounting for 5610 hm2 (93.70%). There has been a decline in total snail counts from 2009 to 2017. Meanwhile, new snail breeding areas were formed mainly within provinces downstream the TGD due to spread of snails, indicated that the oncomelanid snail would be difficult to completely eliminate. We suggest that the national schistosomiasis integrated control strategy, including mollusciding and environmental modification, will need to be enhanced significantly going forward to achieve a greater reduction in snail burden and ultimately to achieve elimination.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Inequity in catastrophic costs among tuberculosis-affected households in China
    Infect. Dis. Poverty (IF 3.123) Pub Date : 2019-06-19
    Cai-Hong Xu; Kathiresan Jeyashree; Hemant Deepak Shewade; Yin-Yin Xia; Li-Xia Wang; Yan Liu; Hui Zhang; Li Wang

    There are limited nationally representative studies globally in the post-2015 END tuberculosis (TB) era regarding wealth related inequity in the distribution of catastrophic costs due to TB care. Under the Chinese national tuberculosis programme setting, we aimed to assess extent of equity in distribution of total TB care costs (pre-treatment, treatment and overall) and costs as a proportion of annual household income (AHI), and describe and compare equity in distribution of catastrophic costs (pre-treatment, treatment and overall) across population sub-groups. Analytical cross-sectional study using data from national TB patient cost survey carried out in 22 counties from six provinces in China in 2017. Drug-susceptible pulmonary TB registered under programme, who had received at least 2 weeks of intensive phase therapy were included. Equity was depicted using concentration curves and concentration indices were compared using dominance test. Of 1147 patients, the median cost of pre-treatment, treatment and overall care, were USD 283.5, USD 413.1 and USD 965.5, respectively. Richer quintiles incurred significantly higher pre-treatment and treatment costs compared to poorer quintiles. The distribution of costs as a proportion of AHI and catastrophic costs were significantly pro-poor overall as well as during pre-treatment and treatment phase. All the concentration curves for catastrophic costs (due to pre-treatment, treatment and overall care) stratified by region (east, middle and west), area of residence (urban, rural) and type of insurance (new rural co-operative medical system [NCMS], non-NCMS) also exhibited a pro-poor pattern with statistically significant (P < 0.01) concentration indices. The pro-poor distribution of the catastrophic costs due to TB treatment was significantly more inequitable among rural, compared to urban patients, and NCMS compared to non-NCMS beneficiaries. There is inequity in the distribution of catastrophic costs due to TB care. Universal health coverage, social protection strategies complemented by quality TB care is vital to reduce inequitable distribution of catastrophic costs due to TB care in China.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Prevalence of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus in animals in Henan Province, China
    Infect. Dis. Poverty (IF 3.123) Pub Date : 2019-06-24
    Xue-Yong Huang; Yan-Hua Du; Hai-Feng Wang; Ai-Guo You; Yi Li; Jia Su; Yi-Fei Nie; Hong-Xia Ma; Bian-Li Xu

    Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is an emerging infectious disease caused by severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV). SFTSV has been found in humans, ticks and animals, and SFTS has high mortality and increasing prevalence in East Asia. In the study, the samples (heart, liver, lung, kidney, spleen, brain tissue and serum) were collected from 374 domestic animals and 241 wild animals in Pingqiao District and Xinxian County of Xinyang in Henan Province, China. 275 (44.72%, 275/615) animals were positive for anti-SFTSV antibodies, the anti-SFTSV antibodies positive ratios of domestic and wild animals were 43.58% (163/374) and 46.47% (112/241), respectively. There was no significant difference in domestic and wild animals, but significant differences were detected among different species of animals (χ2 = 112.59, P < 0.0001). Among 615 animals, 105 (17.07%, 105/615) animals were positive for SFTSV RNA, and only one SFTSV strain was isolated from heart tissue of a yellow weasel. The phylogenetic analysis shows that the sequence from animals belonged to the same group with viral sequences obtained from humans. The animals maybe play a reservoir host in maintaining the life cycle of SFTSV in nature.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Evaluation of scrub typhus diagnosis in China: analysis of nationwide surveillance data from 2006 to 2016
    Infect. Dis. Poverty (IF 3.123) Pub Date : 2019-06-29
    Hua-Lei Xin; Jian-Xing Yu; Mao-Gui Hu; Fa-Chun Jiang; Xiao-Jing Li; Li-Ping Wang; Ji-Lei Huang; Jin-Feng Wang; Jun-Ling Sun; Zhong-Jie Li

    Scrub typhus is a life-threatening disease caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi, and specific antimicrobial medicine is available. Early and accurate diagnosis is essential for reducing the risk of severe complications and death. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the case diagnosis situation among medical care institutions and geographical regions in China, and the results will benefit both clinical practice and the disease surveillance system. We extracted individual scrub typhus case data 2006–2016 from a national disease surveillance system in China. The diagnosis category and interval time from illness onset to diagnosis were compared among three levels of medical care institutions and provinces. The descriptive analysis method was performed in our study. During the 11-year study period, 93 481 scrub typhus cases, including 57 deaths, were recorded in the nationwide surveillance system. The overall proportion of laboratory-confirmed cases was only 4.7%, and this proportion varied greatly among primary medical centres (2.8%), county level hospitals (4.2%), and city level hospitals (6.3%). Notably, the proportion of laboratory-confirmed cases has consistently decreased from 16.3% in 2006 to 2.6% in 2016, and the same decreasing trend was found among all three levels of medical care institutions. The interval from illness onset to case diagnosis (Tdiag) for all cases was 5 days (interquartile range [IQR]: 2–9 days) and decreased from 7 days (IQR: 3–11 days) in 2006 to 5 days (IQR: 2–8 days) in 2016. The risk of death for patients with a Tdiag of > 7 days was 2.2 times higher (OR = 2.21, 95% CI: 1.05–5.21) than that of patients with a Tdiag of < 2 days. The interval time from illness onset to diagnosis for scrub typhus cases decreased greatly in China; however, the diagnosis rate of cases with laboratory-confirmed results must be increased among all levels of medical care institutions to reduce both the risk of death and the misuse of antibiotics associated with scrub typhus.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Soil-transmitted helminth infection in school age children in Sierra Leone after a decade of preventive chemotherapy interventions
    Infect. Dis. Poverty (IF 3.123) Pub Date : 2019-07-02
    Yakuba Mohamed Bah; Mohamed Salieu Bah; Jusufu Paye; Abdulai Conteh; Sam Saffa; Alie Tia; Mustapha Sonnie; Amy Veinoglou; Joseph J. Amon; Mary Hamer Hodges; Yaobi Zhang

    Baseline mapping of soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections among school age children (SAC) in 2008–2009 found high or moderate prevalence in 13 of the 14 districts in Sierra Leone. Following these surveys, mass drug administration (MDA) of mebendazole/albendazole was conducted biannually at national level targeting pre-school children (PSC) aged 12–59 months and intermittently at sub-national level targeting SAC. In addition, MDA with ivermectin and albendazole for eliminating lymphatic filariasis (LF) has been conducted nationwide since 2010 targeting individuals over 5 years of age. Each MDA achieved high coverage, except in 2014 when all but one round of MDA for PSC was cancelled due to the Ebola emergency. The objective of the current study was to determine the prevalence and intensity of STH infections among SAC after a decade of these deworming campaigns. Seventy-three schools in 14 districts were purposefully selected, including 39 schools from the baseline surveys, with approximately two sites from each of low, moderate and high prevalence categories at baseline per district. Fresh stool samples were collected from 3632 children aged 9–14 years (male 51%, female 49%) and examined using the Kato Katz technique. The prevalence of STH infections in Sierra Leone decreased in 2016 compared to 2008: Ascaris lumbricoides 4.4% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.7–5.1%) versus 6.6% (95% CI: 0–25%), Trichuris trichiura 0.7% (95% CI: 0.5–1.1%) versus 1.8% (95% CI: 0–30.2%), hookworm 14.9% (95% CI: 13.8–16.1) versus 38.5% (95% CI: 5.4–95.1%), and any STH 18.3% (95% CI:17.0–19.5%) versus 48.3% (CI: 5.4–96.3%), respectively. In 2016, no district had high hookworm prevalence and four districts had moderate prevalence, compared with eight and four districts respectively in 2008. In 2016, the arithmetic mean hookworm egg count in all children examined was light: 45.5 eggs per gram (EPG) of faeces, (95% CI:\ 35.96–55.07 EPG); three (0.08%) children had heavy infections and nine (0.25%) children had moderate infections. Sierra Leone has made considerable progress toward controlling STH as a public health problem among SAC. As LF MDA phases out (between 2017 and 2021), transition of deworming to other platforms and water and sanitation strategies need to be strengthened to maintain STH control and ultimately interrupt transmission.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Is tuberculosis patients management improved in the integrated TB control model in West China? A survey in Guizhou Province, China
    Infect. Dis. Poverty (IF 3.123) Pub Date : 2019-07-02
    Jie Pu; Wei Chen; Wei-Xi Jiang; Wei Xing; Sheng-Xiang Liang; Geng Wang; Shi-Li Liu; Hao Wu; Ying Li; Sheng-Lan Tang

    Tuberculosis (TB) patient management (TPM) is crucial to improve patient compliance to treatment. The coverage of TPM delivered by TB dispensaries or Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) was not high under the previous CDC model of TB control in China. In the integrated TB control model in China, TB patient management (TPM) was mainly delivered by lay health workers (LHWs) in primary health care (PHC) sectors. This study aims to investigate TPM delivery in resource-limited western China and to identify factors affecting TPM delivery by LHWs under the integrated TB control model. A stratified random sampling was used to select study sites. Pulmonary TB (PTB) patients ≥15 years old from selected counties/districts in Guizhou Province were surveyed from August 2015 to May 2016. Structured questionnaires were used to collect data. A χ2 test and logistic regression were used to identify factors associated with self-administered treatment (non-TPM). In total, 638 PTB patients were included in the final analysis. Close to 30% of patients were ethnic minorities. More than 30% of patients were from counties with high TB burden, and 24.9% of patients had poor compliance to treatment. Only 37.1% of patients received TPM delivered by LHWs under the integrated TB control model throughout the treatment period. The main reasons for unwillingness to manage reported by patients included social stigma and no perceived need. Being ethnic minorities (OR = 3.35) was a main factor associated with lower likelihood of receiving TPM, while living in areas with middle or high TB burden may increase the likelihood of receiving TPM (OR = 0.17 and 0.25, respectively). Among current management approaches, more than 85% of patients chose phone reminder as their preferred TPM by LHWs. TPM under the integrated model in West China is still low and need further improvement, and the impeding factors of TPM need to be addressed. Strengthening patient-centered and community-based TPM and developing more feasible approaches of TPM delivery should be explored in future research in this region.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Are monitoring and evaluation systems adequate to report the programmatic coverage of HIV services among key populations in countries?
    Infect. Dis. Poverty (IF 3.123) Pub Date : 2019-07-02
    Jinkou Zhao; Sonia Arias Garcia; Ed Ngoksin; Jesus Maria Garcia Calleja; Chinelo Ogbuanu; Sandra Kuzmanovska; Nicholas Oliphant; David Lowrance; Nathalie Zorzi; Peter M. Hansen; Keith Sabin

    There was no global guidance or agreement regarding when a country has an adequate system to report on the service packages among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) key populations. This article describes an approach to categorizing the system in a country for reporting the service package among HIV key populations. The approach consists of four dimensions, namely the epidemiological significance, comprehensiveness of the service packages, geographic coverage of services, and adequacy of the monitoring system. The proposed categorization approach utilizes available information and can inform the improvement of the service delivery and monitoring systems among HIV key populations.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Compliance among infants exposed to hepatitis B virus in a post-vaccination serological testing program in four provinces in China
    Infect. Dis. Poverty (IF 3.123) Pub Date : 2019-07-04
    Hui Zheng; Guo-Min Zhang; Po-Lin Chan; Fu-Zhen Wang; Lance Everett Rodewald; Ning Miao; Xiao-Jin Sun; Zun-Dong Yin; Jeffrey Edwards; Hua-Qing Wang

    Mother to child transmission of hepatitis B virus (HBV) remains the most common form of HBV infection in China. Prevention of HBV vertical transmission involves timely administration of the complete hepatitis B vaccine (HepB) series and hepatitis B immunoglobulin. Post-vaccination serological testing (PVST) is utilized to determine an infant’s outcome after HBV exposure and completion of HepB series. We aim to determine the frequency of compliance with a PVST testing cascade for HBV infected mothers and analyze factors associated with infant lost to follow up (LTFU). We conducted a retrospective cohort review of previously collected data in Fujian, Jiangxi, Zhejiang and Chongqing provinces in China from 1 June 2016–31 December 2017. The study population included all HBV-exposed infants and their mothers. SAS software was used for statistical analyses. Bivariate and multivariate regression analyses (presented in odds ratio [OR] with 95% confidence intervals [CI]) were used to compare the proportional differences of factors associated with PVST not being completed. Among enrolled 8474 target infants, 40% of them transferred out of the study provinces without further information and 4988 were eligible for PVST. We found 20% (994) of infants were not compliant with the testing cascade: 55% of LTFU occurred because parents refused venous blood sample collection or failure of sample collection in the field, 16% transferred out after 6 months of age, and 10% of families chose to have independent, confidential PVST completed without reporting results. High PVST noncompliance rates were more likely to be from Fujian (aOR = 17.0, 95% CI: 9.7–29.9), Zhejiang (aOR = 5.7, 95% CI: 3.2–10.1) and Jiangxi (aOR = 1.9, 95% CI: 1.0–3.4), and from HBV e antigen positive mother (aOR = 1.2, 95% CI: 1.1–1.4). This study found that the LTFU rate reached 20% in PVST program, which was a significant problem. We recommend implementing a national electronic information system for tracking HBV at risk mother-infant pairs; encourage further research in developing a less invasive means of completing PVST, and take effective measures nationally to reduce HBV stigma. Without reducing the loss to follow up rate among infants eligible for PVST, elimination of vertical HBV transmission will be impossible.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Reaching the last mile: main challenges relating to and recommendations to accelerate onchocerciasis elimination in Africa
    Infect. Dis. Poverty (IF 3.123) Pub Date : 2019-07-04
    Gebremedhin Gebrezgabiher; Zeleke Mekonnen; Delenasaw Yewhalaw; Asrat Hailu

    Onchocerciasis (river blindness), caused by the filarial worm species Onchocerca volvulus, is a serious vector-borne neglected tropical disease (NTD) of public health and socioeconomic concern. It is transmitted through the bite of black flies of the genus Simulium, and manifested in dermal and ocular lesions. Ninety-nine percent of the total global risk and burden of onchocerciasis is in Africa. This scoping review examines the key challenges related to the elimination of onchocerciasis by 2020–2025 in Africa, and proposes recommendations to overcome the challenges and accelerate disease elimination. To find relevant articles published in peer-reviewed journals, a search of PubMed and Google Scholar databases was carried out. Rigorous regional interventions carried out to control and eliminate onchocerciasis in the past four decades in Africa have been effective in bringing the disease burden under control; it is currently not a public health problem in most endemic areas. Notably, transmission of the parasite is interrupted in some hyperendemic localities. Recently, there has been a policy shift from control to complete disease elimination by 2020 in selected countries and by 2025 in the majority of endemic African countries. The WHO has published guidelines for stopping mass drug administration (MDA) and verifying the interruption of transmission and elimination of human onchocerciasis. Therefore, countries have revised their plans, established a goal of disease elimination in line with an evidence based decision to stop MDA and verify elimination, and incorporated it into their NTDs national master plans. Nevertheless, challenges remain pertaining to the elimination of onchocerciasis in Africa. The challenge we review in this paper are: incomplete elimination mapping of all transmission zones, co-endemicity of onchocerciasis and loiasis, possible emergence of ivermectin resistance, uncoordinated cross-border elimination efforts, conflict and civil unrest, suboptimal program implementation, and technical and financial challenges. This paper also proposes recommendations to overcome the challenges and accelerate disease elimination. These are: a need for complete disease elimination mapping, a need for collaborative elimination activities between national programs, a need for a different drug distribution approach in conflict-affected areas, a need for routine monitoring and evaluation of MDA programs, a need for implementing alternative treatment strategies (ATSs) in areas with elimination anticipated beyond 2025, and a need for strong partnerships and continued funding. National programs need to regularly monitor and evaluate the performance and progress of their interventions, while envisaging the complete elimination of onchocerciasis from their territory. Factors hindering the targeted goal of interruption of parasite transmission need to be identified and remedial actions should be taken. If possible and appropriate, ATSs need to be implemented to accelerate disease elimination by 2025.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Imported malaria cases in former endemic and non-malaria endemic areas in China: are there differences in case profile and time to response?
    Infect. Dis. Poverty (IF 3.123) Pub Date : 2019-07-05
    Shao-Sen Zhang; Jun Feng; Li Zhang; Xiang Ren; Elizabeth Geoffroy; Sylvie Manguin; Roger Frutos; Shui-Sen Zhou

    China has achieved zero indigenous malaria case report in 2017. However, along with the increasing of international cooperation development, there is an increasing number of imported malaria cases from Chinese nationals returning from malaria-affected countries. Previous studies have focused on malaria endemic areas in China. There is thus limited information on non-endemic areas in China, especially on the performance of malaria surveillance and response in health facilities. A comparative retrospective study was carried out based on routine malaria surveillance data collected from 2013 to 2017. All imported malaria cases reported within the mainland of China were included. Variables used in the comparative analysis between cases in former endemic and former non-endemic areas, included age, gender and occupation, destination of overseas travel, Plasmodium species and patient health outcome. Monthly aggregated data was used to compare seasonal and spatial characteristics. Geographical distribution and spatial-temporal aggregation analyses were conducted. Time to diagnosis and report, method of diagnosis, and level of reporting/diagnosing health facilities were used to assess performance of health facilities. A total of 16 733 malaria cases, out of which 90 were fatal, were recorded in 31 provinces. The majority of cases (96.2%) were reported from former malaria endemic areas while 3.8% were reported from former non-malaria endemic areas. Patients in the age class from 19 to 59 years and males made the highest proportion of cases in both areas. There were significant differences between occupational categories in the two areas (P < 0.001). In former endemic areas, the largest proportion of cases was among outdoor workers (80%). Two peaks (June, January) and three peaks (June, September and January) were found in former endemic and former non-endemic areas, respectively. Time between the onset of symptoms and diagnosis at clinics was significantly different between the two areas at different level of health facilities (P < 0.05). All the former non-endemic areas are now reporting imported malaria cases. However, the largest proportion of imported cases is still reported from former endemic areas. Health facilities in former endemic areas outperformed those in former non-endemic areas. Information, treatment, and surveillance must be provided for expatriates while capacity building and continuous training must be implemented at health facilities in China.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Elimination of onchocerciasis in Africa by 2025: the need for a broad perspective
    Infect. Dis. Poverty (IF 3.123) Pub Date : 2019-07-15
    Ed Cupp; Mauricio Sauerbrey; Vitaliano Cama; Mark Eberhard; Patrick J. Lammie; Thomas R. Unnasch

    In response to the recent publication “Is onchocerciasis elimination in Africa feasible by 2025: a perspective based on lessons learnt from the African control programmes” by Dadzie et al., it is important to clarify and highlight the positive and unequivocal research and operational contributions from the American experience towards the worldwide elimination of human onchocerciasis (river blindness). The strategies of twice or more rounds of mass drug administration (MDA) of ivermectin per year, as well as the use of OV-16 serology have allowed four American countries to be verified by World Health Organization to have eliminated transmission of Onchocerca volvulus, the etiological agent. These advances were also implemented in Sudan and Uganda; currently, both are the only African countries where ivermectin MDA was safely stopped in several transmission zones. Programmatic treatment and evaluation approaches, pioneered in the Americas, are the most efficient among the existing tools for elimination, and their broader use could catalyze the successful elimination of this disease in Africa.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • The positive influence the Onchocerciasis Elimination Program for the Americas has had on Africa programs
    Infect. Dis. Poverty (IF 3.123) Pub Date : 2019-07-15
    Frank O. Richards; B. E. B. Nwoke; Isam Zarroug; Edridah Tukahebwa; Nebiyu Negussu; T. B. Higazi; David Oguttu; Zerihun Tadesse; Emmanuel Miri; Nabil Aziz; Peace Habomugisha; Moses Katabarwa

    A recent article “Is onchocerciasis elimination in Africa feasible by 2025: a perspective based on lessons learnt from the African control programmes” in Infectious Diseases of Poverty claimed that undue influence on African programs by concepts developed by the Onchocerciasis Elimination Program of the Americas (OEPA) is detrimental to stopping mass drug administration (MDA) in Africa. This claim is made despite a record year for MDA stoppage in four African countries of > 3.5 million treatments in 2018, far exceeding any past OEPA or African Program for Onchocerciasis Control (APOC) stop MDA success.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • The need for evidence-based strategies and tools for onchocerciasis elimination in Africa
    Infect. Dis. Poverty (IF 3.123) Pub Date : 2019-07-15
    Yankum Dadzie; Uche V. Amazigo; Boakye A. Boatin; Azodoga Sékétéli

    In a recent article we discussed the feasibility of onchocerciasis elimination in Africa by 2025. We expressed concern that elimination may be impeded by failure to build on the lessons learned in the African onchocerciasis control programmes and the introduction of strategies and tools from the Americas. Richards et al. and Cupp et al. wrote to refute our concern and described recent achievements with stopping treatment in some areas. In this response, we discuss their arguments which did not convince us. We point out several scientific flaws in the American conceptual framework of elimination which has led to longer periods of treatment than necessary, and in the use of an arbitrary threshold for stopping treatment. We show that recent achievements fall significantly short of what would be needed to achieve onchocerciasis elimination by 2025. We conclude our response by advocating for a more objective and inclusive debate on strategies and tools for onchocerciasis elimination.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Evidence of insecticide resistance selection in wild Anopheles coluzzii mosquitoes due to agricultural pesticide use
    Infect. Dis. Poverty (IF 3.123) Pub Date : 2019-07-15
    Chouaïbou Seïdou Mouhamadou; Sarah Souline de Souza; Behi Kouadio Fodjo; Marius Gonse Zoh; Nestor Kesse Bli; Benjamin Guibehi Koudou

    The wetlands used for some agricultural activities constitute productive breeding sites for many mosquito species. Thus, the agricultural use of insecticide targeting other pests may select for insecticide resistance in malaria mosquitoes. The purpose of this study is to clarify some knowledge gaps on the role of agrochemicals in the development of insecticide resistance in malaria vectors is of utmost importance for vector control. Using the CDC bottle test and the log-probit analysis, we investigated for the first time the resistance levels of Anopheles coluzzii mosquitoes to neonicotinoids, insecticides used exclusively for crop protection in Côte d’Ivoire. The study was conducted in two agricultural regions (Tiassale and Gagnoa) and one non-agricultural region (Vitre) between June and August 2017 using clothianidin, acetamiprid and imidacloprid. Mosquito populations from Tiassale and Gagnoa (agricultural settings) were determined to be resistant to acetamiprid with mortality rates being < 85% at 24 h post-exposure. In Vitre (non-agricultural area) however, the mosquito population was susceptible to acetamiprid. In all three localities, mosquito populations were resistant to imidacloprid (mortality rates were 60% in Vitre, 37% in Tiassale, and 13% in Gagnoa) and completely susceptible to clothianidin (100% mortality). An. coluzzii represented 100% of mosquito collected in Gagnoa, 86% in Tiassale and 96% in Vitre. This study provides strong evidence that agricultural use of insecticides can cause insecticide resistance in malaria vector populations. Insecticide resistance driven by agrochemical usage should be considered when vector control strategies are developed.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • A multiplex PCR for differential detection of Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto, Echinococcus multilocularis and Echinococcus canadensis in China
    Infect. Dis. Poverty (IF 3.123) Pub Date : 2019-07-30
    Jing-Ye Shang; Guang-Jia Zhang; Sha Liao; Yan Huang; Wen-Jie Yu; Wei He; Guang-You Yang; Tiao-Ying Li; Xing-Wang Chen; Bo Zhong; Qian Wang; Qi Wang; Rui-Rui Li; Hao Wang

    Echinococcosis caused by Echinococcus is one of the most major infectious diseases in north-west highland of China. E. granulosus sensu strict, E. multilocularis, and E. canadensis are known to be the only three species related to human health transmitting in the areas. To achieve targeted treatment and control of echinococcosis, the accurate identification and discrimination of the species are important. However, currently the available diagnostic approaches do not present ideal results either in accuracy or efficiency. In the study, a set of primers were designed to aim at the three human-pathogenic Echinococcus species in China. The one-step multiplex PCR assay was developed and evaluated for the specificity and sensitivity. A total of 73 parasitic lesions and 41 fecal materials obtained from human and various animals collected in the clinic and the field were tested to assess the applicability of this method. The multiplex PCR effectively detected the individual DNA from the targeted species and their random mixtures generating with distinguishable expected size of products. The detection limit of the assay for each of the three species was 5 pg/μl when they were tested separately. When DNA mixtures of the targeted species containing the same concentration were used as templates, the lowest amount of DNA which can be detected was 50 pg/μl, 10 pg/μl and 5 pg/μl for E. granulosus s. s., E. multilocularis, and E. canadensis respectively. No cross-reactivity was observed when DNA from eight genetically close species was used as control templates. The multiplex PCR identifications of all samples were in line with the original sequencing results except for those infected with E. shiquicus, which showed negative signals in the developed assay. Of all the tested stool materials, 16 were previously found positive for Echinococcus by visual and microscopic examination. Among these 16 samples, 13 were confirmed by the multiplex PCR, and the other three tested negative. Additionally, the multiplex PCR identified another 14 positive feces from the remained 25 stool samples which absence of worms. The developed multiplex PCR shows advantages in fast diagnosis and large-scale epidemiological investigation, which proven to be a promising tool utilized in clinic and surveillance system.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • The urgent need for more potent antiretroviral therapy in low-income countries to achieve UNAIDS 90-90-90 and complete eradication of AIDS by 2030
    Infect. Dis. Poverty (IF 3.123) Pub Date : 2019-08-02
    Emmanuel Ndashimye; Eric J. Arts

    Over 90% of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infected individuals will be on treatment by 2020 under UNAIDS 90–90-90 global targets. Under World Health Organisation (WHO) “Treat All” approach, this number will be approximately 36.4 million people with over 98% in low-income countries (LICs). Pretreatment drug resistance (PDR) largely driven by frequently use of non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs), efavirenz and nevirapine, has been increasing with roll-out of combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) with 29% annual increase in some LICs countries. PDR has exceeded 10% in most LICs which warrants change of first line regimen to more robust classes under WHO recommendations. If no change in regimens is enforced in LICs, it’s estimated that over 16% of total deaths, 9% of new infections, and 8% of total cART costs will be contributed by HIV drug resistance by 2030. Less than optimal adherence, and adverse side effects associated with currently available drug regimens, all pose a great threat to achievement of 90% viral suppression and elimination of AIDS as a public health threat by 2030. This calls for urgent introduction of policies that advocate for voluntary and compulsory drug licensing of new more potent drugs which should also emphasize universal access of these drugs to all individuals worldwide. The achievement of United Nations Programme on HIV and AIDS 2020 and 2030 targets in LICs depends on access to active cART with higher genetic barrier to drug resistance, better safety, and tolerability profiles. It’s also imperative to strengthen quality service delivery in terms of retention of patients to treatment, support for adherence to cART, patient follow up and adequate drug stocks to help achieve a free AIDS generation.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • The impact of increased reimbursement rates under the new cooperative medical scheme on the financial burden of tuberculosis patients
    Infect. Dis. Poverty (IF 3.123) Pub Date : 2019-08-02
    Yan-Jiao Xin; Li Xiang; Jun-Nan Jiang; Henry Lucas; Sheng-Lan Tang; Fei Huang

    Tuberculosis (TB) is still a major public health problem in China. To scale up TB control, an innovative programme entitled the ‘China-Gates Foundation Collaboration on TB Control in China was initiated in 2009. During the second phase of the project, a policy of increased reimbursement rates under the New Cooperative Medical Scheme (NCMS) was implemented. In this paper, we aim to explore how this reform affects the financial burden on TB patients through comparison with baseline data. In two cross-sectional surveys, quantitative data were collected before (January 2010 to December 2012) and after (April 2014 to June 2015) the intervention in the existing NCMS routine data system. Information on all 313 TB inpatients, among which 117 inpatients in the project was collected. Qualitative data collection included 11 focus group discussions. Three main indicators, non-reimbursable expenses rate (NER), effective reimbursement rate (ERR), and out-of-pocket payment (OOP) as a percentage of per capita household income, were used to measure the impact of intervention by comprising post-intervention data with baseline data. The quantitative data were analysed by descriptive analysis and non-parametric tests (Mann-Whitney U test) using SPSS 22.0, and qualitative data were subjected to thematic framework analysis using Nvivo10. The nominal reimbursement rates for inpatient care were no less than 80% for services within the package. Total inpatient expenses greatly increased, with an average growth rate of 11.3%. For all TB inpatients, the ERR for inpatient care increased from 52 to 66%. Compared with inpatients outside the project, for inpatients covered by the new policy, the ERR was higher (78%), and OOP showed a sharper decline. In addition, their financial burden decreased significantly. Although the nominal reimbursement rates for inpatient care of TB patients greatly increased under the new reimbursement policy, inpatient OOP expenditure was still a major financial problem for patients. Limited diagnosis and treatment options in county general hospitals and inadequate implementation of the new policy resulted in higher inpatient expenditures and limited reimbursement. Comprehensive control models are needed to effectively decrease the financial burden on all TB patients.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Outcomes of the national programme on prevention of mother-to-child transmission of hepatitis B virus in China, 2016–2017
    Infect. Dis. Poverty (IF 3.123) Pub Date : 2019-08-05
    Ya-Ping Qiao; Min Su; Yao Song; Xiao-Yan Wang; Zhen Li; Yan-Lin Li; Li-Xia Dou; Qian Wang; Katrina Hann; Guo-Min Zhang; Xiao-Na Huang; Yu-Ning Yang; Xi Jin; Ai-Ling Wang

    In addition to providing free hepatitis B vaccine (HBvacc) series to all infants in China since 2005, the national programme on prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of hepatitis B virus (HBV) started providing free hepatitis B immunoglobulin for all new-borns born to hepatitis B surface-antigen (HBsAg) positive mothers in 2010. However, few studies have evaluated the effectiveness of the PMTCT programme. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the outcomes of the programme and identify associated factors. Using a cross-sectional study design, we collected data on 4112 pairs of HBsAg-positive mothers and their children aged 7–22 months in four representative provinces through interviews and medical record review. We tested HBsAg and hepatitis B surface antibody (anti-HBs) of children by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay at designated maternal and child hospital laboratories. We used logistic regression to analyse factors associated with child HBsAg and anti-HBs positivity. Thirty-five children were HBsAg positive, indicating the mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) rate was 0.9% (0.6–1.1%). The anti-HBs positive rate was 96.8% (96.3-97.4%). Children receiving HBvacc between 12 and 24 h of birth were 2.9 times more likely to be infected than those vaccinated in less than 12 h (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 2.9, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.4–6.3, P = 0.01). Maternal hepatitis B e-antigen (HBeAg) positivity was associated with higher MTCT rate (aOR = 79.1, 95% CI: 10.8–580.2, P < 0.001) and lower anti-HBs positive rate (aOR = 0.4, 95% CI: 0.3–0.6, P < 0.001). Children with low birth weight (LBW) were 60% less likely to be anti-HBs positive than those with normal birth weight (aOR = 0.4, 95% CI: 0.2–0.8, P = 0.01). The MTCT rate was lower than the 2030 WHO elimination goal, which implies the programme is on track to achieve this target. As earlier HBvacc birth dose (HBvcc-BD) was associated with lower MTCT rate, we suggest that the PMTCT programme work with the Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI) to modify the current recommendation for early HBvcc-BD to a requirement. Our finding that LBW was associated with lower anti-HBs positivity points to the need for further studies to understand factors associated with these risks and opportunities for program strengthening. The programme needs to ensure providing essential test to identify HBeAg-positive mothers and their infants and provide them with appropriate medical care and follow-up.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Declining responsiveness of childhood Plasmodium falciparum infections to artemisinin-based combination treatments ten years following deployment as first-line antimalarials in Nigeria
    Infect. Dis. Poverty (IF 3.123) Pub Date : 2019-08-06
    Akintunde Sowunmi; Godwin Ntadom; Kazeem Akano; Folasade O. Ibironke; Adejumoke I. Ayede; Chimere Agomo; Onikepe A. Folarin; Grace O. Gbotosho; Christian Happi; Stephen Oguche; Henrietta U. Okafor; Martin Meremikwu; Philip Agomo; William Ogala; Ismaila Watila; Olugbenga Mokuolu; Finomo Finomo; Joy C. Ebenebe; Nma Jiya; Jose Ambe; Robinson Wammanda; George Emechebe; Wellington Oyibo; Francis Useh; Temitope Aderoyeje; Titilope M. Dokunmu; Omobolaji T. Alebiosu; Sikiru Amoo; Oluwabunmi K. Basorun; Olubunmi A. Wewe; Chukwuebuka Okafor; Odafe Akpoborie; Bayo Fatunmbi; Elsie O. Adewoye; Nnenna M. Ezeigwe; Ayoade Oduola

    The development and spread of artemisinin-resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Greater Mekong Subregion has created impetus for continuing global monitoring of efficacy of artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs). This post analyses is aimed to evaluate changes in early treatment response markers 10 years after the adoption of ACTs as first-line treatments of uncomplicated falciparum malaria in Nigeria. At 14 sentinel sites in six geographical areas of Nigeria, we evaluated treatment responses in 1341 children under 5 years and in additional 360 children under 16 years with uncomplicated malaria enrolled in randomized trials of artemether-lumefantrine versus artesunate-amodiaquine at 5-year interval in 2009–2010 and 2014–2015 and at 2-year interval in 2009–2010 and 2012–2015, respectively after deployment in 2005. Asexual parasite positivity 1 day after treatment initiation (APPD1) rose from 54 to 62% and 2 days after treatment initiation from 5 to 26% in 2009–2010 to 2014–2015 (P = 0.002 and P < 0.0001, respectively). Parasite clearance time increased significantly from 1.6 days (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.55–1.64) to 1.9 days (95% CI, 1.9–2.0) and geometric mean parasite reduction ratio 2 days after treatment initiation decreased significantly from 11 000 to 4700 within the same time period (P < 0.0001 for each). Enrolment parasitaemia > 75 000 μl− 1, haematocrit > 27% 1 day post-treatment initiation, treatment with artemether-lumefantrine and enrolment in 2014–2015 independently predicted APPD1. In parallel, Kaplan-Meier estimated risk of recurrent infections by day 28 rose from 8 to 14% (P = 0.005) and from 9 to 15% (P = 0.02) with artemether-lumefantrine and artesunate-amodiaquine, respectively. Mean asexual parasitaemia half-life increased significantly from 1.1 h to 1.3 h within 2 years (P < 0.0001). These data indicate declining parasitological responses through time to the two ACTs may be due to emergence of parasites with reduced susceptibility or decrease in immunity to the infections in these children. Pan African Clinical Trial Registration PACTR201508001188143 , 3 July 2015; PACTR201508001191898 , 7 July 2015 and PACTR201508001193368 , 8 July 2015 PACTR201510001189370 , 3 July 2015; PACTR201709002064150 , 1 March 2017; https://www.pactr.samrca.ac.za

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Lessons from lymphatic filariasis elimination and the challenges of post-elimination surveillance in China
    Infect. Dis. Poverty (IF 3.123) Pub Date : 2019-08-07
    Yuan Fang; Yi Zhang

    The Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis (GPELF) was launched in response to the call proposed at the 50th World Health Assembly. The goal of the GPELF is to ensure that all the countries where the disease is endemic would have been transmission-free or would have entered post-intervention mass drug administration (MDA) surveillance by 2020. However, several countries are still not on track to discontinue MDA as planned. Thus, issues remain regarding the achievement of stated goals and how to effectively monitor the disease in the post-control and post-elimination phases. China was once a lymphatic filariasis (LF) endemic country with heavy disease burden. There were three milestones in the LF control phase of China, including: the proposal that the major focus of the control strategy should be on infectious sources; the three regimens of diethylcarbamazine (DEC) administration according to LF endemic extent; and the establishment of the threshold for LF transmission interruption. It has been ten years since China entered the post-elimination stage (declaration of LF elimination in China was in 2007). Two schemes and a diagnostic criterion were issued to guide all levels of disease control and prevention workers that conduct LF surveillance, as well as those caring for chronic filariasis patients. Regular training courses are held to maintain LF control skills in grass-root institutions. The Notifiable Diseases Reporting System, which included LF in 2004, plays an important role in LF post-elimination surveillance. Until now, no resurgence of LF cases has been detected, except for LF residue foci being found in Fuchuan County of the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region. To confirm that transmission is no longer achievable after a decade since the declaration of LF elimination in China, it is expected within the next two years a transmission assessment survey, conducted in previous LF-endemic areas. DEC-fortified salt can help accelerate the progress of GPELF before the sprite phase. Sophisticated diagnostic criteria, systematic surveillance regimes, the Direct Network Report system, and regular trainings can effectively prevent the recrudescence of LF during surveillance phases.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Taxonomic integrative and phylogenetic identification of the first recorded Triatoma rubrofasciata in Zhangzhou, Fujian Province and Maoming, Guangdong Province, China
    Infect. Dis. Poverty (IF 3.123) Pub Date : 2019-08-13
    Yue Hu; Min-Zhao Gao; Ping Huang; Hong-Li Zhou; Yu-Bin Ma; Min-Yu Zhou; Shao-Yun Cheng; Han-Guo Xie; Zhi-Yue Lv

    Most species of Triatominae live exclusively in Latin America. However, one species, Triatoma rubrofasciata, has been recorded in the Americas as well as in various port areas in Africa and Asia. An increasing number of T. rubrofasciata have been reported in southern China in recent years. However, the origin of this invasive insect vector in China remains unknown, therefore, accurate identification and phylogenetic analysis of the bugs are urgently needed. A total of seven triatomine insect specimens were found and collected from Maoming City, Guangdong Province, China (GDMM) and Zhangzhou City, Fujian Province, China (FJZZ), respectively. The obtained insect vector specimens were observed under a dissecting microscope for morphological classification and then the genomic DNA was extracted, and the 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA), 28S rRNA as well as cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) genes of the species were amplified and sequenced. Subsequently, molecular phylogenetic analyses based on multiple alignments of the above genes were conducted in order to identify the species and determine the phylogenetic origin approximation accurately. The triatomine insects collected from GDMM and FJZZ were identified as Triatoma rubrofasciata using morphological and genetic analyses. All of the Chinese T. rubrofasciata captured in FJZZ, GDMM and other localities in southern China, together with a Vietnamese and Brazilian strain, formed a new, cohesive clade. T. rubrofasciata in GDMM and FJZZ are likely derived from strains found in Vietnam or Brazil. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first record of the invasive insect T. rubrofasciata, which is likely derived from strains native to Vietnam or Brazil, in both Maoming City, Guangdong Province and Zhangzhou City, Fujian Province of China. A comparison of the DNA sequences of the 16 s rRNA, 28 s rRNA and COI genes confirmed the specific identification of T. rubrofasciata, and its potential origin in China is based on the phylogenetic analyses undertaken in this study. More targeted interventions and improved entomological surveillance are urgently needed to control the spread of this haematophagous insect in China.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Correction to: How Thailand eliminated lymphatic filariasis as a public health problem
    Infect. Dis. Poverty (IF 3.123) Pub Date : 2019-08-16
    Sunsanee Rojanapanus; Tanaporn Toothong; Patcharida Boondej; Suwich Thammapalo; Naraporn Khuanyoung; Weena Santabutr; Preecha Prempree; Deyer Gopinath; Kapa D. Ramaiah

    After publication of this article [1], it was brought to our attention that figure 2 did not display correctly. The correct figure 2 is as below:

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Pay-it-forward gonorrhea and chlamydia testing among men who have sex with men in China: a study protocol for a three-arm cluster randomized controlled trial
    Infect. Dis. Poverty (IF 3.123) Pub Date : 2019-08-16
    Tiange P. Zhang; Fan Yang; Weiming Tang; Marcus Alexander; Laura Forastiere; Navin Kumar; Katherine Li; Fei Zou; Ligang Yang; Guodong Mi; Yehua Wang; Wenting Huang; Amy Lee; Weizan Zhu; Peter Vickerman; Dan Wu; Bin Yang; Nicholas A. Christakis; Joseph D. Tucker

    Gonorrhea and chlamydia testing rates are poor among Chinese men who have sex with men (MSM). A quasi-experimental study suggested that a pay-it-forward strategy increased dual gonorrhea/chlamydia testing among MSM. Pay-it-forward offers an individual a gift (e.g., a free test) and then asks the same person if they would like to give a gift to another person. This article reports the protocol of a randomized controlled trial to evaluate dual gonorrhea/chlamydia test uptake and other outcomes among MSM in three arms – a pay-it-forward arm, a pay-what-you-want arm, and a standard of care arm. Three hundred MSM will be recruited at three HIV testing sites in Guangzhou and Beijing. Testing sites include two hospital-based MSM sexually transmitted diseases clinics and one MSM community-based organization. Eligible participants will be born biologically male, aged 16 years or older, reporting previous anal sex with another man, having never participated in the pay-it-forward program, without previous gonorrhea and chlamydia testing in the past 12 months, and residing in China. Following a cluster randomized design, every cluster of ten participants will be randomly allocated into one of three arms: (1) a pay-it-forward arm in which men are offered free gonorrhea and chlamydia testing and then asked whether they would like to donate (“pay it forward”) toward testing for future testers; (2) a pay-what-you-want arm in which men are offered free testing and told to decide how much to pay after receiving the test; (3) a standard of care arm in which men can pay the full price for dual gonorrhoea and chlamydia testing. The primary outcome is dual gonorrhoea/chlamydia testing as verified by administrative records. Secondary outcomes include incremental cost per test, incremental cost per diagnosis, community connectedness, and social cohesion. Primary outcome will be calculated for each arm using intention-to-treat and compared using one-sided 95% confidence intervals with a margin of 20% increase defined as superiority. This study will examine the pay-it-forward strategy in comparison to the standard of care in improving test uptake for gonorrhea and chlamydia. We will leverage the cluster randomized controlled trial to provide scientific evidence on the potential effect of pay-it-forward. Findings from this study will shed light on novel intervention methods for increasing preventive health service utilization and innovate ways to finance it among communities. ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03741725 . Registered on 12 November 2018.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Recommendation on unbiased estimation of population attributable fraction calculated in “prevalence and risk factors of active pulmonary tuberculosis among elderly people in China: a population based cross-sectional study”
    Infect. Dis. Poverty (IF 3.123) Pub Date : 2019-08-19
    Ahmad Khosravi; Mohammad Ali Mansournia

    Population attributable fraction (PAF) refers to the proportion of all cases with a particular outcome in a population that could be prevented by eliminating a specific exposure. The authors of a recent paper evaluated the prevalence and estimated the PAFs for risk factors of TB among elderly people in China [Inf Dis Poverty. 2019;8:7]. Confounding is inevitable in observational studies and Levin’s formula is of limited use in practice for unbiasedly estimating PAF. In a complex survey design, an unbiased estimation of the PAF can be calculated using a sample-weighted version of the Miettinen formula or a sample weighed parametric g-formula. With respect to causal interpretation of PAF in public health setting, computation of PAF is logical and practical when the exposure is amenable to intervention.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Would ivermectin for malaria control be beneficial in onchocerciasis-endemic regions?
    Infect. Dis. Poverty (IF 3.123) Pub Date : 2019-08-23
    Joseph Nelson Siewe Fodjo; Marina Kugler; An Hotterbeekx; Adam Hendy; Jean-Pierre Van Geertruyden; Robert Colebunders

    There is accumulating evidence supporting the use of ivermectin as a malaria control tool. Recent findings from the repeat ivermectin mass drug administrations for control of malaria trial demonstrated a reduced incidence of malaria in villages which received repeated ivermectin mass drug administration (MDA; six doses) compared to those who had only one round of ivermectin. Several other studies investigating the benefits of ivermectin for malaria purposes are ongoing/planned. While ivermectin MDA offers promising perspectives in the fight against malaria, we highlight the added benefits and anticipated challenges of conducting future studies in onchocerciasis-endemic regions, which are confronted with a substantial disease burden including onchocerciasis-associated epilepsy. Increasing the frequency of ivermectin MDA in such places may reduce the burden of both malaria and onchocerciasis, and allow for more entomological investigations on both the Anopheles mosquitoes and the blackflies. Upfront, acceptability and feasibility studies are needed to assess the endorsement by the local populations, as well as the programmatic feasibility of implementing ivermectin MDA several times a year. Onchocerciasis-endemic sites would doubly benefit from ivermectin MDA interventions, as these will alleviate onchocerciasis-associated morbidity and mortality, while potentially curbing malaria transmission. Involving onchocerciasis programs and other relevant stakeholders in the malaria/ivermectin research agenda would foster the implementation of pluri-annual MDA in target communities.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Operational adaptations of the trachoma pre-validation surveillance strategy employed in Ghana: a qualitative assessment of successes and challenges
    Infect. Dis. Poverty (IF 3.123) Pub Date : 2019-08-27
    Laura Senyonjo; Agatha Aboe; Robin Bailey; David Agyemang; Benjamin Marfo; Seth Wanye; Elena Schmidt; James Addy; Karl Blanchet

    In 2009 Ghana began to design a trachoma pre-validation surveillance plan, based on then-current WHO recommendations. The plan aimed to identify active trachoma resurgence and identify and manage trichiasis cases, through both active and passive surveillance approaches. This paper outlines and reviews the adaptations made by Ghana between 2011 and 2016. The assessment will provide a learning opportunity for a number of countries as they progress towards elimination status. A mixed methods approach was taken, comprising in-depth interviews and documents review. Between January and April 2016, 20 in-depth interviews were conducted with persons involved in the operationalisation of the trachoma surveillance system from across all levels of the health system. A three-tier thematic coding framework was developed using a primarily inductive approach but also allowed for a more iterative approach, which drew on aspects of grounded theory. During the operationalisation of the Ghana surveillance plan there were a number of adaptations (as compared to the WHO recommendations), these included: (i) Inclusion of surveillance of active trachoma in the passive surveillance approach, as compared to trichiasis alone. Issues with case identification, challenges in implementation coverage and a non-specific reporting structure hampered effectiveness; (ii) Random selection and increase in number of sites selected for the active surveillance component. This likely lacked the spatiotemporal power to be able to identify recrudescence in a timely manner; (iii) Targeted trichiasis door-to-door case searches, led by ophthalmic nurses. An effective methodology to identify trichiasis cases but resource intensive; (iv) A buddy system between ophthalmic nurses to support technical skills in an elimination setting where it is difficult to attain diagnostic and surgical skills, due to a lack of cases. The strategy did not take into account the loss of proficiency within experienced personnel. Ghana developed a comprehensive surveillance system that exceeded the WHO recommendations but issues with sensitivity and specificity likely led to an inefficient use of resources. Improved targeted surveillance strategies for identification of recrudescence and trichiasis case searches, need to be evaluated. Strategies must address the contextual changes that arise because of transmission decline, such as loss of surgical skills.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • The impact of pastoralist mobility on tuberculosis control in Ethiopia: a systematic review and meta-synthesis
    Infect. Dis. Poverty (IF 3.123) Pub Date : 2019-09-02
    Faisal Nooh; Lisa Crump; Abdiwahab Hashi; Rea Tschopp; Esther Schelling; Klaus Reither; Jan Hattendorf; Seid M. Ali; Brigit Obrist; Jürg Utzinger; Jakob Zinsstag

    Directly observed treatment, short-course (DOTS) is the current mainstay to control tuberculosis (TB) worldwide. Context-specific adaptations of DOTS have impending implications in the fight against TB. In Ethiopia, there is a national TB control programme with the goal to eliminate TB, but uneven distribution across lifestyle gradients remains a challenge. Notably, the mobile pastoralist communities in the country are disproportionately left uncovered. The aim of this study was to summarize the evidence base from published literature to guide TB control strategy for mobile pastoralist communities in Ethiopia. We followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines and systematically reviewed articles in seven electronic databases: Excerptra Medical Database, African Journal Online, PubMed, Google Scholar, Centre for Agriculture and Bioscience International Direct, Cochrane Library and Web of Science. The databases were searched from inception to December 31, 2018, with no language restriction. We screened 692 items of which 19 met our inclusion criteria. Using a meta-ethnographic method, we identified six themes: (i) pastoralism in Ethiopia; (ii) pastoralists’ livelihood profile; (iii) pastoralists’ service utilisation; (iv) pastoralists’ knowledge and awareness on TB control services; (v) challenges of TB control in pastoral settings; and (vi) equity disparities affecting pastoralists. Our interpretation triangulates the results across all included studies and shows that TB control activities observed in pastoralist regions of Ethiopia are far fewer than elsewhere in the country. This systematic review and meta-synthesis shows that TB control in Ethiopia does not align well with the pastoralist lifestyle. Inaccessibility and lack of acceptability of TB care are the key bottlenecks to pastoralist TB service provision. Targeting these two parameters holds promise to enhance effectiveness of an intervention.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Gravid oviposition sticky trap and dengue non-structural 1 antigen test for early surveillance of dengue in multi-storey dwellings: study protocol of a cluster randomized controlled trial
    Infect. Dis. Poverty (IF 3.123) Pub Date : 2019-09-03
    Jonathan Wee Kent Liew; Sivaneswari Selvarajoo; Wing Tan; Rafdzah Ahmad Zaki; Indra Vythilingam

    Dengue is a global disease, transmitted by the Aedes vectors. In 2018, there were 80 615 dengue cases with 147 deaths in Malaysia. Currently, the nationwide surveillance programs are dependent on Aedes larval surveys and notifications of lab-confirmed human infections. The existing, reactive programs appear to lack sensitivity and proactivity. More efficient dengue vector surveillance/control methods are needed. A parallel, cluster, randomized controlled, interventional trial is being conducted for 18 months in Damansara Damai, Selangor, Malaysia, to determine the efficacy of using gravid oviposition sticky (GOS) trap and dengue non-structural 1 (NS1) antigen test for early surveillance of dengue among Aedes mosquitoes to reduce dengue outbreaks. Eight residential apartments were randomly assigned into intervention and control arms. GOS traps are set at the apartments to collect Aedes weekly, following which dengue NS1 antigen is detected in these mosquitoes. When a dengue-positive mosquito is detected, the community will be advised to execute vector search-and-destroy and protective measures. The primary outcome concerns the the percentage change in the (i) number of dengue cases and (ii) durations of dengue outbreaks. Whereas other outcome measures include the change in density threshold of Aedes and changes in dengue-related knowledge, attitude and practice among cluster inhabitants. This is a proactive and early dengue surveillance in the mosquito vector that does not rely on notification of dengue cases. Surveillance using the GOS traps should be able to efficiently provide sufficient coverage for multistorey dwellings where population per unit area is likely to be higher. Furthermore, trapping dengue-infected mosquitoes using the GOS trap, helps to halt the dengue transmission carried by the mosquito. It is envisaged that the results of this randomized controlled trial will provide a new proactive, cheap and targeted surveillance tool for the prevention and control of dengue outbreaks. This is a parallel-cluster, randomized controlled, interventional trial, registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (ID: NCT03799237), on 8th January 2019 (retrospectively registered).

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • What if communities held the solutions for universal health coverage?
    Infect. Dis. Poverty (IF 3.123) Pub Date : 2019-09-05
    John C. Reeder; Marie-Paule Kieny; Rosanna Peeling; François Bonnici

    This commentary highlights the value of community-engaged social innovations to advance health care delivery in low- and middle-income countries and to accelerate universal health coverage. It emphasizes the importance of research to guide the innovators on what works, what does not work to make their innovations sustainable and to replicate and scale them up as relevant. It also helps to demonstrate impact and to enhance uptake within the health systems.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • The role of multilateral organizations and governments in advancing social innovation in health care delivery
    Infect. Dis. Poverty (IF 3.123) Pub Date : 2019-09-13
    Beatrice Halpaap; Rosanna W. Peeling; François Bonnici

    Despite great medical advances and scientific progress over the past century, one billion people globally still lack access to basic health care services. In the context of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development social innovation models aim to provide effective solutions that bridge the health care delivery gap, address equity and create social value. This commentary highlights the roles of multilateral organizations and governments in creating an enabling environment where social innovations can more effectively integrate into health systems to maximize their impact on beneficiaries. The integration of social innovations into health systems is essential to ensure their sustainability and the wide dissemination of their impact. Effective partnerships, strong engagement with and endorsement by governments and communities, regulations, trust and sometimes willingness are key factors to enhance system integration, replication and dissemination of the models. Three examples of social innovations selected by the Social Innovation in Health Initiative illustrate the importance of engaging with governments and communities in order to link, integrate and synergize their efforts. Key challenges that they encountered, and lessons learnt are highlighted. Multilateral organizations and governments increasingly engage in promoting and supporting the development, testing and dissemination of social innovations to address the health care delivery gap. They play an important role in creating an enabling environment. This includes promoting the concept of social innovation in health care delivery, spreading social innovation approach and lessons learnt, fostering partnerships and leveraging resources, convening communities, health system actors and various stakeholders to work together across disciplines and sectors, and nurturing capacity in countries. Multilateral organizations and local and national governments have a critical role to play in creating an enabling environment where social innovations can flourish. In supporting and disseminating social innovation approach, multilateral organizations and governments have a great opportunity to accelerate Universal Health Coverage and the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Sustained preventive chemotherapy for soil-transmitted helminthiases leads to reduction in prevalence and anthelminthic tablets required
    Infect. Dis. Poverty (IF 3.123) Pub Date : 2019-10-02
    Denise Mupfasoni; Mathieu Bangert; Alexei Mikhailov; Chiara Marocco; Antonio Montresor

    The goal of soil-transmitted helminthiases (STH) control programmes is to eliminate STH-associated morbidity in the target population by reducing the prevalence of moderate- and heavy-intensity infections and the overall STH infection prevalence mainly through preventive chemotherapy (PC) with either albendazole or mebendazole. Endemic countries should measure the success of their control programmes through regular epidemiological assessments. We evaluated changes in STH prevalence in countries that conducted effective PC coverage for STH to guide changes in the frequency of PC rounds and the number of tablets needed. We selected countries from World Health Organization (WHO)‘s Preventive Chemotherapy and Transmission control (PCT) databank that conducted ≥5 years of PC with effective coverage for school-age children (SAC) and extracted STH baseline and impact assessment data using the WHO Epidemiological Data Reporting Form, Ministry of Health reports and/or peer-reviewed publications. We used pooled and weighted means to plot the prevalence of infection with any STH and with each STH species at baseline and after ≥5 years of PC with effective coverage. Finally, using the WHO STH decision tree, we estimated the reduction in the number of tablets needed. Fifteen countries in four WHO regions conducted annual or semi-annual rounds of PC for STH for 5 years or more and collected data before and after interventions. At baseline, the pooled prevalence was 48.9% (33.1–64.7%) for any STH, 23.2% (13.7–32.7%) for Ascaris lumbricoides, 21.01% (9.7–32.3%) for Trichuris trichiura and 18.2% (10.9–25.5%) for hookworm infections, while after ≥5 years of PC for STH, the prevalence was 14.3% (7.3–21.3%) for any STH, 6.9% (1.3–12.5%) for A. lumbricoides, 5.3% (1.06–9.6%) for T. trichiura and 8.1% (4.0–12.2%) for hookworm infections. Countries endemic for STH have made tremendous progress in reducing STH-associated morbidity, but very few countries have data to demonstrate that progress. In this study, the data show that nine countries should adapt their PC strategies and the frequency of PC rounds to yield a 36% reduction in drug needs. The study also highlights the importance of impact assessment surveys to adapt control strategies according to STH prevalence.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Whatever happened to China’s neglected tropical diseases?
    Infect. Dis. Poverty (IF 3.123) Pub Date : 2019-10-02
    Peter J. Hotez

    Before the founding of the People’s Republic of China 70 years ago, both extreme poverty and parasitic infections and other neglected tropical diseases were highly prevalent. Owing to social development, particularly economic reforms since the 1980s, poverty has since been dramatically reduced, and China became increasingly urbanized and industrialized. In parallel, China’s economic transformation translated into similar and remarkable reductions in neglected tropical diseases. Qian and colleagues report in their review published in Infectious Diseases of Poverty, the elimination or near elimination as a public health problem of lymphatic filariasis, trachoma, soil-transmitted helminth infections, schistosomiasis and other neglected tropical diseases. Of note, neglected tropical disease control and poverty reduction each appear to reinforce the other. China’s formula for success in parasitic and neglected tropical disease control might translate to other parts of the world, such as in sub-Saharan Africa through China’s new Belt and Road Initiative.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Neglected tropical diseases in the People’s Republic of China: progress towards elimination
    Infect. Dis. Poverty (IF 3.123) Pub Date : 2019-10-02
    Men-Bao Qian; Jin Chen; Robert Bergquist; Zhong-Jie Li; Shi-Zhu Li; Ning Xiao; Jürg Utzinger; Xiao-Nong Zhou

    Since the founding of the People’s Republic of China in 1949, considerable progress has been made in the control and elimination of the country’s initial set of 11 neglected tropical diseases. Indeed, elimination as a public health problem has been declared for lymphatic filariasis in 2007 and for trachoma in 2015. The remaining numbers of people affected by soil-transmitted helminth infection, clonorchiasis, taeniasis, and echinococcosis in 2015 were 29.1 million, 6.0 million, 366 200, and 166 100, respectively. In 2017, after more than 60 years of uninterrupted, multifaceted schistosomiasis control, has seen the number of cases dwindling from more than 10 million to 37 600. Meanwhile, about 6000 dengue cases are reported, while the incidence of leishmaniasis, leprosy, and rabies are down at 600 or fewer per year. Sustained social and economic development, going hand-in-hand with improvement of water, sanitation, and hygiene provide the foundation for continued progress, while rigorous surveillance and specific public health responses will consolidate achievements and shape the elimination agenda. Targets for poverty elimination and strategic plans and intervention packages post-2020 are important opportunities for further control and elimination, when remaining challenges call for sustainable efforts.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Changes in the epidemiology of hepatitis A in three socio-economic regions of China, 1990–2017
    Infect. Dis. Poverty (IF 3.123) Pub Date : 2019-10-03
    Xiao-Jin Sun; Guo-Min Zhang; Rong-Jun Zhou; Hui Zheng; Ning Miao; Zun-Dong Yin; Fu-Zhen Wang

    Hepatitis A (HepA) vaccination and economic transitions can change the epidemiology of HepA. China’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita was known to be inversely associated with the incidence of HepA, but a deeper understanding of the epidemiology of HepA in different socio-economic regions is lacking. We compare the changing epidemiology of HepA in three socioeconomic-geographic regions of China. We obtained data on all HepA cases reported through the National Notifiable Disease Reporting System and assessed trends and changes in age-specific incidence rates by age quartile and season. We categorized the country into three regions, the sequential years into five era, compared the incidence, quartile age, seasonal intensity and coverage of HepA of the three regions. Linear regression was performed to analyse trends in incidence of HepA and to analyse the association between coverage and incidence. The annual mean incidences of HepA in the eastern, central, and western regions decreased from 63.52/100 000, 50.57/100 000 and 46.39/100 000 in 1990–1992 to 1.18/100 000, 1.05/100 000 and 3.14/100 000 in 2012–2017, respectively. Decreases in incidence were seen in all age groups in the three regions; the incidence was highest (9.3/100 000) in the youngest age group (0–4 years) of the western region, while in the central region, the age group with the highest incidence changed from 0 to 9 years to adults ≥60 years old. In 2017, the median age of HepA cases was 43 years (Q1–Q3: 33–55), 47 years (Q1–Q3: 32–60) and 33 years (Q1–Q3: 9–52) in the eastern, central, and western provinces, respectively. Seasonal peaks became smaller or were nearly elimination nationwide, but seasonality persisted in some provinces. After the Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) included HepA vaccine into the routine schedule in 2007, HepA coverage increased to > 80% in the three regions and was negatively association with the HepA incidence. The incidence of HepA decreased markedly between 1990 and 2017. A socioeconomic inequity in coverage of HepA vaccine was almost eliminated after HepA vaccine was introduced into China’s EPI system, but inequity in incidence still existed in lower socio-economic developed region.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Elimination of onchocerciasis in Africa by 2025: an ambitious target requires ambitious interventions
    Infect. Dis. Poverty (IF 3.123) Pub Date : 2019-10-03
    Robert Colebunders; Wilma A. Stolk; Joseph Nelson Siewe Fodjo; Charles D. Mackenzie; Adrian Hopkins

    To achieve the elimination of onchocerciasis transmission in all African countries will entail enormous challenges, as has been highlighted by the active discussion around onchocerciasis intervention strategies and evaluation procedures in this journal. Serological thresholds for onchocerciasis elimination, adapted for the African setting, need to be established. The Onchocerciasis Technical Advisory Subgroup of the World Health Organization is currently developing improved guidelines to allow country elimination committees to make evidence-based decisions. Importantly, onchocerciasis-related morbidity should not be forgotten when debating elimination prospects. A morbidity management and disease prevention (MMDP) strategy similar to that for lymphatic filariasis will need to be developed. This will require collaboration between the onchocerciasis elimination program, the community and other partners including primary health and mental health programs. In order to reach the goal of onchocerciasis elimination in most African countries by 2025, we should prioritize community participation and advocate for tailored interventions which are scientifically proven to be effective, but currently considered to be too expensive.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Utilization and expenses of outpatient services among tuberculosis patients in three Chinese counties: an observational comparison study
    Infect. Dis. Poverty (IF 3.123) Pub Date : 2019-10-04
    Xuan-Xuan Wang; Jia-Ying Chen; Hui Jiang; An-Na Zhu; Qian Long; John S. Ji

    The China-Gates TB project Phase II implemented case-based payment reform in three Chinese counties in 2014, designed specifically for patients diagnosed with Tuberculosis (TB). This study aimed to examine the changes in utilization and expenses of outpatient services before and after the reform implementation, among TB patients in the three counties in China. We collected quantitative data using surveys in 2013 (baseline year) and 2015 (final year). We used outpatient hospital records to measure service utilization and medical expenses of TB patients. We conducted qualitative interviews with local health authorities, officers of health insurance agencies, and hospital managers (n = 18). We utilized three focus group discussions with hospital staff and TB doctors and nurses. The χ2 tests and Mann-Whitney U tests were used to analyse quantitative data, and the thematic analysis using a framework approach was applied to analyse qualitative data. Dantu and Yangzhong counties enacted TB-specific case-based payment method in 2014. Jurong County maintained global budget payment but raised the reimbursement rate for TB care. Compared to the baseline, the percentage of TB patients in Dantu and Yangzhong with eight or above outpatient visits increased from 7.5 to 55.1% and from 22.1 to 53.1% in the final survey, respectively. Jurong experienced the opposite trend, decreasing from 63.0 to 9.8%. In the final survey, the total outpatient expenses per patient during a full treatment course in Dantu (RMB 2939.7) and Yangzhong (RMB 2520.6) were significantly higher than those in the baseline (RMB 690.4 and RMB 1001.5, respectively), while the total outpatient expenses in Jurong decreased significantly (RMB 1976.0 in the baseline and RMB 660.8 in the final survey). Health insurance agencies in Dantu and Yangzhong did not approve the original design with outpatient and inpatient expenses packaged together, revealed by qualitative interviews. Furthermore, staff at designated hospitals misunderstood that health insurance agencies would only reimburse actual expenses. Many TB doctors complained about their reduced salary, which might be due to decreased hospital revenue generated from TB care after the payment method reform. The intended effect on cost containment of case-based payment was not evident in Dantu and Yangzhong. In Jurong, where the global budget payment system maintained with the reimbursement rate enhanced, we found an effect on cost containment, but the quality of TB care might be compromised. The TB-specific case-based payment method could be redesigned to combine payment on outpatient and inpatient expenses and to set an appropriate payment standard for TB care during a full treatment course. Local health insurance agencies have to provide explicit explanations on the payment method. TB care providers should be provided with proper incentives. Monitoring and evluaiton on the quality of TB care should be undertaken at regular intervals.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Community perceptions of mass drug administration for soil-transmitted helminthiasis and schistosomiasis in selected schools in the Philippines
    Infect. Dis. Poverty (IF 3.123) Pub Date : 2019-10-08
    Pauline Joy Lorenzo; Duane Raphael Manzanilla; Dazzle Kane Cortel; Ekaterina Tangog

    Soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH) and schistosomiasis are parasitic infections prevalent in tropical and subtropical countries, such as the Philippines. The prevalence of these infections remain high in certain Philippine provinces, despite established mass drug administration (MDA) programs in endemic communities. This study aimed to understand community knowledge and perceptions of these infections to determine their implications on the current control and elimination strategies, including possible barriers to MDA compliance. The study was conducted in Northern Samar and Sorsogon, two provinces with the highest STH and schistosomiasis prevalence in the country. Focus group discussions with separate parent and children groups were utilized to gather knowledge and perceptions on STH and schistosomiasis causes, symptoms, treatment, and prevention; and on the deworming drugs and overall program implementation. Data collection in Northern Samar were done in August 2017, while the sessions in Sorsogon took place in May 2018. A cultural construction of disease framework will show how several factors affect MDA participation. Results showed that participants held mostly correct biomedical notions of the infections and expressed willingness to participate in MDA program. However, reservations remained due to a reported lack of information dissemination, lack of confidence in the drugs used, and widespread fear of adverse side effects. Addressing these concerns - improving the conduct of the deworming program, incorporating suggestions from the community, and managing potential adverse events - may help raise MDA participation and encourage better personal preventive practices, reducing STH and schistosomiasis prevalence. N/A

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Spatial distribution of Anopheles gambiae sensu lato larvae in the urban environment of Yaoundé, Cameroon
    Infect. Dis. Poverty (IF 3.123) Pub Date : 2019-10-09
    Landre Djamouko-Djonkam; Souleman Mounchili-Ndam; Nelly Kala-Chouakeu; Stella Mariette Nana-Ndjangwo; Edmond Kopya; Nadége Sonhafouo-Chiana; Abdou Talipouo; Carmene Sandra Ngadjeu; Patricia Doumbe-Belisse; Roland Bamou; Jean Claude Toto; Timoléon Tchuinkam; Charles Sinclair Wondji; Christophe Antonio-Nkondjio

    The rapid and unplanned urbanization of African cities is considered to increase the risk of urban malaria transmission. The present study objective was to assess factors influencing the spatio-temporal distribution of Anopheles gambiae s.l. larvae in the city of Yaoundé, Cameroon. All water bodies were checked once every 2 months for the presence of mosquito larvae from March 2017 to May 2018 in 32 districts of Yaoundé. Physico-chemical characteristics including the size, depth, turbidity, pH, temperature, conductivity, sulfates, organophosphates, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), conductivity, iron and calcium were recorded and analyzed according to anopheline larvae presence or absence. High resolution satellite images from landsat sentinel Enhanced Thematic Mapper were used for spatial mapping of both field and environmental variables. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression models were used to identify variables closely associated with anopheline larvae distribution. A total of 18 696 aquatic habitats were checked and only 2942 sites (15.7%) contained anopheline larvae. A high number of sites with anopheline larvae (≥ 69%) presented late instar larvae (L3, L4 and pupae). Anopheline mosquito larvae were sampled from a variety of breeding sites including puddles (51.6%), tire prints (12.9%), wells (11.7%) and drains (11.3%). Bivariate logistic regression analyses associated anopheline larvae presence with the absence of predators, absence of algae, absence of vegetation and depth of less than 1 m. Conductivity, turbidity, organophosphates, H2O2 and temperature were significantly high in breeding sites with anopheline larvae than in breeding sites without these larvae (P < 0.1). Anopheline species collected included An. coluzzii (91.1%) and An. gambiae s.s. (8.9%). GIS mapping indicated a heterogeneous distribution of anopheline breeding habitats in the city of Yaoundé. Land cover analysis indicated high variability of the city of Yaoundé’s landscape. The data confirms adaptation of An. gambiae s.l. to the urban domain in the city of Yaoundé and calls for urgent actions to improve malaria vector control.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Risk factors for Blastocystis infection in HIV/AIDS patients with highly active antiretroviral therapy in Southwest China
    Infect. Dis. Poverty (IF 3.123) Pub Date : 2019-10-17
    Shun-Xian Zhang; Fen-Yan Kang; Jia-Xu Chen; Li-Guang Tian; Lan-Lan Geng

    Blastocystis is a widespread zoonotic protozoan of mammalian species, especially in HIV/AIDS individuals. The aim of this study was to analyze the prevalence and risk factors related with Blastocystis infection among HIV/AIDS patients in Southwest China. The cross-sectional study was performed in 311 HIV/AIDS cases in Tengchong City, Yunnan Province from July 2016 to March 2017. For each subject, stool specimen was collected to detect the Blastocystis, and the blood sample was used to detect HIV virus load and CD4+ T cell count, in addition, structured questionnaire was used to collect the basic information and risk factors. The result showed that the detection rate of Blastocystis was 3.86% (95% CI: 2.22–6.62) among HIV/AIDS patients. Both raising animal (OR = 12.93, 95% CI: 1.54–108.36) and drinking un-boiled water (OR = 8.17, 95% CI: 1.76–37.90) were risk factors for Blastocystis infection in HIV/AIDS individuals. In addition, the interaction of CD4+ T cell count and HIV virus load was also contribution to Blastocystis infection (P = 0.007). A high prevalence of Blastocystis infection was found in HIV/AIDS patients in Tengchong. Poor hygienic habits, the interaction of HIV virus load and CD4+ T cell count were identified as main risk factors for infection. These results will help us to develop efficient control strategies to intervene with and prevent the occurrence of Blastocystis among HIV-infected individuals.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Trends and spatial distributions of HIV prevalence in Ethiopia
    Infect. Dis. Poverty (IF 3.123) Pub Date : 2019-10-17
    Getiye Dejenu Kibret; Aster Ferede; Cheru Tesema Leshargie; Fasil Wagnew; Daniel Bekele Ketema; Animut Alebel

    Globally, by the end of 2018, 37.9 million people were living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Sub-Saharan Africa carries the highest burden with an estimated 71% of the global total. In Ethiopia, an estimated 715 404 people were living with HIV in 2015 and this increased to 722 248 in 2017. This study was to explore the trends and spatial distributions of HIV cases in Ethiopia. In this study, we explored the spatial and temporal distribution of persons living with HIV in Ethiopia using data from 2005, 2011, and 2016 Ethiopian Demographic and Health Surveys (EDHS). Geographic information system (Getis-Ord Gi* statistics) and spatial scan statistics (SaTScan) were used for exploratory and confirmatory spatial analyses respectively. The overall prevalence of HIV in Ethiopia unveiled inconsistent trends, with the majority of areas showing decreasing trends. Hot spot clusters exhibited in all the three surveys, which include areas where Amhara, Afar and Tigray regions share neighbourhoods. In 2005 regionally, Gambella, Addis Ababa, and Harari had the highest prevalence at 6.0, 4.7 and 3.5%, respectively. While in the 2016 survey the highest prevalence (4.8%) was observed in Gambella regional state followed by Addis Ababa (3.4%). The distribution of HIV infection in Ethiopia is not random in all the three EDHS surveys. High clusters of HIV cases were consistently observed in Addis Ababa and neighbouring areas of the Afar Tigray and Amhara regional states and central Oromia. This analysis revealed that there are still areas which need studying with respect to the epidemic of HIV. In this regard Addis Ababa, certain areas of Amhara regional state, large areas of Afar region and central Oromia require special attention.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • High helminthic co-infection in tuberculosis patients with undernutritional status in northeastern Ethiopia
    Infect. Dis. Poverty (IF 3.123) Pub Date : 2019-10-18
    Fikru Gashaw; Samuel Bekele; Yalemtsehay Mekonnen; Girmay Medhin; Gobena Ameni; Berhanu Erko

    Tuberculosis and parasitosis are the widely distributed diseases in Ethiopia with the leading cause of mortality and morbidity, respectively. There has been no information on the status of co-infections of tuberculosis and parasitosis in Oromia Zone of Amhara Region and South Wollo, Ethiopia. Hence, this study primarily focuses on determining the status of tuberculosis and parasitosis co-infections and associated factors. The study was conducted in Oromia Special Zone of the Amhara Regional State and South Wollo Zone, northeastern Ethiopia from April 2015 to January 2017. Tuberculosis cases confirmed by health personnel at the health institutions were the source of the study sample. In a cross-sectional study 384 smear positive pulmonary and extra-pulmonary tuberculosis cases were recruited. Faecal specimens provided by the study participants were examined for parasitic co-infections using direct saline microscopic test, Kato-Katz and concentration techniques. Nutritional status was determined using body mass index and mid-upper arm circumferences. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistical methods and Pearson chi-square. Tuberculosis and parasitosis co-infection prevalence was 10.8%, and the proportion of intestinal helminths accounted for 9.7% while intestinal protozoa accounted for 1.9%. Cases with single parasitic infection was 89.3% among co-infected individuals. Co-infection of both disease was not significantly associated with gender and age (P > 0.05). The prevalence of undernutrition was 58.6% as determined using body mass index and 73.0% as determined using mid-upper arm circumference with no significant association with gender. Among all forms of tuberculosis cases (384) screened for the study, the bacterial positivity was relatively more common in males (55.5%) than females (44.5%). Tuberculosis lymphadenitis was found to be the most prevalent (85.9%) form of extra-pulmonary tuberculosis with cervical adenopathy (75.3%) being the commonly existing disease. The rate of helminthic co-infection is predominantly high than that of intestinal protozoa. Single parasitic co-infection was more common than double or multiple co-infections. Both body mass index and mid-upper arm circumference anthropometric parameters revealed greater risk of undernutrition in tuberculosis patients. Thus, screening and prompt treatment of parasites in tuberculosis patients and a support of nutritional supplementation for malnourished tuberculosis patients should be further studied which might enhance the disease treatment and minimize the risk of its complexity.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Phylogeny of certain members of Hyrcanus group (Diptera: Culicidae) in China based on mitochondrial genome fragments
    Infect. Dis. Poverty (IF 3.123) Pub Date : 2019-10-23
    Hui-Min Zhu; Shu-Han Luo; Man Gao; Feng Tao; Jing-Peng Gao; Han-Ming Chen; Xiang-Yu Li; Heng Peng; Ya-Jun Ma

    Species of the Anopheles hyrcanus group are widely distributed in Palearctic and Oriental regions and some of them are important malaria vectors. The cryptic species of An. hyrcanus group was almost impossible to identify based only on their morphology. The phylogenetic relationship of An. hyrcanus group was also not clear. Five members of An. hyrcanus group were identified by rDNA ITS2 sequencing as An. yatsushiroensis, An. belenrae, An. kleini, An. lesteri and An. sineroides. The mitochondrial genome fragments were sequenced and annotated using the mitochondrial genome of An. sinensis as reference. Based on the four segments and Joint Data sequences of these species, and other four anopheline species downloaded from GenBank, intraspecific as well as interspecific genetic distances were calculated and the phylogenetic trees were reconstructed by the methods of neighbor joining, maximum parsimony, minimum evolution and maximum likelihood. Four parts of mitochondrial genomes, which were partial fragments COI + tRNA + COII (F5), ATP6 + COIII(F7 + F8), ND1(F19) and lrRNA (F21), were obtained. All fragments were connected as one sequence (referred as Joint Data), which had a total length of 3393 bp. All fragment sequences were highly conservative within species, with the maximum p distance (0.026) calculated by F19 of An. belenrae. The pairwise interspecific p distance calculated by each fragment showed minor or even no difference among An. sinensis, An. kleini and An. belenrae. However, interspecific p distances calculated by the Joint Data sequence ranged from 0.004 (An. belenrae vs An. kleini) to 0.089 (An. sineroides vs An. minimus), and the p distances of the six members of An. hyrcanus group were all less than 0.029. The phylogenetic tree showed two major clades: all subgenus Anopheles species (including six members of An. hyrcanus group, An. atroparvus and An. quadrimaculatus A) and subgenus Cellia (including An. dirus and An. minimus). The An. hyrcanus group was divided into two clusters as ((An. lesteri, An. sineroides) An. yatsushiroensis) and ((An. belenrae, An. sinensis) An. kleini)). The An. hyrcanus group in this study could be divided into two clusters, in one of which An. belenrae, An. sinensis and An. kleini were most closely related. More molecular markers would make greater contribution to phylogenetic analysis.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Role of community-based active case finding in screening tuberculosis in Yunnan province of China
    Infect. Dis. Poverty (IF 3.123) Pub Date : 2019-10-29
    Jin-Ou Chen; Yu-Bing Qiu; Zulma Vanessa Rueda; Jing-Long Hou; Kun-Yun Lu; Liu-Ping Chen; Wei-Wei Su; Li Huang; Fei Zhao; Tao Li; Lin Xu

    The barriers to access diagnosis and receive treatment, in addition to insufficient case identification and reporting, lead to tuberculosis (TB) spreads in communities, especially among hard-to-reach populations. This study evaluated a community-based active case finding (ACF) strategy for the detection of tuberculosis cases among high-risk groups and general population in China between 2013 and 2015. This retrospective cohort study conducted an ACF in ten communities of Dongchuan County, located in northeast Yunnan Province between 2013 and 2015; and compared to 136 communities that had passive case finding (PCF). The algorithm for ACF was: 1) screen for TB symptoms among community enrolled residents by home visits, 2) those with positive symptoms along with defined high-risk groups underwent chest X-ray (CXR), followed by sputum microscopy confirmation. TB incidence proportion and the number needed to screen (NNS) to detect one case were calculated to evaluate the ACF strategy compared to PCF, chi-square test was applied to compare the incidence proportion of TB cases’ demography and the characteristics for detected cases under different strategies. Thereafter, the incidence rate ratio (IRR) and multiple Fisher’s exact test were applied to compare the incidence proportion between general population and high-risk groups. Patient and diagnostic delays for ACF and PCF were compared by Wilcoxon rank sum test. A total of 97 521 enrolled residents were visited with the ACF cumulatively, 12.3% were defined as high-risk groups or had TB symptoms. Sixty-six new TB patients were detected by ACF. There was no significant difference between the cumulative TB incidence proportion for ACF (67.7/100000 population) and the prevalence for PCF (62.6/100000 population) during 2013 to 2015, though the incidence proportion in ACF communities decreased after three rounds active screening, concurrent with the remained stable prevalence in PCF communities. The cumulative NNS were 34, 39 and 29 in HIV/AIDS infected individuals, people with positive TB symptoms and history of previous TB, respectively, compared to 1478 in the general population. The median patient delay under ACF was 1 day (Interquartile range, IQR: 0–27) compared to PCF with 30 days (IQR: 14–61). This study confirmed that massive ACF was not effective in general population in a moderate TB prevalence setting. The priority should be the definition and targeting of high-risk groups in the community before the screening process is launched. The shorter time interval of ACF between TB symptoms onset and linkage to healthcare service may decrease the risk of TB community transmission. Furthermore, integrated ACF strategy in the National Project of Basic Public Health Service may have long term public health impact.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Environmental determinants of distribution of freshwater snails and trematode infection in the Omo Gibe River Basin, southwest Ethiopia
    Infect. Dis. Poverty (IF 3.123) Pub Date : 2019-11-20
    Seid Tiku Mereta; Jemal Bedewi; Delenasaw Yewhalaw; Belayhun Mandefro; Yihun Abdie; Dechassa Tegegne; Wondwosen Birke; Worku Legesse Mulat; Helmut Kloos

    Determination of infection rates of snail populations is one of the basic tools for epidemiological studies of snail borne diseases. In this study, we opted to determine the trematode infection of freshwater snails in the Omo-Gibe River Basin, southwest Ethiopia. We collected snail samples from 130 observation sites in lakes, wetlands, rivers, reservoirs and irrigation canals surveyed during the dry season (March to May) in 2016. The snail samples were examined for trematode infections by cercarial shedding immediately after collection. Habitat conditions, water quality, human water contact practices and other human activities were assessed at each survey site. A redundancy analysis (RDA) was used to examine the relationship between cercarial infection and environmental variables. The statistical significance of eigenvalues and cercariae-environment correlations generated by the RDA were tested using Monte Carlo permutations at 499 permutations. A total of 3107 snails belonging to five species were collected. The most abundant species was Biomphalaria pfeifferi, representing 66% of the total collection. Overall, 109 (3.6%) of the snails were found infected with trematodes (cercariae). Biomphalaria pfeifferi was found to be the most highly infected, accounting 85% of all infected snails. A total of eight morphologically different types of cercariae were recorded, which included: Echinostoma cercariae, brevifurcate apharyngeate distome cercariae, amphistome cercariae, brevifurcate apharyngeate monostome cercariae, xiphidiocercariae, longifurcate pharyngeate distome cercariae, strigea cercariae and unidentified cercariae. Brevifurcate apharyngeate distome cercariae, and Echinostoma cercariae were the most abundant cercariae, accounting for 36 and 34% of all infection, respectively. The mean concentration of water conductivity and 5 days biological oxygen demand were higher in irrigation canals and lake sampling points. Human activities such as open field defecation, urination, livestock grazing, farming, and swimming were highly correlated with trematode infection. The abundance, occurrence and infection rates of snail species were largely influenced by water physicochemical quality, sanitation and water contact behaviour of the inhabitants. Human activities, such as open field defecation and urination, livestock grazing, farming, and swimming were important predictors of the abundance of cercariae. Therefore, awareness creation should be implemented for proper containment of excreta (urine and faeces) and reducing human and animal contacts with surface waters to reduce snail-borne disease transmission.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Clinical malaria and the potential risk of anaemia among preschool-aged children: a population-based study of the 2015–2016 Malawi micronutrient survey
    Infect. Dis. Poverty (IF 3.123) Pub Date : 2019-11-25
    Peter Austin Morton Ntenda; Sosten Chilumpha; Edward Tisungane Mwenyenkulu; Jane Flora Kazambwe; Walaa El-Meidany

    Anaemia and malaria are common and life-threatening diseases among preschool-aged children in many tropical and subtropical areas, and Malawi is no exception. Accordingly, this study aimed to examine the association of referral clinical malaria with anemia (hemoglobin [Hb] < 110 g/L) in preschool-aged children in Malawi. Using cross-sectional data obtained from the 2015–2016 Malawi Micronutrient Survey (MNS), multivariate logistic regression models were constructed using surveylogistic to account for the complex survey design. Blood samples of 1051 children aged 6–59 months were evaluated for malaria (using rapid diagnostic test [RDT] – SD BIOLINE Malaria Ag P.f/Pan test histidine-rich protein (HRP-II)™), Hb (using HemoCue 301), α-1-acid glycoprotein (AGP), and serum ferritin biomarkers (using simple sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay technique, ELISA) and inherited blood disorders from dry blood samples (DBS) using polymerize chain reaction (PCR). Diagnosis of clinical malaria was made on the basis of fever and a positive rapid diagnostic test (RDT). Of the 1051 PSC analysed, 29% had anaemia while 24.4% had a referral to the hospital due to malaria. After adjustments for known confounders, PSC with a history of referral clinical malaria had increased odds of being anaemic (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 4.63, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.90–7.40), P < 0.0001. This study found that clinical malaria increased the risk of anaemia in PSC. Thus, elimination of malaria-causing parasites from the PSC’s blood should be rapid and complete in order to prevent the progression of uncomplicated malaria to a chronic infection that can lead to the development of malaria-related anaemia.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Performance of three rapid diagnostic tests for the detection of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis in children with severe acute malnutrition and diarrhoea
    Infect. Dis. Poverty (IF 3.123) Pub Date : 2019-11-28
    Joseph Bitilinyu-Bangoh; Wieger Voskuijl; Johnstone Thitiri; Sandra Menting; Nienke Verhaar; Laura Mwalekwa; Daisy B. de Jong; Merlin van Loenen; Petra F. Mens; James A. Berkley; Robert H. J. Bandsma; Henk D. F. H. Schallig

    There is significant need for accurate diagnostic tools for Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis infections in resource limited countries where diarrhoeal disease caused by these parasites is often prevalent. The present study assessed the diagnostic performance of three commercially available rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) based on faecal-antigen detection for Cryptosporidium spp. and/or G. duodenalis infections in stool samples of children admitted with severe acute malnutrition (SAM) and diarrhoea. An established multiplex PCR was used as reference test. Stool samples from children with SAM and diarrhoea enrolled in a randomized controlled trial (registered at clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02246296) in Malawi (n = 175) and Kenya (n = 120) between December 2014 and December 2015 were analysed by a multiplex PCR for the presence of Cryptosporidium spp., G. duodenalis or Entamoeba histolytica parasite DNA. Cryptosporidium-positive samples were species typed using restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. A sub-sample of the stool specimens (n = 236) was used for testing with three different RDTs. Diagnostic accuracy of the tests under evaluation was assessed using the results of PCR as reference standard using MedCalc software. Pearson Chi-square test and Fisher’s exact test were used to determine (significant) difference between the number of cryptosporidiosis or giardiasis cases found by PCR in Malawi and Kenya. The overall diagnostic accuracy of each RDT was calculated by plotting a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve for each test and to determine the area under the curve (AUC) using SPSS8 software. Prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. by PCR was 20.0 and 21.7% in Malawi and Kenya respectively, mostly C. hominis. G. duodenalis prevalence was 23.4 and 5.8% in Malawi and Kenya respectively. E. histolytica was not detected by PCR. RDT testing followed the same pattern of prevalence. RDT sensitivities ranged for cryptosporidiosis from 42.9 to 76.9% and for G. duodenalis from 48.2 to 85.7%. RDT specificities ranged from 88.4 to 100% for Cryptosporidium spp. and from 91.2 to 99.2% for G. duodenalis infections. Based on the estimated area under the curve (AUC) values, all tests under evaluation had an acceptable overall diagnostic accuracy (> 0.7), with the exception of one RDT for Cryptosporidium spp. in Malawi. All three RDTs for Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis evaluated in this study have a moderate sensitivity, but sufficient specificity. The main value of the RDTs is within their rapidness and their usefulness as screening assays in surveys for diarrhoea.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • A community-based comprehensive intervention to reduce syphilis infection among low-fee female sex workers in China: a matched-pair, community-based randomized study.
    Infect. Dis. Poverty (IF 3.123) Pub Date : null
    Wei Dong,Chu Zhou,Ke-Ming Rou,Zun-You Wu,Jun Chen,Sarah Robbins Scott,Man-Hong Jia,Yue-Jiao Zhou,Xi Chen

    BACKGROUND Low-fee female sex workers (FSWs) are at high risk of acquiring and spreading human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in China. There is an urgent need to develop comprehensive intervention measures targeted towards low-fee FSWs to reduce HIV/STD infections. Thus, this study aimed to reduce HIV/STD infections among low-fee FSW through a matched-pair, community-based randomized intervention trial carried out in 12 cities in three provinces in China. METHODS Four cities from Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, four from Yunnan Province, and four from Hunan Province were paired and participants received either the intervention package (including condom promotion, HIV and syphilis testing, reimbursement for syphilis treatment costs, and free anti-retroviral therapy or the current standard of care. Venue-based, convenience sampling was used to recruit FSWs. A face-to-face interview and HIV and syphilis blood testing was conducted at baseline and follow-up intervals of 24 months. Generalized linear mixed models (GLMM) were used to evaluate the effect of the intervention package on reducing HIV/STD infection in the FSWs. RESULTS A total of 1024 eligible FSWs were enrolled in the baseline survey and 843 in the follow-up. GLMM results showed that syphilis infection was reduced by 49% in the intervention group compared to the current standard of care group (P = 0.0378, OR = 0.51, 95% CI: 0.27-0.96). FSWs aged 35 years or older were 2.38 times more likely to get syphilis infection compared to those younger than 35 years old (P <  0.0001, OR = 2.38, 95% CI: 1.55-3.65). The risk of syphilis infection among more educated FSWs was 0.43 times less than those with lower levels of education (P <  0.05, OR = 0.43, 95% CI: 0.63-0.93). CONCLUSIONS This study demonstrates that comprehensive interventions can lead to significant declines in syphilis infection amongst low-tier FSWs. Integrating both behavioral and biomedical intervention measures should be considered when developing programs for low-fee FSWs. TRIAL REGISTRATION CHiCTR-TRC-12002655.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
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