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  • Socioeconomic status determines COVID-19 incidence and related mortality in Santiago, Chile
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2021-05-04
    Gonzalo E. Mena, Pamela P. Martinez, Ayesha S. Mahmud, Pablo A. Marquet, Caroline O. Buckee, Mauricio Santillana

    The current COVID-19 pandemic has impacted cities particularly hard. Here, we provide an in-depth characterization of disease incidence and mortality, and their dependence on demographic and socioeconomic strata in Santiago, a highly segregated city and the capital of Chile. Our analyses show a strong association between socioeconomic status and both COVID-19 outcomes and public health capacity. People

  • Prevalent, protective, and convergent IgG recognition of SARS-CoV-2 non-RBD spike epitopes
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2021-05-04
    William N. Voss, Yixuan J. Hou, Nicole V. Johnson, George Delidakis, Jin Eyun Kim, Kamyab Javanmardi, Andrew P. Horton, Foteini Bartzoka, Chelsea J. Paresi, Yuri Tanno, Chia-Wei Chou, Shawn A. Abbasi, Whitney Pickens, Katia George, Daniel R. Boutz, Dalton M. Towers, Jonathan R. McDaniel, Daniel Billick, Jule Goike, Lori Rowe, Dhwani Batra, Jan Pohl, Justin Lee, Shivaprakash Gangappa, Suryaprakash Sambhara

    The molecular composition and binding epitopes of the immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies that circulate in blood plasma following SARS-CoV-2 infection are unknown. Proteomic deconvolution of the IgG repertoire to the spike glycoprotein in convalescent subjects revealed that the response is directed predominantly (>80%) against epitopes residing outside the receptor-binding domain (RBD). In one subject

  • Resurgence of SARS-CoV-2: detection by community viral surveillance
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2021-05-03
    Steven Riley, Kylie E. C. Ainslie, Oliver Eales, Caroline E. Walters, Haowei Wang, Christina Atchison, Claudio Fronterre, Peter J. Diggle, Deborah Ashby, Christl A. Donnelly, Graham Cooke, Wendy Barclay, Helen Ward, Ara Darzi, Paul Elliott

    Surveillance of the SARS-CoV-2 epidemic has mainly relied on case reporting which is biased by health service performance, test availability and test-seeking behaviors. We report a community-wide national representative surveillance program in England involving self-administered swab results from 594,000 individuals tested for SARS-CoV-2, regardless of symptoms, from May to beginning of September 2020

  • Prior SARS-CoV-2 infection rescues B and T cell responses to variants after first vaccine dose
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2021-04-30
    Catherine J. Reynolds, Corinna Pade, Joseph M. Gibbons, David K. Butler, Ashley D. Otter, Katia Menacho, Marianna Fontana, Angelique Smit, Jane E. Sackville-West, Teresa Cutino-Moguel, Mala K. Maini, Benjamin Chain, Mahdad Noursadeghi, UK COVIDsortium Immune Correlates Network‡, Tim Brooks, Amanda Semper, Charlotte Manisty, Thomas A. Treibel, James C. Moon, UK COVIDsortium Investigators‡, Ana M. Valdes

    SARS-CoV-2 vaccine rollout has coincided with the spread of variants of concern. We investigated if single dose vaccination, with or without prior infection, confers cross protective immunity to variants. We analyzed T and B cell responses after first dose vaccination with the Pfizer/BioNTech mRNA vaccine BNT162b2 in healthcare workers (HCW) followed longitudinally, with or without prior Wuhan-Hu-1

  • Widespread reforestation before European influence on Amazonia
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2021-04-30
    M. B. Bush, M. N. Nascimento, C. M. Åkesson, G. M. Cárdenes-Sandí, S. Y. Maezumi, H. Behling, A. Correa-Metrio, W. Church, S. N. Huisman, T. Kelly, F. E. Mayle, C. N. H. McMichael

    An estimated 90 to 95% of Indigenous people in Amazonia died after European contact. This population collapse is postulated to have caused decreases in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations at around 1610 CE, as a result of a wave of land abandonment in the wake of disease, slavery, and warfare, whereby the attendant reversion to forest substantially increased terrestrial carbon sequestration.

  • The human dimension of biodiversity changes on islands
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2021-04-30
    Sandra Nogué, Ana M. C. Santos, H. John B. Birks, Svante Björck, Alvaro Castilla-Beltrán, Simon Connor, Erik J. de Boer, Lea de Nascimento, Vivian A. Felde, José María Fernández-Palacios, Cynthia A. Froyd, Simon G. Haberle, Henry Hooghiemstra, Karl Ljung, Sietze J. Norder, Josep Peñuelas, Matthew Prebble, Janelle Stevenson, Robert J. Whittaker, Kathy J. Willis, Janet M. Wilmshurst, Manuel J. Steinbauer

    Islands are among the last regions on Earth settled and transformed by human activities, and they provide replicated model systems for analysis of how people affect ecological functions. By analyzing 27 representative fossil pollen sequences encompassing the past 5000 years from islands globally, we quantified the rates of vegetation compositional change before and after human arrival. After human

  • Equids engineer desert water availability
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2021-04-30
    Erick J. Lundgren, Daniel Ramp, Juliet C. Stromberg, Jianguo Wu, Nathan C. Nieto, Martin Sluk, Karla T. Moeller, Arian D. Wallach

    Megafauna play important roles in the biosphere, yet little is known about how they shape dryland ecosystems. We report on an overlooked form of ecosystem engineering by donkeys and horses. In the deserts of North America, digging of ≤2-meter wells to groundwater by feral equids increased the density of water features, reduced distances between waters, and, at times, provided the only water present

  • Electric field control of natural optical activity in a multiferroic helimagnet
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2021-04-30
    Ryoji Masuda, Yoshio Kaneko, Yoshinori Tokura, Youtarou Takahashi

    Controlling the chiral degree of freedom in matter has long been an important issue for many fields of science. The spin-spiral order, which exhibits a strong magnetoelectric coupling, gives rise to chirality irrespective of the atomic arrangement of matter. Here, we report the resonantly enhanced natural optical activity on the electrically active magnetic excitation, that is, electromagnon, in multiferroic

  • Atomic-scale ion transistor with ultrahigh diffusivity
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2021-04-30
    Yahui Xue, Yang Xia, Sui Yang, Yousif Alsaid, King Yan Fong, Yuan Wang, Xiang Zhang

    Biological ion channels rapidly and selectively gate ion transport through atomic-scale filters to maintain vital life functions. We report an atomic-scale ion transistor exhibiting ultrafast and highly selective ion transport controlled by electrical gating in graphene channels around 3 angstroms in height, made from a single flake of reduced graphene oxide. The ion diffusion coefficient reaches two

  • A risk-based approach for managing hydraulic fracturing–induced seismicity
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2021-04-30
    Ryan Schultz, Gregory C. Beroza, William L. Ellsworth

    Risks from induced earthquakes are a growing concern that needs effective management. For hydraulic fracturing of the Eagle Ford shale in southern Texas, we developed a risk-informed strategy for choosing red-light thresholds that require immediate well shut-in. We used a combination of datasets to simulate spatially heterogeneous nuisance and damage impacts. Simulated impacts are greater in the northeast

  • Parity-preserving and magnetic field–resilient superconductivity in InSb nanowires with Sn shells
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2021-04-30
    M. Pendharkar, B. Zhang, H. Wu, A. Zarassi, P. Zhang, C. P. Dempsey, J. S. Lee, S. D. Harrington, G. Badawy, S. Gazibegovic, R. L. M. Op het Veld, M. Rossi, J. Jung, A.-H. Chen, M. A. Verheijen, M. Hocevar, E. P. A. M. Bakkers, C. J. Palmstrøm, S. M. Frolov

    Improving materials used to make qubits is crucial to further progress in quantum information processing. Of particular interest are semiconductor-superconductor heterostructures that are expected to form the basis of topological quantum computing. We grew semiconductor indium antimonide nanowires that were coated with shells of tin of uniform thickness. No interdiffusion was observed at the interface

  • A widespread pathway for substitution of adenine by diaminopurine in phage genomes
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2021-04-30
    Yan Zhou, Xuexia Xu, Yifeng Wei, Yu Cheng, Yu Guo, Ivan Khudyakov, Fuli Liu, Ping He, Zhangyue Song, Zhi Li, Yan Gao, Ee Lui Ang, Huimin Zhao, Yan Zhang, Suwen Zhao

    DNA modifications vary in form and function but generally do not alter Watson-Crick base pairing. Diaminopurine (Z) is an exception because it completely replaces adenine and forms three hydrogen bonds with thymine in cyanophage S-2L genomic DNA. However, the biosynthesis, prevalence, and importance of Z genomes remain unexplored. Here, we report a multienzyme system that supports Z-genome synthesis

  • A third purine biosynthetic pathway encoded by aminoadenine-based viral DNA genomes
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2021-04-30
    Dona Sleiman, Pierre Simon Garcia, Marion Lagune, Jerome Loc’h, Ahmed Haouz, Najwa Taib, Pascal Röthlisberger, Simonetta Gribaldo, Philippe Marlière, Pierre Alexandre Kaminski

    Cells have two purine pathways that synthesize adenine and guanine ribonucleotides from phosphoribose via inosylate. A chemical hybrid between adenine and guanine, 2-aminoadenine (Z), replaces adenine in the DNA of the cyanobacterial virus S-2L. We show that S-2L and Vibrio phage PhiVC8 encode a third purine pathway catalyzed by PurZ, a distant paralog of succinoadenylate synthase (PurA), the enzyme

  • Noncanonical DNA polymerization by aminoadenine-based siphoviruses
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2021-04-30
    Valerie Pezo, Faten Jaziri, Pierre-Yves Bourguignon, Dominique Louis, Deborah Jacobs-Sera, Jef Rozenski, Sylvie Pochet, Piet Herdewijn, Graham F. Hatfull, Pierre-Alexandre Kaminski, Philippe Marliere

    Bacteriophage genomes harbor the broadest chemical diversity of nucleobases across all life forms. Certain DNA viruses that infect hosts as diverse as cyanobacteria, proteobacteria, and actinobacteria exhibit wholesale substitution of aminoadenine for adenine, thereby forming three hydrogen bonds with thymine and violating Watson-Crick pairing rules. Aminoadenine-encoded DNA polymerases, homologous

  • Structural impact on SARS-CoV-2 spike protein by D614G substitution
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2021-04-30
    Jun Zhang, Yongfei Cai, Tianshu Xiao, Jianming Lu, Hanqin Peng, Sarah M. Sterling, Richard M. Walsh, Sophia Rits-Volloch, Haisun Zhu, Alec N. Woosley, Wei Yang, Piotr Sliz, Bing Chen

    Substitution for aspartic acid (D) by glycine (G) at position 614 in the spike (S) protein of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) appears to facilitate rapid viral spread. The G614 strain and its recent variants are now the dominant circulating forms. Here, we report cryo–electron microscopy structures of a full-length G614 S trimer, which adopts three distinct prefusion conformations

  • Toxin-antitoxin RNA pairs safeguard CRISPR-Cas systems
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2021-04-30
    Ming Li, Luyao Gong, Feiyue Cheng, Haiying Yu, Dahe Zhao, Rui Wang, Tian Wang, Shengjie Zhang, Jian Zhou, Sergey A. Shmakov, Eugene V. Koonin, Hua Xiang

    CRISPR-Cas systems provide RNA-guided adaptive immunity in prokaryotes. We report that the multisubunit CRISPR effector Cascade transcriptionally regulates a toxin-antitoxin RNA pair, CreTA. CreT (Cascade-repressed toxin) is a bacteriostatic RNA that sequesters the rare arginine tRNAUCU (transfer RNA with anticodon UCU). CreA is a CRISPR RNA–resembling antitoxin RNA, which requires Cas6 for maturation

  • Structural insights into preinitiation complex assembly on core promoters
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2021-04-30
    Xizi Chen, Yilun Qi, Zihan Wu, Xinxin Wang, Jiabei Li, Dan Zhao, Haifeng Hou, Yan Li, Zishuo Yu, Weida Liu, Mo Wang, Yulei Ren, Ze Li, Huirong Yang, Yanhui Xu

    Transcription factor IID (TFIID) recognizes core promoters and supports preinitiation complex (PIC) assembly for RNA polymerase II (Pol II)–mediated eukaryotic transcription. We determined the structures of human TFIID–based PIC in three stepwise assembly states and revealed two-track PIC assembly: stepwise promoter deposition to Pol II and extensive modular reorganization on track I (on TATA–TFIID-binding

  • Stepwise pathogenic evolution of Mycobacterium abscessus
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2021-04-30
    Josephine M. Bryant, Karen P. Brown, Sophie Burbaud, Isobel Everall, Juan M. Belardinelli, Daniela Rodriguez-Rincon, Dorothy M. Grogono, Chelsea M. Peterson, Deepshikha Verma, Ieuan E. Evans, Christopher Ruis, Aaron Weimann, Divya Arora, Sony Malhotra, Bridget Bannerman, Charlotte Passemar, Kerra Templeton, Gordon MacGregor, Kasim Jiwa, Andrew J. Fisher, Tom L. Blundell, Diane J. Ordway, Mary Jackson

    Although almost all mycobacterial species are saprophytic environmental organisms, a few, such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis, have evolved to cause transmissible human infection. By analyzing the recent emergence and spread of the environmental organism M. abscessus through the global cystic fibrosis population, we have defined key, generalizable steps involved in the pathogenic evolution of mycobacteria

  • Chronoculture, harnessing the circadian clock to improve crop yield and sustainability
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2021-04-30
    Gareth Steed, Dora Cano Ramirez, Matthew A. Hannah, Alex A. R. Webb

    Human health is dependent on a plentiful and nutritious supply of food, primarily derived from crop plants. Rhythmic supply of light as a result of the day and night cycle led to the evolution of circadian clocks that modulate most plant physiology, photosynthesis, metabolism, and development. To regulate crop traits and adaptation, breeders have indirectly selected for variation at circadian genes

  • Modulation of MHC-E transport by viral decoy ligands is required for RhCMV/SIV vaccine efficacy
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2021-04-30
    Marieke C. Verweij, Scott G. Hansen, Ravi Iyer, Nessy John, Daniel Malouli, David Morrow, Isabel Scholz, Jennie Womack, Shaheed Abdulhaqq, Roxanne M. Gilbride, Colette M. Hughes, Abigail B. Ventura, Julia C. Ford, Andrea N. Selseth, Kelli Oswald, Rebecca Shoemaker, Brian Berkemeier, William J. Bosche, Michael Hull, Jason Shao, Jonah B. Sacha, Michael K. Axthelm, Paul T. Edlefsen, Jeffrey D. Lifson

    Strain 68-1 rhesus cytomegalovirus (RhCMV) vectors expressing simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) antigens elicit CD8+ T cells recognizing epitopes presented by major histocompatibility complex II (MHC-II) and MHC-E but not MHC-Ia. These immune responses mediate replication arrest of SIV in 50 to 60% of monkeys. We show that the peptide VMAPRTLLL (VL9) embedded within the RhCMV protein Rh67 promotes

  • Dynamic remodeling of host membranes by self-organizing bacterial effectors
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2021-04-29
    Ting-Sung Hsieh, Victor A. Lopez, Miles H. Black, Adam Osinski, Krzysztof Pawłowski, Diana R. Tomchick, Jen Liou, Vincent S. Tagliabracci

    During infection Legionella bacteria translocate a variety of effectors into host cells that modify host cell membrane trafficking for the benefit of the intracellular pathogen. Here we found a self-organizing system consisting of a bacterial phosphoinositide kinase and its opposing phosphatase that formed spatiotemporal patterns, including traveling waves, to remodel host cellular membranes. The Legionella

  • Household COVID-19 risk and in-person schooling
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2021-04-29
    Justin Lessler, M. Kate Grabowski, Kyra H. Grantz, Elena Badillo-Goicoechea, C. Jessica E. Metcalf, Carly Lupton-Smith, Andrew S. Azman, Elizabeth A. Stuart

    In-person schooling has proved contentious and difficult to study throughout the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Data from a massive online survey in the United States indicates an increased risk of COVID-19-related outcomes among respondents living with a child attending school in-person. School-based mitigation measures are associated with significant reductions in risk, particularly daily symptoms screens

  • Extreme oxidant amounts produced by lightning in storm clouds
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2021-04-29
    W. H. Brune, P. J. McFarland, E. Bruning, S. Waugh, D. MacGorman, D. O. Miller, J. M. Jenkins, X. Ren, J. Mao, J. Peischl

    Lightning increases the atmosphere’s ability to cleanse itself by producing nitric oxide (NO), leading to atmospheric chemistry that forms ozone (O3) and the atmosphere’s primary oxidant, the hydroxyl radical (OH). Our analysis of a 2012 airborne study of deep convection and chemistry demonstrates that lightning also directly generates the oxidants OH and the hydroperoxyl radical (HO2). Extreme amounts

  • Transformative climate adaptation in the United States: Trends and prospects
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2021-04-29
    Linda Shi, Susanne Moser

    As climate change intensifies, civil society is increasingly calling for transformative adaptation that redresses drivers of climate vulnerability. We review trends in how U.S. federal government, private industry and civil society are planning for climate adaptation. We find growing divergence in their approaches and impacts. This incoherence increases maladaptive investment in climate-blind infrastructure

  • Imaging translation dynamics in live embryos reveals spatial heterogeneities
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2021-04-29
    Jeremy Dufourt, Maelle Bellec, Antonio Trullo, Matthieu Dejean, Sylvain De Rossi, Cyril Favard, Mounia Lagha

    Much is known about the factors involved in the translation of mRNA into protein; however, this multi-step process has not been imaged in living multicellular organisms. Here, we deploy the SunTag method to visualize and quantify the timing, location, and kinetics of the translation of single mRNAs in living Drosophila embryos. By focusing on the translation of the conserved major epithelial-mesenchymal

  • Noncanonical crRNAs derived from host transcripts enable multiplexable RNA detection by Cas9
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2021-04-27
    Chunlei Jiao, Sahil Sharma, Gaurav Dugar, Natalia L. Peeck, Thorsten Bischler, Franziska Wimmer, Yanying Yu, Lars Barquist, Christoph Schoen, Oliver Kurzai, Cynthia M. Sharma, Chase L. Beisel

    CRISPR-Cas systems recognize foreign genetic material using CRISPR RNAs (crRNAs). In Type II systems, a trans-activating crRNA (tracrRNA) hybridizes to crRNAs to drive their processing and utilization by Cas9. While analyzing Cas9-RNA complexes from Campylobacter jejuni, we discovered tracrRNA hybridizing to cellular RNAs, leading to formation of “noncanonical” crRNAs capable of guiding DNA targeting

  • Epidemiological and evolutionary considerations of SARS-CoV-2 vaccine dosing regimes
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2021-04-23
    Chadi M. Saad-Roy, Sinead E. Morris, C. Jessica E. Metcalf, Michael J. Mina, Rachel E. Baker, Jeremy Farrar, Edward C. Holmes, Oliver G. Pybus, Andrea L. Graham, Simon A. Levin, Bryan T. Grenfell, Caroline E. Wagner

    Given vaccine dose shortages and logistical challenges, various deployment strategies are being proposed to increase population immunity levels to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Two critical issues arise: How timing of delivery of the second dose will affect infection dynamics and how it will affect prospects for the evolution of viral immune escape via a buildup of partially

  • Replication timing maintains the global epigenetic state in human cells
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2021-04-23
    Kyle N. Klein, Peiyao A. Zhao, Xiaowen Lyu, Takayo Sasaki, Daniel A. Bartlett, Amar M. Singh, Ipek Tasan, Meng Zhang, Lotte P. Watts, Shin-ichiro Hiraga, Toyoaki Natsume, Xuemeng Zhou, Timour Baslan, Danny Leung, Masato T. Kanemaki, Anne D. Donaldson, Huimin Zhao, Stephen Dalton, Victor G. Corces, David M. Gilbert

    The temporal order of DNA replication [replication timing (RT)] is correlated with chromatin modifications and three-dimensional genome architecture; however, causal links have not been established, largely because of an inability to manipulate the global RT program. We show that loss of RIF1 causes near-complete elimination of the RT program by increasing heterogeneity between individual cells. RT

  • Assessing China’s efforts to pursue the 1.5°C warming limit
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2021-04-23
    Hongbo Duan, Sheng Zhou, Kejun Jiang, Christoph Bertram, Mathijs Harmsen, Elmar Kriegler, Detlef P. van Vuuren, Shouyang Wang, Shinichiro Fujimori, Massimo Tavoni, Xi Ming, Kimon Keramidas, Gokul Iyer, James Edmonds

    Given the increasing interest in keeping global warming below 1.5°C, a key question is what this would mean for China’s emission pathway, energy restructuring, and decarbonization. By conducting a multimodel study, we find that the 1.5°C-consistent goal would require China to reduce its carbon emissions and energy consumption by more than 90 and 39%, respectively, compared with the “no policy” case

  • Conserved genetic signatures parcellate cardinal spinal neuron classes into local and projection subsets
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2021-04-23
    Peter J. Osseward, Neal D. Amin, Jeffrey D. Moore, Benjamin A. Temple, Bianca K. Barriga, Lukas C. Bachmann, Fernando Beltran, Miriam Gullo, Robert C. Clark, Shawn P. Driscoll, Samuel L. Pfaff, Marito Hayashi

    Motor and sensory functions of the spinal cord are mediated by populations of cardinal neurons arising from separate progenitor lineages. However, each cardinal class is composed of multiple neuronal types with distinct molecular, anatomical, and physiological features, and there is not a unifying logic that systematically accounts for this diversity. We reasoned that the expansion of new neuronal

  • Broadband directional control of thermal emission
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2021-04-23
    Jin Xu, Jyotirmoy Mandal, Aaswath P. Raman

    Controlling the directionality of emitted far-field thermal radiation is a fundamental challenge. Photonic strategies enable angular selectivity of thermal emission over narrow bandwidths, but thermal radiation is a broadband phenomenon. The ability to constrain emitted thermal radiation to fixed narrow angular ranges over broad bandwidths is an important, but lacking, capability. We introduce gradient

  • C(sp3)–H methylation enabled by peroxide photosensitization and Ni-mediated radical coupling
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2021-04-23
    Aristidis Vasilopoulos, Shane W. Krska, Shannon S. Stahl

    The “magic methyl” effect describes the change in potency, selectivity, and/or metabolic stability of a drug candidate associated with addition of a single methyl group. We report a synthetic method that enables direct methylation of C(sp3)–H bonds in diverse drug-like molecules and pharmaceutical building blocks. Visible light–initiated triplet energy transfer promotes homolysis of the O–O bond in

  • Higher-dimensional supersymmetric microlaser arrays
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2021-04-23
    Xingdu Qiao, Bikashkali Midya, Zihe Gao, Zhifeng Zhang, Haoqi Zhao, Tianwei Wu, Jieun Yim, Ritesh Agarwal, Natalia M. Litchinitser, Liang Feng

    The nonlinear scaling of complexity with the increased number of components in integrated photonics is a major obstacle impeding large-scale, phase-locked laser arrays. Here, we develop a higher-dimensional supersymmetry formalism for precise mode control and nonlinear power scaling. Our supersymmetric microlaser arrays feature phase-locked coherence and synchronization of all of the evanescently coupled

  • Josephson junction infrared single-photon detector
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2021-04-23
    Evan D. Walsh, Woochan Jung, Gil-Ho Lee, Dmitri K. Efetov, Bae-Ian Wu, K.-F. Huang, Thomas A. Ohki, Takashi Taniguchi, Kenji Watanabe, Philip Kim, Dirk Englund, Kin Chung Fong

    Josephson junctions are superconducting devices used as high-sensitivity magnetometers and voltage amplifiers as well as the basis of high-performance cryogenic computers and superconducting quantum computers. Although device performance can be degraded by the generation of quasiparticles formed from broken Cooper pairs, this phenomenon also opens opportunities to sensitively detect electromagnetic

  • Timing the SARS-CoV-2 index case in Hubei province
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2021-04-23
    Jonathan Pekar, Michael Worobey, Niema Moshiri, Konrad Scheffler, Joel O. Wertheim

    Understanding when severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) emerged is critical to evaluating our current approach to monitoring novel zoonotic pathogens and understanding the failure of early containment and mitigation efforts for COVID-19. We used a coalescent framework to combine retrospective molecular clock inference with forward epidemiological simulations to determine how

  • Global groundwater wells at risk of running dry
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2021-04-23
    Scott Jasechko, Debra Perrone

    Groundwater wells supply water to billions of people, but they can run dry when water tables decline. Here, we analyzed construction records for ~39 million globally distributed wells. We show that 6 to 20% of wells are no more than 5 meters deeper than the water table, implying that millions of wells are at risk of running dry if groundwater levels decline by only a few meters. Further, newer wells

  • Barcoded viral tracing of single-cell interactions in central nervous system inflammation
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2021-04-23
    Iain C. Clark, Cristina Gutiérrez-Vázquez, Michael A. Wheeler, Zhaorong Li, Veit Rothhammer, Mathias Linnerbauer, Liliana M. Sanmarco, Lydia Guo, Manon Blain, Stephanie E. J. Zandee, Chun-Cheih Chao, Katelyn V. Batterman, Marius Schwabenland, Peter Lotfy, Amalia Tejeda-Velarde, Patrick Hewson, Carolina Manganeli Polonio, Michael W. Shultis, Yasmin Salem, Emily C. Tjon, Pedro H. Fonseca-Castro, Davis

    Cell-cell interactions control the physiology and pathology of the central nervous system (CNS). To study astrocyte cell interactions in vivo, we developed rabies barcode interaction detection followed by sequencing (RABID-seq), which combines barcoded viral tracing and single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq). Using RABID-seq, we identified axon guidance molecules as candidate mediators of microglia-astrocyte

  • Cholinergic neurons constitutively engage the ISR for dopamine modulation and skill learning in mice
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2021-04-23
    Ashley R. Helseth, Ricardo Hernandez-Martinez, Victoria L. Hall, Matthew L. Oliver, Brandon D. Turner, Zachary F. Caffall, Joseph E. Rittiner, Miranda K. Shipman, Connor S. King, Viviana Gradinaru, Charles Gerfen, Mauro Costa-Mattioli, Nicole Calakos

    The integrated stress response (ISR) maintains proteostasis by modulating protein synthesis and is important in synaptic plasticity, learning, and memory. We developed a reporter, SPOTlight, for brainwide imaging of ISR state with cellular resolution. Unexpectedly, we found a class of neurons in mouse brain, striatal cholinergic interneurons (CINs), in which the ISR was activated at steady state. Genetic

  • Preventing Engrailed-1 activation in fibroblasts yields wound regeneration without scarring
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2021-04-23
    Shamik Mascharak, Heather E. desJardins-Park, Michael F. Davitt, Michelle Griffin, Mimi R. Borrelli, Alessandra L. Moore, Kellen Chen, Bryan Duoto, Malini Chinta, Deshka S. Foster, Abra H. Shen, Michael Januszyk, Sun Hyung Kwon, Gerlinde Wernig, Derrick C. Wan, H. Peter Lorenz, Geoffrey C. Gurtner, Michael T. Longaker

    Skin scarring, the end result of adult wound healing, is detrimental to tissue form and function. Engrailed-1 lineage–positive fibroblasts (EPFs) are known to function in scarring, but Engrailed-1 lineage–negative fibroblasts (ENFs) remain poorly characterized. Using cell transplantation and transgenic mouse models, we identified a dermal ENF subpopulation that gives rise to postnatally derived EPFs

  • Fluctuations shape plants through proprioception
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2021-04-23
    Bruno Moulia, Stéphane Douady, Olivier Hamant

    Plants constantly experience fluctuating internal and external mechanical cues, ranging from nanoscale deformation of wall components, cell growth variability, nutating stems, and fluttering leaves to stem flexion under tree weight and wind drag. Developing plants use such fluctuations to monitor and channel their own shape and growth through a form of proprioception. Fluctuations in mechanical cues

  • Radiation-related genomic profile of papillary thyroid cancer after the Chernobyl accident
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2021-04-22
    Lindsay M. Morton, Danielle M. Karyadi, Chip Stewart, Tetiana I. Bogdanova, Eric T. Dawson, Mia K. Steinberg, Jieqiong Dai, Stephen W. Hartley, Sara J. Schonfeld, Joshua N. Sampson, Yosi Maruvka, Vidushi Kapoor, Dale A. Ramsden, Juan Carvajal-Garcia, Charles M. Perou, Joel S. Parker, Marko Krznaric, Meredith Yeager, Joseph F. Boland, Amy Hutchinson, Belynda D. Hicks, Casey L. Dagnall, Julie M. Gastier-Foster

    The 1986 Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident increased papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) incidence in surrounding regions, particularly for 131I-exposed children. We analyzed genomic, transcriptomic, and epigenomic characteristics of 440 PTCs from Ukraine (359 with estimated childhood 131I exposure and 81 unexposed children born after 1986). PTCs displayed radiation dose-dependent enrichment of fusion

  • Lack of transgenerational effects of ionizing radiation exposure from the Chernobyl accident
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2021-04-22
    Meredith Yeager, Mitchell J. Machiela, Prachi Kothiyal, Michael Dean, Clara Bodelon, Shalabh Suman, Mingyi Wang, Lisa Mirabello, Chase W. Nelson, Weiyin Zhou, Cameron Palmer, Bari Ballew, Leandro M. Colli, Neal D. Freedman, Casey Dagnall, Amy Hutchinson, Vibha Vij, Yosi Maruvka, Maureen Hatch, Iryna Illienko, Yuri Belayev, Nori Nakamura, Vadim Chumak, Elena Bakhanova, David Belyi, Victor Kryuchkov

    Effects of radiation exposure from the Chernobyl nuclear accident remain a topic of interest. We investigated whether children born to parents employed as cleanup workers or exposed to occupational and environmental ionizing radiation post-accident were born with more germline de novo mutations (DNMs). Whole-genome sequencing of 130 children (born 1987-2002) and their parents did not reveal an increase

  • Nicotinamide mononucleotide increases muscle insulin sensitivity in prediabetic women
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2021-04-22
    Mihoko Yoshino, Jun Yoshino, Brandon D. Kayser, Gary Patti, Michael P. Franczyk, Kathryn F. Mills, Miriam Sindelar, Terri Pietka, Bruce W. Patterson, Shin-Ichiro Imai, Samuel Klein

    In rodents, obesity and aging impair nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) biosynthesis, which contributes to metabolic dysfunction. Nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) availability is a rate-limiting factor in mammalian NAD+ biosynthesis. We conducted a 10-week, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial to evaluate the effect of NMN supplementation on metabolic function in postmenopausal

  • Mitochondrial NADP(H) generation is essential for proline biosynthesis
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2021-04-22
    Jiajun Zhu, Simon Schwörer, Mirela Berisa, Yeon Ju Kyung, Keun Woo Ryu, Junmei Yi, Xuejun Jiang, Justin R. Cross, Craig B. Thompson

    The coenzyme nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP+) and its reduced form (NADPH) regulate reductive metabolism in a subcellularly compartmentalized manner. Mitochondrial NADP(H) production depends on the phosphorylation of NAD(H) by NAD kinase 2 (NADK2). Deletion of NADK2 in human cell lines did not alter mitochondrial folate pathway activity, tricarboxylic acid cycle activity, or mitochondrial

  • Realization of a multinode quantum network of remote solid-state qubits
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2021-04-16
    M. Pompili, S. L. N. Hermans, S. Baier, H. K. C. Beukers, P. C. Humphreys, R. N. Schouten, R. F. L. Vermeulen, M. J. Tiggelman, L. dos Santos Martins, B. Dirkse, S. Wehner, R. Hanson

    The distribution of entangled states across the nodes of a future quantum internet will unlock fundamentally new technologies. Here, we report on the realization of a three-node entanglement-based quantum network. We combine remote quantum nodes based on diamond communication qubits into a scalable phase-stabilized architecture, supplemented with a robust memory qubit and local quantum logic. In addition

  • Nematicity and competing orders in superconducting magic-angle graphene
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2021-04-16
    Yuan Cao, Daniel Rodan-Legrain, Jeong Min Park, Noah F. Q. Yuan, Kenji Watanabe, Takashi Taniguchi, Rafael M. Fernandes, Liang Fu, Pablo Jarillo-Herrero

    Strongly interacting electrons in solid-state systems often display multiple broken symmetries in the ground state. The interplay between different order parameters can give rise to a rich phase diagram. We report on the identification of intertwined phases with broken rotational symmetry in magic-angle twisted bilayer graphene (TBG). Using transverse resistance measurements, we find a strongly anisotropic

  • Realization of an ideal Weyl semimetal band in a quantum gas with 3D spin-orbit coupling
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2021-04-16
    Zong-Yao Wang, Xiang-Can Cheng, Bao-Zong Wang, Jin-Yi Zhang, Yue-Hui Lu, Chang-Rui Yi, Sen Niu, Youjin Deng, Xiong-Jun Liu, Shuai Chen, Jian-Wei Pan

    Weyl semimetals are three-dimensional (3D) gapless topological phases with Weyl cones in the bulk band. According to lattice theory, Weyl cones must come in pairs, with the minimum number of cones being two. A semimetal with only two Weyl cones is an ideal Weyl semimetal (IWSM). Here we report the experimental realization of an IWSM band by engineering 3D spin-orbit coupling for ultracold atoms. The

  • Gapped magnetic ground state in quantum spin liquid candidate κ-(BEDT-TTF)2Cu2(CN)3
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2021-04-16
    Björn Miksch, Andrej Pustogow, Mojtaba Javaheri Rahim, Andrey A. Bardin, Kazushi Kanoda, John A. Schlueter, Ralph Hübner, Marc Scheffler, Martin Dressel

    Geometrical frustration, quantum entanglement, and disorder may prevent long-range ordering of localized spins with strong exchange interactions, resulting in an exotic state of matter. κ-(BEDT-TTF)2Cu2(CN)3 is considered the prime candidate for this elusive quantum spin liquid state, but its ground-state properties remain puzzling. We present a multifrequency electron spin resonance (ESR) study down

  • Carbon loss from boreal forest wildfires offset by increased dominance of deciduous trees
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2021-04-16
    Michelle C. Mack, Xanthe J. Walker, Jill F. Johnstone, Heather D. Alexander, April M. Melvin, Mélanie Jean, Samantha N. Miller

    In boreal forests, climate warming is shifting the wildfire disturbance regime to more frequent fires that burn more deeply into organic soils, releasing sequestered carbon to the atmosphere. To understand the destabilization of carbon storage, it is necessary to consider these effects in the context of long-term ecological change. In Alaskan boreal forests, we found that shifts in dominant plant species

  • Absolute abundance and preservation rate of Tyrannosaurus rex
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2021-04-16
    Charles R. Marshall, Daniel V. Latorre, Connor J. Wilson, Tanner M. Frank, Katherine M. Magoulick, Joshua B. Zimmt, Ashley W. Poust

    Although much can be deduced from fossils alone, estimating abundance and preservation rates of extinct species requires data from living species. Here, we use the relationship between population density and body mass among living species combined with our substantial knowledge of Tyrannosaurus rex to calculate population variables and preservation rates for postjuvenile T. rex. We estimate that its

  • Metagenomic analysis reveals global-scale patterns of ocean nutrient limitation
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2021-04-16
    Lucas J. Ustick, Alyse A. Larkin, Catherine A. Garcia, Nathan S. Garcia, Melissa L. Brock, Jenna A. Lee, Nicola A. Wiseman, J. Keith Moore, Adam C. Martiny

    Nutrient supply regulates the activity of phytoplankton, but the global biogeography of nutrient limitation and co-limitation is poorly understood. Prochlorococcus adapt to local environments by gene gains and losses, and we used genomic changes as an indicator of adaptation to nutrient stress. We collected metagenomes from all major ocean regions as part of the Global Ocean Ship-based Hydrographic

  • Decoupling transcription factor expression and activity enables dimmer switch gene regulation
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2021-04-16
    C. Ricci-Tam, I. Ben-Zion, J. Wang, J. Palme, A. Li, Y. Savir, M. Springer

    Gene-regulatory networks achieve complex mappings of inputs to outputs through mechanisms that are poorly understood. We found that in the galactose-responsive pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the decision to activate the transcription of genes encoding pathway components is controlled independently from the expression level, resulting in behavior resembling that of a mechanical dimmer switch.

  • Ion-capture electrodialysis using multifunctional adsorptive membranes
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2021-04-16
    Adam A. Uliana, Ngoc T. Bui, Jovan Kamcev, Mercedes K. Taylor, Jeffrey J. Urban, Jeffrey R. Long

    Technologies that can efficiently purify nontraditional water sources are needed to meet rising global demand for clean water. Water treatment plants typically require a series of costly separation units to achieve desalination and the removal of toxic trace contaminants such as heavy metals and boron. We report a series of robust, selective, and tunable adsorptive membranes that feature porous aromatic

  • Punctuated ecological equilibrium in mammal communities over evolutionary time scales
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2021-04-16
    Fernando Blanco, Joaquín Calatayud, David M. Martín-Perea, M. Soledad Domingo, Iris Menéndez, Johannes Müller, Manuel Hernández Fernández, Juan L. Cantalapiedra

    The study of deep-time ecological dynamics has the ability to inform conservation decisions by anticipating the behavior of ecosystems millions of years into the future. Using network analysis and an exceptional fossil dataset spanning the past 21 million years, we show that mammalian ecological assemblages undergo long periods of functional stasis, notwithstanding high taxonomic volatility due to

  • SARS-CoV-2 within-host diversity and transmission
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2021-04-16
    Katrina A. Lythgoe, Matthew Hall, Luca Ferretti, Mariateresa de Cesare, George MacIntyre-Cockett, Amy Trebes, Monique Andersson, Newton Otecko, Emma L. Wise, Nathan Moore, Jessica Lynch, Stephen Kidd, Nicholas Cortes, Matilde Mori, Rebecca Williams, Gabrielle Vernet, Anita Justice, Angie Green, Samuel M. Nicholls, M. Azim Ansari, Lucie Abeler-Dörner, Catrin E. Moore, Timothy E. A. Peto, David W. Eyre

    Extensive global sampling and sequencing of the pandemic virus severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) have enabled researchers to monitor its spread and to identify concerning new variants. Two important determinants of variant spread are how frequently they arise within individuals and how likely they are to be transmitted. To characterize within-host diversity and transmission

  • An intercrypt subpopulation of goblet cells is essential for colonic mucus barrier function
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2021-04-16
    Elisabeth E. L. Nyström, Beatriz Martinez-Abad, Liisa Arike, George M. H. Birchenough, Eric B. Nonnecke, Patricia A. Castillo, Frida Svensson, Charles L. Bevins, Gunnar C. Hansson, Malin E. V. Johansson

    The intestinal mucus layer, an important element of epithelial protection, is produced by goblet cells. Intestinal goblet cells are assumed to be a homogeneous cell type. In this study, however, we delineated their specific gene and protein expression profiles and identified several distinct goblet cell populations that form two differentiation trajectories. One distinct subtype, the intercrypt goblet

  • Materials challenges and opportunities for quantum computing hardware
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2021-04-16
    Nathalie P. de Leon, Kohei M. Itoh, Dohun Kim, Karan K. Mehta, Tracy E. Northup, Hanhee Paik, B. S. Palmer, N. Samarth, Sorawis Sangtawesin, D. W. Steuerman

    Quantum computing hardware technologies have advanced during the past two decades, with the goal of building systems that can solve problems that are intractable on classical computers. The ability to realize large-scale systems depends on major advances in materials science, materials engineering, and new fabrication techniques. We identify key materials challenges that currently limit progress in

  • Female-specific synaptic dysfunction and cognitive impairment in a mouse model of PCDH19 disorder
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2021-04-16
    Naosuke Hoshina, Erin M. Johnson-Venkatesh, Miyuki Hoshina, Hisashi Umemori

    Protocadherin-19 (PCDH19) mutations cause early-onset seizures and cognitive impairment. The PCDH19 gene is on the X-chromosome. Unlike most X-linked disorders, PCDH19 mutations affect heterozygous females (PCDH19HET♀) but not hemizygous males (PCDH19HEMI♂); however, the reason why remains to be elucidated. We demonstrate that PCDH19, a cell-adhesion molecule, is enriched at hippocampal mossy fiber

  • Neuropixels 2.0: A miniaturized high-density probe for stable, long-term brain recordings
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2021-04-16
    Nicholas A. Steinmetz, Cagatay Aydin, Anna Lebedeva, Michael Okun, Marius Pachitariu, Marius Bauza, Maxime Beau, Jai Bhagat, Claudia Böhm, Martijn Broux, Susu Chen, Jennifer Colonell, Richard J. Gardner, Bill Karsh, Fabian Kloosterman, Dimitar Kostadinov, Carolina Mora-Lopez, John O’Callaghan, Junchol Park, Jan Putzeys, Britton Sauerbrei, Rik J. J. van Daal, Abraham Z. Vollan, Shiwei Wang, Marleen

    Measuring the dynamics of neural processing across time scales requires following the spiking of thousands of individual neurons over milliseconds and months. To address this need, we introduce the Neuropixels 2.0 probe together with newly designed analysis algorithms. The probe has more than 5000 sites and is miniaturized to facilitate chronic implants in small mammals and recording during unrestrained

  • Diversity and functional landscapes in the microbiota of animals in the wild
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2021-04-16
    Doron Levin, Neta Raab, Yishay Pinto, Daphna Rothschild, Gal Zanir, Anastasia Godneva, Nadav Mellul, David Futorian, Doran Gal, Sigal Leviatan, David Zeevi, Ido Bachelet, Eran Segal

    Animals in the wild are able to subsist on pathogen-infected and poisonous food and show immunity to various diseases. These may be due to their microbiota, yet we have a poor understanding of animal microbial diversity and function. We used metagenomics to analyze the gut microbiota of more than 180 species in the wild, covering diverse classes, feeding behaviors, geographies, and traits. Using de

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