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  • SOCO-Field: observation capability representation for GeoTask-oriented multi-sensor planning cognition
    Int. J. Geograph. Inform. Sci. (IF 3.545) Pub Date : 2019-08-22
    Chuli Hu; Jie Li; Changjiang Xiao; Ke Wang; Nengcheng Chen

    When facing a specific emergent geographical environment observation task (GeoTask), people need to be able to handle reliable and comprehensive disaster information in the shortest possible time. The lack of effective cognition of multi-sensor collaborated observation capability is a hindrance to performance. By adopting the GIS object field concept as the bottom framework, we propose a sensor observation capability object field (SOCO-Field) with sensor observation capability particle (SOC-Particle) as its core. SOCO-Field integrates SOC-Objects and GeoField for the discovery and association of sensors. SOC-Particle objectively exists on every location point in the geospatial environment, and SOC-Particles in space-continuous areas can further aggregate into SOC-Particle cluster to represent single- or multi-sensor-associated observation capability information. SOCO-Field includes three basic association behaviours and four further association behaviours to solve associated observation capability, in which the dynamic GeoField is the influential factor. An experiment on flood monitoring in the lower reaches of Jinsha River Basin is conducted. The sensor planner can view any sensor combination’s associated observation capability under a specific association mode and can effectively dispatch a multi-sensor for collaborated observation due to the effective modelling of associated sensor observation capability information (SOCInfo).

  • Comparative usability of an augmented reality sandtable and 3D GIS for education
    Int. J. Geograph. Inform. Sci. (IF 3.545) Pub Date : 2019-08-27
    Antoni Moore; Ben Daniel; Greg Leonard; Holger Regenbrecht; Judy Rodda; Lewis Baker; Raki Ryan; Steven Mills

    Augmented Reality (AR) sandtables facilitate the shaping of sand to form a surface that is transformed into a digital terrain map which is projected back onto the sand. Although a mature technology, there are still few instances of sandtables being used in surface analysis. Fundamentally there has not been any reported formal assessment of how well sandtables perform in an educational context compared to other conventional learning environments. We compared learning outcomes from using an AR sandtable versus a conventional 3D GIS to convey key concepts in terrain and hydrological analyses via usability and knowledge testing. Overall results from students at a research-intensive New Zealand university reveal a faster task performance and more learning satisfaction when using the sandtable to undertake experimental tasks. Effectiveness and knowledge quiz results revealed no significant difference between the technologies though there was a trend for more accurate answers with 3D GIS tasks. Student learning wise, the sandtable integrated core concepts (especially morphometry) more effectively though both technologies were otherwise similar. We conclude that sandtables have high potential in geospatial teaching, fostering accessible and engaging means of introducing terrain and hydrological concepts, prior to undertaking a more accurate and precise surface analysis with 3D GIS.

  • 3D BIM-enabled spatial query for retrieving property boundaries: a case study in Victoria, Australia
    Int. J. Geograph. Inform. Sci. (IF 3.545) Pub Date : 2019-09-03
    Maryam Barzegar; Abbas Rajabifard; Mohsen Kalantari; Behnam Atazadeh

    In the cadastral system of Victoria, the legal extent of properties is defined by a wide range of property boundaries referencing physical objects. These boundary types are typically represented in 2D plans. However, to address the challenges of 2D plans in complex buildings, there has been a growing trend towards the adoption of 3D models. These 3D models have been mainly used for visualization purposes, with no spatial query developed for identifying property boundaries in 3D models. Among 3D models, the Building Information Modelling (BIM) environment provides the potential capabilities for modelling property boundaries. In this paper, a spatial query approach predicated on topological relationships between a legal space and physical objects is developed to identify four types of property boundaries. A BIM model based on a case study in Victoria is used for implementation of the developed approach and the retrieved boundaries related to several properties with different levels of structural complexities are represented. In addition, various challenges during this process such as the impact of different design methods, and issues related to balconies and doors are discussed. The importance of this study is highlighted by a common scenario related to querying property boundaries.

  • Accelerating the shortest-path calculation using cut nodes for problem reduction and division
    Int. J. Geograph. Inform. Sci. (IF 3.545) Pub Date : 2019-09-05
    Wei Wei; Weidong Yang; Weibin Yao; Heyang Xu

    The shortest-path algorithm is one of the most important algorithms in geographical information systems. Bellman’s principle of optimization (BPO) is implicit in the shortest-path problem; that is, any involved node must be located in the simple paths between source and destination nodes. Unfortunately, BPO has never been explicitly used to exclude irrelevant nodes in existing methods, potentially leading to unnecessary searches among irrelevant nodes. To address this problem, we propose a BPO-based shortest-path acceleration algorithm (BSPA). In BSPA, a high-level graph is built to locate the necessary nodes and is used to partition the graph and divide a given task into independent subtasks. This allows the speed of any existing method to be improved using parallel computing. In a test using random graphs, on average, at most only 1.209% of the nodes need to be involved in the calculation. When compared with existing algorithms in real-world road networks, the BSPA shows faster preprocessing and query times, being respectively 118 and 463 times faster in the best case. In the worst case, they remain slightly faster.

  • The ‘Incense Road’ from Petra to Gaza: an analysis using GIS and Cost functions
    Int. J. Geograph. Inform. Sci. (IF 3.545) Pub Date : 2019-10-02
    Motti Zohar; Tali Erickson-Gini

    As early as the fourth century BCE, the Nabateans established the Incense Road to facilitate the transport of aromatic substances (frankincense and myrrh) from the Arabian Peninsula to the Mediterranean basin. An important part of this road was the segment between Petra and Gaza. Although studied before, the accurate route of parts of this segment is still vague since evidence of Roman milestones are scarce and significant portions of the landscape have changed dramatically in modern times, essentially wiping out the tracks of ancient roads. In this study, we use Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and Least Cost Path (LCP) analyses for reconstructing the original path of the Incense Road as well as verifying the factors influencing its establishment. The implemented analyses support the archeological evidence of two travel phases between Petra and Oboda (Avdat): During the first phase the Nabateans used the Darb es-Sultan route; during the second phase, from the first century BCE onwards, they passed through the Ramon Crater. This is the first time such reconstruction is made in the southern Levant. It was found that slope degree and the distance to water resources are dominant factors in reconstructing the accurate path of the Incense Road.

  • Real-time GIS for smart cities
    Int. J. Geograph. Inform. Sci. (IF 3.545) Pub Date : 2019-10-09
    Wenwen Li; Michael Batty; Michael F. Goodchild

    (2020). Real-time GIS for smart cities. International Journal of Geographical Information Science: Vol. 34, No. 2, pp. 311-324.

  • Estimating real-time high-street footfall from Wi-Fi probe requests
    Int. J. Geograph. Inform. Sci. (IF 3.545) Pub Date : 2019-03-17
    Balamurugan Soundararaj; James Cheshire; Paul Longley

    The accurate measurement of human activity with high spatial and temporal granularity is crucial for understanding the structure and function of the built environment. With increasing mobile ownership, the Wi-Fi ‘probe requests’ generated by mobile devices can act as a cheap, scalable and real-time source of data for establishing such measures. The two major challenges we face in using these probe requests for estimating human activity are: filtering the noise generated by the uncertain field of measurement and clustering anonymised probe requests generated by the same devices together without compromising the privacy of the users. In this paper, we demonstrate that we can overcome these challenges by using class intervals and a novel graph-based technique for filtering and clustering the probe requests which in turn, enables us to reliably measure real-time pedestrian footfall at retail high streets.

  • Real-time and archival data visualisation techniques in city dashboards
    Int. J. Geograph. Inform. Sci. (IF 3.545) Pub Date : 2019-06-21
    Samuel Stehle; Rob Kitchin

    City dashboards have become a common smart city technology, emerging as a key means of sharing and visualising urban data for the benefit of the public and city administrations. Operating as the front-end of many cities’ data stores, dashboards display and benchmark indicators relating to city operations, characteristics, and trends, displayed through interactive visual representations of spatial and temporal patterns. Many dashboards collect, archive, and present data collected in real-time, as well as more traditional time-sliced administrative data. In this paper, we evaluate the techniques that dashboards employ to present real-time data to dashboard users. Our analysis identifies two factors that shape and differentiate real-time visual analytic tools: the dynamic nature of the data, how they are refreshed, and how the realtimeness of the data is communicated to the user; and how the tool enables archival comparison. We assess dashboard design according to the strategies used to address specific challenges associated with each factor, specifically change blindness and temporal pattern detection. We conclude by proposing effective techniques for city dashboard design.

  • Assessing public transit performance using real-time data: spatiotemporal patterns of bus operation delays in Columbus, Ohio, USA
    Int. J. Geograph. Inform. Sci. (IF 3.545) Pub Date : 2019-04-30
    Yongha Park; Jerry Mount; Luyu Liu; Ningchuan Xiao; Harvey J. Miller

    Public transit vehicles such as buses operate within shared transportation networks subject to dynamic conditions and disruptions such as traffic congestion. The operational delays caused by these conditions can propagate downstream through scheduled transit routes, affecting system performance beyond the initial delay. This paper develops an approach to measuring and assessing vehicle delay propagation in public transit systems. We fuse data on scheduled bus service with real-time vehicle location data to measure the originating, cascading and recovery locations of delay events across space with respect to time. We integrate the resulting patterns to construct stop-specific delay propagation networks. We also analyze the spatiotemporal patterns of propagating delays using parameters such as 1) transit line-based network distance, 2) total propagating delay size, and 3) distance decay. We apply our methodology using publicly available schedule and real-time location data from the Central Ohio Transit Authority (COTA) public bus system in Columbus, Ohio, USA. We find that delay initiation is spatially and temporally uneven, concentrating on specific stops in downtown and specific suburban locations. Core stops play a critical role in propagating delays to a wide range of connected stops, eventually having a disproportional impact on the on-time performance of the bus system.

  • Real-time mapping of natural disasters using citizen update streams
    Int. J. Geograph. Inform. Sci. (IF 3.545) Pub Date : 2019-07-15
    Iranga Subasinghe; Silvia Nittel; Michael Cressey; Melissa Landon; Prashanta Bajracharya

    Natural disasters such as flooding, wildfires, and mudslides are rare events, but they affect citizens at unpredictable times and the impact on human life can be significant. Citizens located close to events can provide detailed, real-time data streams capturing their event response. Instead of visualizing individual updates, an integrated spatiotemporal map yields ‘big picture’ event information. We investigate the question of whether information from affected citizens is sufficient to generate a map of an unfolding natural disaster. We built the Citizen Disaster Reaction Multi-Agent Simulation (CDR-MAS), a multi-agent system that simulates the reaction of citizens to a natural disaster in an urban region. We proposed an rkNN classification algorithm to aggregate the update streams into a series of colored Voronoi event maps. We simulated the 2018 Montecito Creek mudslide and customized the CDR-MAS with the local environment to systematically generate stream data sets. Our experimental evaluation showed that event mapping based on citizen update streams is significantly influenced by the amount of citizen participation and movement. Compared with a baseline of 100% participation, with 40% citizen participation, the event region was predicted with 40% accuracy, showing that citizen update streams can provide timely information in a smart city.

  • Fourth paradigm GIScience? Prospects for automated discovery and explanation from data
    Int. J. Geograph. Inform. Sci. (IF 3.545) Pub Date : 2019-09-03
    Mark Gahegan

    ABSTRACT This article discusses the prospects for automated discovery of explanatory models directly from geospatial data. Rather than taking an approach based on machine learning, which generally leads to models that cannot be understood by humans or related to domain theory, the approach described here suggests we can instead construct models from fragments of domain understanding—such as commonly encountered equation forms, known constants and laws—resulting in discovered models that can both be understood by humans and directly compared with known theory. We then propose a conceptual model of the discovery process by which the various stages and components of discovery and explanation work together to learn models from data. The approach described weaves together ideas for describing models from Harvey’s book ‘Explanation in Geography’ with current thinking on how explanatory models might be ‘discovered’ from data from Inductive Process modeling. On the way, we also highlight: (i) why it is important to have models that explain as well as predict, (ii) how such an approach contrasts with – and goes beyond – current work in deep learning, (iii) how the task of model discovery might be tackled computationally and (iv) how computational model discovery can play a valuable role in creating geographical explanations.

  • Logsum-type space-time accessibility measures (STAMs) that can be calibrated under a definite time budget
    Int. J. Geograph. Inform. Sci. (IF 3.545) Pub Date : 2019-07-15
    Atsushi Masuyama

    The ease of access to sites for activities is referred to as ‘accessibility,’ and the degree of accessibility is inherently the outcome of land use patterns and transportation networks. Therefore, accessibility measures (AMs) are required to evaluate and plan for land use and transportation. Geographic information system tools greatly aid in the calculation of AMs. Since the inception of time geography, an individual’s time constraint has been acknowledged as one of the most important dimensions of accessibility. Thus, the development of theoretically reasonable and practical space-time accessibility measures (STAMs) is a relevant theme in GIScience. By employing a logit modeling framework, this study formulated logsum-type STAMs that have theoretical and practical advantages over existing STAMs. In terms of theoretical plausibility, the proposed STAMs have a behavioral theoretical foundation and satisfy the axioms of AM. In terms of practicality, the proposed STAMs can easily be calibrated with respect to a certain definite time budget. Based on a case study, we demonstrate how the proposed STAMs can be used in practice, with an emphasis on parameter estimation, and we present empirical results that illustrate the plausibility of these STAMs.

  • A polyhedra-based model for moving regions in databases
    Int. J. Geograph. Inform. Sci. (IF 3.545) Pub Date : 2019-05-17
    Florian Heinz; Ralf Hartmut Güting

    Moving objects databases store and process objects with a focus on their spatiotemporal behaviour. To achieve this, the model of the data must be suitable to efficiently store and process moving objects. Currently, a unit-based model is widely used, where each moving object is divided into one or more time intervals, during which the object behaves uniformly. This model is also used for a data type called moving regions, which resembles moving and shape changing regions as, for example, forest fires or cloud fields. However, this model struggles to support operations like union, difference or intersection of two moving regions; the resulting objects are unnecessarily bloated and uncomfortable to handle because the resulting number of units is generally very high. In this paper, an alternative model for moving regions is proposed, which is based on polyhedra. Furthermore, this work develops an isomorphism between moving regions and polyhedra including all relevant operations, which has the additional advantage that several implementations for those are already readily available; this is demonstrated by a reference implementation using the existing and well-tested Computational Geometry Algorithms Library (CGAL).

  • A new cellular automata framework of urban growth modeling by incorporating statistical and heuristic methods
    Int. J. Geograph. Inform. Sci. (IF 3.545) Pub Date : 2019-08-02
    Yongjiu Feng; Xiaohua Tong

    We develop a new geographical cellular automata (CA) modeling framework, named UrbanCA, through reconstructing the essential CA structure and incorporating nonspatial, spatial, and heuristic approaches. The new UrbanCA is featured by 1) the improvement of the CA modeling framework by reformulating relationships among CA components, 2) the development of two scaling parameters to adjust the effects of transition probability and neighborhood, 3) the incorporation of a variety of statistical and heuristic methods to construct transition rules, and 4) the inclusion of urban planning regulations and spatial heterogeneities to project future urban scenarios. To illustrate the effectiveness of UrbanCA, we calibrate a CA model using artificial bee colony (ABC) to simulate the past urban patterns and predict future scenarios in Shanghai of China. The results show that UrbanCA under different scaling parameters is comparable to CA-Markov (as a reference model) concerning the accuracy of the end-state and change simulations, and is better than CA-Markov regarding the driving factor’s ability to explain the modeling outcomes. UrbanCA provides more choices compared to existing CA software packages, and the models are readily calibrated elsewhere to simulate the dynamic urban growth and assess the resulting natural and socioeconomic impacts.

  • Road and travel time cross-validation for urban modelling
    Int. J. Geograph. Inform. Sci. (IF 3.545) Pub Date : 2019-08-29
    Henry Crosby; Theodoros Damoulas; Stephen A. Jarvis

    The physical and social processes in urban systems are inherently spatial and hence data describing them contain spatial autocorrelation (a proximity-based interdependency on a variable) that need to be accounted for. Standard k-fold cross-validation (KCV) techniques that attempt to measure the generalisation performance of machine learning and statistical algorithms are inappropriate in this setting due to their inherent i.i.d assumption, which is violated by spatial dependency. As such, more appropriate validation methods have been considered, notably blocking and spatial k-fold cross-validation (SKCV). However, the physical barriers and complex network structures which make up a city’s landscape mean that these methods are also inappropriate, largely because the travel patterns (and hence Spatial Autocorrelation (SAC)) in most urban spaces are rarely Euclidean in nature. To overcome this problem, we propose a new road distance and travel time k-fold cross-validation method, RT-KCV. We show how this outperforms the prior art in providing better estimates of the true generalisation performance to unseen data.

  • Road network generalization considering traffic flow patterns
    Int. J. Geograph. Inform. Sci. (IF 3.545) Pub Date : 2019-08-06
    Wenhao Yu; Yifan Zhang; Tinghua Ai; Qingfeng Guan; Zhanlong Chen; Haixia Li

    As one of the major concerns in cartographic generalization, road network generalization aims at maintaining the patterns of road networks across map scales. Previous methods define the pattern of road networks mainly from the perspectives of geometry and topology. However, for navigation purposes, traffic flow information is also important to generalize road networks. More specifically, road segments that have a proximity relationship in the traffic flow system should be retained together on small-scale maps to preserve the completeness of the driving route. In this regard, this study proposes an improved method for road network generalization that considers network geometry, topology, and traffic flow patterns. First, strokes are constructed from the road network data based on the ‘every best fit’ geometric principle. Then, the relationships among strokes are developed on the basis of traffic flow patterns, which are extracted from taxi trajectory data. The strokes are then selected in sequence based on the indicators of geometry, topology, and traffic flow. Our experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method can preserve both the ‘Good Continuity’ principle and the transport function relationship of roads after generalization.

  • Modelling perceived risks to personal privacy from location disclosure on online social networks
    Int. J. Geograph. Inform. Sci. (IF 3.545) Pub Date : 2019-08-22
    Fatma S. Alrayes; A. I. Abdelmoty; W. B. El-Geresy; G. Theodorakopoulos

    As users increasingly rely on online social networks for their communication activities, personal location data processing through such networks poses significant risks to users’ privacy. Location tracks can be mined with other shared information to extract rich personal profiles. To protect users’ privacy, online social networks face the challenge of ensuring transparent communication to users of how their data are processed, and explicitly obtaining users’ informed consent for the use of this data. In this paper, we explore the complex nature of the location disclosure problem and its risks to personal privacy. We evaluate, with an experiment involving 715 participants, the contributing factors to the perception of such risks with scenarios that mimic (a) realistic modes of interaction, where users are not fully aware of the extent of their location-related data being processed, and (b) with devised scenarios that deliberately inform users of the data they are sharing and its visibility to others. The results are used to represent the users’ perception of privacy risks when sharing their location information online and to derive a possible model of privacy risks associated with this sharing behaviour. Such a model can inform the design of privacy-aware online social networks to improve users’ trust and to ensure compliance with legal frameworks for personal privacy.

  • Generation of navigation networks for corridor spaces based on indoor visibility map
    Int. J. Geograph. Inform. Sci. (IF 3.545) Pub Date : 2019-09-18
    Yueyong Pang; Liangchen Zhou; Bingxian Lin; Guonian Lv; Chi Zhang

    An indoor navigation network, simplified from complex building structures, is of primary importance for indoor navigation. Methods for generating such networks are becoming increasingly important as buildings are becoming larger and more complex. However, studies based on the geometry and topology of indoor spaces do not sufficiently account for the key and decision nodes of human wayfinding. This is mainly because the visible perception of pedestrians regarding the corridor path structure is not taken into consideration. In this study, we first propose the indoor visibility map (IVM), calculate the visibility of corridor space, and analyze the relationship between different types of corridors and quantitative visibility parameters of IVM. Based on the visibility analysis, corresponding network construction strategies are suggested for different types of indoor corridors that contain nodes and edges. The experimental results show that the proposed network identifies key locations in the corridor structure that have a decisive role in navigation. Furthermore, the network is simplified to some extent.

  • An introduction to R for spatial analysis and mapping (Second Edition)
    Int. J. Geograph. Inform. Sci. (IF 3.545) Pub Date : 2019-08-02
    Patrick Ballantyne

    (2020). An introduction to R for spatial analysis and mapping (Second Edition) International Journal of Geographical Information Science: Vol. 34, No. 1, pp. 202-203.

  • Using Multiple Scale Spatio-Temporal Patterns for Validating Spatially Explicit Agent-Based Models.
    Int. J. Geograph. Inform. Sci. (IF 3.545) Pub Date : 2019-11-07
    Jeon-Young Kang,Jared Aldstadt

    Spatially explicit agent-based models (ABMs) have been widely utilized to simulate the dynamics of spatial processes that involve the interactions of individual agents. The assumptions embedded in the ABMs may be responsible for uncertainty in the model outcomes. To ensure the reliability of the outcomes in terms of their space-time patterns, model validation should be performed. In this paper, we propose the use of multiple scale spatio-temporal patterns for validating spatially explicit ABMs. We evaluated several specifications of vector-borne disease transmission models by comparing space-time patterns of model outcomes to observations at multiple scales via the sum of root mean square error (RMSE) measurement. The results indicate that specifications of the spatial configurations of residential area and immunity status of individual humans are of importance to reproduce observed patterns of dengue outbreaks at multiple space-time scales. Our approach to using multiple scale spatio-temporal patterns can help not only to understand the dynamic associations between model specifications and model outcomes, but also to validate spatially explicit ABMs.

  • Movement analysis of free-grazing domestic ducks in Poyang Lake, China: a disease connection.
    Int. J. Geograph. Inform. Sci. (IF 3.545) Pub Date : 2016-10-04
    Diann J Prosser,Eric C Palm,John Y Takekawa,Delong Zhao,Xiangming Xiao,Peng Li,Ying Liu,Scott H Newman

    Previous work suggests domestic poultry are important contributors to the emergence and transmission of highly pathogenic avian influenza throughout Asia. In Poyang Lake, China, domestic duck production cycles are synchronized with arrival and departure of thousands of migratory wild birds in the area. During these periods, high densities of juvenile domestic ducks are in close proximity to migratory wild ducks, increasing the potential for the virus to be transmitted and subsequently disseminated via migration. In this paper, we use GPS dataloggers and dynamic Brownian bridge models to describe movements and habitat use of free-grazing domestic ducks in the Poyang Lake basin and identify specific areas that may have the highest risk of H5N1 transmission between domestic and wild birds. Specifically, we determine relative use by free-grazing domestic ducks of natural wetlands, which are the most heavily used areas by migratory wild ducks, and of rice paddies, which provide habitat for resident wild ducks and lower densities of migratory wild ducks. To our knowledge, this is the first movement study on domestic ducks, and our data show potential for free-grazing domestic ducks from farms located near natural wetlands to come in contact with wild waterfowl, thereby increasing the risk for disease transmission. This study provides an example of the importance of movement ecology studies in understanding dynamics such as disease transmission on a complicated landscape.

  • How many days are enough?: capturing routine human mobility.
    Int. J. Geograph. Inform. Sci. (IF 3.545) Pub Date : 2018-01-01
    Kevin Stanley,Eun-Hye Yoo,Tuhin Paul,Scott Bell

    Wedding mobile phone sensor technology and human spatial behaviour has great potential. The ubiquity of Global Positioning Systems (GPS) technology has made gathering data about human mobility simpler, more precise, and with higher fidelity, providing minute-by-minute records of the locations of cohorts from dozens of participants. While this data provides a strong basis for Geographic Information Science research, it also constitutes an invasion of the participants' privacy and can provide more information than researchers require to answer their questions. As an ethical and practical consideration, researchers should gather only as much data as they need. In this paper, we take three weeks of GPS traces from over a hundred student participants in mobile phone-based tracking studies and show that fewer than 14 days of data is necessary to establish complete activity spaces. We define 'complete' as the point at which marginal information gains become negligible according to a pairwise temporal analysis of the Kullback-Leibler (KL) divergence of the spatial (bivariate) histogram through time. For the fixed level of information difference, observable in the data, impacts due to individual variability, population composition, and spatial resolution are evident. However, all populations at each level of resolution examined in the paper demonstrated convergence to low divergence levels occurred within a matter of days, and to negligible information gain in less than two weeks. The methods described in the paper represent a novel metric useful to understand the interaction between measurements and information in human mobility.

  • Ecological metrics and methods for GPS movement data.
    Int. J. Geograph. Inform. Sci. (IF 3.545) Pub Date : 2019-01-12
    Dana Paige Seidel,Eric Dougherty,Colin Carlson,Wayne M Getz

    The growing field of movement ecology uses high resolution movement data to analyze animal behavior across multiple scales: from individual foraging decisions to population-level space-use patterns. These analyses contribute to various subfields of ecology-inter alia behavioral, disease, landscape, resource, and wildlife-and facilitate facilitate novel exploration in fields ranging from conservation planning to public health. Despite the growing availability and general accessibility of animal movement data, much potential remains for the analytical methods of movement ecology to be incorporated in all types of geographic analyses. This review provides for the Geographical Information Sciences (GIS) community an overview of the most common movement metrics and methods of analysis employed by animal ecologists. Through illustrative applications, we emphasize the potential for movement analyses to promote transdisciplinary GIS/wildlife-ecology research.

  • Enhancing Areal Interpolation Frameworks through Dasymetric Refinement to Create Consistent Population Estimates across Censuses.
    Int. J. Geograph. Inform. Sci. (IF 3.545) Pub Date : 2018-01-01
    Hamidreza Zoraghein,Stefan Leyk

    To assess micro-scale population dynamics effectively, demographic variables should be available over temporally consistent small area units. However, fine-resolution census boundaries often change between survey years. This research advances areal interpolation methods with dasymetric refinement to create accurate consistent population estimates in 1990 and 2000 (source zones) within tract boundaries of the 2010 census (target zones) for five demographically distinct counties in the U.S. Three levels of dasymetric refinement of source and target zones are evaluated. First, residential parcels are used as a binary ancillary variable prior to regular areal interpolation methods. Second, Expectation Maximization (EM) and its data-extended version leverage housing types of residential parcels as a related ancillary variable. Finally, a third refinement strategy to mitigate the overestimation effect of large residential parcels in rural areas uses road buffers and developed land cover classes. Results suggest the effectiveness of all three levels of dasymetric refinement in reducing estimation errors. They provide a first insight into the potential accuracy improvement achievable in varying geographic and demographic settings but also through the combination of different refinement strategies in parts of a study area. Such improved consistent population estimates are the basis for advanced spatio-temporal demographic research.

  • The geography of elderly minority populations in the United States.
    Int. J. Geograph. Inform. Sci. (IF 3.545) Pub Date : 2002-09-28
    P A Rogerson

    "Because minority populations often have greater needs for health care and fewer resources to pay for it, it is important to assess the demand for services. This paper takes an initial step in that direction by focusing upon the geographic distribution of elderly minority populations in the United States. The study is carried out at several spatial scales, and it is concluded that elderly minority populations tend to be even more segregated than their non-elderly counterparts."

  • Loose-coupling a cellular automaton model and GIS: long-term urban growth prediction for San Francisco and Washington/Baltimore.
    Int. J. Geograph. Inform. Sci. (IF 3.545) Pub Date : 2002-09-26
    K C Clarke,L J Gaydos

    "Prior research developed a cellular automaton model, that was calibrated by using historical digital maps of urban areas and can be used to predict the future extent of an urban area. The model has now been applied to two rapidly growing, but remarkably different urban areas: the San Francisco Bay region in California and the Washington/Baltimore corridor in the Eastern United States. This paper presents the calibration and prediction results for both regions, reviews their data requirements, compares the differences in the initial configurations and control parameters for the model in the two settings, and discuses the role of GIS in the applications."

  • Optimizing census geography: the separation of collection and output geographies.
    Int. J. Geograph. Inform. Sci. (IF 3.545) Pub Date : 2002-09-26
    D Martin

    "This paper reviews the changing way in which census geography has been treated with the increasing automation of census data processing. A four-stage model of modern census geography development is presented. In the context of this model, current practice is reviewed, and new opportunities for automated census geography design presented, culminating in a current prototype for the separation of purpose-designed data collection and output geographies. The narrative is presented primarily from a British perspective, but focuses on internationally relevant issues such as the implementation of census geography design, and the influence of census output geography on data analysis."

  • GIS-based urban modelling: practices, problems, and prospects.
    Int. J. Geograph. Inform. Sci. (IF 3.545) Pub Date : 2002-09-26
    D Z Sui

    "This paper reviews the practices, problems, and prospects of GIS-based urban modelling. The author argues that current stand-alone and various loose/tight coupling approaches for GIS-based urban modelling are essentially technology-driven without adequate justification and verification for the urban models being implemented. The absolute view of space and time embodied in the current generation of GIS also imposes constraints on the type of new urban models that can be developed. By reframing the future research agenda from a geographical information science (GISci) perspective, the author contends that the integration of urban modelling with GIS must proceed with the development of new models for the informational cities, the incorporation of multi-dimensional concepts of space and time in GIS, and the further extension of the feature-based model to implement these new urban models and spatial-temporal concepts according to the emerging interoperable paradigm."

  • Can census offices publish statistics for more than one small area geography? An analysis of the differencing problem in statistical disclosure.
    Int. J. Geograph. Inform. Sci. (IF 3.545) Pub Date : 2002-09-26
    O Duke-williams,P Rees

    "The paper describes a problem faced by National Statistical Offices when publishing the results of decennial censuses for small geographical areas. If they publish statistical tables for two or more sets of areas, users can compare the tables and produce new statistics for the areas formed by differencing, which may have populations below confidentiality thresholds. To investigate the problem, the authors construct a software system and carry out a series of experiments using a large synthetic population base for Yorkshire and Humberside [in England]. The results indicate that publishing statistics for zones close in size to the primary areas is not safe unless the zones have been carefully designed. However, publishing statistics for sufficiently large areas such as 5km grid squares or postal sectors alongside enumeration districts is safe."

  • The GeoViz Toolkit: Using component-oriented coordination methods for geographic visualization and analysis.
    Int. J. Geograph. Inform. Sci. (IF 3.545) Pub Date : 2011-07-07
    Frank Hardisty,Anthony C Robinson

    In this paper we present the GeoViz Toolkit, an open-source, internet-delivered program for geographic visualization and analysis that features a diverse set of software components which can be flexibly combined by users who do not have programming expertise. The design and architecture of the GeoViz Toolkit allows us to address three key research challenges in geovisualization: allowing end users to create their own geovisualization and analysis component set on-the-fly, integrating geovisualization methods with spatial analysis methods, and making geovisualization applications sharable between users. Each of these tasks necessitates a robust yet flexible approach to inter-tool coordination. The coordination strategy we developed for the GeoViz Toolkit, called Introspective Observer Coordination, leverages and combines key advances in software engineering from the last decade: automatic introspection of objects, software design patterns, and reflective invocation of methods.

  • Global multi-layer network of human mobility.
    Int. J. Geograph. Inform. Sci. (IF 3.545) Pub Date : 2017-05-30
    Alexander Belyi,Iva Bojic,Stanislav Sobolevsky,Izabela Sitko,Bartosz Hawelka,Lada Rudikova,Alexander Kurbatski,Carlo Ratti

    Recent availability of geo-localized data capturing individual human activity together with the statistical data on international migration opened up unprecedented opportunities for a study on global mobility. In this paper, we consider it from the perspective of a multi-layer complex network, built using a combination of three datasets: Twitter, Flickr and official migration data. Those datasets provide different, but equally important insights on the global mobility - while the first two highlight short-term visits of people from one country to another, the last one - migration - shows the long-term mobility perspective, when people relocate for good. The main purpose of the paper is to emphasize importance of this multi-layer approach capturing both aspects of human mobility at the same time. On the one hand, we show that although the general properties of different layers of the global mobility network are similar, there are important quantitative differences among them. On the other hand, we demonstrate that consideration of mobility from a multi-layer perspective can reveal important global spatial patterns in a way more consistent with those observed in other available relevant sources of international connections, in comparison to the spatial structure inferred from each network layer taken separately.

  • A comparison of multiple indicator kriging and area-to-point Poisson kriging for mapping patterns of herbivore species abundance in Kruger National Park, South Africa.
    Int. J. Geograph. Inform. Sci. (IF 3.545) Pub Date : 2013-01-01
    Ruth Kerry,Pierre Goovaerts,Izak P J Smit,Ben R Ingram

    Kruger National Park (KNP), South Africa, provides protected habitats for the unique animals of the African savannah. For the past 40 years, annual aerial surveys of herbivores have been conducted to aid management decisions based on (1) the spatial distribution of species throughout the park and (2) total species populations in a year. The surveys are extremely time consuming and costly. For many years, the whole park was surveyed, but in 1998 a transect survey approach was adopted. This is cheaper and less time consuming but leaves gaps in the data spatially. Also the distance method currently employed by the park only gives estimates of total species populations but not their spatial distribution. We compare the ability of multiple indicator kriging and area-to-point Poisson kriging to accurately map species distribution in the park. A leave-one-out cross-validation approach indicates that multiple indicator kriging makes poor estimates of the number of animals, particularly the few large counts, as the indicator variograms for such high thresholds are pure nugget. Poisson kriging was applied to the prediction of two types of abundance data: spatial density and proportion of a given species. Both Poisson approaches had standardized mean absolute errors (St. MAEs) of animal counts at least an order of magnitude lower than multiple indicator kriging. The spatial density, Poisson approach (1), gave the lowest St. MAEs for the most abundant species and the proportion, Poisson approach (2), did for the least abundant species. Incorporating environmental data into Poisson approach (2) further reduced St. MAEs.

  • A new method for discovering behavior patterns among animal movements.
    Int. J. Geograph. Inform. Sci. (IF 3.545) Pub Date : 2016-05-25
    Yuwei Wang,Ze Luo,John Takekawa,Diann Prosser,Yan Xiong,Scott Newman,Xiangming Xiao,Nyambayar Batbayar,Kyle Spragens,Sivananinthaperumal Balachandran,Baoping Yan

    Advanced satellite tracking technologies enable biologists to track animal movements at fine spatial and temporal scales. The resultant data present opportunities and challenges for understanding animal behavioral mechanisms. In this paper, we develop a new method to elucidate animal movement patterns from tracking data. Here, we propose the notion of continuous behavior patterns as a concise representation of popular migration routes and underlying sequential behaviors during migration. Each stage in the pattern is characterized in terms of space (i.e., the places traversed during movements) and time (i.e. the time spent in those places); that is, the behavioral state corresponding to a stage is inferred according to the spatiotemporal and sequential context. Hence, the pattern may be interpreted predictably. We develop a candidate generation and refinement framework to derive all continuous behavior patterns from raw trajectories. In the framework, we first define the representative spots to denote the underlying potential behavioral states that are extracted from individual trajectories according to the similarity of relaxed continuous locations in certain distinct time intervals. We determine the common behaviors of multiple individuals according to the spatiotemporal proximity of representative spots and apply a projection-based extension approach to generate candidate sequential behavior sequences as candidate patterns. Finally, the candidate generation procedure is combined with a refinement procedure to derive continuous behavior patterns. We apply an ordered processing strategy to accelerate candidate refinement. The proposed patterns and discovery framework are evaluated through conceptual experiments on both real GPS-tracking and large synthetic datasets.

  • Why GPS makes distances bigger than they are.
    Int. J. Geograph. Inform. Sci. (IF 3.545) Pub Date : 2016-03-29
    Peter Ranacher,Richard Brunauer,Wolfgang Trutschnig,Stefan Van der Spek,Siegfried Reich

    Global navigation satellite systems such as the Global Positioning System (GPS) is one of the most important sensors for movement analysis. GPS is widely used to record the trajectories of vehicles, animals and human beings. However, all GPS movement data are affected by both measurement and interpolation errors. In this article we show that measurement error causes a systematic bias in distances recorded with a GPS; the distance between two points recorded with a GPS is - on average - bigger than the true distance between these points. This systematic 'overestimation of distance' becomes relevant if the influence of interpolation error can be neglected, which in practice is the case for movement sampled at high frequencies. We provide a mathematical explanation of this phenomenon and illustrate that it functionally depends on the autocorrelation of GPS measurement error (C). We argue that C can be interpreted as a quality measure for movement data recorded with a GPS. If there is a strong autocorrelation between any two consecutive position estimates, they have very similar error. This error cancels out when average speed, distance or direction is calculated along the trajectory. Based on our theoretical findings we introduce a novel approach to determine C in real-world GPS movement data sampled at high frequencies. We apply our approach to pedestrian trajectories and car trajectories. We found that the measurement error in the data was strongly spatially and temporally autocorrelated and give a quality estimate of the data. Most importantly, our findings are not limited to GPS alone. The systematic bias and its implications are bound to occur in any movement data collected with absolute positioning if interpolation error can be neglected.

  • An uncertainty and sensitivity analysis approach for GIS-based multicriteria landslide susceptibility mapping.
    Int. J. Geograph. Inform. Sci. (IF 3.545) Pub Date : 2014-03-04
    Bakhtiar Feizizadeh,Thomas Blaschke

    GIS-based multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA) methods are increasingly being used in landslide susceptibility mapping. However, the uncertainties that are associated with MCDA techniques may significantly impact the results. This may sometimes lead to inaccurate outcomes and undesirable consequences. This article introduces a new GIS-based MCDA approach. We illustrate the consequences of applying different MCDA methods within a decision-making process through uncertainty analysis. Three GIS-MCDA methods in conjunction with Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) and Dempster-Shafer theory are analyzed for landslide susceptibility mapping (LSM) in the Urmia lake basin in Iran, which is highly susceptible to landslide hazards. The methodology comprises three stages. First, the LSM criteria are ranked and a sensitivity analysis is implemented to simulate error propagation based on the MCS. The resulting weights are expressed through probability density functions. Accordingly, within the second stage, three MCDA methods, namely analytical hierarchy process (AHP), weighted linear combination (WLC) and ordered weighted average (OWA), are used to produce the landslide susceptibility maps. In the third stage, accuracy assessments are carried out and the uncertainties of the different results are measured. We compare the accuracies of the three MCDA methods based on (1) the Dempster-Shafer theory and (2) a validation of the results using an inventory of known landslides and their respective coverage based on object-based image analysis of IRS-ID satellite images. The results of this study reveal that through the integration of GIS and MCDA models, it is possible to identify strategies for choosing an appropriate method for LSM. Furthermore, our findings indicate that the integration of MCDA and MCS can significantly improve the accuracy of the results. In LSM, the AHP method performed best, while the OWA reveals better performance in the reliability assessment. The WLC operation yielded poor results.

  • Measuring the temporal instability of land change using the Flow matrix.
    Int. J. Geograph. Inform. Sci. (IF 3.545) Pub Date : 2013-01-01
    Daniel Miller Runfola,Robert Gilmore Pontius

  • Identifying Regions Based on Flexible User Defined Constraints.
    Int. J. Geograph. Inform. Sci. (IF 3.545) Pub Date : 2014-07-16
    David C Folch,Seth E Spielman

    The identification of regions is both a computational and conceptual challenge. Even with growing computational power, regionalization algorithms must rely on heuristic approaches in order to find solutions. Therefore, the constraints and evaluation criteria that define a region must be translated into an algorithm that can efficiently and effectively navigate the solution space to find the best solution. One limitation of many existing regionalization algorithms is a requirement that the number of regions be selected a priori. The max-p algorithm, introduced in Duque et al. (2012), does not have this requirement, and thus the number of regions is an output of, not an input to, the algorithm. In this paper we extend the max-p algorithm to allow for greater flexibility in the constraints available to define a feasible region, placing the focus squarely on the multidimensional characteristics of region. We also modify technical aspects of the algorithm to provide greater flexibility in its ability to search the solution space. Using synthetic spatial and attribute data we are able to show the algorithm's broad ability to identify regions in maps of varying complexity. We also conduct a large scale computational experiment to identify parameter settings that result in the greatest solution accuracy under various scenarios. The rules of thumb identified from the experiment produce maps that correctly assign areas to their "true" region with 94% average accuracy, with nearly 50 percent of the simulations reaching 100 percent accuracy.

  • Qualitative GIS and the Visualization of Narrative Activity Space Data.
    Int. J. Geograph. Inform. Sci. (IF 3.545) Pub Date : 2013-01-01
    Jeremy Mennis,Michael J Mason,Yinghui Cao

    Qualitative activity space data, i.e. qualitative data associated with the routine locations and activities of individuals, are recognized as increasingly useful by researchers in the social and health sciences for investigating the influence of environment on human behavior. However, there has been little research on techniques for exploring qualitative activity space data. This research illustrates the theoretical principles of combining qualitative and quantitative data and methodologies within the context of GIS, using visualization as the means of inquiry. Through the use of a prototype implementation of a visualization system for qualitative activity space data, and its application in a case study of urban youth, we show how these theoretical methodological principles are realized in applied research. The visualization system uses a variety of visual variables to simultaneously depict multiple qualitative and quantitative attributes of individuals' activity spaces. The visualization is applied to explore the activity spaces of a sample of urban youth participating in a study on the geographic and social contexts of adolescent substance use. Examples demonstrate how the visualization may be used to explore individual activity spaces to generate hypotheses, investigate statistical outliers, and explore activity space patterns among subject subgroups.

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上海纽约大学William Glover