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  • Correction to: From legacy pollutants to emerging contaminants: recent inputs from the 2018 conference of EcoBIM network
    Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. (IF 2.914) Pub Date : 2020-01-27
    Michel Auffret, Jérôme Cachot, Richard Saint-Louis

    The original publication of this paper contains a mistake.

    更新日期:2020-01-27
  • Source apportionment of metallic elements in urban atmospheric particulate matter and assessment of its water-soluble fraction toxicity
    Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. (IF 2.914) Pub Date : 2020-01-27
    Darlan Daniel Alves, Roberta Plangg Riegel, Cláudia Regina Klauck, Alessa Maria Ceratti, Jéssica Hansen, Laura Meneguzzi Cansi, Simone Andrea Pozza, Daniela Müller de Quevedo, Daniela Montanari Migliavacca Osório

    Abstract Clean air is essential for the maintenance of human life and environmental balance. The atmospheric particulate matter (PM) is one of the main air pollutants and is characterized by the heterogeneity of its composition, being able to accumulate numerous components, such as metallic elements, which contribute to increasing its toxicity. The objectives of this study were to assess of the air quality in two urban environments, to carry out the source apportionment of the metallic elements Al, Ba, Cd, Pb, Cu, Cr, Fe, Mn, Ni, and Zn in the PM2.5 and PM2.5–10, and evaluate the toxicity of PM2.5 and PM2.5–10 water-soluble fractions using Lactuca sativa as bioindicator. The collection of PM2.5 and PM2.5–10 was performed using a dichotomous stacked filter unit (SFU) sampler. The source apportionment was carried out using the EPA PMF 5.0 receptor model and the toxicity tests followed the EPA Ecological Effects Test Guidelines OPPTS 850.4200: Seed Germination/Root Elongation Toxicity Test. The source apportionment demonstrated that vehicular and industrial emissions are the main anthropogenic sources contributing to the concentration of metallic elements to thePM2.5 and PM2.5–10. The studied sites did not show statistically significant differences in terms of phytotoxicity to the Lactuca sativa seeds. Cd and Cu were identified as the main metallic elements which able to cause negative effects on seed germination and root elongation, respectively. The presence of cadmium and copper in the atmospheric particulate matter is one of the main causes of the phytotoxicity affecting the Lactuca sativa seed germination and root elongation.

    更新日期:2020-01-27
  • Phytoremediation of heavy metals by four aquatic macrophytes and their potential use as contamination indicators: a comparative assessment
    Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. (IF 2.914) Pub Date : 2020-01-27
    Ebrahem M. Eid, Tarek M. Galal, Nasser A. Sewelam, Nasser I. Talha, Samy M. Abdallah

    Abstract The present study estimated the ability of four aquatic macrophytes (Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms, Ludwigia stolonifera (Guill. & Perr.) P.H. Raven, Echinochloa stagnina (Retz.) P. Beauv. and Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steud.) to accumulate Cd, Ni and Pb and their use for indicating and phytoremediating these metals in contaminated wetlands. Three sites at five locations in the Kitchener Drain in Gharbia and Kafr El-Sheikh Governorates (Egypt) were selected for plant, water and sediment sampling. The water in the Kitchener Drain was polluted with Cd, while Pb and Ni were far below the maximum level of Pb and Ni in the irrigation water. In comparison to the other species, P. australis accumulated the highest concentrations of Cd and Ni, while E. crassipes accumulated the highest concentration of Pb in its tissues. The four species had bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) greater than one, while their translocation factors (TFs) were less than 1 for most heavy metals, except Cd in the leaf and stem of E. stagnina and L. stolonifera, respectively, and Ni in the stem and leaf of E. stagnina. The BAF and TF results indicated that the studied species are suitable for phytostabilizing the studied heavy metals, except Ni in E. stagnina and Cd in L. stolonifera, which are suitable for phytoextracting these metals. Significant positive correlations were found between the investigated heavy metals in the water or sediment and the plant tissues. Their high BAFs, with significant proportional correlations, supported the potential of these species to serve as bioindicators and biomonitors of heavy metals in general and in the investigated metals specifically.

    更新日期:2020-01-27
  • Characteristics of water-soluble organic acids in PM 2.5 during haze and Chinese Spring Festival in winter of Jinan, China: concentrations, formations, and source apportionments
    Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. (IF 2.914) Pub Date : 2020-01-27
    Shuting Tang, Xuehua Zhou, Jingzhu Zhang, Likun Xue, Yuanyuan Luo, Jie Song, Wenxing Wang

    Abstract PM2.5 aerosols from Jinan (36°256′N, 117°106′E) in the North China Plain region were investigated for water-soluble organic acids (WSOAs, i.e., oxalic acid, formic acid, acetic acid, methanesulfonic acid (MSA), and lactic acid) during 30 December 2016 to 21 February 2017. The average PM2.5 concentration was 168.77 μg/m3 with about 90.74% samples beyond the National Ambient Air Quality (NAAQ) standards (Grade II). The total concentration of the measured WSOAs averaged at 1.34 μg/m3, contributing to 0.80% of PM2.5 mass. In the observation, acetic acid was the most abundant WSOA, followed by oxalic acid, lactic acid, formic acid, and MSA. During the period, serious haze events frequently happened. The average concentrations of PM2.5 and every WSOA species were higher in haze than those in non-haze. The correlations among species suggested that WSOAs in haze had complicated sources and secondary pathways, especially aqueous-phase reactions which played an important role on WSOAs. The concentrations of WSOAs declined in the Spring Festival compared with those in the non-Spring Festival due to holiday effect. Fireworks burning during the Spring Festival had different influences on WSOAs with slight increases for acetic acid and lactic acid. Five source factors were identified by positive matrix factorization (PMF) model for five WSOAs, respectively, and the results revealed that secondary reactions were the main sources of WSOAs in haze.

    更新日期:2020-01-27
  • Assessing dietary exposure risk to neonicotinoid residues among preschool children in regions of Taiwan
    Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. (IF 2.914) Pub Date : 2020-01-27
    Min-Pei Ling, Huai-An Hsiao, Szu-Chieh Chen, Wei-Yu Chen, Wei-Chun Chou, Yi-Jun Lin, Shu-Han You, Ying-Fei Yang, Hsing-Chieh Lin, Chi-Yun Chen, Tien-Hsuan Lu, Chung-Min Liao

    Abstract Neonicotinoids (NEOs) are a class of pesticides widely used worldwide. This study analyzed post-cooking residues of NEO pesticides and assessed their potential health risks for preschool children (0–6 years old) by conducting a total diet study (TDS). It involved food sampling, preparation, analysis of pesticide residues, estimation of food consumption data, and assessment of food safety risks. Food sampling was conducted between March and June 2015. A total of 128 food samples were obtained from 4 parts of Taiwan. After the food had been prepared, the 128 samples were aggregated into 32 composite food items and the NEO residues analyzed. Acetamiprid had the highest detection rate of the NEO residues (59.4%), and the concentrations ranged from not detected to 80.5 μg/kg. The estimated daily intake (EDI) of NEO residues among preschool children was found to be lower than the adjusted acceptable daily intake (ADI) even for highly exposed groups. The results showed that NEO pesticides were primarily detected in preserved fruits, cherry tomato, rape, bell fruit, and baby bok choy. The main health risk posed by detected NEO residues at high consumption rates for preschool children was attributed to acetamiprid (34.20 %ADI) and imidacloprid (23.69 %ADI), respectively. Therefore, this research implicates that the present level of NEO residues in the diets for preschool children in Taiwan does not exceed 100 %ADI.

    更新日期:2020-01-27
  • Toxicity of multi-wall carbon nanotubes inhalation on the brain of rats
    Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. (IF 2.914) Pub Date : 2020-01-27
    Fatemeh Samiei, Farshad Hosseini Shirazi, Parvaneh Naserzadeh, Faezeh Dousti, Enayatollah Seydi, Jalal Pourahmad

    Abstract This study was designed to investigate the brain toxicity following the respiratory contact with multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) in male Wistar rats. Rats were exposed to 5 mg/m3 MWCNT aerosol in different sizes and purities for 5 h/day, 5 days/week for 2 weeks in a whole-body exposure chamber. After 2-week exposure, mitochondrial isolation was performed from different parts of rat brain (hippocampus, frontal cortex, and cerebellum) and parameters of mitochondrial toxicity including mitochondrial succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) activity, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) collapse, mitochondrial swelling, and cytochrome c release, ATP level, mitochondrial GSH, and lipid peroxidation were evaluated. Our results demonstrated that MWCNTs with different characteristics, in size and purity, significantly (P < 0.05) decreased SDH activity, GSH, and ATP level, and increased mitochondrial ROS production, lipid peroxidation, mitochondrial swelling, MMP collapse, and cytochrome c release in the brain mitochondria. In conclusion, we suggested that MWCNTs with different characteristics, in size and purity, induce damage in varying degrees on the mitochondrial respiratory chain and increase mitochondrial ROS formation in different parts of rat brain (hippocampus, frontal cortex, and cerebellum).

    更新日期:2020-01-27
  • Greenhouse gas emissions from advanced oxidation processes in the degradation of bisphenol A: a comparative study of the H 2 O 2 /UV, TiO 2 /UV, and ozonation processes
    Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. (IF 2.914) Pub Date : 2020-01-27
    Young-Min Kang, Tae-Kyoung Kim, Moon-Kyung Kim, Kyung-Duk Zoh

    Abstract To estimate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and degradation rate constants (kobs) from H2O2/UV-C, TiO2/UV-C, and ozonation processes in the degradation of bisphenol A (BPA), the laboratory scale experiments were conducted. In the H2O2/UV-C process, the fastest degradation rate constant (kobs = 0.353 min−1) was observed at 4 mM of H2O2, while the minimum GHG emission was achieved at 3 mM of H2O2. In the TiO2/UV-C process, the fastest rate constant (kobs = 0.126 min−1) was achieved at 2000 mg/L of TiO2, while the minimum GHG emission was observed at 400 mg/L of TiO2. In the ozonation process, GHG emissions were minimal at 5 mg/L of O3, but the degradation rate constant kept on increasing as the O3 concentration increased. There were three major types of GHG emissions in the advanced oxidation processes (AOPs). In the ozonation process, most of the GHG emissions were generated by electricity consumption. TiO2/UV-C process accounted for a significant portion of the GHGs generated by the use of chemicals. Finally, the H2O2/UV-C process produced similar GHG emissions from both chemical inputs and electricity consumption. The carbon footprint calculation revealed that for the treatment of 1 m3 of water contaminated with 0.04 mM BPA, the H2O2/UV-C process had the smallest carbon footprint (0.565 kg CO2 eq/m3), followed by the TiO2/UV-C process (3.445 kg CO2 eq/m3) and the ozonation process (3.897 kg CO2 eq/m3). Our results imply that the increase in removal rate constant might not be the optimal parameter for reducing GHG emissions during the application of these processes. Graphical abstract .

    更新日期:2020-01-27
  • Application of magnetic coagulant based on fractionated protein of Moringa oleifera Lam. seeds for aqueous solutions treatment containing synthetic dyes
    Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. (IF 2.914) Pub Date : 2020-01-27
    Isabela Maria Reck, Aline Takaoka Alves Baptista, Rebecca Manesco Paixão, Rosangela Bergamasco, Marcelo Fernandes Vieira, Angélica Marquetotti Salcedo Vieira

    Abstract The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficiency of a new magnetic coagulant, obtained from Moringa oleifera seeds protein functionalized with iron oxide nanoparticles to remove four anionic synthetic dyes with coagulation/flocculation assays followed by magnetic sedimentation. The results showed that the presence of a magnetic field during sedimentation considerably accelerates the separation and increases the dye removal efficiency. Amaranth dye removal increased from 45 to 86% and Sunset Yellow from 15 to 69% with the presence of magnetic field, while Reactive Black 5 and Brilliant Blue reached 94% and 52% removal, respectively. For AM and SY dyes, the best protein concentration is 150 mg L−1, for RB5 dye is 115 mg L−1, and for BB dye is 75 mg L−1. The sedimentation time decreased from 30 to 5 min with magnetic sedimentation. The residual value of AM dye decreased from 10.76 mg L−1 to approximately 2.71 mg L−1, and with SY the residual concentration decreased from approximately 16.79 mg L−1 to 6.36 mg L−1. The removal of BB and RB5 dyes reached an approximate final value of 48.2 mg L−1 (52%) and 1.18 mg L−1 (94%).

    更新日期:2020-01-27
  • Effects of botanical pesticide itol A against the tobacco cutworm, Spodoptera litura (Fab.)
    Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. (IF 2.914) Pub Date : 2020-01-27
    Si-Quan Ling, Bo He, Dong-Qiang Zeng, Wen-Wei Tang

    Abstract Itol A, an isoryanodane diterpene derived from Itoa orientalis Hemsl. (Flacourtiaceae), is a potential plant-based insecticide. However, the effect of itol A on the tobacco cutworm [Spodoptera litura (Fab.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)], an important and widely distributed insect pest, remains unclear. In this study, the toxicity and inhibitory potency of itol A on S. litura were evaluated. The results indicated that itol A exhibited larvicidal activity against the third instar larvae in a concentration-dependent manner (LC50 875.48 mg/L at 96 h). Antifeedant activity also was observed, and the 24-h AFC50 values were 562.05 and 81.47 mg/L in the no-choice and choice experiments, respectively. The insect growth was inhibited after treatment of itol A, as reflected by long developmental periods, low-quality pupae, and various abnormalities. Itol A exerted ovicidal effect on S. litura, with an estimated LC50 of 759.30 mg/L. Itol A deterred oviposition in the choice experiment (ODI50 909.60 mg/L). Besides, the activities of α-amylase, general protease, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and peroxidase (POD) were inhibited after itol A treatment over time compared to controls, which may be a relevant mechanism underlying the toxicity of itol A toward S. litura. However, the activities of lipase, carboxylesterase (CarE), glutathione S-transferase (GST), and cytochrome P450 monooxygenase (P450) were increased. Taken together, these results suggest that itol A could be a good botanical pesticide to reduce the population of S. litura in integrated pest management programs.

    更新日期:2020-01-27
  • Simultaneous extraction of antibiotic and estrogen from animal blood serum using aqueous two-phase systems as predictor of environmental impact
    Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. (IF 2.914) Pub Date : 2020-01-25
    Carlos Díaz-Quiroz, Juan Francisco Hernández-Chávez, Gabriela Ulloa-Mercado, Francisco Deive, Pablo Gortáres-Moroyoqui, Ramón Miguel Molina-Barrios

    Abstract Efficient analytical methods are required for optimizing dosage of veterinary antibiotics and hormones in order to reduce toxicity and antimicrobial resistance in the environment. Thus, the objective of this work was to develop a rapid and low-cost method for determination of hormone estradiol and antibiotic chlortetracycline in bovine and porcine blood serum by aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) extraction and capillary electrophoresis quantification. ATPS based on ionic liquid cholinium alaninate and citrate salt along with mixtures of protic and aprotic polar solvents were evaluated in terms of recovery of extraction (%R). The liquid-liquid equilibrium, phase diagrams, and tie lines are discussed. Antibiotic migrated to solvent-rich phase (R ≈ 89.0%) to all systems. Estradiol migrates to ionic liquid-rich phase; however, addition of 10% methanol changed partition to solvent-rich phase (R ≈ 89.7%). The method has high recovery and cleanliness, is cost-efficient, scalable, and hence is adequate for screening of antibiotics and hormones tested in animal blood serum for dosage optimization and to predict their environment.

    更新日期:2020-01-27
  • Research trends on monsoon research from 1900 to 2018 according to scientometrics analysis
    Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. (IF 2.914) Pub Date : 2020-01-25
    Yi Zhang, Yiping Chen

    Abstract To understand the history and research status of monsoon scholarly publication, a scientometrics study based on the Science Citation Index-Expanded has been made from 1900 to 2018. HistCite was used to analyze the annual outputs, countries, institutions, categories, journals, citations, and high-impact authors in the field. Results revealed that the annual number of outputs showed an increasing trend over the past decades, with an especially rapid increase after 1990. The country with the greatest academic impact was the USA, while the institution with the highest research outputs and citations was the Chinese Academy of Sciences. Meteorology Atmospheric Sciences and Geology were the most dominant categories. Journal of Climate was the most active journal, of which both in outputs and citations. Through citation visualization analysis, monsoon research mainly focuses on two aspects: modern monsoon and paleomonsoon.

    更新日期:2020-01-26
  • Mechanism and kinetics of diuron oxidation by hydroxyl radical addition reaction
    Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. (IF 2.914) Pub Date : 2020-01-25
    Gunasekaran Manonmani, Lakshmanan Sandhiya, Kittusamy Senthilkumar

    Abstract Diuron is a phenyl urea herbicide used to control weeds in agricultural lands. The degradation of diuron in the atmosphere takes place dominantly via reaction with OH radicals. In this work, the OH addition reaction of diuron has been studied by using density functional theory methods M06-2X, ωB97X-D and MPWB1K with 6-31G(d,p) basis set. The calculated thermochemical parameters show that OH addition reaction occurs favourably at C2 position of diuron. The rate constant is calculated for the favourable initial reaction pathway by using canonical variational transition state theory with small curvature tunnelling (SCT) correction over the temperature range of 200–1000 K. The reaction of initially formed diuron-OH adduct intermediate with O2 leads to the formation of peroxy radical intermediate. The reaction of peroxy radical intermediate with HO2 and NOx (x = 1, 2) radicals is studied in detail. The results obtained from time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) calculations show that the intermediates and products formed from oxidation of diuron can be easily photolyzed in the sunlight. This study provides thermodynamical and kinetic data for the atmospheric oxidation of diuron by OH radical addition reaction and demonstrates the atmospheric chemistry of diuron and its derivatives.

    更新日期:2020-01-26
  • Evaluation of tansy essential oil as a potential “green” alternative for gypsy moth control
    Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. (IF 2.914) Pub Date : 2020-01-25
    Nina Devrnja, Igor Kostić, Jelica Lazarević, Jelena Savić, Dušica Ćalić

    Abstract The development of “green” alternatives to chemical pesticides could play a crucial role in integrated pest management (IPM). Their use is considered either as a substitution for or in addition to hazardous synthetic products. We analysed the influence of three concentrations of tansy (Tanacetum vulgare L.) essential oil (EO), previously characterised by GC-MS, on the survival and moulting of the 2nd instar and the nutritional indices of the 4th instar gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) larvae. In a residual contact toxicity assessment, the exposure to tansy EO caused low mortality (< 10%) while larval development was significantly slowed down, i.e., the percentage of larvae that moulted into the 3rd instar was reduced. On the other hand, when tansy EO was incorporated into the diet (digestive toxicity assay), high mortality and a lack of moulting after 120 h of eating were recorded for the highest applied concentration of EO. During 48 h of feeding on EO-supplemented food at concentrations of 0.5 and 1% (v/v), the relative growth rate (RGR) of the 4th instar larvae significantly decreased, which can be explained by a significant reduction of the relative consumption rate (RCR) and significantly or marginally significantly lower efficiency of conversion of ingested food into insect biomass (ECI). Although the RCR was also reduced with the lowest applied EO concentration (0.1%), the ECI was not affected which meant the RGR was as high as it was for the control larvae. ECI changes, when two higher EO concentrations were applied, were due to a reduction in the efficiency of conversion of digested food into biomass (ECD), while approximate digestibility was unaffected by the presence of EO in the food. Our results on the significant negative effects of tansy EO on gypsy moth larval survival, development time, and nutritional physiology suggest that it could be considered in future designs for botanical insecticides for gypsy moth control.

    更新日期:2020-01-26
  • Visible light-activated 1-D core-shell paramagnetic Fe-Ag@AgCl as an innovative method for photocatalytic inactivation of E. coli
    Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. (IF 2.914) Pub Date : 2020-01-25
    Yanping Cui, Nimesha Thathsarani, Liang Peng, Ya Gao, Lidan Lei, Zhengwei Zhou, Lili Liang, Xiaoyan Shi

    Abstract Innovative paramagnetic one-dimensional (1-D) core-shell Fe-Ag@AgCl visible light-driven photocatalysts are synthesized through a template-assisted electrodeposition method trailed by FeCl3 in-situ oxidation. The metallic nature of Fe-Ag@AgCl is confirmed through scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and crystal nature through X-ray diffraction (XRD). The controllable diameter of Fe-Ag is obtained through the selection of hollow size of the polycarbonate (PC) template. Electron impedance spectroscopy (EIS) confirms through the introduction of Fe to the Ag core that has prolonged the recombination of electron and hole. Escherichia coli (E. coli) are employed as the target bacteria to evaluate the photocatalytic disinfection performances. A total of 1.30 mg of Fe-Ag@AgCl is proved to be able to completely inactivate 107 CFU (colony forming units)/mL after 120 min of visible light irradiation. The transition electron microscopy (TEM) confirms the stability of the material after the photo reaction. As Fe-Ag@AgCl possesses magnetic properties, the material is recovered through the application of an external magnetic field. SEM images and results of 3D emission extraction matrix (EEM) depict that the bacteria cell death is caused by membrane permeability changes caused by the reduction of membrane associated proteins.

    更新日期:2020-01-26
  • Molecular diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal communities across the gradient of alkaline Fe ore tailings, revegetated waste rock to natural soil sites
    Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. (IF 2.914) Pub Date : 2020-01-25
    Songlin Wu, Fang You, Zhaoxiang Wu, Philip Bond, Merinda Hall, Longbin Huang

    Abstract Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi are important to the establishment of native vegetation for mined land rehabilitation, particularly in semi-arid and infertile landscapes. However, the information has been scarce about the colonization of AM fungal community in alkaline magnetite Fe ore tailing sites (without toxic metal (loid) contamination). The present study has characterized the diversity of AM fungi across typical domains of a magnetite Fe ore mine located in 200 km south-east of Geraldton, Western Australia, by adopting high throughput Illumina Miseq sequencing. The investigated domains included two tailing sites without top soil covering (T1 and T2), a rehabilitated area of tailings with top soil covering (R1), a revegetated waste rock area (R2), and two native undisturbed soil sites (S1 and S2). The results indicated that the T1/T2 sites had different AM fungal community structure, compared with R1/R2 and S1/S2 sites. The dominant families were Glomeraceae, Claroideoglomeraceae, Archaeosporaceae, Ambisporaceae, and Paraglomeraceae, with Paraglomeraceae (more than 50%) as the most abundant in the T1/T2 and R1/R2 sites. At genus level, Ambispora spp. and Archaeospora spp. were rich in T1/T2 sites (> 10%), while Glomus spp. were preferably dominant in S1/S2 sites (> 10%). Furthermore, amorphous Fe and available P were found to explain the variations associated with AM fungal community composition, particularly the abundance of Archaeosporaceae and Glomeraceae. The study revealed the AM fungal community composition shift across the gradient of Fe ore mine sites, as well as the effects of revegetation on AM fungal community development. The findings indicate the possible restoration of AM fungal community in the tailings undergoing revegetation, and potential adoption of indigenous AM fungi to rapid phytostabilization of the Fe ore tailings under semi-arid climatic conditions.

    更新日期:2020-01-26
  • Re-investigation of cadmium accumulation in Mirabilis jalapa L.: evidences from field and laboratory
    Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. (IF 2.914) Pub Date : 2020-01-25
    Qinchun Li, Hongbin Wang, Haijuan Wang, Zhongzhen Wang, Yang Li, Jiakang Ran, Chunyu Zhang

    Abstract Mirabilis jalapa L. was identified as a cadmium (Cd) hyperaccumulator, but data were mainly from laboratory conditions. The main aim of the present study was to confirm whether M. jalapa is a Cd hyperaccumulator by field survey and laboratory experiment. The field survey was conducted at 3 sites and 66 samples were collected, and the results showed that although M. jalapa did not exhibit any visible damage when growing on soil containing 139 mg Cd kg−1, a low concentration of Cd (11.85 ± 3.45 mg kg−1) in its leaves was observed. Although the translocation factor (TF) was up to 3.24 ± 0.42, the bioconcentration factor (BCF) was only 0.13 ± 0.07. The Cd accumulation in leaves of Lanping (LP, contaminated site) and Kunming (KM, clean site) populations reached 93.88 and 81.76 mg kg−1 when artificially spiked soil Cd was 175 mg kg−1, respectively. The BCFs of LP and KM populations were 0.55 and 0.48, and the TFs of the two populations were 3.98 and 4.15, respectively. Under hydroponic condition, the Cd concentration in young leaves of LP and KM populations was 78.5 ± 0.8 and 46.3 ± 1.2 mg kg−1 at 5 mg L−1 Cd treatment, respectively. Furthermore, a significantly positive correlation between tissue Cd concentration and total Cd, CaCl2-extractable Cd, and TCLP-Cd (toxicity characteristic leaching procedure) in soil was established. Therefore, M. jalapa had constitutional characteristics for Cd tolerance and accumulation, but it was not a Cd hyperaccumulator.

    更新日期:2020-01-26
  • Alginate-based magnetic nanosorbent immobilized with aptamer for selective and high adsorption of Hg 2+ in water samples
    Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. (IF 2.914) Pub Date : 2020-01-25
    Nunthiya Deepuppha, Arnont Thongsaw, Boonjira Rutnakornpituk, Wipharat Chuachuad Chaiyasith, Metha Rutnakornpituk

    Abstract Alginate-coated magnetic nanocluster (MNC) immobilized with Hg2+-specific aptamer was synthesized to obtain the nanosorbent with high adsorption capacity and high selectivity for trace analysis of inorganic mercury (Hg2+) in water samples. Magnetite nanoparticle was first synthesized by a co-precipitation of iron precursors in the presence of alginate to obtain alginate-coated MNC, followed by immobilization with avidin. Hg2+-Specific DNA aptamer labeled with biotin was then conjugated on the MNC surface via specific avidin–biotin interaction to form aptamer-immobilized MNC. Coating the MNC with alginate can improve its water dispersibility and also increase its adsorption capacity toward Hg2+ (350 mg/g). It exhibited high selectivity through thymine-Hg2+-thymine (T-Hg2+-T) interaction with high tolerance to other foreign ions. This nanosorbent showed linearity over the Hg2+ concentration range of 0.2–10 μg/L with a correlation coefficient of 0.9977, limit of detection of 0.46 μg/L, and enrichment factor of 13. Moreover, it also showed a potential for detection of Hg2+ in drinking and tap water samples with satisfactory recoveries.

    更新日期:2020-01-26
  • Using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) technique for studying biofilm formation on LDPE and PET surfaces: laboratory and field experiments
    Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. (IF 2.914) Pub Date : 2020-01-25
    Pavlos Tziourrou, John Vakros, Hrissi K. Karapanagioti

    Abstract Biofilm formation on plastic debris needs to be further investigated, because microorganisms attached to plastics are transferred in all three dimensions to new regions by ocean currents. The current study aims to investigate biofilm formation on plastic strips in aquatic ecosystems using a simple physicochemical method commonly used to characterize solid surfaces, namely, the diffuse reflectance UV–Vis spectroscopy (DRS) method. Using virgin polymers that have not being exposed to the environment as a reference, DRS peaks can be attributed to the microorganisms attached to the polymer surface with time. The polymers tested were light–density polyethylene (LDPE) and polyethylene terephthalate (PET). For LDPE strips for all sampling times in the field, the development of the peaks among 10 similar samples was rather uniform in terms of peak wavelength with time. For PET strips during the early sampling time, the development of the peaks among 10 similar samples was rather uniform in terms of peak wavelength but varied in terms of intensity. This last observation phased out with longer exposure times that the peaks had similar distribution in terms of peak wavelength and intensity. Similar experiments were run for longer exposure times both in an oligotrophic laboratory bioreactor and in the marine environment. In both cases, the biofilm on PET samples seems to reach a steady state faster than LDPE with similar peaks found on both samples DRS proved to be a robust and useful tool to study the formation of biofilm on plastic samples without any pretreatment and without sample destruction. Graphical abstract

    更新日期:2020-01-26
  • Microemulsion-mediated preparation of Ce 2 (MoO 4 ) 3 nanoparticles for photocatalytic degradation of crystal violet in aqueous solution
    Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. (IF 2.914) Pub Date : 2020-01-25
    Maryam Dargahi, Majid Masteri-Farahani, Samaneh Shahsavarifar, Marzieh Feizi

    Abstract Preparation of Ce2(MoO4)3 nanoparticles is reported via the microemulsion method by using two different surfactants, i.e., cationic surfactant, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), and nonionic surfactant, Triton X-100. The water pools produced in the microemulsion systems behave as nanoreactors for reaction of the cerium (3+) and molybdate ions to produce Ce2(MoO4)3 nanoparticles. The structure and morphology of the products were characterized by using Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), UV-Vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA-DTA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The prepared Ce2(MoO4)3 nanoparticles were successfully utilized as photocatalysts to remove crystal violet from aqueous solution in which the maximum percentage of dye degradation was about 89% after 5 h under the visible light irradiation. Also, kinetic study of the photocatalytic degradation revealed that pseudo-second order model is the best one for describing kinetic of the reaction.

    更新日期:2020-01-26
  • The shale gas production and economic growth in local economies across the US
    Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. (IF 2.914) Pub Date : 2020-01-25
    Faik Bilgili, Emrah Koçak, Ümit Bulut

    Abstract Recently, several seminal works have been drawing attention to the revolution of shale gas production technology of the USA, the impact of shale gas on energy sectors, as well as the influences of shale gas on macroeconomic variables of employment, economic growth, etc. Nevertheless, one may claim that two gaps appear in literature. The first gap is the absence of an econometric study estimating the effect of shale oil/gas on national economies. The more considerable second gap is the absence of econometric analyses revealing the impulses of shale gas on local economies. Therefore, this paper observes the possible causalities between the shale gas and local gross domestic product (GDP) employing quarterly data covering the period 2007–2016 for 12 states in the US. After performing the tests of cross-sectional dependence, heterogeneity, stationarity, and cointegration, the paper conducts the panel Granger causality analyses. The empirical findings depict that (i) there is available unidirectional relationship from local shale gas production to local GDP in Colorado, Ohio, and West Virginia; (ii) there occurs an impulse from GDP to local shale gas production for Louisiana, North Dakota, and Oklahoma; (iii) a bidirectional causality coexists between local shale gas production and GDP in Arkansas, California, and Texas; and (iv) there exists no association between local GDP and local shale gas extraction in Montana, New Mexico, and Wyoming.

    更新日期:2020-01-26
  • In vivo and in vitro analysis of cytogenotoxicity in populations living in abnormal conditions from Santos-Sao Vicente estuary
    Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. (IF 2.914) Pub Date : 2020-01-25
    Maria Esther Suarez Alpire, Elaine Aparecida de Camargo, Caroline Margonato Cardoso, Daisy Maria Favero Salvadori, Camilo Dias Seabra Pereira, Daniel Araki Ribeiro

    Abstract The aim of the study was to evaluate cyto- and genotoxic effects in populations living in subnormal clusters in Santos São Vicente estuary. For in vivo study, samples of buccal mucosa and peripheral blood cells were collected. Micronucleus assay and single-cell gel (comet) assay were performed. For in vitro study, Chinese ovary hamster (CHO) cells were exposed to contaminated water. The results showed that people living in the contaminated estuary have increased DNA damage in oral mucosa and peripheral blood cells, as detected in the micronucleus and comet assays respectively. In addition, estuarine water was able to promote cytotoxicity at the highest concentrations, as well as decrease the number of cells in the G1 phase. In summary, our results indicate that water from the Santos-São Vicente estuary is capable of inducing cytogenotoxicity in mammalian cells in vivo and in vitro.

    更新日期:2020-01-26
  • Empirical analysis of climate change factors affecting cereal yield: evidence from Turkey
    Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. (IF 2.914) Pub Date : 2020-01-25
    Abbas Ali Chandio, Ilhan Ozturk, Waqar Akram, Fayyaz Ahmad, Aamir Ali Mirani

    Abstract This research has examined the dynamic linkages among climate change factors, such as CO2 emissions, temperature, rainfall, and cereal yield in Turkey from 1968 to 2014. At first step, we tested stationary properties of the climatic factors and crop yield by using both traditional and breakpoint unit root tests. After the confirmation of given properties, we used the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) model to capture the dynamic relationship among the variables in the given span of time. The empirical results show that there is a long-run equilibrium relationship thar exists between climate change factors and cereal yield. CO2 emissions and average temperature have a diverse effect on the cereal yield, whereas average rainfall has a positive effect on the cereal yield in both the long run and short run. To check the causality, we use the Granger causality test that reveals a significant effect of climate change variables on the cereal yield. The unidirectional causal link is significant among temperature and rainfall factors. The results show that the cereal yield is affected by more climate factors like rain fall and temperature due to CO2 emissions as compared to land and labor use. Based on the findings of the study, few suggestions have been made to address the climate change factors. Devise agriculture-specific adaptation policy for the farmers to build their capacity and resilience to tackle climate changes, for example, farm practices. Agriculture research and development should work on cereal crop varieties that can tolerate the high temperature and precipitation. These policies could help the agriculture sector to sustain production and allocation efficiency in the long run.

    更新日期:2020-01-26
  • Remediation of organic arsenic contaminants with heterogeneous Fenton process mediated by SiO 2 -coated nano zero-valent iron
    Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. (IF 2.914) Pub Date : 2020-01-25
    Yuancai Lv, Siyi Huang, Guofu Huang, Yifan Liu, Guifang Yang, Chunxiang Lin, Gao Xiao, Yonghao Wang, Minghua Liu

    Abstract Given their considerable solubility in water and potentially high toxicity to human health, organoarsenic compounds have become an emerging contaminant. Herein, a heterogeneous Fenton process mediated by SiO2-coated nano zero-valent iron (SiO2-nZVI) was employed to simultaneously remove the p-arsanilic acid (p-ASA, a typical organoarsenic compound) and the released arsenic. The initial pH value significantly influenced on the degradation of p-ASA and at the optimal pH (3.0), p-ASA (10 mg L−1) could be completely oxidized to As(V), NH4+, and plentiful phenolic compounds such as phenol and p-hydroquinone via the cleavage of C–N and C–As bonds within 60 min in pure water. Meanwhile, although the formed lepidocrocite and magnetite on the surface of SiO2-nZVI significantly limited the reutilization, they played a vital role in the adsorption of the released As(V) and the residual arsenic levels in the effluent were as low as 0.031 mg L−1, meeting both the drinking water standard of the World Health Organization (WHO) and the surface water standard of China (0.05 mg L−1). Furthermore, high-level dissolved organic matters (DOM) (> 2 mg C L−1) exhibited strong interference with both the oxidation of p-ASA and adsorption of arsenic, but the interference could be eliminated by increasing the SiO2-nZVI dosage or adding H2O2. Importantly, this system could completely remediate p-ASA in a short time and simultaneously avoid the secondary pollution caused by inorganic arsenic, which was significant for the remediation of organoarsenic pollutants in swine wastewater.

    更新日期:2020-01-26
  • Effects of dissolved organic phase composition and salinity on the engineered sulfate application in a flow-through system
    Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. (IF 2.914) Pub Date : 2020-01-24
    Saeid Shafieiyoun, Riyadh I. Al-Raoush, Reem Elfatih Ismail, Stephane K. Ngueleu, Fereidoun Rezanezhad, Philippe Van Cappellen

    Abstract Engineered sulfate application has been proposed as an effective remedy to enhance the rate-limited biodegradation of petroleum-hydrocarbon-contaminated subsurface environments, but the effects of dissolved organic phase composition and salinity on the efficiency of this method are unknown. A series of flow-through experiments were conducted for 150 days and dissolved benzene, toluene, naphthalene, and 1-methylnaphthalene were injected under sulfate-reducing and three different salinity conditions for 80 pore volumes. Then, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were omitted from the influent solution and just dissolved benzene and toluene were injected to investigate the influence of dissolved phase composition on treatment efficiency. A stronger sorption capacity for PAHs was observed and the retardation of the injected organic compounds followed the order of benzene < toluene < naphthalene < 1-methylnaphthalene. Mass balance analyses indicated that 50 and 15% of toluene and 1-methlynaphtalene were degraded, respectively. Around 5% of the injected naphthalene degraded after injecting > 60 PVs influent solution, and benzene slightly degraded following the removal of PAH compounds. The results showed substrate interactions and composition can result in rate-limited and insufficient biodegradation. Similar reducing conditions and organic utilization were observed for different salinity conditions in the presence of the multi-component dissolved organic phase. This was attributed to the dominant microbial community involved in toluene degradation that exerted catabolic repression on the simultaneous utilization of other organic compounds and were not susceptible to changes in salinity.

    更新日期:2020-01-26
  • Experimental investigation on sludge dewatering using granulated blast furnace slag as skeleton material
    Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. (IF 2.914) Pub Date : 2020-01-24
    Rashmi Hosurdoddi Ramachandra, Chella Purushothaman Devatha

    Abstract The highly compressible nature of sludge and the presence of colloidal particles cause difficulties in sludge dewatering. Reducing the moisture content in secondary sludge is a key factor in reducing the capital costs, operational costs, and transportation costs in wastewater management. This investigation concerned the combined utilization of quicklime and granulated blast furnace slag (GBFS) to improve sludge dewatering. The experimental work included the initial characterization of the sludge and granulated blast furnace slag and evaluation of the dewatering ability of the treated sludge (CST, moisture content, turbidity, zeta potential, and heavy metal and biopolymer contents). Optimization using the Box-Behnken design (BBD) was carried out with various operational parameters, and the best performance was found to be at a pH of 10.2, a dose of 0.34 g/g DS, and a contact time of 14 min. A characterization study was carried out by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) in conjunction with EDS, X-ray diffractometry (XRD), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) to confirm the structural features (dense), elemental composition, and the presence of different functional groups. Hence, this study concluded that the use of quicklime with granulated blast furnace slag is suitable for conditioning during sludge dewatering. Graphical abstract

    更新日期:2020-01-26
  • Enrichment of endophytic Actinobacteria in roots and rhizomes of Miscanthus × giganteus plants exposed to diclofenac and sulfamethoxazole
    Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. (IF 2.914) Pub Date : 2020-01-24
    Andrés Sauvêtre, Anna Węgrzyn, Luhua Yang, Gisle Vestergaard, Korneliusz Miksch, Peter Schröder, Viviane Radl

    Abstract This study investigates how wastewater containing 2 mg l−1 of sulfamethoxazole (SMX) and 2 mg l−1 of diclofenac (DCF) affects the composition of bacterial communities present in the roots and rhizomes of Miscanthus × giganteus plants grown in laboratory-scale constructed wetlands. Bacterial communities in plant roots and rhizomes were identified in treated and control samples by 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing. Moreover, bacterial endophytes were isolated in R2A and 1/10 869 media and screened for their ability to metabolize SMX and DCF in liquid medium by HPLC. Our results show significant changes in the abundance of main genera, namely Sphingobium and Streptomyces between control and treated plants. Around 70% of the strains isolated from exposed plants belonged to the phylum Actinobacteria and were classified as Streptomyces, Microbacterium, and Glycomyces. In non-exposed plants, Proteobacteria represented 43.5% to 63.6% of the total. We identified 17 strains able to remove SMX and DCF in vitro. From those, 76% were isolated from exposed plants. Classified mainly as Streptomyces, they showed the highest SMX (33%) and DCF (41%) removal efficiency. These isolates, alone or in combination, might be used as bio-inoculants in constructed wetlands to enhance the phytoremediation of SMX and DCF during wastewater treatment.

    更新日期:2020-01-24
  • Fertilizer management through coated urea to mitigate greenhouse gas (N 2 O) emission and improve soil quality in agroclimatic zone of Northeast India
    Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. (IF 2.914) Pub Date : 2020-01-24
    Nirmali Bordoloi, Kushal Kumar Baruah, Barbie Hazarika

    Abstract Agricultural soils are an important source of greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O) emission. The comprehensive effects of nitrogen fertilizer management on N2O emission from paddy fields of India have not been evaluated under field conditions. A 2-year field study was conducted to evaluate the effect of different nitrogen fertilizers, namely, conventional fertilizer (NPK), starch-coated urea (SCU), neem-coated urea (NCU), and normal urea alone (NUA) on soil quality, grain yield, and N2O emission from rice field. Gas samples were collected from the field at weekly intervals by static chamber technique and analyzed in a gas chromatograph. During the crop-growing season, the application of NPK resulted in the highest cumulative N2O emission (2.49 kg N2O–N ha−1) followed by NUA (2.34 kg N2O–N ha−1), NCU (2.20 kg N2O–N ha−1), and SCU (1.97 kg N2O–N ha−1). As against the application of conventional fertilizer (NPK), the application of SCU and NCU reduced the total N2O emission by 21% and 12%, respectively (p < 0.05), during the rice-growing period. The results indicate a good correlation of N2O emissions with soil organic carbon, soil mineral nitrogen, and urease activity (p < 0.05) at different stages of crop growth. Application of SCU significantly increased the rice grain productivity by 12%, 10%, and 3% over NPK (control), NCU, and NUA respectively without affecting the soil quality and nutrient status. The use of SCU improved the nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) and was the effective substitute for conventional fertilizer in terms of reducing N2O emissions from tropical rice paddy.

    更新日期:2020-01-24
  • Extra virgin olive oil enhances the hepatic antioxidant defense and inhibits cytogenotoxic effects evoked by 5-hydroxymethylfurfural in mice
    Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. (IF 2.914) Pub Date : 2020-01-24
    Khlood M. El Bohi, Mervat H. Ghoniem, Haidy H. Azab, Haytham Ali, Mayada R. Farag

    Abstract This study was performed to assess the ability of the food genotoxicant 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF) to induce DNA damage and oxidative injuries in the liver of mice as a possible mechanism of toxic action and to evaluate the role of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) in inhibiting these injuries. For this purpose, 80 mice were assigned into four equal groups of 20 mice each. Group 1 was kept as control and group 2 was given 5-HMF (250 mg/kg bw) by intraperitoneal (IP) injection 3 times weekly for 4 weeks. Group 3 received EVOO (300 μl/kg bw) orally daily for 4 weeks. Group 4 was co-treated with both 5-HMF (250 mg/kg bw) with IP injection and EVOO (300 μl/kg bw) orally 3 times weekly for 4 weeks. IP injection of 5-HMF resulted in a significant decrease in albumin, globulin, and total protein contents and significant increases in alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, and alkaline phosphatase activities. Administration of EVOO alone or with 5-HMF reduced the 5-HMF-induced alterations and restored the liver function biomarkers, antioxidant defense system, and histoarchitecture of the liver to normal values. EVOO also inhibited the genotoxic and apoptotic effects of 5-HMF suggesting that EVOO could provide liver protection through its powerful antioxidant and confirm its good nutriceutical and pharmacological properties.

    更新日期:2020-01-24
  • Experimental studies on removal of arsenites from industrial effluents using tridodecylamine supported liquid membrane
    Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. (IF 2.914) Pub Date : 2020-01-24
    Nauman Ali, Sunbul Azeem, Adnan Khan, Hamayun Khan, Tahseen Kamal, Abdullah M. Asiri

    Abstract In this article, we report the efficient removal of arsenic in the form of arsenite (As(III)) from an aqueous solution which was applied on the industrial effluents. A flat-sheet polypropylene-supported liquid membrane (SLM) was clamped between the feed phase and strip phase in a liquid membrane permeator setup using tridodecylamine (TDDA) as carrier for extraction of As(III). We have optimized the reaction in changing different parameters such as metal, acid concentration in feed phase, strip phase concentration, and carrier concentration for the maximum As(III) transport through the SLM. The flux value, time of extraction, the stoichiometry of the complex formed, and membrane stability were also investigated. As a result of different experiments performed, we find the best conditions of 0.1 mol/L of TDDA, 1.0 mol/L of HCl in feed phase at optimum pH 1, and 1.0 mol/L of NaOH in stripping phase for the maximum As(III) removal. The optimized reaction was utilized on effluent collected from different industries. During repeated set of experiments on a single polypropylene membrane, it was found that it could withstand five consecutive experiments. Moreover, as high as 93% of extraction efficiency was achieved in 180 min.

    更新日期:2020-01-24
  • The impact of building surface temperature rise on airflow and cross-contamination around high-rise building
    Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. (IF 2.914) Pub Date : 2020-01-24
    Xiaoping Liu, Xiaojiao Wu, Mei Wu, Congling Shi

    Abstract This paper numerically studies the characteristics of flow field around a high-rise building and the cross-contamination when the building surface is heated by the solar radiation. Firstly, the normalized concentration Kc is used to evaluate the dispersion characteristics under different source locations without surface temperature rise. Under iso-thermal condition, the near-wall pollutant dispersion features revealed by the predicted results are similar to our previous wind tunnel experiment. Then, the effect of wall surface temperature rise on the cross-contamination and the flow fields is evaluated based on the near-wall concentration distributions and the wake zone vortex core positions, respectively. When the building surface temperature rises, the location of vortex core obviously changes comparing with that under iso-thermal condition. The correction formula for the vortex core location with the leeward wall surface temperature rise below 15 K is developed. The windward wall surface temperature rise brings more serious pollutant accumulation. The near-wall concentrations increase with the rise of temperature when the pollutant is released from the bottom and middle of leeward wall surface, while the top-release scenario exhibited a contrary tendency. For the three interval ranges of generally recognized Richardson number Ri (Ri < 0.1; 0.1 < Ri < 10; Ri > 10), these results indicate that when Ri is less than 0.1, the effect of wall surface temperature rise on near-wall flow and cross-contamination of small-scale model cannot be ignored.

    更新日期:2020-01-24
  • Sulphur potentiates selenium to alleviate arsenic-induced stress by modulating oxidative stress, accumulation and thiol-ascorbate metabolism in Brassica juncea L.
    Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. (IF 2.914) Pub Date : 2020-01-23
    Seema Sahay, Ehasanullah Khan, Afsana Praveen, Medha Panthri, Zainab Mirza, Meetu Gupta

    Abstract The present study was designed to see the influence of selenium (Se) and sulphur (S) in the alleviation of arsenic (As)-induced stress in Brassica juncea plant. Se-induced alterations in physiological and biochemical responses due to deficient S (DS), normal S (NS) and additional S (AS) conditions were evaluated in 14-day-old seedlings of B. juncea variety Varuna. During the last 7 days of the 14-day-old seedlings, supplementation with arsenite (AsIII, 300 μM) alone and its combination with selenite (SeIV, 50 μM) along with different S treatments was done which are as follows: (i) control; (ii) As; (iii) As+Se+DS; (iv) As+Se + NS; (v) As+Se + AS. Experimental results showed that the application of AS in spite of NS supplied with Se influenced plant growth, oxidative stress and thiol-ascorbate-related parameters more prominently under As stress. The plants with As+Se+AS treatment exhibited lower ROS (superoxide and hydrogen peroxide ion), malondialdehyde (MDA) accumulation and lipoxygenase activity with increased activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase and ascorbate peroxidase compared with As+Se+NS condition. These plants also exhibited an increase in cysteine, non-protein thiols and phytochelatins, along with reduced, oxidised and redox content of glutathione and ascorbate. Furthermore, the application of S along with Se increased the activities of glutathione reductase, glutathione S-transferase, glutathione peroxidase, monodehydroascorbate and dehydroascorbate to minimise As stress. However, we observed that these responses were reversed under As+Se+DS condition and induced oxidative stress, which was almost similar to As only treatment. It indicated that AS nutrition potentiated Se to alleviate As-inhibited plant growth by modulating antioxidants including thiol-ascorbate-based mechanism and reducing As accumulation in B. juncea plants.

    更新日期:2020-01-24
  • Better define beta–optimizing MDD (minimum detectable difference) when interpreting treatment-related effects of pesticides in semi-field and field studies
    Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. (IF 2.914) Pub Date : 2020-01-23
    Sabine Duquesne, Urwa Alalouni, Thomas Gräff, Tobias Frische, Silvia Pieper, Sina Egerer, René Gergs, Jörn Wogram

    Abstract The minimum detectable difference (MDD) is a measure of the difference between the means of a treatment and the control that must exist to detect a statistically significant effect. It is a measure at a defined level of probability and a given variability of the data. It provides an indication for the robustness of statistically derived effect thresholds such as the lowest observed effect concentration (LOEC) and the no observed effect concentration (NOEC) when interpreting treatment-related effects on a population exposed to chemicals in semi-field studies (e.g., micro-/mesocosm studies) or field studies. MDD has been proposed in the guidance on tiered risk assessment for plant protection products in edge of field surface waters (EFSA Journal 11(7):3290, 2013), in order to better estimate the robustness of endpoints from such studies for taking regulatory decisions. However, the MDD calculation method as suggested in this framework does not clearly specify the power which is represented by the beta-value (i.e., the level of probability of type II error). This has implications for the interpretation of experimental results, i.e., the derivation of robust effect values and their use in risk assessment of PPPs. In this paper, different methods of MDD calculations are investigated, with an emphasis on their pre-defined levels of type II error-probability. Furthermore, a modification is suggested for an optimal use of the MDD, which ensures a high degree of certainty for decision-makers.

    更新日期:2020-01-24
  • Reduction of chlordecone environmental availability by soil amendment of biochars and activated carbons from lignocellulosic biomass
    Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. (IF 2.914) Pub Date : 2020-01-23
    Ronald Ranguin, Corine Jean-Marius, Christelle Yacou, Sarra Gaspard, Cyril Feidt, Guido Rychen, Matthieu Delannoy

    Abstract Chlordecone (kepone or CLD) was formerly used in French West Indies as an insecticide. Despite its formal ban in 1993, high levels of this pesticide are still found in soils. As such, sequestering matrices like biochars or activated carbons (ACs) may successfully decrease the bioavailability of halogenated compounds like CLD when added to contaminated soils. The present study intends (i) to produce contrasted sequestering matrices in order to (ii) assess their respective efficiency to reduce CLD environmental availability. Hence, the work was designed following two experimental steps. The first one consisted at producing different sequestering media (biochars and ACs) via pyrolysis and distinct activation processes, using two lignocellulosic precursors (raw biomass): oak wood (Quercus ilex) and coconut shell (Cocos nucifera). The chemical activation was carried out with phosphoric acid while physical activation was done with carbon dioxide and steam. In the second step, the CLD environmental availability was assessed either in an OECD artificial soil or in an Antillean contaminated nitisol (i.e., 2.1-1μg CLD per g of soil dry matter, DM), both amended with 5 wt% of biochar or 5 wt% of AC. These both steps aim to determine CLD environmental availability reduction efficiency of these media when added (i) to a standard soil material or (ii) to a soil representative of the Antillean CLD contamination context. Textural characteristics of the derived coconut and oak biochars and ACs were determined by nitrogen adsorption at 77 K. Mixed microporous and mesoporous textures consisting of high pore volume (ranging from 0.38 cm3.g−1 to 2.00 cm3.g−1) and specific (BET) surface areas from 299.9 m2.g−1 to 1285.1 m2.g−1 were obtained. Overall, soil amendment with biochars did not limit CLD environmental availability (environmental availability assay ISO/DIS 16751 Part B). When soil was amended with ACs, a significant reduction of the environmental availability in both artificial and natural soils was observed. AC soil amendment resulted in a reduced CLD transfer by at least 65% (P < 0.001) for all lignocellulosic matrices (excepted for coconut sample activated with steam, which displayed a 47% reduction). These features confirm that both pore structure and extent of porosity are of particular importance in the retention process of CLD in aged soil. Owing to its adsorptive properties, AC amendment of CLD-contaminated soils appears as a promising approach to reduce the pollutant transfer to fauna and biota.

    更新日期:2020-01-24
  • Urinary concentrations of phthalate metabolites during gestation and intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy: a population-based birth cohort study
    Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. (IF 2.914) Pub Date : 2020-01-23
    Jian-Qing Wang, Hui Gao, Jie Sheng, Xing-Yong Tao, Kun Huang, Yun-Wei Zhang, Lei-Jing Mao, Shan-Shan Zhou, Zhong-Xiu Jin, Fang-Biao Tao

    Abstract Phthalates, a class of widely used endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs), are toxic to various organ systems in animals and humans. Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) is a reversible liver dysfunction causing cholestasis in late pregnancy. Evidence on the associations between exposure to phthalates and ICP is still lacking. In the present study, we investigated the relationships between urinary concentrations of phthalate metabolites and the risk of ICP in a Chinese population-based birth cohort. Pregnant women participated in the Ma’anshan Birth Cohort (MABC) study in China. Seven phthalate metabolites were detected in a urine sample in early pregnancy. Chemical concentrations were grouped by quartiles, and associations with outcomes were examined using logistic regression with adjustment for urine creatinine, race, education, poverty status, smoking status, alcohol consumption, maternal age, prepregnancy body mass index (BMI), parity, twin pregnancy, and pregnancy-related liver complications. Of 3474 women recruited into the Ma’anshan Birth Cohort, 2760 met the inclusion criteria and contributed to further analysis and biomonitoring data. Elevated odds ratios (ORs) of ICP were observed in the highest quartiles of monomethyl phthalate (MMP) exposure (OR = 1.59, 95% confidence intervals (CI) = 1.01–2.51) and monobutyl phthalate (MBP) exposure (OR = 1.82, 95% CI = 1.16–2.85) in the adjusted analyses. Our findings add to the evidence that supports the role of maternal phthalate exposure in the first trimester of gestation as a risk factor for ICP.

    更新日期:2020-01-24
  • Insight into effects of organic and inorganic phosphorus speciations on phosphorus removal efficiency in secondary effluent
    Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. (IF 2.914) Pub Date : 2020-01-23
    Qi Xu, Keke Xiao, Hui Wang, Qiongxiang Wu, Sha Liang, Wenbo Yu, Huijie Hou, Bingchuan Liu, Jingping Hu, Jiakuan Yang

    Abstract Most previous studies of phosphorus (P) removal focused on investigation of the soluble, and particulate P, but ignoring the difference between organic and inorganic P. In this study, the effects of various flocculants, namely polyacrylamide (PAM) and polyaluminum chloride (PAC), on flocculation efficiency in different P speciations (organic and inorganic P) were investigated. A modified method to differentiate between organic and inorganic P content in secondary effluent samples was developed. The results showed that P speciation based on organic/inorganic P (Pearson’s correlation R = 0.915, p < 0.05) was more effective than those based on soluble/particulate P (p > 0.05) in evaluating the P content in secondary effluents. The liquid 31P nuclear magnetic resonance measurements results indicated that PAM was more effective in removing organic P (phosphonates and orthophosphate monoesters) rather than inorganic P. However, PAC was more effective in removing inorganic P (particularly orthophosphate) rather than organic P. Based on the modeled results of a response surface methodology (RSM), doses of PAM and PAC were optimized for secondary effluent containing different amounts of organic and inorganic P from the two typical wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Wuhan city, China.

    更新日期:2020-01-24
  • Characterization of a mine legacy site: an approach for environmental management and metals recovery
    Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. (IF 2.914) Pub Date : 2020-01-23
    Maria de Lurdes Dinis, António Fiúza, Aurora Futuro, Alexandre Leite, Diogo Martins, Janine Figueiredo, Joaquim Góis, Maria Cristina Vila

    Abstract The characterization of historical mine tailings provides important information for land-management decisions, in particular when considering potential reprocessing activities or the development of an environmental protection program. In addition, outcomes from such characterization may define the scope for a more detailed investigation. The present work describes the characterization of the waste material from the Cabeço do Pião tailings impoundment performed within the project ReMinE: Improve Resource Efficiency and Minimize Environmental Footprint. The purpose of the work was to investigate alternative mine waste management options such as the extraction of valuable resources from an environmental liability. The study involved the collection of 41 samples at different locations at two different depths, physical and chemical characterization of the wastes, natural leaching tests, and potential for acid generation. The results showed that, apart from the potential instability of the dyke (with an average slope of 35°), the drained solutions flowing by percolation contain very small particles with high arsenic contents that are being incorporated into the river sediments. In addition, these very fine-grained materials are available for the transport by the wind creating secondary sources of environmental contamination. This data is fundamental for economic and environmental assessment of the two main alternatives, reprocessing or removal.

    更新日期:2020-01-24
  • Detection, biophysical effects, and toxicity of polystyrene nanoparticles to the cnidarian Hydra attenuata
    Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. (IF 2.914) Pub Date : 2020-01-23
    Joëlle Auclair, Brian Quinn, Caroline Peyrot, Kevin James Wilkinson, François Gagné

    Abstract The occurrence of nanoplastic particles (NPs) in the environment has raised concerns about the ecotoxicological risk to aquatic ecosystems. The purpose of this study was to examine the bioavailability and toxicity of 50- and 100-nm transparent polystyrene NPs to the cnidarian Hydra attenuata. The hydras were exposed to increasing concentrations of 50- and 100-nm NPs (1.25, 2.5, 5, 10, 20, 40, and 80 mg/L) for 96 h at 20 °C followed by a 24-h depuration step. Hydras were analyzed for morphological changes, bioaccumulation of NPs using a novel assay for polystyrene NPs, oxidative stress (lipid peroxidation), polar lipids, lipid-like liquid crystals (LCs), and viscosity changes in the post-mitochondrial fraction. The results revealed that the organisms accumulated detectable amounts of NP in a concentration-dependent manner for both the 50- and 100-nm NP that persisted after 24 h in clean media. Changes in morphology were observed with a 50% effect concentration of 3.6 and 18 mg/L for the 50- and 100-nm-diameter NPs respectively. However, based on the particle concentration, the 100 nm proved to be 1.7 times more toxic than the 50-nm NPs. Exposure to NPs led to decreased biomass, lipid peroxidation (LPO), increased polar lipid levels, viscosity, and formation of LCs at the intracellular level. In the more toxic NP (100 nm), NPs in tissues were correlated with LCs, polar lipids, and LPO levels. It appears that the formation of organized LCs and polar lipids of NPs in cells was involved with NP toxicity and could represent a yet unidentified, detoxifying/bioactivation mechanism against colloidal plastics in cells. In conclusion, NPs are bioavailable to hydra and lead to LPO and lipid mobilization in hydra. The capacity of increasing lipid mobilization and LCs could determine the size-dependence toxicity of NPs.

    更新日期:2020-01-24
  • Pre-concentration of rosuvastatin using solid-phase extraction in a molecularly imprinted polymer and analytical application in water supply
    Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. (IF 2.914) Pub Date : 2020-01-23
    Wanderson A. da Silva, Fernanda N. Feiteira, Janaína E. Francisco, Carlos A. T. Toloza, Ricardo Q. Aucélio, Wagner F. Pacheco

    Abstract In this work, it is shown the development and validation of innovative analytical methodology based on solid-phase extraction (SPE) with molecularly imprinted polymers (MIP) as a sorbent associated to UV–Vis spectroscopy to isolate and quantify, respectively, rosuvastatin (RSV) in water samples. For this purpose, porogenic solvent in MIP synthesis and SPE extraction parameters for MIP and non-imprinted polymers (NIP) were evaluated univariately for comparison purposes. The sorptive capacity and characterization studies by infrared spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy showed difference between MIP and NIP. The selectivity study of the MIP–RSV against other statins (simvastatin and atorvastatin) showed that the synthesized MIP can also be applied as a solid phase for isolation and quantitative pre-concentration of RSV and atorvastatin. The conjugation of SPE and UV–Vis spectroscopy in the determination of RSV in aqueous matrices led to large factor of pre-concentration (125 times), limit of detection (LOD) of 3 μg L−1, limit of quantification (LOQ) of 10 μg L−1, precision of 2.87% (n = 10), and accuracy of 83.1% (n = 4).

    更新日期:2020-01-23
  • Preparation of ternary amino-functionalized magnetic nano-sized illite-smectite clay for adsorption of Pb(II) ions in aqueous solution
    Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. (IF 2.914) Pub Date : 2020-01-23
    Zhenyuan Li, Zhidong Pan, Yanmin Wang

    Abstract Ternary amino-functionalized magnetic illite-smectite (AMNI/S) nanocomposites were prepared via integrating two-dimensional illite-smectite nanoflakes (NI/S), magnetite nanoparticles (Fe3O4), and 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES). The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM). The results show that Fe3O4 nanoparticles can be well dispersed on NI/S flakes and the hydrolyzed APTES molecules can simultaneously bond to the hydroxyl groups of Fe3O4 and NI/S. Due to the synergetic effect, magnetic NI/S composite can graft more amount of APTES molecules rather than Fe3O4 nanoparticles or NI/S alone. When the mass ratio of NI/S:Fe3O4 is 1:1, the saturation magnetization of AMNI/S-1 is 17.4 emu/g, facilitating the efficient magnetic separation in aqueous solution. Also, AMNI/S-1 shows a maximal adsorption amount of Pb(II) ions of 227.8 mg/g calculated by the Langmuir model. The effects of initial concentration of Pb(II) ions, pH value, adsorption time, and temperature on the adsorption amount of Pb(II) ions were investigated. The adsorption kinetic models and isotherm models were applied to analyze the adsorption of Pb(II) ions, respectively. The thermodynamic analysis reveals that the adsorption of Pb(II) onto AMNI/S-1 is spontaneous and endothermic in nature. The mechanism for the adsorption of Pb(II) ions onto AMNI/S-1 is due to the surface complexation of Fe3O4 and NI/S, and the chelation of amine groups (–NH2). AMNI/S-1 can be efficiently reused and the regenerated AMNI/S-1 remains 82.91% of initial adsorption capacity after 6-cycle adsorption/desorption process. Thus, ternary AMNI/S-1 could be used as a prospective effective adsorbent.

    更新日期:2020-01-23
  • Enhancement of CO 2 adsorption on biochar sorbent modified by metal incorporation
    Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. (IF 2.914) Pub Date : 2020-01-23
    Nurul Azrin Zubbri, Abdul Rahman Mohamed, Naoto Kamiuchi, Maedeh Mohammadi

    Abstract This work is scrutinizing the development of metallized biochar as a low-cost bio-sorbent for low temperature CO2 capture with high adsorption capacity. Accordingly, single-step pyrolysis process was carried out in order to synthesize biochar from rambutan peel (RP) at different temperatures. The biochar product was then subjected to wet impregnation with several magnesium salts including magnesium nitrate, magnesium sulphate, magnesium chloride and magnesium acetate which then subsequently heat-treated with N2. The impregnation of magnesium into the biochar structure improved the CO2 capture performance in the sequence of magnesium nitrate > magnesium sulphate > magnesium chloride > magnesium acetate. There is an enhancement in CO2 adsorption capacity of metallized biochar (76.80 mg g−1) compare with pristine biochar (68.74 mg g−1). It can be justified by the synergetic influences of physicochemical characteristics. Gas selectivity study verified the high affinity of biochar for CO2 capture compared with other gases such as air, methane, and nitrogen. This investigation also revealed a stable performance of the metallized biochar in 25 cycles of CO2 adsorption and desorption. Avrami kinetic model accurately predicted the dynamic CO2 adsorption performance for pristine and metallized biochar.

    更新日期:2020-01-23
  • A beneficial role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in influencing the effects of silver nanoparticles on plant-microbe systems in a soil matrix
    Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. (IF 2.914) Pub Date : 2020-01-23
    Jiling Cao, Youzhi Feng, Xiangui Lin, Junhua Wang

    Abstract Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are considered to be emerging contaminant for plant-soil systems. AM arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi can alleviate the negative effects of a variety of pollutants on their hosts, but its potential roles in influencing the toxicity of AgNPs and the underlying mechanisms are still an open question. This study investigated the responses of maize (Zea mays L.) inoculated with or without AM fungi and soil microorganisms to different concentrations of AgNPs (0, 0.025, 0.25, and 2.5 mg kg−1). The inoculation of AM fungi helps to alleviate the AgNP-induced phytotoxicity. Compared to the non-AM fungal inoculated treatments, AM fungal inoculation significantly increased the mycorrhizal colonization, biomass and phosphorus (P) acquisitions of maize, with an upregulation of P transporter gene expression under AgNP treatments. AM fungal inoculation decreased Ag content in plant shoots and roots, downregulated expression levels of genes involved in Ag transport and gene encoding a metallothionein involved in metal homeostasis. The beneficial role of AM fungi extended to soil microbes. Compared to the non-AM fungal inoculated treatments, AM fungal inoculation decreased the toxicity of AgNPs to soil microbial activities and bacterial abundance. AM fungal inoculation increased the bacterial diversity and induced changes in the soil bacterial community composition. Altogether, the present study revealed that AM fungal symbiosis can play beneficial roles in mediating the negative effects exposed by AgNPs on plants probably through changing the expressions of potential Ag transporters and cooperating with soil bacterial community.

    更新日期:2020-01-23
  • Bioaccessibility and health risk assessment of Pb and Cd in urban dust in Hangzhou, China
    Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. (IF 2.914) Pub Date : 

    Abstract Heavy metals in urban dust can enter the human body through a variety of ways, thus endangering human health. Understanding the bioaccessibility of heavy metals in urban dust is a key to its risk assessment. After the G20 summit in 2016, Hangzhou city has received much attention, including its environmental health risk. The surface dust collected from three different functional areas in Hangzhou were subjected to the in vitro physiologically based extraction test (PBET) to measure the bioaccessibility of Pb and Cd. In terms of spatial variation, the distribution of Pb bioaccessibility was in the order of residential areas > city parks > main roads > the Botanic Garden, while for Cd ordered in city parks > residential areas > main roads > the Botanic Garden. For temporal variation, the bioaccessibility of Pb was higher in autumn and winter, and the bioaccessibility of Cd was higher in spring and autumn. Based on multiple linear statistical analysis, the relationship between the spatial and temporal distribution differences of the bioaccessibility of Pb and Cd in the city and the main components was discussed. Meanwhile, the non-carcinogenic hazard quotients of Pb and the carcinogenic risk of Cd were calculated and showed no harm to human health, except the total Pb in the surface dust with a high non-carcinogenic risk for infants. Urban dust in Hangzhou city has a slight pollution and health risk from Pb. Currently, controlling and reducing the city’s Pb emission is the key to maintain Hangzhou city’s air quality and matching with its international tourism city.

    更新日期:2020-01-23
  • Asymmetric impact of energy consumption on environmental degradation: evidence from Australia, China, and USA
    Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. (IF 2.914) Pub Date : 2020-01-23
    Kashif Munir, Nimra Riaz

    Abstract The goal of this study is to examine the asymmetric impact of disaggregate energy consumption, i.e., oil, gas, coal, and electricity consumption on environmental degradation in Australia, China, and USA. The study uses annual time series data of three courtiers, i.e., Australia, China, and USA from 1975 to 2018 and applies nonlinear ARDL (NARDL) model to examine the long run and short run relationship. Results show that an increase in oil and coal consumption in Australia; oil, gas, and electricity consumption in China; and oil, coal, and gas consumption in USA leads to increase in the carbon dioxide emissions in the long run. However, a decrease in oil, gas, and electricity consumption in Australia; oil and electricity consumption in China; and coal, gas, and electricity consumption in USA reduces carbon dioxide emissions in the long run. Research and development centers are required to control pollution through new technologies, while to reduce emissions use renewable energy resources as a source of energy.

    更新日期:2020-01-23
  • Preparation and uranium (VI) biosorption for tri-amidoxime modified marine fungus material
    Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. (IF 2.914) Pub Date : 2020-01-22
    Jingwen Han, Lin Hu, Leqing He, Kang Ji, Yaqing Liu, Can Chen, Xiaomei Luo, Ni Tan

    Abstract The preparation, characterization, and uranium (VI) adsorption properties of tri-amidoxime modified marine fungus material (ZZF51-GPTS-EDA-AM/ZGEA) were investigated in this study. ZGEA was synthesized by four steps of condensation, nucleophilic substitution, electrophilic addition, and nitrile amidoxime and characterized by a series of methods containing FT-IR, TGA, SEM, and BET. Contrasted with uranium (VI) adsorption capacity of original fungus mycelium (15.46 mg g−1) that of the functional material (584.60 mg g−1) was great under the optimal factors such as uranium (VI) ion concentration 40 mg L−1, solid-liquid ratio 50 mg L−1, pH of solution 5.5, and reaction time 120 min. The above data were obtained by the orthogonal method. The cyclic tests showed that ZGEA had good regeneration performance, and it could be recycled at least five adsorption-desorption processes. The thermodynamic experimental adsorption result fitted Langmuir and Freundlich models, which explored monolayer and double layers of uranium (VI) adsorption mechanism, and the kinetic adsorption results were in better consistent with the pseudo-second-order and pseudo-first-order dynamic models (R2 > 0.999).

    更新日期:2020-01-23
  • Risks and benefits of pasture irrigation using treated municipal effluent : a lysimeter case study, Canterbury, New Zealand
    Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. (IF 2.914) Pub Date : 2020-01-23
    Maria Jesus Gutierrez-Gines, Minakshi Mishra, Cameron McIntyre, Henry Wai Chau, Juergen Esperschuetz, Roger McLenaghen, Mike P. Bourke, Brett H. Robinson

    Abstract Compared to discharge into waterways, land application of treated municipal effluent (TME) can reduce the need for both inorganic fertilizers and irrigation. However, TME irrigation may result in the accumulation of phosphorus (P) or trace elements in soil, and increased salinity and sodicity, which could damage soil structure and reduce infiltration. TME irrigation can also result in groundwater contamination through nitrate leaching or surface water contamination through runoff. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of increasing TME irrigation rates on quantity and quality of leachate and pasture growth in a lysimeter experiment using a Fluvial Recent soil and a Fragic Pallic soil. Pasture growth in the lysimeters was up to 2.5-fold higher in the TME treatments compared to the non-irrigated treatments. There were no signs of toxicity or accumulation of B, Al, Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, As, and Zn. TME significantly increased the concentration of P and Na in the pasture. Nitrogen leaching from the lysimeters was negligible (< 1 kg/ha−1 equiv.) in all treatments, but mineral N accumulated in the soil profile of the highest application rate (1672 mm/yr). Although more P was added than removed in pasture, the rate of accumulation indicated that over a 50-year period, P will still be within the current New Zealand thresholds for grazed pastures. Sodium accumulated in the soil columns in all the TME treatments. The rate of accumulation was not proportional to the TME application rate, indicating that Na was moving down through the soil profile and leaching. Results indicate a low to moderate risk of sodicity in soil or toxicity in plants caused by Na.

    更新日期:2020-01-23
  • Short stay, long impact: ecological footprints of sojourners
    Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. (IF 2.914) Pub Date : 2020-01-23
    Qing Ye, Muhammad Azfar Anwar, Rongting Zhou, Fahad Asmi, Intikhab Ahmad

    Abstract The study proposes an empirical model (based on stimulus-organism-response as conceptual framework) to analyse sojourners’ intention to adopt green practices (i.e., electronic consumption behaviour). Specifically, the proposed model comprises ethical, ecological and economic concerns as stimuli while mapping sojourners’ altruistic traits and beliefs in climate change, which further lead to their green behaviour. The study investigates a sample of 1184 sojourners in China. Results highlight that sojourners’ perceived concerns (stimuli) are partially mediated by sojourners’ altruistic traits and beliefs in climate change while defining their green behaviour. The novel contributions of the current study include determining sojourners’ green behaviour, the role of scientific literacy and regulatory policy in green behaviour and generalising and proposing the concept of sojourner leakage (adapted from tourism leakage). The study emphasises that sojourners can be strategic stakeholders by involving them in designing, implementing and communicating green policies and reforms in diverse societies.

    更新日期:2020-01-23
  • Dynamic common correlated effects of trade openness, FDI, and institutional performance on environmental quality: evidence from OIC countries
    Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. (IF 2.914) Pub Date : 2020-01-22
    Sajid Ali, Zulkornain Yusop, Shivee Ranjanee Kaliappan, Lee Chin

    Abstract The study aims to address the dynamic common correlated effects of trade openness, FDI, and institutional performance on environmental quality in OIC countries. Mostly, pollutants like CO2 and SO2 emissions are considered as the environmental indicators. However, for this study, we have selected ecological footprint as the indicator of environmental quality. The new econometric approach Dynamic Common Correlated Effects (DCCE) by Chudik and Pesaran (2015) has been used to measure the cross-sectional dependence among cross-sectional units. Results confirm that previous techniques for long panel data, like MG and PMG, give ambiguous outcomes in the presence of cross-sectional dependence. According to DCCE estimation, trade openness, FDI, and urbanization have a positive and significant relationship with ecological footprint while a significant and negative association is found between institutional performance and ecological footprint. The OIC countries must encourage green technology, clean production, and improved institutions for sustainable development and better environmental quality.

    更新日期:2020-01-23
  • Fluoride levels in supply water from a volcanic area in the Macaronesia region
    Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. (IF 2.914) Pub Date : 2020-01-22
    Carmen Rubio, Inmaculada Rodríguez, Juan R. Jaudenes, Angel J. Gutiérrez, Soraya Paz, Antonio Burgos, Arturo Hardisson, Consuelo Revert

    Abstract Fluoride is a widely distributed ion in the environment and, consequently, in water as well. High levels of fluoride in waters can be found in the Canary Islands because of their volcanic origin. Due to the risk and detrimental effects associated with a high fluoride intake, the content of this ion has been potentiometrically determined in 256 supply water samples from the islands of Tenerife, El Hierro, and La Palma, using a fluoride selective ion electrode. Fluoride mean concentration found on Tenerife is 4.22 mg/L, exceeding the parametric value of 1.5 mg/L set out in Spanish legislation. The consumption of 2 L of water from the studied municipalities of Tenerife would mean there is an excessive fluoride intake. The consumption of this water poses a serious risk to health. It is necessary to take action aimed at reducing the level of fluoride in the north of the island of Tenerife.

    更新日期:2020-01-23
  • The role of financial development on carbon emissions: a meta regression analysis
    Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. (IF 2.914) Pub Date : 2020-01-22
    Adem Gök

    Abstract The study analyzes the role of financial development on CO2 emissions based on the primary studies in the existing literature. However, the heterogeneity in reported effect size estimates of the primary studies complicates to test the competing hypotheses for the role of financial development on CO2 emissions. The paper tries to determine and quantify the representative empirical genuine effect of financial development on CO2 emissions, if any. To address the issue, a meta-regression analysis has been carried out for 275 estimation results from 72 primary studies. We have found a substantial publication selection bias in the literature due to the design characteristics of the primary studies. The results suggest the presence of an authentic positive empirical effect of financial development on CO2 emissions beyond publication selection bias. Hence, financial development leads to environmental degradation. The effect of financial development on carbon emissions changes both in magnitude and direction depending on which financial development indicator is used, which estimation technique is employed, which countries or region are included and which time period is analyzed.

    更新日期:2020-01-23
  • Ammonia inhalation-induced inflammation and structural impairment in the bursa of fabricius and thymus of broilers through NF-κB signaling pathway
    Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. (IF 2.914) Pub Date : 2020-01-22
    Syed Waqas Ali Shah, Muhammad Ishfaq, Muhammad Nasrullah, Abdul Qayum, Muhammad Usman Akhtar, Hyeonsoo Jo, Muhammad Hussain, Xiaohua Teng

    Abstract Ammonia (NH3) is a toxic, environmental pollutant, and irritant gas. Previous studies reported the toxic effects of NH3 which led to inflammation in various organs of chicken. However, the exact mechanism of NH3-induced inflammation in chicken lymphoid organs bursa of fabricius (BF) and thymus is still elusive. Thus, this study was designed to investigate NH3-induced inflammation in chicken BF and thymus. Experimental chickens were divided into low (5.0 mg/m3), middle (10.0–15.0 mg/m3), and high (20.0–45.0 mg/m3) NH3-treated groups. To investigate NH3-induced inflammation in chicken’s BF and thymus, histological observation, NO content and iNOS activity, inflammatory cytokine contents, and mRNA levels were performed by light microscopy, microplate spectrophotometer, ELISA assay, and qRT-PCR. The finding of the present study showed that NH3 exposure reduced BF and thymus index, increased nitric oxide (NO) content and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) activity, inflammatory cytokine contents and mRNA levels of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin 6 (IL-6), IL-10, IL-1β, IL-18, toll-like receptor 2A (TLR-2A), and iNOS. Histopathological examination revealed signs of inflammation including increased nuclear debris and vacuoles in the cortex and medulla of thymus and bursal follicles. Conclusively, our findings displayed that NH3 exposure affects the normal function of BF and thymus and led inflammation. The data provided a new ground for NH3-induced toxicity and risk assessment in chicken production.

    更新日期:2020-01-23
  • Copper oxychloride–induced testicular damage of adult albino rats and the possible role of curcumin in healing the damage
    Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. (IF 2.914) Pub Date : 2020-01-22
    Heba Nageh Gad El-Hak, Yomn Mohammed Mobarak

    Abstract The current research study investigated the effect of 80 mg/kg b.wt./day curcumin (cur) against 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg copper oxychloride (COC) for 90 days induced testicular damage using histological, ultrastructural, and biochemical techniques. Histological and cellular abnormalities have been noted in seminiferous tubules of COC-treated group and treated group with Cur- and COC-treated group. The biochemical result showed that serum testosterone was significantly decreased in COC-treated rats and Cur COC-treated rats compared with the control groups. Testes copper content and malondialdehyde was increased, whereas the testes total antioxidant, manganese, ferrous, and zinc levels were decreased (p ≥ 0.05) compared to the control groups. In conclusion, the present work reported that the treatment of rats with 80 mg/kg body weight curcumin prior to treatment with COC did not mitigate the deleterious effects of COC and manifested no signs of protection.

    更新日期:2020-01-23
  • Establishment of geochemical baseline and multiple assessment of vanadium pollution in sediment cores from the two cascade reservoirs, North China
    Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. (IF 2.914) Pub Date : 2020-01-22
    Jiankang Wang, Wenqi Peng, Shaoming Wang, Bo Gao, Xiaodong Qu, Min Zhang, Dongyu Xu

    Abstract Vanadium (V) is a potential toxic pollutant, and thus, V pollution in reservoir sediment should be scientifically evaluated because reservoirs are the main source of drinking water in China. However, the pollution assessment of V in reservoir sediment is often overestimated or underestimated due to the limitation for selecting local background values. In this study, the selection of the V background value in sediments was based on regional geochemical baseline (RGB) model. Multiple methods including geo-accumulation index (Igeo), potential ecological risk index (EI), and health risk assessment were applied to evaluate V pollution in sediment cores collected from the Panjiakou–Daheiting Reservoirs (PDR). The results show that the mean value of V concentrations in the PDR sediment cores was 92.86 mg/kg (57.69–141.19 mg/kg), which is higher than the soil background in Hebei Province and stream sediment values in China. V concentrations in the Panjiakou Reservoir were higher than those in the Daheiting Reservoir. The RGB value of V was 96.33 mg/kg in the PDR sediments. A comparison of the V concentrations and RGB values in the sampling sites indicated that half of these sites are impacted by anthropogenic inputs. Among the sites influenced by human activity, the average anthropogenic contribution was 9.9%, suggesting that majority of V in the PDR sediments originated from natural source. The pollution assessments of V were evaluated using Igeo and EI with RGB as the background value, and results indicated that the sediments in the PDR were not polluted with V. The environmental impact assessment model was also established for calculating V accumulation in fish due to sediment resuspension. Then, health risk assessment model was applied to further calculate the health risk to residents due to fish consumption. The evaluated target hazard quotient demonstrated that local fish consumption produced no adverse effect on human health during sediment disruption.

    更新日期:2020-01-23
  • Dynamic change of vegetation and its response to climate and topographic factors in the Xijiang River basin, China
    Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. (IF 2.914) Pub Date : 2020-01-22
    Lu Jia, Zhan-bin Li, Guo-ce Xu, Zong-ping Ren, Peng Li, Yu-ting Cheng, Yi-xin Zhang, Bin Wang, Jia-xin Zhang, Shu Yu

    Abstract Vegetation plays an important role in the energy exchange, water cycle, carbon cycle, biogeochemical cycle, and maintenance of surface ecosystems. In recent years, regional vegetation cover has changed significantly. This study used statistical analyses, including the Mann-Kendall trend test, the Hurst exponent, and Pettitt test, to analyze the characteristics of temporal and spatial variation of vegetation coverage in the Xijiang River basin from 2000 to 2013. The results showed that vegetation coverage of 98.76% of the Xijiang River basin is weakly variable (Cv < 0.1). The area with significantly increased vegetation accounts for 43.45% of the total area (p < = 0.05). A total of 19.47% of vegetation coverage in the Xijiang River basin had significant change-points from 2004 to 2008 (p < = 0.05), and the area of concave change-points accounted for 25.99% of the total area of point increased the vegetation coverage. At an altitude of 500–2000 m, the altitude has an inhibitory effect on vegetation coverage. When the slope is less than 35 degrees, the slope has a promoting effect on vegetation coverage. Rich precipitation resources are the main source of soil water supply, and higher temperature provides better thermal energy resources, which may have a significant impact on vegetation growth in the future and cause time lag effects of climatic factors on vegetation coverage. The vegetation coverage and the area affected by the precipitation and temperature (time lag factors) accounted for 32.99% and 31.47% of the total watershed, respectively. The correlation between climatic factors, topographic factors, and vegetation coverage increased over time. The results from this study will help to further deepen the understanding of vegetation cover and its influencing factors, and provide a scientific basis for ecological restoration projects such as vegetation restoration in the Xijiang River basin of China.

    更新日期:2020-01-23
  • Growth performance and hemato-immunological responses of Nile tilapia ( Oreochromis niloticus ) exposed to deltamethrin and fed immunobiotics
    Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. (IF 2.914) Pub Date : 2020-01-22
    Mahmoud A.O. Dawood, Marwa F. AbdEl-kader, Eman M. Moustafa, Mahmoud S. Gewaily, Safaa E. Abdo

    Abstract The use of feed additives in aquatic animals improves health conditions and well-being under pesticide toxicity. Thus, this study was aimed at evaluating the effect of an immunobiotic mixture (IM) on the growth performance, hemato-biochemistry, and immunity of Nile tilapia exposed to subacute deltamethrin (DMT). Fish were distributed into four groups: groups 1 and 2 were fed a control diet, while groups 3 and 4 were fed IM. Groups 2 and 4 were exposed to DMT (15 μg/L) in rearing water. The results revealed that DMT-exposed fish exhibited significantly lower final body weights, weight gain, specific growth rate, and survival rate (P < 0.05), while IM feeding resulted in improved growth performance and survival rate in fish with or without DMT toxicity. After 15 and 30 days, DMT-treated fish showed a significant increase in blood urea and bilirubin as well as hepatic enzymes (alkaline phosphatase, aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase) (P < 0.05), while supplementation of the IM mixture significantly lowered these levels in Nile tilapia. Blood total protein, globulin, albumin, white blood cells, red blood cells, hemoglobin, phagocytic index, and phagocytic and lysozyme activities were significantly decreased in tilapia subjected to DMT (P < 0.05), while supplementation of the IM mixture significantly increased these levels. Fish fed IM without DMT exposure showed the lowest cortisol and glucose levels, while fish exposed to DMT without IM showed the highest levels (P < 0.05) after 15 and 30 days. To conclude, IM supplementation exhibited defensive effects against DMT toxicity in Nile tilapia by improving growth performance, hematology, blood biochemistry, and immunity.

    更新日期:2020-01-22
  • Carnosic acid alleviates chlorpyrifos-induced oxidative stress and inflammation in mice cerebral and ocular tissues
    Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. (IF 2.914) Pub Date : 2020-01-22
    Abdullah A. AlKahtane, Esraa Ghanem, Simona G. Bungau, Saud Alarifi, Daoud Ali, Gadah AlBasher, Saad Alkahtani, Lotfi Aleya, Mohamed M. Abdel-Daim

    Abstract Chlorpyrifos is an organophosphate pesticide whose exposure leads to inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) enzyme and induces oxidative stress, inflammation, and neurotoxicity. The current study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of carnosic acid (CA) in ameliorating CPF-induced cytotoxicity in mice brain and eye tissues. We allocated 40 male Swiss albino mice to receive DMSO 1% solution, oral CA 60 mg/kg/day bw, CPF 12 mg/kg/day bw via gastric gavage, or CPF plus CA at 30 and 60 mg/kg/day bw. Carnosic acid was administered once/day for 14 days, while CPF was administered in the last 7 days of the experiment. Biochemical analysis showed that CPF administration was associated with significant increases in the serum concentrations of interleukin-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α, while it was associated with significant reductions in serum AChE levels in mice. Moreover, CPF-intoxicated mice exhibited significantly higher levels of malondialdehyde and nitric oxide in the brain and eye tissues. However, they had significantly lower levels of reduced glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, and catalase in comparison with normal controls. Pretreatment with CA at 30 and 60 mg/kg/day bw for 14 days significantly alleviated all the aforementioned CPF-induced alterations in a dose-dependent manner; more frequent restorations of the normal control ranges were observed in the higher dose group. In conclusion, CA offers a neuroprotective effect against CPF-induced oxidative stress and inflammation and should be further studied in upcoming experimental and clinical research.

    更新日期:2020-01-22
  • Evaluation of the complex dynamic modulus of asphaltic concretes manufactured with construction and demolition waste (CDW) aggregates
    Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. (IF 2.914) Pub Date : 2020-01-22
    Luis-Antonio Esparza, Alexandra Ossa, Eduardo Botero

    Abstract Currently, there is an overexploitation of natural resources worldwide due to the need to build various types of civil engineering infrastructure, such as buildings, bridges, housing and, in particular, roads. A large number of countries, including Mexico, additionally do not apply adequate treatment to the material resulting from the demolition of this type of work. Both situations generate significant environmental damage and contribute to the non-sustainability of the road construction sector. This research assesses the linear viscoelastic (LVE2) behavior of asphalt concrete specimens made with different combinations of mineral aggregate and construction and demolition waste (CDW). Complex dynamic modulus tests were performed in compression on cylindrical samples at different temperatures and frequency loading. The ANOVA analysis of test results indicate that the stiffness of the different asphalt concretes evaluated, represented by the complex dynamic modulus, tends to decrease with the temperature and increase with load frequency, which are typical of materials with viscous characteristics. The stiffness of the asphalt concrete evaluated does not show significant changes as the CDW aggregate content varies.

    更新日期:2020-01-22
  • Fucoidan protects against subacute diazinon-induced oxidative damage in cardiac, hepatic, and renal tissues
    Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. (IF 2.914) Pub Date : 2020-01-21
    Mohamed M. Abdel-Daim, Abdelrahman Ibrahim Abushouk, Eshak I. Bahbah, Simona G. Bungău, Mohamed S. Alyousif, Lotfi Aleya, Saad Alkahtani

    Abstract Fucoidans (FUC) are organic sulfated polysaccharides from natural seaweeds with multiple biological actions. The current study was performed to assess the chemoprotective, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory effects of FUC from Laminaria japonicum against diazinon (DZN)-induced injuries to rat cardiac, hepatic, and renal tissues. Forty male Wistar rats were assigned into five groups, receiving saline, oral FUC 200 mg/kg/day, subcutaneous DZN 20 mg/kg/day, DZN plus FUC 100 mg/kg/day, or DZN plus FUC 200 mg/kg/day (each treatment was given daily for 4 weeks). Data analysis showed that DZN-intoxicated rats exhibited significantly higher (p < 0.05) serum levels of alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, urea, creatine, creatine kinase, creatine kinase-MB, lactate dehydrogenase, cholesterol, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α, as well as lower levels of acetylcholinesterase, compared to control rats. In addition, DZN intoxication was associated with significantly higher (p < 0.05) cardiac, hepatic, and renal tissue concentrations of malondialdehyde and nitric oxide, as well as lower glutathione concentrations, and activities of glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, and catalase enzymes in comparison to control rats. Treatment with FUC (at 100 or 200 mg/kg/day) ameliorated all the aforementioned alterations in a dose-dependent manner. In conclusion, FUC from Laminaria japonicum ameliorated DZN-induced oxidative stress, pro-inflammatory effects, and injuries to the cardiac, hepatic, and renal tissues. These effects may be related to the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of FUC.

    更新日期:2020-01-22
  • Laboratory bioassay exploring the effects of anti-aging skincare products on free-living marine nematodes: a case study of collagen
    Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. (IF 2.914) Pub Date : 2020-01-21
    Mohamed Allouche, Ilhem Hamdi, Ahmed Nasri, Abdel Halim Harrath, Lamjed Mansour, Hamouda Beyrem, Fehmi Boufahja

    Abstract Organic enrichment due to human impact is one of the major threats that affect benthic communities in semi-enclosed marine ecosystems, such as the Mediterranean Sea. However, many emerging sources of organic pollutants, such as those released to nature through human practices related to esthetics and cosmetics, remain underestimated, despite being an increasingly important source of organic matter input following a decade of expansion by the cosmetic industry. Therefore, an experiment was designed to explore the influence of collagen, the main component of commercialized skin anti-aging products, on a Mediterranean community of free-living marine nematodes from a beach in Rimel, northeast Tunisia. The effects of exposure for 30 days to a control treatment and three test treatments, corresponding to three levels of sedimentary enrichment with collagen (3, 6, and 12 ppm dry weight (DW)), were examined using a microcosm approach. Reductions in abundance and diversity were noted with an increase in collagen enrichment, together with a slight increase in individual weight. The presence of three species characteristic of control microcosms, Ptycholaimellus ponticus, Theristus modicus, and Kraspedonema reflectans, was clearly affected at the lowest dose; these were therefore classified as “collagen-sensitive.” In contrast, the numbers of “collagen-tolerant” species, including Sigmophoranema rufum, Lauratonema hospitum, Enoploides spiculohamatus, and Trichotheristus mirabilis, increased significantly in the treated microcosms.

    更新日期:2020-01-22
  • Tracing solute sources and carbon dynamics under various hydrological conditions in a karst river in southwestern China
    Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. (IF 2.914) Pub Date : 2020-01-21
    Jing Liu, Bo Chen, Zhu-Yan Xu, Yuan Wei, Zhi-Hua Su, Rui Yang, Yong-Xue Ji, Xiao-Dan Wang, Li-Li Zhang, Ning An, Fei Yang

    Abstract Understanding the mechanisms that lead various hydrological conditions to influence solute and carbon dynamics in karst rivers is a crucial issue. In this study, high-frequency sampling and analyses of water chemistry and ẟ13CDIC were conducted from October 2013 to September 2014 in a typical karst river, the Beipan River in southwestern China. The major ions (such as Ca2+, Mg2+, HCO3−, K+, SO42−, Na+, and Cl−) in the river are mainly from the weathering of carbonates and silicates and present temporal hydrological variabilities. Sr and U are mainly derived from carbonate weathering and show chemostatic behaviors responding to increasing discharge, similar to carbonate-sourced ions Ca2+, Mg2+, and HCO3−. Silicate weathering is the primary source of Al and Li, which show significant dilution effects similar to those of Na+ responding to high discharge. Meanwhile, most dissolved trace elements (such as Zn, Cu, Ba, Sb, Mn, Mo, and Pb) are strongly impacted by anthropogenic overprints and also exhibit a significant seasonal variability, which may be related with mining activities in the investigated area. A simultaneous increase of ẟ13CDIC and decrease in ∆DIC contents and pCO2 values suggests that photosynthesis is the primary control on riverine DIC variability during the high-flow season. Besides, the pCO2 values display significant chemostatic behaviors owing to the influx of biological CO2, which is produced by microbiological activities and ecological processes, and enhanced by monsoonal climatic conditions. A two-dimensional endmember mixing model demonstrates that carbonate weathering (averaging 62%) along with biological carbon (averaging 38%) are main sources to the riverine DIC, with temporal variability. Consequently, these results show that carbonate weathering and involved plant photosynthesis are the dominant processes controlling the riverine DIC contents under high discharge and temperature conditions. This work provides insight into the crucial influence of hydrological variability on solute sources and carbon dynamics under monsoonal climate for the karst rivers.

    更新日期:2020-01-22
  • Association of intronic polymorphisms (rs1549339, rs13402242) and mRNA expression variations in PSMD1 gene in arsenic-exposed workers
    Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. (IF 2.914) Pub Date : 2020-01-21
    Saqiba Ahmad, Bushra Arif, Zertashia Akram, Malik Waqar Ahmed, Asad Ullah Khan, Muhammad Zahid Hussain, Faisal Rahman, Mahmood Akhtar Kayani, Ishrat Mahjabeen

    Abstract Ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) gene, PSMD1, is an important gene for neutralization of damaged and misfolded protein(s). The current study was designed to study the genetic and expression variations of PSMD1 gene as a consequence of arsenic exposure and its potential implications in arsenic induced diseases. In the present study, 250 blood samples of exposed industrial workers along with 250 controls were used. Initially, tetra amplification refractory mutation system-PCR was used to determine the role of PSMD1 gene polymorphisms (rs1549339, rs13402242) in industrial workers and controls. Frequency of homozygous mutant genotype of rs1549339 (OR: 2.23, 95% CI: 1.51–3.32, p = 0.0001) and rs13402242 (OR: 2.96, 95% CI: 1.52–5.75, p = 0.001) was observed significantly higher in exposed individuals vs controls. Secondly, qPCR was performed for expression analysis of PSMD1 gene. Significant down-regulated expression of PSMD1 gene (p < 0.0001) was observed vs controls, and this down-regulation was observed more pronounced in smokers (p < 0.0001) with maximum exposure duration (p < 0.0008). This down-regulated expression was observed significantly more pronounced in welding (p < 0.004) and brick kiln industries (p < 0.04) compared to other selected industries. The obtained results suggest that the exposure to arsenic may have an increased risk of developing disease(s) because of arsenic-induced PSMD1 variations.

    更新日期:2020-01-22
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