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  • Everything You Always Wanted to Know About Rabies Virus (But Were Afraid to Ask).
    Annu. Rev. Virol. (IF 6.566) Pub Date : 2016-03-10
    Benjamin M Davis,Glenn F Rall,Matthias J Schnell

    The cultural impact of rabies, the fatal neurological disease caused by infection with rabies virus, registers throughout recorded history. Although rabies has been the subject of large-scale public health interventions, chiefly through vaccination efforts, the disease continues to take the lives of about 40,000-70,000 people per year, roughly 40% of whom are children. Most of these deaths occur in

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • 更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Introduction.
    Annu. Rev. Virol. (IF 6.566) Pub Date : 2019-10-01
    Lynn W Enquist,Terence S Dermody,Daniel DiMaio

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Pathophysiological Consequences of Calcium-Conducting Viroporins.
    Annu. Rev. Virol. (IF 6.566) Pub Date : 2016-03-10
    Joseph M Hyser,Mary K Estes

    Eukaryotic cells have evolved a myriad of ion channels, transporters, and pumps to maintain and regulate transmembrane ion gradients. As intracellular parasites, viruses also have evolved ion channel proteins, called viroporins, which disrupt normal ionic homeostasis to promote viral replication and pathogenesis. The first viral ion channel (influenza M2 protein) was confirmed only 23 years ago, and

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Introduction.
    Annu. Rev. Virol. (IF 6.566) Pub Date : 2018-09-29
    Lynn W Enquist,Terence S Dermody,Daniel DiMaio

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Reductio ad Intellectum.
    Annu. Rev. Virol. (IF 6.566) Pub Date : 2018-09-29
    Daniel DiMaio,Terence S Dermody,Lynn W Enquist

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Innate and Adaptive Immune Regulation During Chronic Viral Infections.
    Annu. Rev. Virol. (IF 6.566) Pub Date : 2016-03-10
    Elina I Zuniga,Monica Macal,Gavin M Lewis,James A Harker

    Chronic viral infections represent a unique challenge to the infected host. Persistently replicating viruses outcompete or subvert the initial antiviral response, allowing the establishment of chronic infections that result in continuous stimulation of both the innate and adaptive immune compartments. This causes a profound reprogramming of the host immune system, including attenuation and persistent

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The Good That Viruses Do.
    Annu. Rev. Virol. (IF 6.566) Pub Date : 2017-09-30
    Mario Mietzsch,Mavis Agbandje-McKenna

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  • Introduction.
    Annu. Rev. Virol. (IF 6.566) Pub Date : 2017-09-30
    Lynn W Enquist,Terence S Dermody,Daniel DiMaio

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Introduction.
    Annu. Rev. Virol. (IF 6.566) Pub Date : 2015-11-09
    Lynn W Enquist,Terence S Dermody,Daniel DiMaio

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Introduction.
    Annu. Rev. Virol. (IF 6.566) Pub Date : 2016-09-29
    Lynn W Enquist,Terence S Dermody,Daniel DiMaio

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • A Diversified Portfolio.
    Annu. Rev. Virol. (IF 6.566) Pub Date : 2016-09-29
    Michael M Goodin,Graham F Hatfull,Harmit S Malik

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Welcome to the Annual Review of Virology.
    Annu. Rev. Virol. (IF 6.566) Pub Date : 2014-11-03
    Lynn W Enquist,Terence S Dermody,Daniel DiMaio

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Genetics in Virology Research.
    Annu. Rev. Virol. (IF 6.566) Pub Date : 2015-11-09
    Terence S Dermody,Julie K Pfeiffer

    更新日期:2019-11-01
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  • IFITM-Family Proteins: The Cell's First Line of Antiviral Defense.
    Annu. Rev. Virol. (IF 6.566) Pub Date : 2015-01-20
    Charles C Bailey,Guocai Zhong,I-Chueh Huang,Michael Farzan

    Animal cells use a wide variety of mechanisms to slow or prevent replication of viruses. These mechanisms are usually mediated by antiviral proteins whose expression and activities can be constitutive but are frequently amplified by interferon induction. Among these interferon-stimulated proteins, members of the IFITM (interferon-induced transmembrane) family are unique because they prevent infection

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Bacteriophage Therapy: Advances in Formulation Strategies and Human Clinical Trials.
    Annu. Rev. Virol. (IF 6.566) Pub Date : 2016-03-10
    Dieter Vandenheuvel,Rob Lavigne,Harald Brüssow

    Recently, a number of phage therapy phase I and II safety trials have been concluded, showing no notable safety concerns associated with the use of phage. Though hurdles for efficient treatment remain, these trials hold promise for future phase III clinical trials. Interestingly, most phage formulations used in these clinical trials are straightforward phage suspensions, and not much research has focused

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Viruses in Rodent Colonies: Lessons Learned from Murine Noroviruses.
    Annu. Rev. Virol. (IF 6.566) Pub Date : 2016-03-10
    Stephanie M Karst,Christiane E Wobus

    Noroviruses (NoVs) are highly prevalent, positive-sense RNA viruses that infect a range of mammals, including humans and mice. Murine noroviruses (MuNoVs) are the most prevalent pathogens in biomedical research colonies, and they have been used extensively as a model system for human noroviruses (HuNoVs). Despite recent successes in culturing HuNoVs in the laboratory and a small animal host, studies

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • No Love Lost Between Viruses and Interferons.
    Annu. Rev. Virol. (IF 6.566) Pub Date : 2016-03-10
    Volker Fensterl,Saurabh Chattopadhyay,Ganes C Sen

    The interferon system protects mammals against virus infections. There are several types of interferons, which are characterized by their ability to inhibit virus replication and resultant pathogenesis by triggering both innate and cell-mediated immune responses. Virus infection is sensed by a variety of cellular pattern-recognition receptors and triggers the synthesis of interferons, which are secreted

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Virus-Host Interactions: From Unbiased Genetic Screens to Function.
    Annu. Rev. Virol. (IF 6.566) Pub Date : 2016-03-10
    Holly Ramage,Sara Cherry

    Deciphering the many interactions that occur between a virus and host cell over the course of infection is paramount to understanding mechanisms of pathogenesis and to the future development of antiviral therapies. Over the past decade, researchers have started to understand these complicated relationships through the development of methodologies, including advances in RNA interference, proteomics,

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Virus-Based Nanoparticles as Versatile Nanomachines.
    Annu. Rev. Virol. (IF 6.566) Pub Date : 2016-03-10
    Kristopher J Koudelka,Andrzej S Pitek,Marianne Manchester,Nicole F Steinmetz

    Nanoscale engineering is revolutionizing the way we prevent, detect, and treat diseases. Viruses have played a special role in these developments because they can function as prefabricated nanoscaffolds that have unique properties and are easily modified. The interiors of virus particles can encapsulate and protect sensitive compounds, while the exteriors can be altered to display large and small molecules

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Parvovirus Family Conundrum: What Makes a Killer?
    Annu. Rev. Virol. (IF 6.566) Pub Date : 2016-03-10
    Shweta Kailasan,Mavis Agbandje-McKenna,Colin R Parrish

    Parvoviruses infect a wide variety of hosts, and their ancestors appear to have emerged tens to hundreds of millions of years ago and to have spread widely ever since. The diversity of parvoviruses is therefore extensive, and although they all appear to descend from a common ancestor and share common structures in their capsid and nonstructural proteins, there is often low homology at the DNA or protein

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Mechanisms of DNA Packaging by Large Double-Stranded DNA Viruses.
    Annu. Rev. Virol. (IF 6.566) Pub Date : 2016-03-10
    Venigalla B Rao,Michael Feiss

    Translocation of viral double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) into the icosahedral prohead shell is catalyzed by TerL, a motor protein that has ATPase, endonuclease, and translocase activities. TerL, following endonucleolytic cleavage of immature viral DNA concatemer recognized by TerS, assembles into a pentameric ring motor on the prohead's portal vertex and uses ATP hydrolysis energy for DNA translocation.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Novel Functions of the Human Papillomavirus E6 Oncoproteins.
    Annu. Rev. Virol. (IF 6.566) Pub Date : 2016-03-10
    Nicholas A Wallace,Denise A Galloway

    Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) infect the epidermis as well as mucous membranes of humans. They are the causative agents of anogenital tract and some oropharyngeal cancers. Infections begin in the basal epithelia, where the viral genome replicates slowly along with its host cell. As infected cells begin to differentiate and progress toward the periphery, the virus drives proliferation in cells that

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Modulation of the Translational Landscape During Herpesvirus Infection.
    Annu. Rev. Virol. (IF 6.566) Pub Date : 2016-03-10
    Britt A Glaunsinger

    Herpesviral mRNAs are produced and translated by cellular machinery, rendering them susceptible to the network of regulatory events that impact translation. In response, these viruses have evolved to infiltrate and hijack translational control pathways as well as to integrate specialized host translation strategies into their own repertoire. They are robust systems to dissect mechanisms of mammalian

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Continuous and Discontinuous RNA Synthesis in Coronaviruses.
    Annu. Rev. Virol. (IF 6.566) Pub Date : 2016-03-10
    Isabel Sola,Fernando Almazán,Sonia Zúñiga,Luis Enjuanes

    Replication of the coronavirus genome requires continuous RNA synthesis, whereas transcription is a discontinuous process unique among RNA viruses. Transcription includes a template switch during the synthesis of subgenomic negative-strand RNAs to add a copy of the leader sequence. Coronavirus transcription is regulated by multiple factors, including the extent of base-pairing between transcription-regulating

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Ribosome Profiling as a Tool to Decipher Viral Complexity.
    Annu. Rev. Virol. (IF 6.566) Pub Date : 2016-03-10
    Noam Stern-Ginossar,Nicholas T Ingolia

    Viral genomes harbor a variety of unusual translational phenomena that allow them to pack coding information more densely and evade host restriction mechanisms imposed by the cellular translational apparatus. Annotating translated sequences within these genomes thus poses particular challenges, but identifying the full complement of proteins encoded by a virus is critical for understanding its life

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Retroviral Integrase: Then and Now.
    Annu. Rev. Virol. (IF 6.566) Pub Date : 2016-03-10
    Mark D Andrake,Anna Marie Skalka

    The retroviral integrases are virally encoded, specialized recombinases that catalyze the insertion of viral DNA into the host cell's DNA, a process that is essential for virus propagation. We have learned a great deal since the existence of an integrated form of retroviral DNA (the provirus) was first proposed by Howard Temin in 1964. Initial studies focused on the genetics and biochemistry of avian

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Flaviviridae Replication Organelles: Oh, What a Tangled Web We Weave.
    Annu. Rev. Virol. (IF 6.566) Pub Date : 2016-03-10
    David Paul,Ralf Bartenschlager

    Replication of positive-strand RNA viruses occurs in tight association with reorganized host cell membranes. In a concerted fashion, viral and cellular factors generate distinct organelle-like structures, designated viral replication factories. These virus-induced compartments promote highly efficient genome replication, allow spatiotemporal coordination of the different steps of the viral replication

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Hunting Viral Receptors Using Haploid Cells.
    Annu. Rev. Virol. (IF 6.566) Pub Date : 2016-03-10
    Sirika Pillay,Jan E Carette

    Viruses have evolved intricate mechanisms to gain entry into the host cell. Identification of host proteins that serve as viral receptors has enabled insights into virus particle internalization, host and tissue tropism, and viral pathogenesis. In this review we discuss the most commonly employed methods for virus receptor discovery, specifically highlighting the use of forward genetic screens in human

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Deep Recombination: RNA and ssDNA Virus Genes in DNA Virus and Host Genomes.
    Annu. Rev. Virol. (IF 6.566) Pub Date : 2016-03-10
    Kenneth M Stedman

    Viruses are notorious for rapidly exchanging genetic information between close relatives and with the host cells they infect. This exchange has profound effects on the nature and rapidity of virus and host evolution. Recombination between dsDNA viruses is common, as is genetic exchange between dsDNA viruses or retroviruses and host genomes. Recombination between RNA virus genomes is also well known

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The Phage-Inducible Chromosomal Islands: A Family of Highly Evolved Molecular Parasites.
    Annu. Rev. Virol. (IF 6.566) Pub Date : 2016-03-10
    José R Penadés,Gail E Christie

    The phage-inducible chromosomal islands (PICIs) are a family of highly mobile genetic elements that contribute substantively to horizontal gene transfer, host adaptation, and virulence. Initially identified in Staphylococcus aureus, these elements are now thought to occur widely in gram-positive bacteria. They are molecular parasites that exploit certain temperate phages as helpers, using a variety

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Matters of Size: Genetic Bottlenecks in Virus Infection and Their Potential Impact on Evolution.
    Annu. Rev. Virol. (IF 6.566) Pub Date : 2016-03-10
    Mark P Zwart,Santiago F Elena

    For virus infections of multicellular hosts, narrow genetic bottlenecks during transmission and within-host spread appear to be widespread. These bottlenecks will affect the maintenance of genetic variation in a virus population and the prevalence of mixed-strain infections, thereby ultimately determining the strength with which different random forces act during evolution. Here we consider different

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Endogenous Retroviruses in the Genomics Era.
    Annu. Rev. Virol. (IF 6.566) Pub Date : 2016-03-10
    Welkin E Johnson

    Endogenous retroviruses comprise millions of discrete genetic loci distributed within the genomes of extant vertebrates. These sequences, which are clearly related to exogenous retroviruses, represent retroviral infections of the deep past, and their abundance suggests that retroviruses were a near-constant presence throughout the evolutionary history of modern vertebrates. Endogenous retroviruses

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Koala Retroviruses: Evolution and Disease Dynamics.
    Annu. Rev. Virol. (IF 6.566) Pub Date : 2016-03-10
    Wenqin Xu,Maribeth V Eiden

    A retroviral etiology for malignant neoplasias in koalas has long been suspected. Evidence for retroviral involvement was bolstered in 2000 by the isolation of a koala retrovirus (KoRV), now termed KoRV-A. KoRV-A is an endogenous retrovirus-a retrovirus that infects germ cells-a feature that makes it a permanent resident of the koala genome. KoRV-A lacks the genetic diversity of an exogenous retrovirus

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Coronavirus Host Range Expansion and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Emergence: Biochemical Mechanisms and Evolutionary Perspectives.
    Annu. Rev. Virol. (IF 6.566) Pub Date : 2016-03-10
    Kayla M Peck,Christina L Burch,Mark T Heise,Ralph S Baric

    Coronaviruses have frequently expanded their host range in recent history, with two events resulting in severe disease outbreaks in human populations. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) emerged in 2003 in Southeast Asia and rapidly spread around the world before it was controlled by public health intervention strategies. The 2012 Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Role of the Insect Supervectors Bemisia tabaci and Frankliniella occidentalis in the Emergence and Global Spread of Plant Viruses.
    Annu. Rev. Virol. (IF 6.566) Pub Date : 2016-03-10
    Robert L Gilbertson,Ozgur Batuman,Craig G Webster,Scott Adkins

    Emergence of insect-transmitted plant viruses over the past 10-20 years has been disproportionately driven by two so-called supervectors: the whitefly, Bemisia tabaci, and the Western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis. High rates of reproduction and dispersal, extreme polyphagy, and development of insecticide resistance, together with human activities, have made these insects global pests.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Biogeography of Viruses in the Sea.
    Annu. Rev. Virol. (IF 6.566) Pub Date : 2016-03-10
    Cheryl-Emiliane T Chow,Curtis A Suttle

    Viral ecology is a rapidly progressing area of research, as molecular methods have improved significantly for targeted research on specific populations and whole communities. To interpret and synthesize global viral diversity and distribution, it is feasible to assess whether macroecology concepts can apply to marine viruses. We review how viral and host life history and physical properties can influence

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The Legacy of Nat Sternberg: The Genesis of Cre-lox Technology.
    Annu. Rev. Virol. (IF 6.566) Pub Date : 2016-03-10
    Michael Yarmolinsky,Ronald Hoess

    Cre-lox of bacteriophage P1 has become one of the most widely used tools for genetic engineering in eukaryotes. The origins of this tool date to more than 30 years ago when Nat L. Sternberg discovered the recombinase, Cre, and its specific locus of crossover, lox, while studying the maintenance of bacteriophage P1 as a stable plasmid. Recombinations mediated by Cre assist in cyclization of the DNA

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The Maturation of a Scientist: An Autobiography.
    Annu. Rev. Virol. (IF 6.566) Pub Date : 2016-03-10
    Bernard Roizman

    I was shaped by World War II, years of near starvation as a war refugee, postwar chaos, life in several countries, and relative affluence in later life. The truth is that as I was growing up I wanted to be a writer. My aspirations came to an end when, in order to speed up my graduation from college, I took courses in microbiology. It was my second love at first sight-that of my wife preceded it. I

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Viruses and the DNA Damage Response: Activation and Antagonism.
    Annu. Rev. Virol. (IF 6.566) Pub Date : 2014-11-03
    Micah A Luftig

    Viruses must interact with their hosts in order to replicate; these interactions often provoke the evolutionarily conserved response to DNA damage, known as the DNA damage response (DDR). The DDR can be activated by incoming viral DNA, during the integration of retroviruses, or in response to the aberrant DNA structures generated upon replication of DNA viruses. Furthermore, DNA and RNA viral proteins

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The Impact of Mass Spectrometry-Based Proteomics on Fundamental Discoveries in Virology.
    Annu. Rev. Virol. (IF 6.566) Pub Date : 2014-11-03
    Todd M Greco,Benjamin A Diner,Ileana M Cristea

    In recent years, mass spectrometry has emerged as a core component of fundamental discoveries in virology. As a consequence of their coevolution, viruses and host cells have established complex, dynamic interactions that function either in promoting virus replication and dissemination or in host defense against invading pathogens. Thus, viral infection triggers an impressive range of proteome changes

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • In Vitro Assembly of Retroviruses.
    Annu. Rev. Virol. (IF 6.566) Pub Date : 2014-11-03
    Di L Bush,Volker M Vogt

    Assembly, part of the late stages of the retroviral life cycle, begins when the structural polyprotein Gag associates with viral genomic RNA. Ultimately, more than a thousand Gag molecules form a spherical immature virion. Maturation takes place soon after or concomitantly with virus budding and is initiated as Gag is cleaved by the retroviral protease into its constituent protein domains. The immature

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Naked Viruses That Aren't Always Naked: Quasi-Enveloped Agents of Acute Hepatitis.
    Annu. Rev. Virol. (IF 6.566) Pub Date : 2014-11-03
    Zongdi Feng,Asuka Hirai-Yuki,Kevin L McKnight,Stanley M Lemon

    Historically, viruses were considered to be either enveloped or nonenveloped. However, recent work on hepatitis A virus and hepatitis E virus challenges this long-held tenet. Whereas these human pathogens are shed in feces as naked nonenveloped virions, recent studies indicate that both circulate in the blood completely masked in membranes during acute infection. These membrane-wrapped virions are

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Parvoviruses: Small Does Not Mean Simple.
    Annu. Rev. Virol. (IF 6.566) Pub Date : 2014-11-03
    Susan F Cotmore,Peter Tattersall

    Parvoviruses are small, rugged, nonenveloped protein particles containing a linear, nonpermuted, single-stranded DNA genome of ∼5 kb. Their limited coding potential requires optimal adaptation to the environment of particular host cells, where entry is mediated by a variable program of capsid dynamics, ultimately leading to genome ejection from intact particles within the host nucleus. Genomes are

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Live Cell Imaging of Retroviral Entry.
    Annu. Rev. Virol. (IF 6.566) Pub Date : 2014-11-03
    Amy E Hulme,Thomas J Hope

    Cellular entry of retroviruses is the first critical stage of retroviral replication. Live cell imaging has been utilized to visualize the dynamics, localization, and kinetics of the viral fusion process. Here, we review the different methodologies used for live cell imaging and how the use of these techniques has better elucidated the viral entry process of avian sarcoma and leukosis virus (ASLV)

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Three-Dimensional Imaging of Viral Infections.
    Annu. Rev. Virol. (IF 6.566) Pub Date : 2014-11-03
    Cristina Risco,Isabel Fernández de Castro,Laura Sanz-Sánchez,Kedar Narayan,Giovanna Grandinetti,Sriram Subramaniam

    Three-dimensional (3D) imaging technologies are beginning to have significant impact in the field of virology, as they are helping us understand how viruses take control of cells. In this article we review several methodologies for 3D imaging of cells and show how these technologies are contributing to the study of viral infections and the characterization of specialized structures formed in virus-infected

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • AAV-Mediated Gene Therapy for Research and Therapeutic Purposes.
    Annu. Rev. Virol. (IF 6.566) Pub Date : 2014-11-03
    R Jude Samulski,Nicholas Muzyczka

    Adeno-associated virus (AAV) is a small, nonenveloped virus that was adapted 30 years ago for use as a gene transfer vehicle. It is capable of transducing a wide range of species and tissues in vivo with no evidence of toxicity, and it generates relatively mild innate and adaptive immune responses. We review the basic biology of AAV, the history of progress in AAV vector technology, and some of the

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Archaeal Viruses: Diversity, Replication, and Structure.
    Annu. Rev. Virol. (IF 6.566) Pub Date : 2014-11-03
    Nikki Dellas,Jamie C Snyder,Benjamin Bolduc,Mark J Young

    The Archaea-and their viruses-remain the most enigmatic of life's three domains. Once thought to inhabit only extreme environments, archaea are now known to inhabit diverse environments. Even though the first archaeal virus was described over 40 years ago, only 117 archaeal viruses have been discovered to date. Despite this small number, these viruses have painted a portrait of enormous morphological

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Vaccine Development as a Means to Control Dengue Virus Pathogenesis: Do We Know Enough?
    Annu. Rev. Virol. (IF 6.566) Pub Date : 2014-11-03
    Theodore C Pierson,Michael S Diamond

    Dengue virus (DENV) is a mosquito-transmitted RNA virus responsible for 390 million infections each year and significant morbidity and mortality throughout tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Efforts to develop a DENV vaccine span 70 years and include the work of luminaries of the virus vaccine field. Although vaccines have been used to reduce the global health burden of other flaviviruses

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Human Cytomegalovirus: Coordinating Cellular Stress, Signaling, and Metabolic Pathways.
    Annu. Rev. Virol. (IF 6.566) Pub Date : 2014-11-03
    Thomas Shenk,James C Alwine

    Viruses face a multitude of challenges when they infect a host cell. Cells have evolved innate defenses to protect against pathogens, and an infecting virus may induce a stress response that antagonizes viral replication. Further, the metabolic, oxidative, and cell cycle state may not be conducive to the viral infection. But viruses are fabulous manipulators, inducing host cells to use their own characteristic

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Polydnaviruses: Nature's Genetic Engineers.
    Annu. Rev. Virol. (IF 6.566) Pub Date : 2014-11-03
    Michael R Strand,Gaelen R Burke

    Virus-host associations are usually viewed as parasitic, but several studies in recent years have reported examples of viruses that benefit host organisms. The Polydnaviridae are of particular interest because these viruses are all obligate mutualists of insects called parasitoid wasps. Parasitoids develop during their immature stages by feeding inside the body of other insects, which serve as their

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Remarkable Mechanisms in Microbes to Resist Phage Infections.
    Annu. Rev. Virol. (IF 6.566) Pub Date : 2014-11-03
    Ron L Dy,Corinna Richter,George P C Salmond,Peter C Fineran

    Bacteriophages (phages) specifically infect bacteria and are the most abundant biological entities on Earth. The constant exposure to phage infection imposes a strong selective pressure on bacteria to develop viral resistance strategies that promote prokaryotic survival. Thus, this parasite-host relationship results in an evolutionary arms race of adaptation and counteradaptation between the interacting

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Cytoplasmic RNA Granules and Viral Infection.
    Annu. Rev. Virol. (IF 6.566) Pub Date : 2014-11-03
    Wei-Chih Tsai,Richard E Lloyd

    RNA granules are dynamic cellular structures essential for proper gene expression and homeostasis. The two principal types of cytoplasmic RNA granules are stress granules, which contain stalled translation initiation complexes, and processing bodies (P bodies), which concentrate factors involved in mRNA degradation. RNA granules are associated with gene silencing of transcripts; thus, viruses repress

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Glycan Engagement by Viruses: Receptor Switches and Specificity.
    Annu. Rev. Virol. (IF 6.566) Pub Date : 2014-11-03
    Luisa J Ströh,Thilo Stehle

    A large number of viruses, including many human pathogens, bind cell-surface glycans during the initial steps of infection. Viral glycan receptors such as glycosaminoglycans and sialic acid-containing carbohydrates are often negatively charged, but neutral glycans such as histo-blood group antigens can also function as receptors. The engagement of glycans facilitates attachment and entry and, consequently

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Viral Manipulation of Plant Host Membranes.
    Annu. Rev. Virol. (IF 6.566) Pub Date : 2014-11-03
    Jean-François Laliberté,Huanquan Zheng

    Plant viruses, like animal viruses, induce the formation of novel intracellular membranous structures that provide an optimum environment for coordinating diverse viral processes such as viral RNA synthesis and virus egress. Membrane reshaping is accomplished by the expression of specific membrane-associated viral proteins that interact with host proteins involved in membrane trafficking processes.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Herpesvirus Genome Integration into Telomeric Repeats of Host Cell Chromosomes.
    Annu. Rev. Virol. (IF 6.566) Pub Date : 2014-11-03
    Nikolaus Osterrieder,Nina Wallaschek,Benedikt B Kaufer

    It is well known that numerous viruses integrate their genetic material into host cell chromosomes. Human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) and oncogenic Marek's disease virus (MDV) have been shown to integrate their genomes into host telomeres of latently infected cells. This is unusual for herpesviruses as most maintain their genomes as circular episomes during the quiescent stage of infection. The genomic DNA

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Mechanisms of Virus Membrane Fusion Proteins.
    Annu. Rev. Virol. (IF 6.566) Pub Date : 2014-11-03
    Margaret Kielian

    Enveloped viruses infect host cells by a membrane fusion reaction that takes place at the cell surface or in intracellular compartments following virus uptake. Fusion is mediated by the membrane interactions and conformational changes of specialized virus envelope proteins termed membrane fusion proteins. This article discusses the structures and refolding reactions of specific fusion proteins and

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The Placenta as a Barrier to Viral Infections.
    Annu. Rev. Virol. (IF 6.566) Pub Date : 2014-11-03
    Elizabeth Delorme-Axford,Yoel Sadovsky,Carolyn B Coyne

    Throughout pregnancy, the placenta acts as a physical and immunological barrier against the hematogenous transmission of viruses from mother to fetus. Despite this, very little is known regarding the specific mechanisms by which the placenta shields the developing fetus from viral infections or about the strategies utilized by select viruses to bypass and/or weaken the placental barrier. In this review

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Thinking Outside the Triangle: Replication Fidelity of the Largest RNA Viruses.
    Annu. Rev. Virol. (IF 6.566) Pub Date : 2014-11-03
    Everett Clinton Smith,Nicole R Sexton,Mark R Denison

    When judged by ubiquity, adaptation, and emergence of new diseases, RNA viruses are arguably the most successful biological organisms. This success has been attributed to a defect of sorts: high mutation rates (low fidelity) resulting in mutant swarms that allow rapid selection for fitness in new environments. Studies of viruses with small RNA genomes have identified fidelity determinants in viral

    更新日期:2019-11-01
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