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  • Magnetic supramolecular polymer: Ultrahigh and highly selective Pb(II) capture from aqueous solution and battery wastewater
    Chemosphere (IF 5.108) Pub Date : 2020-01-27
    Zongwu Wang; Jing Zhang; Qing Wu; Xuexue Han; Mengna Zhang; Wei Liu; Xinding Yao; Jinglan Feng; Shuying Dong; Jianhui Sun
    更新日期:2020-01-27
  • Subtle effects of radiation on embryo development of the 3-spined stickleback
    Chemosphere (IF 5.108) Pub Date : 2020-01-27
    Adélaïde Lerebours; Samuel Robson; Colin Sharpe; Jim T. Smith

    The Chernobyl and Fukushima nuclear power plant (NPP) accidents that occurred in 1986 and 2011 respectively have led to many years of chronic radiation exposure of wildlife. However, controversies remain on the dose threshold above which an impact on animal health occurs. Fish have been highly exposed immediately after both accidents in freshwater systems around Chernobyl and in freshwater and marine systems around Fukushima. The dose levels decreased during the years after the accidents, however, little is known about the effects of environmental low doses of radiation on fish health. The present laboratory study assesses the effects of an environmentally relevant dose range of radiation (0.1, 1 and 10 mGy/day) on early life stages of the 3-spined stickleback, Gasterosteus aculeatus. The cardiac physiology and developmental features (head width, diameter, area) of high exposed embryos (10 mGy/day) showed no significant change when compared to controls. Embryos exposed to the medium and high dose were slower to hatch than the controls (between 166 and 195 h post-fertilization). After 10 days of exposure (at 240 h post-fertilization), larvae exposed to the high dose displayed comparable growth to controls. High-throughput sequence analysis of transcriptional changes at this time point revealed no significant changes in gene regulation compared to controls regardless of exposure conditions. Our results suggest that exposure of fish embryos to environmental radiation elicits subtle delays in hatching times, but does not impair the overall growth and physiology, nor the gene expression patterns in the recently hatched larvae.

    更新日期:2020-01-27
  • Characteristics and disinfection byproducts formation potential of dissolved organic matter released from fast-growing Eucalyptus urophylla leaves
    Chemosphere (IF 5.108) Pub Date : 2020-01-27
    Lu Liu; Yankui Tang; Weiwei Yang; Wenlu Li; Bo Fang; Yaxuan Zhong; Maozhong Yin; Yuwei Chen; Huiyi Yang
    更新日期:2020-01-27
  • Construction and application of a 1-liter upflow-stacked microbial desalination cell
    Chemosphere (IF 5.108) Pub Date : 2020-01-27
    Yi Wang; Anlin Xu; Tao Cui; Jingjing Zhang; Hongxia Yu; Weiqing Han; Jinyou Shen; Jiansheng Li; Xiuyun Sun; Lianjun Wang
    更新日期:2020-01-27
  • Environmental application of monolithic carbonaceous aerogels for the removal of emerging pollutants
    Chemosphere (IF 5.108) Pub Date : 2020-01-27
    Antón Puga; Emilio Rosales; MaAngeles Sanromán; Marta Pazos

    In this study, the performance of three commercial available monolithic carbonaceous aerogels (NQ30A, NQ60A and NQ80A) for the removal of different emerging pollutants, detected in water sources, was evaluated. More specifically, the removal of two pharmaceuticals (antipyrine and sulfamethoxazole) and an anti-fungal agent (methyl paraben), widely used in cosmetics, was studied. The NQ60A demonstrated the best adsorption characteristics and effectively adsorbed over 50 mg/g of the antipyrine and around 30 mg/g sulfamethoxazole and methyl paraben. The kinetic study of the adsorption process revealed that pseudo-first order kinetic model described very well the kinetic behaviour of the selected pollutants onto the NQ60A aerogel. After that, the regeneration of the loaded aerogel, with antipyrine alone and in presence of the other two contaminants, was evaluated. The regeneration was accomplished in two ways: (1) by using directly the loaded aerogels as cathode during the electro-Fenton treatment and (2) by its regeneration immersed in the bulk volume of electro-Fenton cell (boron doped diamond as anode and carbon felt as cathode). Both approaches can provide an effective removal of the pollutants inside the aerogel. In addition, the regenerated aerogel proved to maintain its adsorptive properties and can be successfully reused in successive cycles of adsorption-regeneration. On the basis of these promising results, it can be concluded that the proposed strategy based on aerogels adsorption and electro-Fenton regeneration is a suitable alternative for emerging pollutants removal from water streams.

    更新日期:2020-01-27
  • Effect of Pt catalyst on the condensable hydrocarbon content generated via food waste pyrolysis
    Chemosphere (IF 5.108) Pub Date : 2020-01-27
    Soosan Kim; Chang-Gu Lee; Yong Tae Kim; Ki-Hyun Kim; Jechan Lee

    A Pt catalyst supported on activated carbon (Pt/AC) was used for an environmentally friendly thermal treatment of food waste under an inert atmosphere (i.e., pyrolysis). This catalyst influenced the amounts of condensable hydrocarbons and noncondensable gases but not that of the solid remaining after the pyrolysis; in particular, it contributed to shifting the carbon distribution from the condensable hydrocarbons to the noncondensable gases for the food waste pyrolysis. Moreover, its use suppressed the generation of harmful chemical compounds, especially at high temperatures. For example, a Pt/AC-catalyzed pyrolysis at 700 °C produced about 4 times fewer benzene derivatives than the same treatment without a catalyst; this probably occurred because the Pt sites catalyzed the decyclization reaction and/or the free radical mechanism, which is dominant in the thermal cracking of carbon-containing feedstock. This study suggests that a Pt/AC-catalyzed pyrolysis would be a more environmentally benign food waste treatment method.

    更新日期:2020-01-27
  • Source identification of Zn in Erren River, Taiwan: An application of Zn isotopes
    Chemosphere (IF 5.108) Pub Date : 2020-01-27
    Yao-Jen Tu; Chen-Feng You; Tian-Yue Kuo
    更新日期:2020-01-27
  • Low-dose microcystin-LR antagonizes aflatoxin B1 induced hepatocarcinogenesis through decreasing cytochrome P450 1A2 expression and aflatoxin B1-DNA adduct generation
    Chemosphere (IF 5.108) Pub Date : 2020-01-25
    Lingqiao Wang; Lixiong He; Hui Zeng; Wenjuan Fu; Jia Wang; Yao Tan; Chuanfen Zheng; Zhiqun Qiu; Jiaohua Luo; Chen Lv; Yujing Huang; Weiqun Shu

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and microcystin-LR (MC-LR) co-existed in food and water, and were associated with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). AFB1 induced HCC by activating oxidative stress and generating AFB1-DNA adducts, while MC-LR could promote HCC progression. However, whether they have co-effects in HCC progression remains uncertain. In this study, we found the antagonistic effects of MC-LR on AFB1 induced HCC when they were exposed simultaneously. Compared with single exposure to AFB1, co-exposed to MC-LR significantly repressed the AFB1 induced malignant transformation of human hepatic cells and the glutathione S-transferase Pi positive foci formation in rat livers. MC-LR inhibited AFB1 induced upregulation of cytochrome P450 family 1 subfamily A member 2 (CYP1A2) and reduced the AFB1-DNA adducts generation in both human hepatic cells and rat livers. These results suggest that when co-exposure with AFB1, MC-LR might repress hepatocarcinogenicity of AFB1, which might be associated with its repression on AFB1 induced CYP1A2 upregulation and activation.

    更新日期:2020-01-26
  • Adsorption toward Cu(II) and inhibitory effect on bacterial growth occurring on molybdenum disulfide-montmorillonite hydrogel surface
    Chemosphere (IF 5.108) Pub Date : 2020-01-25
    Wei Wang; Tong Wen; Haoyu Bai; Yunliang Zhao; Jiaming Ni; Lang Yang; Ling Xia; Shaoxian Song
    更新日期:2020-01-26
  • Typical indoor concentrations and mass flow of cyclic volatile methylsiloxanes (cVMSs) in Dalian, China
    Chemosphere (IF 5.108) Pub Date : 2020-01-25
    Qingbo Li; Xiaoning Lv; Xiaofeng Wang; Jiaochan Hu; Xianyu Wang; Jianmin Ma

    Cyclic volatile methylsiloxaes (cVMSs), namely hexamethylcyclotrisiloxane (D3), octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (D4), decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D5) and dodecamethylcyclohexasiloxane (D6), were studied for a typical indoor environment of male and female dormitories in the campus of Dalian Maritime University (DMU) in China. An empty, frit-fitted SPE cartridge was placed on top of an Isolute ENV + cartridge, sampling cVMSs in particulate and gas phases, respectively. The highest concentration of D3, D4, D5, and D6 was 190, 460, 37,000, and 670 ng m−3, respectively. All cVMSs, especially D5, were higher in female dormitories than that in male dormitories. Emission rate from different sources of cVMSs in dormitories was calculated from a survey of the use of personal care products (PCPs) by students living in the dormitory during the sampling period. The mean emission rate (ER, mg·d−1) of D4 and D5 in male dormitories was 0.12 ± 0.01 and 0.49 ± 0.03 mg d−1, respectively, and that in female dormitories was 0.21 ± 0.05 and 46 ± 17 mg d−1, respectively. Then, we modified an existing mass balance model to predict the indoor air levels of D4 and D5 in both male and female dormitories based on the usage of PCPs. There was a good agreement for D4 and D5 concentrations in female dormitories between modeled and measured concentrations with the ratio of predicted to measured values to be 1.5 and 1.2, respectively, which indicated that use of PCPs was the main source of cVMSs in university dormitories.

    更新日期:2020-01-26
  • 更新日期:2020-01-26
  • Comparative study of arsenic toxicosis and ocular pathology in wild muskrats (Ondatra zibethicus) and red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus) breeding in arsenic contaminated areas of Yellowknife, Northwest Territories (Canada)
    Chemosphere (IF 5.108) Pub Date : 2020-01-25
    S. Amuno; L. Bedos; V. Kodzhahinchev; K. Shekh; S. Niyogi; B. Grahn

    The Giant Mine is an abandoned gold mine in Yellowknife, Northwest Territories, Canada. Throughout its operation from 1948 to 2004, the Giant Mine released heavy amounts of arsenic trioxide into the environment, thus contaminating the soil and surface water within and around the vicinity of the mine site. Chronic arsenic (As) poisoning negatively impacts wildlife health and can induce multi-organ damages including neurodegeneration and visual dysfunction depending on concentration and duration of exposure. The aim of the current study was to comparatively assess retina layer changes and prevalence of ocular lesions in wild rodent populations (i.e. muskrats and red squirrels) breeding in arsenic endemic areas of Yellowknife, near the vicinity of the abandoned Giant mine site (∼2 km radius), at an intermediate location (approximately 20 km from the mine area) as well as a reference location (spanning 52–105 km from the city of Yellowknife, Canada). Eye globes were removed from euthanized muskrats and squirrels from the three sampling locations with increasing distance from the Giant mine area. Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) was used to attempt a pan-retinal layer assessment, and histologic examination was utilized for assessment and confirmation of ocular lesions. The retinal layers were measured and statistically compared between the groups based on sampling locations to enhance the scope of histologic evaluations. The preliminary results revealed that thicknesses of ganglion cell layer (GCL), retina nerve fibre layer (NFL), and inner retina layer (IR) were statistically reduced in the muskrats from arsenic endemic area, particularly near the vicinity of the Giant mine compared to controls. Generalized ocular pathology was histologically confirmed in all the muskrats from the arsenic endemic areas with the manifestation of moderate to severe lymphocytic plasmacytic uveitis (LPU), keratitis and subcapsular cataracts. Inner retinal degeneration was also observed in all the muskrats from the arsenic endemic areas, while muskrats from the control group were predominantly normal. Three muskrats from the control group were noted to have a mild LPU and keratitis. Significant histopathologic changes were not detected in the squirrel eyes from the three groups except for incidental mild cornea scars from all the locations. In general, these preliminary findings confirm the presence of ocular lesions and retina abnormalities in wild muskrats in the Yellowknife area and provide the first evidence of visual dysfunction and impairment in wildlife inhabiting arsenic endemic areas of Canada.

    更新日期:2020-01-26
  • The physiological and toxicological effects of antibiotics on an interspecies insect model
    Chemosphere (IF 5.108) Pub Date : 2020-01-25
    Guannan Li; Xuejuan Xia; Shan Zhao; Min Shi; Fengdan Liu; Yong Zhu
    更新日期:2020-01-26
  • Effects of molecular weight distribution of soluble microbial products (SMPs) on membrane fouling in a membrane bioreactor (MBR): Novel mechanistic insights
    Chemosphere (IF 5.108) Pub Date : 2020-01-25
    Jiaheng Teng; Liguo Shen; Yanchao Xu; Yifeng Chen; Xi-Lin Wu; Yiming He; Jianrong Chen; Hongjun Lin
    更新日期:2020-01-26
  • 更新日期:2020-01-26
  • Influence of phosphorus on copper phytoextraction via modulating cellular organelles in two jute (Corchorus capsularis L.) varieties grown in a copper mining soil of Hubei Province, China
    Chemosphere (IF 5.108) Pub Date : 2020-01-25
    Muhammad Hamzah Saleem; Shafaqat Ali; Muzammal Rehman; Muhammad Shoaib Rana; Muhammad Rizwan; Muhammad Kamran; Muhammad Imran; Muhammad Riaz; Mona H. Soliman; Amr Elkelish; Lijun Liu
    更新日期:2020-01-26
  • Lead (Pb) distribution and accumulation in different plant parts and its associations with grain Pb contents in fragrant rice
    Chemosphere (IF 5.108) Pub Date : 2020-01-25
    Umair Ashraf; Mian Habib-ur-Rahman Mahmood; Saddam Hussain; Farhat Abbas; Shakeel Ahmad Anjum; Xiangru Tang
    更新日期:2020-01-26
  • Adsorptive removal of heavy metal ions using graphene-based nanomaterials: Toxicity, roles of functional groups and mechanisms
    Chemosphere (IF 5.108) Pub Date : 2020-01-25
    Siti Zu Nurain Ahmad; Wan Norharyati Wan Salleh; Ahmad Fauzi Ismail; Norhaniza Yusof; Mohd Zamri Mohd Yusop; Farhana Aziz
    更新日期:2020-01-26
  • Single-step removal of Hexavalent chromium and phenol using meso zerovalent iron
    Chemosphere (IF 5.108) Pub Date : 2020-01-24
    Selvaraj Ambika; M. Devasena; Indumathi M. Nambi
    更新日期:2020-01-26
  • In vitro oxidative stress, mitochondrial impairment and G1 phase cell cycle arrest induced by alkyl-phosphorus-containing flame retardants
    Chemosphere (IF 5.108) Pub Date : 2020-01-24
    Shengwu Yuan; Kongrui Zhu; Mei Ma; Xiaoshan Zhu; Kaifeng Rao; Zijian Wang
    更新日期:2020-01-26
  • Spatial and temporal variations of trace metal body burdens of live mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis and field validation of the Artificial Mussels in Australian inshore marine environment
    Chemosphere (IF 5.108) Pub Date : 2020-01-24
    Hao Shen; Golam Kibria; Rudolf S.S. Wu; Paul Morrison; Dayanthi Nugegoda

    The body burdens of eight trace metals: Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn, Cr, Se, Hg, and As, were measured in live mussels (LMs) Mytilus galloprovincialis at 14 coastal sites in Port Phillip Bay, Victoria, Australia in winter and summer between 2017 and 2018. The spatial and temporal variations of body burdens were evaluated. The results revealed significantly higher body burdens of Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn, Cr, and Hg in summer at the sites where the city centre and industries are located. Elevated levels of most trace metals including 3 toxic, non-essential metals (Cd, Pb, and Hg) were detected in LMs from the site of Geelong. The body burdens of Zn, Cr, Se, and As appeared higher at the sites from the Bellarine Peninsula and the mouth of Port Phillip Bay. Besides, the “Artificial Mussels” (AMs) were deployed at the same sites in summer for 28 d and retrieved when the LMs were collected. The accumulations of the eight metals were compared between AMs and LMs summer results. It indicated significant correlations for Pb, Cu, and Cr, lower correlations in Zn and Hg, and irregular correlations for Se and As. The AM results of Cd were below the detection limit of the analytical method. This study demonstrates that AMs are excellent replacement of LMs for the biomonitoring of multiple kinds of trace metals.

    更新日期:2020-01-26
  • Development of a process for the treatment of synthetic wastewater without energy inputs using the salinity gradient of wastewaters and a reverse electrodialysis stack
    Chemosphere (IF 5.108) Pub Date : 2020-01-24
    Pengfei Ma; Xiaogang Hao; Alessandro Galia; Onofrio Scialdone

    Electrochemical processes are considered very effective methods for the treatment of wastewater contaminated by organics resistant to conventional biological processes and various inorganic pollutants. Large sites that treat wastewaters usually deal with a large number of waters often characterized by different salinity contents, that could be potentially used to provide the energy necessary for the electrochemical remediation. Hence, in this work a RED process for the treatment of synthetic wastewaters contaminated by organics, without energy inputs, using the salinity gradient of different wastewaters, was studied, for the first time. It was found that two synthetic wastewaters with different NaCl content can be effectively used in a RED system to drive anodic and cathodic processes for the removal of their organic contents without external energy supplies. The effects of the salinity gradient, the external resistance and the set-up of the process was evaluated. Under optimized operating conditions, a fast and high removal of TOC (about 70% every hour) in the anodic compartment and a good stability of operating conditions for all the monitored time (10 h) were achieved. In addition, about 67% of the solution with high salinity used in the stack to provide the salinity gradient was effectively treated in the anodic compartment of the stack.

    更新日期:2020-01-24
  • Subcellular distribution governing accumulation and translocation of pesticides in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)
    Chemosphere (IF 5.108) Pub Date : 2020-01-24
    Chao Ju; Suxia Dong; Hongchao Zhang; Shijie Yao; Feiyan Wang; Duantao Cao; Shiji Xu; Hua Fang; Yunlong Yu
    更新日期:2020-01-24
  • Electrochemical pretreatment of coal gasification wastewater with Bi-doped PbO2 electrode: Preparation of anode, efficiency and mechanism
    Chemosphere (IF 5.108) Pub Date : 2020-01-24
    Jiaxin Li; Mo Li; Da Li; Qinxue Wen; Zhiqiang Chen

    Coal gasification wastewater (CGW) contains a large amount of toxic pollutants, which seriously affects the subsequent biochemical treatment. In order to investigate the efficiency of electrocatalytic oxidation on pretreatment of CGW, lead dioxide electrodes doped with PEG and Bi were successfully prepared. Scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction were comprehensively used to characterize the lead dioxide electrode and the electrochemical performance was also tested by linear sweep voltammetry curve, cyclic voltammetry curve and AC impedance. Biodegradability and toxicity of CGW were evaluated by dehydrogenase activity and acute toxicity, respectively. Results showed that the doping of PEG and Bi significantly improved the electrochemical performance and catalytic oxidation performance of lead dioxide electrodes. The degradation rate of phenol by Sn–Sb/PbO2 (PEG + Bi) electrode were 1.57 times of that by pure lead dioxide electrode. The removal of TOC and total phenols were 53.2% and 82.7%, respectively at 120 min under 40 mA cm−2 by Sn–Sb/PbO2 (PEG + Bi) electrode. The changes of biodegradability, biological toxicity and by-products were analyzed. Furthermore, 3,5-dimethylphenol was used as characteristic pollutant to study the degradation mechanism of phenolic pollutants in electrocatalytic system. According to the intermediate products detected by GC-MS, possible degradation pathways in electrocatalytic system were proposed.

    更新日期:2020-01-24
  • UV-LED/chlorine degradation of propranolol in water: Degradation pathway and product toxicity
    Chemosphere (IF 5.108) Pub Date : 2020-01-24
    Ruihan Xiong; Zhuojun Lu; Qian Tang; Xueling Huang; Huazhen Ruan; Wei Jiang; Yiqun Chen; Zizheng Liu; Jianxiong Kang; Dongqi Liu

    This study reports on the propranolol (PRO) degradation performance and product toxicity of an ultraviolet light-emitting diode (UV-LED)/chlorine process. The effects of experimental parameters including solution pH, chlorine dosage, and water matrix constituents on PRO removal were evaluated. Up to 94.5% of PRO could be eliminated within 15 min at a PRO-to-chlorine molar ratio of 1:4. The overall removal efficiency of PRO was non-pH dependent in the range of 5–9, while the initial rate was accelerated under alkaline conditions. The presence of Cl−/HCO3− had little influence on the PRO degradation, whereas either humic acid or NO3− had an obvious inhibitory effect. Radical scavenger experiments showed that both HO and Cl primarily contributed to the PRO degradation, and electron paramagnetic resonance data demonstrated the generation of 1O2. The transformation of PRO during this process led to five detected products, which exhibited a higher acute toxicity than the parent compound according to the bright luminescent bacillus T3 method. It is worth mentioning that under the same ultraviolet illumination intensity, the degradation of PRO under UV-LED/chlorine gave a better performance than UV254/chlorine, but the EEO of the former is obviously higher than the latter. So further research is required on improving the electric current to photon conversion efficiency for UV-LED. Additionally, the UV-LED/chlorine system was effective in the degradation of other drugs including sulfamethoxazole, oxytetracycline hydrochloride, and gatifloxacin, suggesting the possible application of the UV-LED/chlorine process for the removal of pharmaceuticals during wastewater treatment.

    更新日期:2020-01-24
  • Activated carbon stimulates microbial diversity and PAH biodegradation under anaerobic conditions in oil-polluted sediments
    Chemosphere (IF 5.108) Pub Date : 2020-01-24
    Stefano Bonaglia; Elias Broman; Björn Brindefalk; Erika Hedlund; Tomas Hjorth; Carl Rolff; Francisco J.A. Nascimento; Klas Udekwu; Jonas S. Gunnarsson

    Biodegradation by microorganisms is a useful tool that helps alleviating hydrocarbon pollution in nature. Microbes are more efficient in degradation under aerobic than anaerobic conditions, but the majority of sediment by volume is generally anoxic. Incubation experiments were conducted to study the biodegradation potential of naphthalene—a common polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)—and the diversity of microbial communities in presence/absence of activated carbon (AC) under aerobic/anaerobic conditions. Radio-respirometry experiments with endogenous microorganisms indicated that degradation of naphthalene was strongly stimulated (96%) by the AC addition under anaerobic conditions. In aerobic conditions, however, AC had no effects on naphthalene biodegradation. Bioaugmentation tests with cultured microbial populations grown on naphthalene showed that AC further stimulated (92%) naphthalene degradation in anoxia. Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that sediment amendment with AC increased microbial community diversity and changed community structure. Moreover, the relative abundance of Geobacter, Thiobacillus, Sulfuricurvum, and methanogenic archaea increased sharply after amendment with AC under anaerobic conditions. These results may be explained by the fact that AC particles promoted direct interspecies electron transfer (DIET) between microorganisms involved in PAH degradation pathways. We suggest that important ecosystem functions mediated by microbes—such as hydrocarbon degradation—can be induced and that AC enrichment strategies can be exploited for facilitating bioremediation of anoxic oil-contaminated sediments and soils.

    更新日期:2020-01-24
  • Sediment record of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Dianchi lake, southwest China: Influence of energy structure changes and economic development
    Chemosphere (IF 5.108) Pub Date : 2020-01-23
    Xiaohua Ma; Hongbin Wan; Juan Zhou; Duan Luo; Tao Huang; Hao Yang; Changchun Huang
    更新日期:2020-01-23
  • Are free radicals actually responsible for enhanced oxidation of contaminants by Cr(VI) in the presence of bisulfite?
    Chemosphere (IF 5.108) Pub Date : 2020-01-23
    Yuan Gao; Han-Ping Pan; Yang Zhou; Zhen Wang; Su-Yan Pang; Chao-Ting Guan; Yong-Ming Shen; Jin Jiang
    更新日期:2020-01-23
  • Mercury in Fish Marketed in The Amazon Triple Frontier and Health Risk Assessment
    Chemosphere (IF 5.108) Pub Date : 2020-01-23
    Stephani Ferreira da Silva; Marcelo de Oliveira Lima

    Fish has great socioeconomic, cultural, and nutritional importance for Amazonian populations. Despite all health benefits, fish can accumulate great amounts of mercury (Hg). The entry of Hg in aquatic trophic chains is an issue of concern to animal and human health. Higher risks of human exposure are strongly related to fish consumption. Upper Solimões population has one of the highest fish consumption rates of the Amazon. This study aimed to access the concentration of total Hg (THg) in muscle, liver, and gills of 17 species of fishes marketed in the Upper Solimões Region and Health Risk Assessment. Higher concentrations were observed in Carnivores/Piscivores. The highest THg concentration was found in liver of Cichla ocellaris (4.549 μg/g) and the lowest in gills of Hoplosternum littorale (0.002 μg/g). Most species had higher THg concentrations in muscle>liver>gills, in the Ebb period, and liver>muscle>gills, in the Flood period. Hoplias malabaricus, Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum, Plagioscion squamosissimus, Ageneiosus inermis, and C. ocellaris presented average THg concentrations above the safe limit stablished by WHO. THg levels in C. ocellaris, H. malabaricus, P. squamosissimus, P. fasciatum, and Semaprochilodus insignis were higher than those found in fish of heavily impacted areas. Signs of bioaccumulation and biomagnifications of Hg can already be observed in this region. The Western Amazon Region urgently needs government actions to inhibit Hg release in aquatic ecosystems and to advise this population on the safe amount of fish to be eaten according to species and period of the year.

    更新日期:2020-01-23
  • Sandalwood-derived carbon quantum dots as bioimaging tools to investigate the toxicological effects of malachite green in model organisms
    Chemosphere (IF 5.108) Pub Date : 2020-01-23
    Devyani Shukla; Megha Das; Dipanshu Kasade; Maneesha Pandey; Ashutosh Kumar Dubey; Sanjeev Kumar Yadav; Avanish Singh Parmar
    更新日期:2020-01-23
  • Effects of different routes of exposure to metals on bioaccumulation and population growth of the cyclopoid copepod Paracyclopina nana
    Chemosphere (IF 5.108) Pub Date : 2020-01-23
    Paul Dayras; Capucine Bialais; Baghdad Ouddane; Jae-Seong Lee; Sami Souissi
    更新日期:2020-01-23
  • 更新日期:2020-01-23
  • 更新日期:2020-01-23
  • Impact of origin and structure on the aggregation behavior of natural organic matter
    Chemosphere (IF 5.108) Pub Date : 2020-01-23
    Peiyun Wei; Fanchao Xu; Heyun Fu; Xiaolei Qu
    更新日期:2020-01-23
  • Can high rate algal ponds be used as post-treatment of UASB reactors to remove micropollutants?
    Chemosphere (IF 5.108) Pub Date : 2020-01-23
    Lucas Vassalle; María Jesús García-Galán; Sérgio F. Aquino; Robson José de Cássia Franco Afonso; Ivet Ferrer; Fabiana Passos; Cesar Rossas Mota Filho
    更新日期:2020-01-23
  • New insights into filamentous sludge bulking: The potential role of extracellular polymeric substances in sludge bulking in the activated sludge process
    Chemosphere (IF 5.108) Pub Date : 2020-01-23
    Wei-Ming Li; Xi-Wen Liao; Jin-Song Guo; Yu-Xin Zhang; You-Peng Chen; Fang Fang; Peng Yan
    更新日期:2020-01-23
  • Mercury methylation and demethylation potentials in Arctic lake sediments
    Chemosphere (IF 5.108) Pub Date : 2020-01-23
    Karista E. Hudelson; Paul E. Drevnick; Feiyue Wang; Deborah Armstrong; Aaron T. Fisk
    更新日期:2020-01-23
  • Critical study of crop-derived biochars for soil amendment and pharmaceutical ecotoxicity reduction
    Chemosphere (IF 5.108) Pub Date : 2020-01-22
    Magda Caban; Agnieszka Folentarska; Hanna Lis; Paulina Kobylis; Aleksandra Bielicka-Giełdoń; Jolanta Kumirska; Wojciech Ciesielski; Piotr Stepnowski
    更新日期:2020-01-23
  • Zebrafish (Danio rerio) ability to activate ABCC transporters after exposure to glyphosate and its formulation Roundup Transorb®
    Chemosphere (IF 5.108) Pub Date : 2020-01-22
    Jenifer Silveira Moraes; Bruna Félix da Silva Nornberg; Micheli Rosa de Castro; Bernardo dos Santos Vaz; Catiúscia Weinert Mizuschima; Luis Fernando Fernandes Marins; Camila de Martinez Gaspar Martins
    更新日期:2020-01-23
  • Changes in oxidative stress biomarkers in Sinonovacula constricta in response to toxic metal accumulation during growth in an aquaculture farm
    Chemosphere (IF 5.108) Pub Date : 2020-01-22
    Mengxu Chen; Jiayi Zhou; Jinhuang Lin; Hongchao Tang; Yifei Shan; Alan K. Chang; Xueping Ying

    Clam farming comprises an important part of China's economy. However, increasing pollution in the ocean by toxic metals has led to the bioaccumulation of toxic metals in marine animals, especially the bivalves such as clams, and the consequence of heavy metal-associated toxicity in these animals. Such toxicity can enhance the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) within the tissues of the animals. In aquatic species, oxidative stress mechanisms have been studied by measuring the antioxidant and oxidative damage index in the tissues. The objectives of this study were to investigate the levels of different toxic metals and the extent of oxidative stress responses in the clam Sinonovacula constricta at different growth periods (from May to October) in Wengyang aquafarm, an important economic shellfish culture zone in Zhejiang Province, China. Water and sediment samples taken from the aquafarm were subjected to Pb, Hg, Cd, Cr assays. Overall, the levels of these metals in the water and sediment could be considered as light pollution, though the level of Hg in the water (0.266) and Cd in the sediment (0.813) could be considered as reaching moderate pollution. In addition, the levels of these metals, H2O2, MDA and GSH content, antioxidant enzyme (CAT, SOD, GPx) activities as well as the level of metallothioneins (MT) mRNA in the tissues of S. constricta were also analyzed. The levels of Pb, Hg, Cd, Cr increased with increasing culturing time, and the accumulation of these metals was stronger in the visceral mass than in the foot. The levels of MDA and GSH, as well as the level of SOD activity in the viscera and foot of S. constricta increased with increasing metal accumulation. However, CAT and GPX activities, H2O2 level and the expression of MT initially increased and then decreased. This suggested that S. constricta might have the ability to control oxidative damage by triggering antioxidant defense in coordination with the metal sequestering response. The results also implied that toxic metal pollution should be taken into account when selecting the site to be used as an aquafarm. In addition, the visceral mass should be considered to be a good tissue for measuring the level of metal pollutants.

    更新日期:2020-01-23
  • Evaluation of fatty acid derivatives in the remediation of aged PAH-contaminated soil and microbial community and degradation gene response
    Chemosphere (IF 5.108) Pub Date : 2020-01-22
    Qingling Wang; Jinyu Hou; Jing Yuan; Yucheng Wu; Wuxing Liu; Yongming Luo; Peter Christie

    In this study, derivatives of two common fatty acids in plant root exudates, sodium palmitate and sodium linoleate (sodium aliphatates), were added to an aged Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) contaminated soil to estimate their effectiveness in the removal of PAHs. Sodium linoleate was more effective in lowering PAHs and especially high-molecular-weight (4–6 ring) PAHs (HMW-PAHs). Principal coordinates analysis (PCoA) indicates that both amendments led to a shift in the soil bacterial community. Moreover, linear discriminant effect size (LEfSe) analysis demonstrates that the specific PAHs degraders Pseudomonas, Arenimonas, Pseudoxanthomonas and Lysobacter belonging to the γ-proteobacteria and Nocardia and Rhodococcus belonging to the Actinobacteria were the biomarkers of, respectively, sodium linoleate and sodium palmitate amendments. Correlation analysis suggests that four biomarkers in the sodium linoleate amendment treatment from γ-proteobacteria were all highly linearly negatively related to HMW-PAHs residues (p < 0.01) while two biomarkers in the sodium palmitate amendment treatment from Actinobacteria were highly linearly negatively related to LMW-PAHs residues (p < 0.01). Higher removal efficiency of PAHs (especially HMW-PAHs) in the sodium linoleate amendment treatment than in the sodium palmitate amendment treatment might be ascribed to the specific enrichment of microbes from the γ-proteobacteria. The bacterial functional KEGG orthologs (KOs) assigned to PAHs metabolism and functional C23O and C12O genes related to cleavage of the benzene ring were both up-regulated. These results provide new insight into the mechanisms of the two sodium aliphatate amendments in accelerating PAHs biodegradation and have implications for practical application in the remediation of PAHs-contaminated soils.

    更新日期:2020-01-22
  • 更新日期:2020-01-22
  • Polydatin attenuates cadmium-induced oxidative stress via stimulating SOD activity and regulating mitochondrial function in Musca domestica larvae
    Chemosphere (IF 5.108) Pub Date : 2020-01-22
    Yuming Zhang; Yajing Li; Qin Feng; Menghua Shao; Fengyu Yuan; Fengsong Liu
    更新日期:2020-01-22
  • Characterization of soluble and insoluble radioactive cesium in municipal solid waste incineration fly ash
    Chemosphere (IF 5.108) Pub Date : 2020-01-22
    Atsushi Ohbuchi; Kengo Fujii; Miki Kasari; Yuya Koike

    Soluble and insoluble radioactive cesium in municipal solid waste incineration fly ash were analyzed by X-ray diffraction and gamma-ray spectrometry. A total of 60% of soluble radioactive cesium was determined using the Tessier extraction method, and it was almost same extraction rate with Japanese leaching test No.13. In addition, chloride compounds such as halite (NaCl) and sylvite (KCl) showed same behavior with soluble radioactive cesium, therefore, soluble radioactive cesium existed as a chloride (CsCl) with water solubility characteristics. Almost insoluble radioactive cesium trapped into silicate of crystalline phase or amorphous phase was eluted by hydrogen fluoride treatment. Radioactive 137Cs was released in three stages by heating treatment (untreated - 400 °C, 600 °C–800 °C, and 800 °C–1000 °C) according to decreasing amorphous content. The relationship between the concentrations of radioactive 137Cs and amorphous phase exhibited good linearity (R = 0.9278). Insoluble radioactive 137Cs was contained in inner part of the amorphous phase, and free radioactive cesium was determined from the concentration of the amorphous phase.

    更新日期:2020-01-22
  • The transport of graphitic carbon nitride in saturated porous media: Effect of hydrodynamic and solution chemistry
    Chemosphere (IF 5.108) Pub Date : 2020-01-22
    Yanji Jiang; Duo Guan; Yiman Liu; Xianqiang Yin; Shi Zhou; Guilong Zhang; Nong Wang; Huimin Sun
    更新日期:2020-01-22
  • 更新日期:2020-01-22
  • Facilitated bioreduction of nitrobenzene by lignite acting as low-cost and efficient electron shuttle
    Chemosphere (IF 5.108) Pub Date : 2020-01-22
    Guangfei Liu; Bin Dong; Jiti Zhou; Juanjuan Li; Ruofei Jin; Jing Wang
    更新日期:2020-01-22
  • Removal of perfluoroalkanesulfonic acids (PFSAs) from synthetic and natural groundwater by electrocoagulation
    Chemosphere (IF 5.108) Pub Date : 2020-01-22
    Jia Bao; Wen-Jing Yu; Yang Liu; Xin Wang; Zhi-Qun Liu; Yan-Fang Duan
    更新日期:2020-01-22
  • Catalytic reaction mechanism of formaldehyde oxidation by oxygen species over Pt/TiO2 catalyst
    Chemosphere (IF 5.108) Pub Date : 2020-01-22
    Junyan Ding; Yingju Yang; Jing Liu; Zhen Wang

    Theoretical calculations based on density functional theory (DFT) were employed to uncover the molecular-level oxidation mechanism of HCHO over Pt/TiO2 surface. All the three possible reaction mechanisms including Eley-Rideal mechanism, Langmuir-Hinshelwood mechanism and Mars-Van Krevelen mechanism were deeply investigated to determine the primary channel of HCHO oxidation on Pt/TiO2 catalyst. The adsorption energies and geometries show that HCHO and O2 are chemically adsorbed on Pt and Ti sites of the Pt/TiO2 catalyst surface, respectively. The adsorption energy of O2 (−141.91 kJ/mol) is higher than that of HCHO (−122.03 kJ/mol). HCHO oxidation reaction mainly occurs through the Eley-Rideal mechanism: gaseous HCHO reacts with activated O produced from the dissociation reaction of molecular oxygen on Pt/TiO2 surface by comparing the three possible mechanisms. HCHO oxidation reaction prefers the pathway of HCHO → H2CO2 → HCO2 → CO2. In the whole HCHO oxidation reaction, the elementary reaction of HCO2 dehydrogenation presents the highest activation energy barrier of 230.45 kJ/mol. Therefore, HCO2 dehydrogenation is recognized as the rate-determining step. The proposed skeletal reaction scheme can be used to well understand the microcosmic reaction process of HCHO oxidation on Pt/TiO2 catalyst.

    更新日期:2020-01-22
  • To what extent can the biogeochemical cycling of mercury modulate the measurement of dissolved mercury in surface freshwaters by passive sampling?
    Chemosphere (IF 5.108) Pub Date : 2020-01-22
    M. Bretier; A. Dabrin; G. Billon; B. Mathon; C. Miège; M. Coquery

    Mercury (Hg) is a pollutant of global concern owing to its great toxicity even at very low concentrations. Its toxicity depends on its chemical forms evidencing the importance to study its speciation. Dissolved Hg (Hg(d)) and methylmercury (MeHg(d)) monitoring in surface freshwaters represents a great challenge because of their very low concentrations and substantial temporal variability at different timescales. The Hg(d) temporal variability depends on the environmental conditions such as the hydrology, water temperature, redox potential (Eh), and solar photo cycle. Passive samplers represent an alternative to improve the assessment of Hg(d) and MeHg(d) concentrations in surface freshwaters by integrating their temporal variability. An original sampling strategy was designed to assess the relevance of 3-mercaptopropyl DGT (Diffusive Gradient in Thin films) to integrate in situ the temporal variations of labile Hg (Hg(DGT)) and MeHg (MeHg(DGT)) concentrations. This strategy was implemented on two rivers to study the dynamics of Hg(d), Hg(DGT), MeHg(d) and MeHg(DGT) at diurnal and annual timescales. We evidenced that Hg(DGT) and MeHg(DGT) concentrations were generally consistent with discrete sampling measurements of Hg(d) and MeHg(d) in dynamic surface freshwaters. However, Hg(DGT) concentrations were overestimated (2–16 times higher) in case of low flow or low water depth, low suspended particulate matter (SPM) concentrations and elevated daily photoperiod. The most probable hypothesis is that such conditions promoted Hg0 production, and resulted in Hg0 uptake by DGT. Thus, attention should be paid when interpreting Hg(DGT) concentrations in surface freshwaters in environmental conditions that could promote Hg0 production.

    更新日期:2020-01-22
  • Catalytic performance and debromination of Fe–Ni bimetallic MCM-41 catalyst for the two-stage pyrolysis of waste computer casing plastic
    Chemosphere (IF 5.108) Pub Date : 2020-01-22
    Tao Chen; Jie Yu; Chuan Ma; Kagiso Bikane; Lushi Sun

    A computer casing plastic waste containing brominated flame retardants (BFRs) was pyrolyzed in a two-stage vertical quartz tube reactor using iron and nickel metals modified MCM-41 catalysts. Various catalysts with different ratios of Fe and Ni were prepared and utilized to study their catalytic performance. At the presence of 20%Ni/MCM-41 catalyst, the pyrolytic yield of oil and gas reached maximum values of 49.9 wt% and 13.8 wt% respectively. The co-existence of Fe and Ni showed synergistic effect on oil composition by promoting the formation of valuable single ring hydrocarbons. With regard to the 15%Fe–5%Ni/MCM-41, 10%Fe–10%Ni/MCM-41 and 5%Fe–15%Ni/MCM-41 catalysts, the production of single ring hydrocarbons were 64.58%, 65.93% and 64.74% respectively. The bimetallic catalysts also exhibited remarkable effect on eliminating bromine from pyrolytic oil. At the presence of Fe–Ni/MCM-41, the bromine in pyrolytic oil was reduced to below 4 wt% compared with 10 wt% without catalyst. Higher amounts of Fe in the catalyst is beneficial for the debromination efficiency. The debromination process by the Fe–Ni/MCM-41 may be realized by these different mechanisms: catalytic cracking of organobromines, reaction of loaded metal oxides with HBr/SbBr3, and deposition of organobromines on the surface of catalyst.

    更新日期:2020-01-22
  • Reconnaissance sampling and determination of hexavalent chromium in potentially-contaminated agricultural soils in Copperbelt Province, Zambia
    Chemosphere (IF 5.108) Pub Date : 2020-01-22
    Elliott M. Hamilton; Richard M. Lark; Scott D. Young; Elizabeth H. Bailey; Godfrey M. Sakala; Kakoma K. Maseka; Michael J. Watts
    更新日期:2020-01-22
  • 更新日期:2020-01-22
  • Chemical behavior of fluorine and phosphorus in chemical looping gasification using phosphogypsum as an oxygen carrier
    Chemosphere (IF 5.108) Pub Date : 2020-01-22
    Jing Yang; Liping Ma; Hongpan Liu; Zhiying Guo; Quxiu Dai; Wei Zhang; Keomounlath Bounkhong
    更新日期:2020-01-22
  • The chemical species of mercury accumulated by Pseudomonas idrijaensis, a bacterium from a rock of the Idrija mercury mine, Slovenia.
    Chemosphere (IF 5.108) Pub Date : 2020-01-22
    Jean-Paul Bourdineaud; Goran Durn; Bojan Režun; Alain Manceau; Jasna Hrenović
    更新日期:2020-01-22
  • Experimental study on the optimisation of azo-dyes removal by photo-electrochemical oxidation with TiO2 nanotubes
    Chemosphere (IF 5.108) Pub Date : 2020-01-21
    Laura Mais; Annalisa Vacca; Michele Mascia; Elisabetta Maria Usai; Stefania Tronci; Simonetta Palmas

    An experimental investigation is here presented on the photo-electrochemical removal of Methyl Orange (MO), selected as a model of the organic dyes, contained in wastewaters. The process is carried out in an electrochemical flow reactor, in which titania nanotubular electrode is irradiated with a simulated solar light. Design of Experiments (DOE) technique is used to plan the experimental campaign and investigate on the single and combined effects of applied current, electrolyte flow rate, and initial MO concentration, on the specific reaction rate. The results of the DOE analysis, also combined with the study of the distribution of the intermediate products, confirm a reaction mechanism mediated by OH radicals; high applied current and low reactant concentration resulted as favourable conditions to achieve high specific reaction rate of color removal.

    更新日期:2020-01-22
  • Electro-Fenton treatment of the analgesic tramadol: Kinetics, mechanism and energetic evaluation
    Chemosphere (IF 5.108) Pub Date : 2020-01-21
    Hélène Monteil; Nihal Oturan; Yoan Péchaud; Mehmet A. Oturan

    The removal of the analgesic tramadol (TMD) from water was studied by electro-Fenton (EF) process using BDD anode. Hydroxyl radicals (OH) generated in this process are very strong oxidants and able to successfully oxidize TMD until its total mineralization in aqueous solution. The oxidative degradation of TMD was very rapid with complete disappearance of 0.1 mM (26.3 mg L−1) TMD in 10 min at 500 mA constant current electrolysis. The absolute (second order) rate constant for oxidation of TMD by OH was determined using competition kinetic method and found to be (5.59 ± 0.03) ✕ 109 M−1 s−1. The quasi-complete mineralization of the 0.1 mM TMD solution was obtained in 6 h electrolysis at 500 mA current. Several oxidation reaction intermediates were identified using GC-MS analysis. Oxalic, glyoxylic and fumaric acids were identified and their evolution during electrolysis was followed along treatment. Ammonium and nitrate ions, released during the treatment, were also considered. Based on these data and TOC removal results, a possible mineralization pathway was proposed.

    更新日期:2020-01-22
  • 更新日期:2020-01-22
  • Evolution and stabilization of environmental persistent free radicals during the decomposition of lignin by laccase
    Chemosphere (IF 5.108) Pub Date : 2020-01-21
    Yafang Shi; Kecheng Zhu; Yunchao Dai; Chi Zhang; Hanzhong Jia
    更新日期:2020-01-22
  • Intramolecular isotope effects during permanganate oxidation and acid hydrolysis of methyl tert-butyl ether
    Chemosphere (IF 5.108) Pub Date : 2020-01-21
    Maxime Julien; Didier Gori; Patrick Höhener; Richard J. Robins; Gérald S. Remaud

    Stable isotopes have been widely used to monitor remediation of environmental contaminants over the last decades. This approach gives a good mechanistic description of natural or assisted degradation of organic pollutants, such as methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE). Since abiotic degradation seems to be the most promising assisted attenuation method, the isotopic fractionation associated with oxidation and hydrolysis processes need to be further investigated in order to understand better these processes and make their monitoring more efficient. In this study, position-specific isotope effects (PSIEs) associated with permanganate oxidation and acid hydrolysis of MTBE were determined using isotope ratio monitoring by 13C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (irm-13C NMR) combined with isotope ratio monitoring Mass Spectrometry (irm-MS). The use of this Position-Specific Isotopic Analysis (PSIA) method makes it possible to observe a specific normal IE associated with each of these two abiotic degradation mechanisms. The present work demonstrates that the 13C isotope pattern of the main degradation product, tert-butyl alcohol (TBA), depends on the chemical reaction by which it is produced. Furthermore, this study also demonstrates that PSIA at natural abundance can give new insights into reaction mechanisms and that this methodology is very promising for the future of modeling the remediation of organic contaminants.

    更新日期:2020-01-22
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