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  • The electromagnetic counterparts of compact binary mergers
    Phys. Rep. (IF 25.798) Pub Date : 2020-09-18
    Ehud Nakar

    Mergers of binaries consisting of two neutron stars, or a black hole and a neutron star, offer a unique opportunity to study a range of physical and astrophysical processes using two different and almost orthogonal probes — gravitational waves (GW) and electromagnetic (EM) emission. The GW signal probes the binary and the physical processes that take place during the last stages of the merger, while

  • Beyond skyrmions: Review and perspectives of alternative magnetic quasiparticles
    Phys. Rep. (IF 25.798) Pub Date : 2020-10-14
    Börge Göbel; Ingrid Mertig; Oleg A. Tretiakov

    Magnetic skyrmions have attracted enormous research interest since their discovery a decade ago. The non-trivial real-space topology of these nano-whirls leads to fundamentally interesting and technologically relevant consequences – the skyrmion Hall effect of the texture and the topological Hall effect of the electrons. Furthermore, it grants skyrmions in a ferromagnetic surrounding great stability

  • Astrochemistry and compositions of planetary systems
    Phys. Rep. (IF 25.798) Pub Date : 2020-10-13
    Karin I. Öberg; Edwin A. Bergin

    Planets form and obtain their compositions in disks of gas and dust around young stars. The chemical compositions of these planet-forming disks regulate all aspects of planetary compositions from bulk elemental inventories to access to water and reactive organics, i.e. a planet’s hospitality to life and its chemical origins. Disk chemical structures are in their turn governed by a combination of in

  • New observables in inclusive production of quarkonia
    Phys. Rep. (IF 25.798) Pub Date : 2020-10-09
    Jean-Philippe Lansberg

    After an introduction motivating the study of quarkonium production, we review the recent developments in the phenomenology of quarkonium production in inclusive scatterings of hadrons and leptons. We naturally address data and predictions relevant for the LHC, the Tevatron, RHIC, HERA, LEP, B factories and EIC. An up-to-date discussion of the contributions from feed downs within the charmonium and

  • Complex Langevin and other approaches to the sign problem in quantum many-body physics
    Phys. Rep. (IF 25.798) Pub Date : 2020-10-07
    C.E. Berger; L. Rammelmüller; A.C. Loheac; F. Ehmann; J. Braun; J.E. Drut

    We review the theory and applications of complex stochastic quantization to the quantum many-body problem. Along the way, we present a brief overview of a number of ideas that either ameliorate or in some cases altogether solve the sign problem, including the classic reweighting method, alternative Hubbard-Stratonovich transformations, dual variables (for bosons and fermions), Majorana fermions, density-of-states

  • Statistical physics approaches to the complex Earth system
    Phys. Rep. (IF 25.798) Pub Date : 2020-10-03
    Jingfang Fan; Jun Meng; Josef Ludescher; Xiaosong Chen; Yosef Ashkenazy; Jürgen Kurths; Shlomo Havlin; Hans Joachim Schellnhuber

    Global warming, extreme climate events, earthquakes and their accompanying socioeconomic disasters pose significant risks to humanity. Yet due to the nonlinear feedbacks, multiple interactions and complex structures of the Earth system, the understanding and, in particular, the prediction of such disruptive events represent formidable challenges to both scientific and policy communities. During the

  • The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) on the international space station: Part II – Results from the first seven years
    Phys. Rep. (IF 25.798) Pub Date : 2020-09-19
    M. Aguilar; L. Ali Cavasonza; G. Ambrosi; L. Arruda; N. Attig; F. Barao; L. Barrin; A. Bartoloni; S. Başeğmez-du Pree; J. Bates; R. Battiston; M. Behlmann; B. Beischer; J. Berdugo; B. Bertucci; V. Bindi; W. de Boer; K. Bollweg; P. Zuccon

    The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) is a precision particle physics detector on the International Space Station (ISS) conducting a unique, long-duration mission of fundamental physics research in space. The physics objectives include the precise studies of the origin of dark matter, antimatter, and cosmic rays as well as the exploration of new phenomena. Following a 16-year period of construction

  • Three-nucleon forces: Implementation and applications to atomic nuclei and dense matter
    Phys. Rep. (IF 25.798) Pub Date : 2020-09-18
    Kai Hebeler

    Recent advances in nuclear structure theory have significantly enlarged the accessible part of the nuclear landscape via ab initio many-body calculations. These developments open new ways for microscopic studies of light, medium-mass and heavy nuclei as well as nuclear matter and represent an important step towards a systematic and comprehensive understanding of atomic nuclei across the nuclear chart

  • Comparing light-front quantization with instant-time quantization
    Phys. Rep. (IF 25.798) Pub Date : 2020-09-17
    Philip D. Mannheim; Peter Lowdon; Stanley J. Brodsky

    In this paper we compare light-front quantization and instant-time quantization both at the level of operators and at the level of their Feynman diagram matrix elements. At the level of operators light-front quantization and instant-time quantization lead to equal light-front time commutation (or anticommutation) relations that appear to be quite different from equal instant-time commutation (or anticommutation)

  • Entanglement in indistinguishable particle systems
    Phys. Rep. (IF 25.798) Pub Date : 2020-07-21
    F. Benatti; R. Floreanini; F. Franchini; U. Marzolino

    For systems consisting of distinguishable particles, there exists an agreed upon notion of entanglement which is fundamentally based on the possibility of addressing individually each one of the constituent parties. Instead, the indistinguishability of identical particles hinders their individual addressability and has prompted diverse, sometimes discordant definitions of entanglement. In the present

  • Neutron detection techniques from μeV to GeV
    Phys. Rep. (IF 25.798) Pub Date : 2020-07-10
    A. Pietropaolo; M. Angelone; R. Bedogni; N. Colonna; A.J. Hurd; A. Khaplanov; F. Murtas; M. Pillon; F. Piscitelli; E.M. Schooneveld; K. Zeitelhack

    Neutron-based experimental techniques have been continuously improved, refined and strengthened since the pioneering experiments conducted by Clifford Shull and Bertram Brockhouse in the mid twentieth century. The possibility to reveal structure and dynamics at different scales of distances and times, provided a deep insight into the microscopic nature of condensed matter systems. The advent of scattering

  • Where are we with light sterile neutrinos?
    Phys. Rep. (IF 25.798) Pub Date : 2020-09-05
    A. Diaz; C.A. Argüelles; G.H. Collin; J.M. Conrad; M.H. Shaevitz

    We review the status of searches for sterile neutrinos in the ∼1eV range, with an emphasis on the latest results from short baseline oscillation experiments and how they fit within sterile neutrino oscillation models. We present global fit results to a three-active-flavor plus one-sterile-flavor model (3+1), where we find an improvement of Δχ2=35 for 3 additional parameters compared to a model with

  • Spin insulatronics
    Phys. Rep. (IF 25.798) Pub Date : 2020-09-02
    Arne Brataas; Bart van Wees; Olivier Klein; Grégoire de Loubens; Michel Viret

    Spin insulatronics covers efforts to generate, detect, control, and utilize high-fidelity pure spin currents and excitations inside magnetic insulators. Ultimately, the new findings may open doors for pure spin-based information and communication technologies. The aim is to replace moving charges with dynamical entities that utilize low-dissipation coherent and incoherent spin excitations in antiferromagnetic

  • Spin-gapless semiconductors for future spintronics and electronics
    Phys. Rep. (IF 25.798) Pub Date : 2020-08-29
    Xiaotian Wang; Zhenxiang Cheng; Gang Zhang; Hongkuan Yuan; Hong Chen; Xiao-Lin Wang

    In recent years, spin-gapless semiconductors (SGSs) with parabolic and linear band dispersions have aroused great interest worldwide in the field of materials science due to their various attractive properties. In this review, the theoretical and experimental progress from 2008 to 2020 on the structure, electronic, and magnetic properties of almost all the SGSs with one-, two-, and three-dimensional

  • Sequential dynamics of complex networks in mind: Consciousness and creativity
    Phys. Rep. (IF 25.798) Pub Date : 2020-08-29
    Mikhail I. Rabinovich; Michael A. Zaks; Pablo Varona

    Today, based on brain imaging analyses, we can consider the brilliant metaphor about event discreteness of the conscious process by William James (1890) to be an experimental fact. Such events compose sequences: linguistic, episodic memory, motor behavior, etc., whose dynamics are robust, reproducible, and sensitively react to incoming informational signals. The human mind is able to process, understand

  • Advances in electrode and electrolyte improvements in vanadium redox flow batteries with a focus on the nanofluidic electrolyte approach
    Phys. Rep. (IF 25.798) Pub Date : 2020-08-19
    Sadegh Aberoumand; Peter Woodfield; Bahman Shabani; Dzung Viet Dao

    Vanadium redox flow batteries (VRFBs) are increasingly used in different large-scale stationary applications. In particular, this state-of-the-art energy storage system is used to deal with power management, peak shaving and load levelling and to support a large-scale renewable power grid. VRFBs offer many benefits such as long lifetime, flexibility, and relatively high performance; however, their

  • Yang–Mills physics in spintronics
    Phys. Rep. (IF 25.798) Pub Date : 2020-08-18
    Seng Ghee Tan; Son-Hsien Chen; Cong Son Ho; Che-Chun Huang; Mansoor B.A. Jalil; Ching Ray Chang; Shuichi Murakami

    We review briefly the origin of gauge physics as well as their modern manifestations e.g. in Yang–Mills, Aharonov-Bohm, Aharonov–Casher, and the Berry-Pancharatnam effects. Yang–Mills has its origin in the high energy physics, and has since been widely studied in condensed matter and atomic physics. Recently research in spin–orbit coupling is increasingly being cast in the light of Yang–Mills, leading

  • The anomalous magnetic moment of the muon in the Standard Model
    Phys. Rep. (IF 25.798) Pub Date : 2020-08-14
    T. Aoyama; N. Asmussen; M. Benayoun; J. Bijnens; T. Blum; M. Bruno; I. Caprini; C.M. Carloni Calame; M. Cè; G. Colangelo; F. Curciarello; H. Czyż; I. Danilkin; M. Davier; C.T.H. Davies; M. Della Morte; S.I. Eidelman; A.X. El-Khadra; A.S. Zhevlakov

    We review the present status of the Standard Model calculation of the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon. This is performed in a perturbative expansion in the fine-structure constant α and is broken down into pure QED, electroweak, and hadronic contributions. The pure QED contribution is by far the largest and has been evaluated up to and including O(α5) with negligible numerical uncertainty. The

  • COVID-19 and SARS-CoV-2. Modeling the present, looking at the future.
    Phys. Rep. (IF 25.798) Pub Date : 2020-07-28
    Ernesto Estrada

    Since December 2019 the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has produced an outbreak of pulmonary disease which has soon become a global pandemic, known as COronaVIrus Disease-19 (COVID-19). The new coronavirus shares about 82% of its genome with the one which produced the 2003 outbreak (SARS CoV-1). Both coronaviruses also share the same cellular receptor, which is the an

  • Perturbative thermal QCD: Formalism and applications
    Phys. Rep. (IF 25.798) Pub Date : 2020-07-25
    Jacopo Ghiglieri; Aleksi Kurkela; Michael Strickland; Aleksi Vuorinen

    In this review article, we discuss the current status and future prospects of perturbation theory as a means of studying the equilibrium thermodynamic and near-equilibrium transport properties of deconfined QCD matter. We begin with a brief introduction to the general topic, after which we review in some detail the foundations and modern techniques of the real- and imaginary-time formalisms of thermal

  • Fundamental composite dynamics: A review
    Phys. Rep. (IF 25.798) Pub Date : 2020-07-22
    Giacomo Cacciapaglia; Claudio Pica; Francesco Sannino

    We introduce fundamental gauge theories that can be employed to construct informed composite bright and dark extensions of the Standard Model, within and beyond the standard paradigms. The gap between theory and experiments is bridged by providing predictions and ways to test them, for example, at the Fermi scale and via precision flavor experiments. We will review time-honoured paradigms from (walking)

  • Stellar structure models in modified theories of gravity: Lessons and challenges
    Phys. Rep. (IF 25.798) Pub Date : 2020-07-21
    Gonzalo J. Olmo; Diego Rubiera-Garcia; Aneta Wojnar

    The understanding of stellar structure represents the crossroads of our theories of the nuclear force and the gravitational interaction under the most extreme conditions observably accessible. It provides a powerful probe of the strong field regime of General Relativity, and opens fruitful avenues for the exploration of new gravitational physics. The latter can be captured via modified theories of

  • The landscape of QCD axion models
    Phys. Rep. (IF 25.798) Pub Date : 2020-06-24
    Luca Di Luzio, Maurizio Giannotti, Enrico Nardi, Luca Visinelli

    We review the landscape of QCD axion models. Theoretical constructions that extend the window for the axion mass and couplings beyond conventional regions are highlighted and classified. Bounds from cosmology, astrophysics and experimental searches are reexamined and updated.

  • Networks beyond pairwise interactions: Structure and dynamics
    Phys. Rep. (IF 25.798) Pub Date : 2020-06-13
    Federico Battiston, Giulia Cencetti, Iacopo Iacopini, Vito Latora, Maxime Lucas, Alice Patania, Jean-Gabriel Young, Giovanni Petri

    The complexity of many biological, social and technological systems stems from the richness of the interactions among their units. Over the past decades, a variety of complex systems has been successfully described as networks whose interacting pairs of nodes are connected by links. Yet, from human communications to chemical reactions and ecological systems, interactions can often occur in groups of

  • The PVLAS experiment: A 25 year effort to measure vacuum magnetic birefringence
    Phys. Rep. (IF 25.798) Pub Date : 2020-06-10
    A. Ejlli, F. Della Valle, U. Gastaldi, G. Messineo, R. Pengo, G. Ruoso, G. Zavattini

    This paper describes the 25 year effort to measure vacuum magnetic birefringence and dichroism with the PVLAS experiment. The experiment went through two main phases: the first using a rotating superconducting magnet and the second using two rotating permanent magnets. The experiment was not able to reach the predicted value from QED. Nonetheless the experiment has set the current best limits on vacuum

  • Closing in on the origin of Galactic cosmic rays using multimessenger information
    Phys. Rep. (IF 25.798) Pub Date : 2020-06-03
    Julia Becker Tjus, Lukas Merten

    In cosmic ray physics extensive progress has been made in recent years, both concerning theory and observation. The vast details in direct, indirect and secondary detections on the one hand provide the basis for a detailed modeling of the signatures via cosmic-ray transport and interaction, paving the way for the identification of Galactic cosmic-ray sources. On the other hand, the large number of

  • The XYZ states: Experimental and theoretical status and perspectives
    Phys. Rep. (IF 25.798) Pub Date : 2020-05-23
    Nora Brambilla, Simon Eidelman, Christoph Hanhart, Alexey Nefediev, Cheng-Ping Shen, Christopher E. Thomas, Antonio Vairo, Chang-Zheng Yuan

    The quark model was formulated in 1964 to classify mesons as bound states made of a quark–antiquark pair, and baryons as bound states made of three quarks. For a long time all known mesons and baryons could be classified within this scheme. Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD), however, in principle also allows the existence of more complex structures, generically called exotic hadrons or simply exotics. These

  • Topological carbon materials: A new perspective
    Phys. Rep. (IF 25.798) Pub Date : 2020-05-22
    Yuanping Chen, Yuee Xie, Xiaohong Yan, Marvin L. Cohen, Shengbai Zhang

    Carbon has numerous one-dimensional (1D), two-dimensional (2D), and three-dimensional (3D) allotropic structures. The study of carbon materials has long been a major focus of material sciences and condensed matter physics. Recently, a number of topological semi-metallic carbon allotropes with vastly different topological phases have been predicted from first-principles, showing exceptionally clean

  • On the colloidal and chemical stability of solar nanofluids: From nanoscale interactions to recent advances
    Phys. Rep. (IF 25.798) Pub Date : 2020-05-08
    Omar Z. Sharaf, Robert A. Taylor, Eiyad Abu-Nada

    The outdoor deployment of solar nanofluids in practical solar photothermal conversion devices for prolonged periods of time has been an ongoing challenge. This is due to their exposure to intense solar radiation, elevated temperatures, thermal and solar cycling, and other rough operation conditions that compromise their dispersion and chemical stability. This work is an attempt to address this challenge

  • Nonperturbative properties of Yang–Mills theories
    Phys. Rep. (IF 25.798) Pub Date : 2020-05-04
    Markus Q. Huber

    Yang–Mills theories are an important building block of the standard model and in particular of quantum chromodynamics. Its correlation functions describe the behavior of its elementary particles, the gauge bosons. In quantum chromodynamics, the correlation functions of the gluons are basic ingredients for calculations of hadrons from bound state equations or properties of its phase diagram with functional

  • Electroweak radiative corrections for collider physics
    Phys. Rep. (IF 25.798) Pub Date : 2020-04-21
    Ansgar Denner, Stefan Dittmaier

    Current particle phenomenology is characterized by the spectacular agreement of the predictions of the Standard Model of particle physics (SM) with all results from collider experiments and by the absence of significant signals of non-standard physics, despite the fact that we know that the SM cannot be the ultimate theory of nature. In this situation, confronting theory and experiment with high precision

  • Gapped momentum states
    Phys. Rep. (IF 25.798) Pub Date : 2020-04-18
    Matteo Baggioli, Mikhail Vasin, Vadim Brazhkin, Kostya Trachenko

    Important properties of a particle, wave or a statistical system depend on the form of a dispersion relation (DR). Two commonly-discussed dispersion relations are the gapless phonon-like DR and the DR with the energy or frequency gap. More recently, the third and intriguing type of DR has been emerging in different areas of physics: the DR with the gap in momentum, or k-space. It has been increasingly

  • Complex systems: Features, similarity and connectivity
    Phys. Rep. (IF 25.798) Pub Date : 2020-04-15
    Cesar H. Comin, Thomas Peron, Filipi N. Silva, Diego R. Amancio, Francisco A. Rodrigues, Luciano da F. Costa

    The increasing interest in complex networks research has been motivated by intrinsic features of this area, such as the generality of the approach to represent and model virtually any discrete system, and the incorporation of concepts and methods deriving from many areas, from statistical physics to sociology, which are often used in an independent way. Yet, for this same reason, it would be desirable

  • Physics of radiation mediated shocks and its applications to GRBs, supernovae, and neutron star mergers
    Phys. Rep. (IF 25.798) Pub Date : 2020-04-13
    Amir Levinson, Ehud Nakar

    The first electromagnetic signal observed in different types of cosmic explosions is released upon emergence of a shock created in the explosion from the opaque envelope enshrouding the central source. Notable examples are the early emission from various types of supernovae and low luminosity GRBs, the prompt photospheric emission in long GRBs, and the gamma-ray emission that accompanied the gravitational

  • Dynamics and transport at the threshold of many-body localization
    Phys. Rep. (IF 25.798) Pub Date : 2020-04-08
    Sarang Gopalakrishnan, S.A. Parameswaran

    Many-body localization (MBL) describes a class of systems that do not approach thermal equilibrium under their intrinsic dynamics; MBL and conventional thermalizing systems form distinct dynamical phases of matter, separated by a phase transition at which equilibrium statistical mechanics breaks down. True many-body localization is known to occur only under certain stringent conditions for perfectly

  • Relativistic lattice Boltzmann methods: Theory and applications
    Phys. Rep. (IF 25.798) Pub Date : 2020-04-07
    A. Gabbana, D. Simeoni, S. Succi, R. Tripiccione

    We present a systematic account of recent developments of the relativistic Lattice Boltzmann method (RLBM) for dissipative hydrodynamics. We describe in full detail a unified, compact and dimension-independent procedure to design relativistic LB schemes capable of bridging the gap between the ultra-relativistic regime, kBT≫mc2, and the non-relativistic one, kBT≪mc2. We further develop a systematic

  • Integrability as duality: The Gauge/YBE correspondence
    Phys. Rep. (IF 25.798) Pub Date : 2020-03-26
    Masahito Yamazaki

    The Gauge/YBE correspondence states a surprising connection between solutions to the Yang–Baxter equation with spectral parameters and partition functions of supersymmetric quiver gauge theories. This correspondence has lead to systematic discoveries of new integrable models based on quantum-field-theory methods. We provide pedagogical introduction to the subject and summarizes many recent developments

  • Size-dependent phononic thermal transport in low-dimensional nanomaterials
    Phys. Rep. (IF 25.798) Pub Date : 2020-03-25
    Zhongwei Zhang, Yulou Ouyang, Yuan Cheng, Jie Chen, Nianbei Li, Gang Zhang

    The reduced dimensionality makes low-dimensional nanomaterials possessing diverse unusual size-dependent transport properties, due to the distinct quantum confinement, surface and interfacial scatterings for electron, photon and phonon at the nanoscale. In this review, we summarize the state-of-the-art studies on the topic of size-dependent phononic thermal transport in low-dimensional nanomaterials

  • Heavy quarkonium in extreme conditions
    Phys. Rep. (IF 25.798) Pub Date : 2020-02-24
    Alexander Rothkopf

    In this report we review recent progress achieved in the understanding of heavy quarkonium under extreme conditions from a theory perspective. Its focus lies both on quarkonium properties in thermal equilibrium, as well as recent developments towards a genuine real-time description, valid also out-of-equilibrium. We will give an overview of the theory tools developed and deployed over the last decade

  • Special geometry, Hessian structures and applications
    Phys. Rep. (IF 25.798) Pub Date : 2020-02-20
    Gabriel Lopes Cardoso, Thomas Mohaupt

    The target space geometry of abelian vector multiplets in N=2 theories in four and five space–time dimensions is called special geometry. It can be elegantly formulated in terms of Hessian geometry. In this review, we introduce Hessian geometry, focussing on aspects that are relevant for the special geometries of four- and five-dimensional vector multiplets. We formulate N=2 theories in terms of Hessian

  • Effective field theory of dark energy: A review
    Phys. Rep. (IF 25.798) Pub Date : 2020-02-15
    Noemi Frusciante, Louis Perenon

    The discovery of cosmic acceleration has triggered a consistent body of theoretical work aimed at modeling its phenomenology and understanding its fundamental physical nature. In recent years, a powerful formalism that accomplishes both these goals has been developed, the so-called effective field theory of dark energy. It can capture the behavior of a wide class of modified gravity theories and classify

  • A perspective on conventional high-temperature superconductors at high pressure: Methods and materials
    Phys. Rep. (IF 25.798) Pub Date : 2020-02-15
    José A. Flores-Livas, Lilia Boeri, Antonio Sanna, Gianni Profeta, Ryotaro Arita, Mikhail Eremets

    Two hydrogen-rich materials, H3S and LaH10, synthesized at megabar pressures, have revolutionized the field of condensed matter physics providing the first glimpse to the solution of the hundred-year-old problem of room temperature superconductivity. The mechanism underlying superconductivity in these exceptional compounds is the conventional electron–phonon coupling. Here we describe recent advances

  • Fundamentals and perspectives of ultrafast photoferroic recording
    Phys. Rep. (IF 25.798) Pub Date : 2020-02-14
    A.V. Kimel, A.M. Kalashnikova, A. Pogrebna, A.K. Zvezdin

    The ability to switch ferroics (ferro-, ferri-, antiferromagnets, ferroelectrics, multiferroics) between two stable bit states is one of the keystones of modern data storage technology. Due to many new ideas, originating from fundamental research during the last 50 years, this technology has developed in a breath-taking fashion. Finding a conceptually new way to control ferroic state of a medium with

  • Flavor structures of charged fermions and massive neutrinos
    Phys. Rep. (IF 25.798) Pub Date : 2020-02-13
    Zhi-zhong Xing

    Most of the free parameters in the Standard Model (SM) — a quantum field theory which has successfully elucidated the behaviors of strong, weak and electromagnetic interactions of all the known fundamental particles, come from the lepton and quark flavors. The discovery of neutrino oscillations has proved that the SM is incomplete, at least in its lepton sector; and thus the door of opportunity is

  • Mapping the phases of quantum chromodynamics with beam energy scan
    Phys. Rep. (IF 25.798) Pub Date : 2020-02-10
    Adam Bzdak, ShinIchi Esumi, Volker Koch, Jinfeng Liao, Mikhail Stephanov, Nu Xu

    We review the present status of the search for a phase transition and critical point as well as anomalous transport phenomena in Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD), with an emphasis on the Beam Energy Scan program at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider at Brookhaven National Laboratory. We present the conceptual framework and discuss the observables deemed most sensitive to a phase transition, QCD critical

  • Four lectures on closed string field theory
    Phys. Rep. (IF 25.798) Pub Date : 2020-01-30
    Theodore Erler

    The following notes derive from review lectures on closed string field theory given at the Galileo Galilei Institute for Theoretical Physics in March 2019.

  • Frenesy: Time-symmetric dynamical activity in nonequilibria
    Phys. Rep. (IF 25.798) Pub Date : 2020-01-27
    Christian Maes

    We review the concept of dynamical ensembles in nonequilibrium statistical mechanics as specified from an action functional or Lagrangian on spacetime. There, under local detailed balance, the breaking of time-reversal invariance is quantified via the entropy flux, and we revisit some of the consequences for fluctuation and response theory. Frenesy is the time-symmetric part of the path-space action

  • Quantitative immunology for physicists
    Phys. Rep. (IF 25.798) Pub Date : 2020-01-25
    Grégoire Altan-Bonnet, Thierry Mora, Aleksandra M. Walczak

    The adaptive immune system is a dynamical, self-organized multiscale system that protects vertebrates from both pathogens and internal irregularities, such as tumors. For these reasons it fascinates physicists, yet the multitude of different cells, molecules and sub-systems is often also petrifying. Despite this complexity, as experiments on different scales of the adaptive immune system become more

  • Two-dimensional MXenes: From morphological to optical, electric, and magnetic properties and applications
    Phys. Rep. (IF 25.798) Pub Date : 2020-01-22
    Xiantao Jiang, Artem V. Kuklin, Alexander Baev, Yanqi Ge, Hans Ågren, Han Zhang, Paras N. Prasad

    MXenes, generally referring to two-dimensional (2D) transition-metal carbides, nitrides, and carbonitrides, have received tremendous attention since the first report in 2011. Extensive experimental and theoretical studies have unveiled their enormous potential for applications in optoelectronics, photonics, catalysis, and many other areas. Because of their intriguing mechanical and electronic properties

  • On virus growth and form
    Phys. Rep. (IF 25.798) Pub Date : 2020-01-15
    Roya Zandi, Bogdan Dragnea, Alex Travesset, Rudolf Podgornik

    We review approaches aimed at deciphering the physical mechanisms responsible for viral structure and assembly. We discuss the basic principles of condensed matter physics, macroscopic electrostatics and elastomechanics as they apply to nanosized two-dimensional biomolecular shells with spherical topology and icosahedral symmetry, as well as their proper extension to nonspherical structures pertinent

  • Variable-range hopping charge transport in organic thin-film transistors
    Phys. Rep. (IF 25.798) Pub Date : 2020-01-10
    O. Marinov, M.J. Deen, J.A. Jiménez-Tejada, C.H. Chen

    The charge transport in organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs) is assessed in terms of variable range hopping (VRH), by numerical simulations, analytical analyses and comparisons to published experimental results. A numerical simulator, built on the fundamental relations for VRH, provides a simple key dependence that the sum of hopping energy and energy bending under bias is equal to the hopping energy

  • Computational network biology: Data, models, and applications
    Phys. Rep. (IF 25.798) Pub Date : 2019-12-30
    Chuang Liu, Yifang Ma, Jing Zhao, Ruth Nussinov, Yi-Cheng Zhang, Feixiong Cheng, Zi-Ke Zhang

    Biological entities are involved in intricate and complex interactions, in which uncovering the biological information from the network concepts are of great significance. Benefiting from the advances of network science and high-throughput biomedical technologies, studying the biological systems from network biology has attracted much attention in recent years, and networks have long been central to

  • Incomplete fusion reactions using strongly and weakly bound projectiles
    Phys. Rep. (IF 25.798) Pub Date : 2019-12-27
    V. Jha, V.V. Parkar, S. Kailas

    The phenomenon of incomplete fusion (ICF) using both the strongly and weakly bound projectiles below an incident energy of ≈ 10 MeV per nucleon is reviewed. Various reaction mechanisms responsible for ICF, such as projectile breakup followed by fusion, massive transfer or transfer of nucleon(s) to higher energy states of target leading to formation of a composite system have been described. Several

  • A review of recent advances in thermophysical properties at the nanoscale: From solid state to colloids
    Phys. Rep. (IF 25.798) Pub Date : 2019-12-12
    Lin Qiu, Ning Zhu, Yanhui Feng, Efstathios E. Michaelides, Gaweł Żyła, Dengwei Jing, Xinxin Zhang, Pamela M. Norris, Christos N. Markides, Omid Mahian

    Nanomaterials possess superior optical, electrical, magnetic, mechanical, and thermal properties, which have made them suitable for a multitude of applications. The present review paper deals with recent advances in the measurement and modeling of thermophysical properties at the nanoscale (from the solid state to colloids). For this purpose, first, various techniques for the measurement of the solid

  • Dark Matter through the Higgs portal
    Phys. Rep. (IF 25.798) Pub Date : 2019-12-12
    Giorgio Arcadi, Abdelhak Djouadi, Martti Raidal

    We review scenarios in which the particles that account for the Dark Matter (DM) in the Universe interact only through their couplings with the Higgs sector of the theory, the so-called Higgs-portal models. In a first step, we use a general and model-independent approach in which the DM particles are singlets with spin 0,12 or 1, and assume a minimal Higgs sector with the presence of only the Standard

  • Data science applications to string theory
    Phys. Rep. (IF 25.798) Pub Date : 2019-11-20
    Fabian Ruehle

    We first introduce various algorithms and techniques for machine learning and data science. While there is a strong focus on neural network applications in unsupervised, supervised and reinforcement learning, other machine learning techniques are discussed as well. These include various clustering and anomaly detection algorithms, support vector machines, and decision trees. In addition, we review

  • Jet substructure at the Large Hadron Collider: A review of recent advances in theory and machine learning
    Phys. Rep. (IF 25.798) Pub Date : 2019-11-18
    Andrew J. Larkoski, Ian Moult, Benjamin Nachman

    Jet substructure has emerged to play a central role at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), where it has provided numerous innovative new ways to search for new physics and to probe the Standard Model in extreme regions of phase space. In this article we provide a comprehensive review of state of the art theoretical and machine learning developments in jet substructure. This article is meant both as a

  • Geometry of quantum phase transitions
    Phys. Rep. (IF 25.798) Pub Date : 2019-11-15
    Angelo Carollo, Davide Valenti, Bernardo Spagnolo

    In this article we provide a review of geometrical methods employed in the analysis of quantum phase transitions and non-equilibrium dissipative phase transitions. After a pedagogical introduction to geometric phases and geometric information in the characterisation of quantum phase transitions, we describe recent developments of geometrical approaches based on mixed-state generalisation of the Berry-phase

  • k-core: Theories and applications
    Phys. Rep. (IF 25.798) Pub Date : 2019-11-07
    Yi-Xiu Kong, Gui-Yuan Shi, Rui-Jie Wu, Yi-Cheng Zhang

    With the rapid development of science and technology, the world is becoming increasingly connected. The following dire need for understanding both the relationships amongst individuals and the global structural characteristics brings forward the study of network sciences and many interdisciplinary subjects in recent years. As a result, it is crucial to have methods and algorithms that help us to unveil

  • Extreme value statistics of correlated random variables: A pedagogical review
    Phys. Rep. (IF 25.798) Pub Date : 2019-11-01
    Satya N. Majumdar, Arnab Pal, Grégory Schehr

    Extreme value statistics (EVS) concerns the study of the statistics of the maximum or the minimum of a set of random variables. This is an important problem for any time-series and has applications in climate, finance, sports, all the way to physics of disordered systems where one is interested in the statistics of the ground state energy. While the EVS of ‘uncorrelated’ variables are well understood

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