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  • Bubbly and Buoyant Particle–Laden Turbulent Flows
    Annu. Rev. Condens. Matter Phys. (IF 14.833) Pub Date : 2020-03-16
    Varghese Mathai; Detlef Lohse; Chao Sun

    Fluid turbulence is commonly associated with stronger drag, greater heat transfer, and more efficient mixing than in laminar flows. In many natural and industrial settings, turbulent liquid flows contain suspensions of dispersed bubbles and light particles. Recently, much attention has been devoted to understanding the behavior and underlying physics of such flows by use of both experiments and high-resolution

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Statistical Mechanics of Deep Learning
    Annu. Rev. Condens. Matter Phys. (IF 14.833) Pub Date : 2020-03-16
    Yasaman Bahri; Jonathan Kadmon; Jeffrey Pennington; Sam S. Schoenholz; Jascha Sohl-Dickstein; Surya Ganguli

    The recent striking success of deep neural networks in machine learning raises profound questions about the theoretical principles underlying their success. For example, what can such deep networks compute? How can we train them? How does information propagate through them? Why can they generalize? And how can we teach them to imagine? We review recent work in which methods of physical analysis rooted

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Discrete Time Crystals
    Annu. Rev. Condens. Matter Phys. (IF 14.833) Pub Date : 2020-03-16
    Dominic V. Else; Christopher Monroe; Chetan Nayak; Norman Y. Yao

    Experimental advances have allowed for the exploration of nearly isolated quantum many-body systems whose coupling to an external bath is very weak. A particularly interesting class of such systems is those that do not thermalize under their own isolated quantum dynamics. In this review, we highlight the possibility for such systems to exhibit new nonequilibrium phases of matter. In particular, we

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Self-Propelled Rods: Insights and Perspectives for Active Matter
    Annu. Rev. Condens. Matter Phys. (IF 14.833) Pub Date : 2020-03-16
    Markus Bär; Robert Großmann; Sebastian Heidenreich; Fernando Peruani

    A wide range of experimental systems including gliding, swarming and swimming bacteria, in vitro motility assays, and shaken granular media are commonly described as self-propelled rods. Large ensembles of those entities display a large variety of self-organized, collective phenomena, including the formation of moving polar clusters, polar and nematic dynamic bands, mobility-induced phase separation

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • The Actin Cytoskeleton as an Active Adaptive Material
    Annu. Rev. Condens. Matter Phys. (IF 14.833) Pub Date : 2020-03-16
    Shiladitya Banerjee; Margaret L. Gardel; Ulrich S. Schwarz

    Actin is the main protein used by biological cells to adapt their structure and mechanics to their needs. Cellular adaptation is made possible by molecular processes that strongly depend on mechanics. The actin cytoskeleton is also an active material that continuously consumes energy. This allows for dynamical processes that are possible only out of equilibrium and opens up the possibility for multiple

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Majorana Zero Modes in Networks of Cooper-Pair Boxes: Topologically Ordered States and Topological Quantum Computation
    Annu. Rev. Condens. Matter Phys. (IF 14.833) Pub Date : 2020-03-16
    Yuval Oreg; Felix von Oppen

    Recent experimental progress introduced devices that can combine topological superconductivity with Coulomb-blockade effects. Experiments with these devices have already provided additional evidence for Majorana zero modes in proximity-coupled semiconductor wires. They also stimulated numerous ideas for how to exploit interactions between Majorana zero modes generated by Coulomb charging effects in

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Superconducting Qubits: Current State of Play
    Annu. Rev. Condens. Matter Phys. (IF 14.833) Pub Date : 2020-03-16
    Morten Kjaergaard; Mollie E. Schwartz; Jochen Braumüller; Philip Krantz; Joel I.-J. Wang; Simon Gustavsson; William D. Oliver

    Superconducting qubits are leading candidates in the race to build a quantum computer capable of realizing computations beyond the reach of modern supercomputers. The superconducting qubit modality has been used to demonstrate prototype algorithms in the noisy intermediate-scale quantum (NISQ) technology era, in which non-error-corrected qubits are used to implement quantum simulations and quantum

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Topology and Broken Symmetry in Floquet Systems
    Annu. Rev. Condens. Matter Phys. (IF 14.833) Pub Date : 2020-03-16
    Fenner Harper; Rahul Roy; Mark S. Rudner; S.L. Sondhi

    Floquet systems are governed by periodic, time-dependent Hamiltonians. Prima facie they should absorb energy from the external drives involved in modulating their couplings and heat up to infinite temperature. However, this unhappy state of affairs can be avoided in many ways. Instead, as has become clear from much recent work, Floquet systems can exhibit a variety of nontrivial behavior—some of which

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Machine-Learning Quantum States in the NISQ Era
    Annu. Rev. Condens. Matter Phys. (IF 14.833) Pub Date : 2020-03-16
    Giacomo Torlai; Roger G. Melko

    We review the development of generative modeling techniques in machine learning for the purpose of reconstructing real, noisy, many-qubit quantum states. Motivated by its interpretability and utility, we discuss in detail the theory of the restricted Boltzmann machine. We demonstrate its practical use for state reconstruction, starting from a classical thermal distribution of Ising spins, then moving

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Fluctuations and the Higgs Mechanism in Underdoped Cuprates
    Annu. Rev. Condens. Matter Phys. (IF 14.833) Pub Date : 2020-03-16
    C. Pépin; D. Chakraborty; M. Grandadam; S. Sarkar

    The physics of the pseudogap phase of high-temperature cuprate superconductors has been an enduring mystery over the past 30 years. The ubiquitous presence of the pseudogap phase in underdoped cuprates suggests that understanding it is key to unraveling the origin of high-temperature superconductivity. We review various theoretical approaches to this problem, emphasizing the concept of emergent symmetries

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Smart Responsive Polymers: Fundamentals and Design Principles
    Annu. Rev. Condens. Matter Phys. (IF 14.833) Pub Date : 2020-03-16
    Debashish Mukherji; Carlos M. Marques; Kurt Kremer

    In this review, we summarize recent theoretical and computational developments in the field of smart responsive materials, together with complementary experimental data. A material is referred to as smart responsive when a slight change in external stimulus can drastically alter its structure, function, or stability. Because of this smart responsiveness, these systems are used for the design of advanced

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • The Physics of Pair-Density Waves: Cuprate Superconductors and Beyond
    Annu. Rev. Condens. Matter Phys. (IF 14.833) Pub Date : 2020-03-16
    Daniel F. Agterberg; J.C. Séamus Davis; Stephen D. Edkins; Eduardo Fradkin; Dale J. Van Harlingen; Steven A. Kivelson; Patrick A. Lee; Leo Radzihovsky; John M. Tranquada; Yuxuan Wang

    We review the physics of pair-density wave (PDW) superconductors. We begin with a macroscopic description that emphasizes order induced by PDW states, such as charge-density wave, and discuss related vestigial states that emerge as a consequence of partial melting of the PDW order. We review and critically discuss the mounting experimental evidence for such PDW order in the cuprate superconductors

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • The Strange Metal State of the Electron-Doped Cuprates
    Annu. Rev. Condens. Matter Phys. (IF 14.833) Pub Date : 2020-03-16
    Richard L. Greene; Pampa R. Mandal; Nicholas R. Poniatowski; Tarapada Sarkar

    An understanding of the high-temperature copper oxide (cuprate) superconductors has eluded the physics community for over thirty years and represents one of the greatest unsolved problems in condensed matter physics. Particularly enigmatic is the normal state from which superconductivity emerges, so much so that this phase has been dubbed a “strange metal.” In this article, we review recent research

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Dry Aligning Dilute Active Matter
    Annu. Rev. Condens. Matter Phys. (IF 14.833) Pub Date : 2020-03-16
    Hugues Chaté

    Active matter physics is about systems in which energy is dissipated at some local level to produce work. This is a generic situation, particularly in the living world but not only. What is at stake is the understanding of the fascinating, sometimes counterintuitive, emerging phenomena observed, from collective motion in animal groups to in vitro dynamical self-organization of motor proteins and biofilaments

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Counting Rules of Nambu–Goldstone Modes
    Annu. Rev. Condens. Matter Phys. (IF 14.833) Pub Date : 2020-03-16
    Haruki Watanabe

    When global continuous symmetries are spontaneously broken, there appear gapless collective excitations called Nambu–Goldstone modes (NGMs) that govern the low-energy property of the system. The application of this famous theorem ranges from high-energy particle physics to condensed matter and atomic physics. When a symmetry breaking occurs in systems that lack the Lorentz invariance to start with

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Nonequilibrium Aspects of Integrable Models
    Annu. Rev. Condens. Matter Phys. (IF 14.833) Pub Date : 2020-03-16
    Colin Rylands; Natan Andrei

    Driven by breakthroughs in experimental and theoretical techniques, the study of nonequilibrium quantum physics is a rapidly expanding field with many exciting new developments. Among the manifold ways the topic can be investigated, one-dimensional systems provide a particularly fine platform. The trifecta of strongly correlated physics, powerful theoretical techniques, and experimental viability have

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Topographic Mechanics and Applications of Liquid Crystalline Solids
    Annu. Rev. Condens. Matter Phys. (IF 14.833) Pub Date : 2020-03-16
    Mark Warner

    Liquid crystal elastomers and glasses suffer huge length changes on heating, illumination, exposure to humidity, etc. A challenge is to program these changes to give a complex mechanical response for micromachines and soft robotics. Also desirable can be strong response, where bend is avoided in favor of stretch and compression, even in the slender shells that are our subject.

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Higgs Mode in Superconductors
    Annu. Rev. Condens. Matter Phys. (IF 14.833) Pub Date : 2020-03-16
    Ryo Shimano; Naoto Tsuji

    When the continuous symmetry of a physical system is spontaneously broken, two types of collective modes typically emerge: the amplitude and the phase modes of the order-parameter fluctuation. For superconductors, the amplitude mode is referred to most recently as the Higgs mode as it is a condensed-matter analog of a Higgs boson in particle physics. Higgs mode is a scalar excitation of the order parameter

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Physical Models of Collective Cell Migration
    Annu. Rev. Condens. Matter Phys. (IF 14.833) Pub Date : 2020-03-16
    Ricard Alert; Xavier Trepat

    Collective cell migration is a key driver of embryonic development, wound healing, and some types of cancer invasion. Here, we provide a physical perspective of the mechanisms underlying collective cell migration. We begin with a catalog of the cell–cell and cell–substrate interactions that govern cell migration, which we classify into positional and orientational interactions. We then review the physical

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Superconducting Hydrides Under Pressure
    Annu. Rev. Condens. Matter Phys. (IF 14.833) Pub Date : 2020-03-16
    Chris J. Pickard; Ion Errea; Mikhail I. Eremets

    The measurement of superconductivity at above 200 K in compressed samples of hydrogen sulfide and in lanthanum hydride at 250 K is reinvigorating the search for conventional high temperature superconductors. At the same time, it exposes a fascinating interplay between theory, computation, and experiment. Conventional superconductivity is well understood, and theoretical tools are available for accurate

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Quantum Turbulence in Quantum Gases
    Annu. Rev. Condens. Matter Phys. (IF 14.833) Pub Date : 2020-03-16
    L. Madeira; M.A. Caracanhas; F.E.A. dos Santos; V.S. Bagnato

    Turbulence is characterized by a large number of degrees of freedom, distributed over several length scales, that result in a disordered state of a fluid. The field of quantum turbulence deals with the manifestation of turbulence in quantum fluids, such as liquid helium and ultracold gases. We review, from both experimental and theoretical points of view, advances in quantum turbulence focusing on

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Competition of Pairing and Nematicity in the Two-Dimensional Electron Gas
    Annu. Rev. Condens. Matter Phys. (IF 14.833) Pub Date : 2020-03-16
    Katherine A. Schreiber; Gábor A. Csáthy

    Due to its extremely rich phase diagram, the two-dimensional electron gas exposed to perpendicular magnetic fields has been the subject of intense and sustained study. One particularly interesting problem in this system is that of the half-filled Landau level, where the Fermi sea of composite fermions, a fractional quantum Hall state arising from a pairing instability of the composite fermions, and

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Matchmaking Between Condensed Matter and Quantum Foundations, and Other Stories: My Six Decades in Physics
    Annu. Rev. Condens. Matter Phys. (IF 14.833) Pub Date : 2020-03-16
    Anthony J. Leggett

    I present some rather selective reminiscences of my long career in physics, from my doctoral work to the present. I do not spend time on topics such as the nuclear magnetic resonance behavior of 3He, as I have reviewed the history extensively elsewhere, but rather concentrate, first, on my long-running project to make condensed matter physics relevant to questions in the foundations of quantum mechanics

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • A Tour of My Soft Matter Garden: From Shining Globules and Soap Bubbles to Cell Aggregates
    Annu. Rev. Condens. Matter Phys. (IF 14.833) Pub Date : 2019-03-11
    Françoise Brochard-Wyart

    Like The Magic Flute, my career has been paved by wonderful and unexpected stories played by enthusiastic and talented students, in close contact with experiments and industry. I participated in the birth of soft matter physics under the impulse of Pierre-Gilles de Gennes: polymers, liquid crystals, colloids, and wetting, which I later applied to the study of living matter. By teaching in the early

    更新日期:2019-03-11
  • Metallicity and Superconductivity in Doped Strontium Titanate
    Annu. Rev. Condens. Matter Phys. (IF 14.833) Pub Date : 2019-03-11
    Clément Collignon, Xiao Lin, Carl Willem Rischau, Benoît Fauqué, Kamran Behnia

    Strontium titanate is a wide-gap semiconductor avoiding a ferroelectric instability thanks to quantum fluctuations. This proximity leads to strong screening of static Coulomb interaction and paves the way for the emergence of a very dilute metal with extremely mobile carriers at liquid-helium temperature. Upon warming, mobility decreases by several orders of magnitude. Yet, metallicity persists above

    更新日期:2019-03-11
  • Multilayer Networks in a Nutshell
    Annu. Rev. Condens. Matter Phys. (IF 14.833) Pub Date : 2019-03-11
    Alberto Aleta, Yamir Moreno

    Complex systems are characterized by many interacting units that give rise to emergent behavior. A particularly advantageous way to study these systems is through the analysis of the networks that encode the interactions among the system constituents. During the past two decades, network science has provided many insights in natural, social, biological, and technological systems. However, real systems

    更新日期:2019-03-11
  • Monte Carlo Studies of Quantum Critical Metals
    Annu. Rev. Condens. Matter Phys. (IF 14.833) Pub Date : 2019-03-11
    Erez Berg, Samuel Lederer, Yoni Schattner, Simon Trebst

    Metallic quantum critical phenomena are believed to play a key role in many strongly correlated materials, including high-temperature superconductors. Theoretically, the problem of quantum criticality in the presence of a Fermi surface has proven to be highly challenging. However, it has recently been realized that many models used to describe such systems are amenable to numerically exact solution

    更新日期:2019-03-11
  • Universal Spin Transport and Quantum Bounds for Unitary Fermions
    Annu. Rev. Condens. Matter Phys. (IF 14.833) Pub Date : 2019-03-11
    Tilman Enss, Joseph H. Thywissen

    We review recent advances in experimental and theoretical understanding of spin transport in strongly interacting Fermi gases. The central new phenomenon is the observation of a lower bound on the (bare) spin diffusivity in the strongly interacting regime. Transport bounds are of broad interest for the condensed matter community, with a conceptual similarity to observed bounds in shear viscosity and

    更新日期:2019-03-11
  • The Fokker–Planck Approach to Complex Spatiotemporal Disordered Systems
    Annu. Rev. Condens. Matter Phys. (IF 14.833) Pub Date : 2019-03-11
    J. Peinke, M.R.R. Tabar, M. Wächter

    When the complete understanding of a complex system is not available, as, e.g., for systems considered in the real world, we need a top-down approach to complexity. In this approach, one may desire to understand general multipoint statistics. Here, such a general approach is presented and discussed based on examples from turbulence and sea waves. Our main idea is based on the cascade picture of turbulence

    更新日期:2019-03-11
  • Intertwined Vestigial Order in Quantum Materials: Nematicity and Beyond
    Annu. Rev. Condens. Matter Phys. (IF 14.833) Pub Date : 2019-03-11
    Rafael M. Fernandes, Peter P. Orth, Jörg Schmalian

    A hallmark of the phase diagrams of quantum materials is the existence of multiple electronic ordered states, which, in many cases, are not independent competing phases, but instead display a complex intertwinement. In this review, we focus on a particular realization of intertwined orders: a primary phase characterized by a multi-component order parameter and a fluctuation-driven vestigial phase characterized

    更新日期:2019-03-11
  • Superfluid 3He in Aerogel
    Annu. Rev. Condens. Matter Phys. (IF 14.833) Pub Date : 2019-03-11
    W.P. Halperin

    Superfluid 3He is an unconventional neutral superfluid in a p-wave state with three different superfluid phases, each identified by a unique set of characteristic broken symmetries and nontrivial topology. Despite natural immunity of 3He from defects and impurity of any kind, it has been found that they can be artificially introduced with high-porosity silica aerogel. Furthermore, it has been shown

    更新日期:2019-03-11
  • From Stochastic Thermodynamics to Thermodynamic Inference
    Annu. Rev. Condens. Matter Phys. (IF 14.833) Pub Date : 2019-03-11
    Udo Seifert

    For a large class of nonequilibrium systems, thermodynamic notions like work, heat, and, in particular, entropy production can be identified on the level of fluctuating dynamical trajectories. Within stochastic thermodynamics various fluctuation theorems relating these quantities have been proven. Their application to experimental systems requires that all relevant mesostates are accessible. Recent

    更新日期:2019-03-11
  • Thermodynamics in Single-Electron Circuits and Superconducting Qubits
    Annu. Rev. Condens. Matter Phys. (IF 14.833) Pub Date : 2019-03-11
    J.P. Pekola, I.M. Khaymovich

    Classical and quantum electronic circuits provide ideal platforms to investigate stochastic thermodynamics, and they have served as a stepping stone to realize Maxwell's Demons with highly controllable protocols. In this article, we first review the central thermal phenomena in quantum nanostructures. Thermometry and basic refrigeration methods are described as enabling tools for thermodynamics experiments

    更新日期:2019-03-11
  • Unveiling the Active Nature of Living-Membrane Fluctuations and Mechanics
    Annu. Rev. Condens. Matter Phys. (IF 14.833) Pub Date : 2019-03-11
    Hervé Turlier, Timo Betz

    Soft-condensed matter physics has provided, in the past decades, many of the relevant concepts and methods allowing successful description of living cells and biological tissues. This recent quantitative physical description of biological systems has profoundly advanced our understanding of life, which is shifting from a descriptive to a predictive level. Like other active materials investigated in

    更新日期:2019-03-11
  • Disorder in Quantum Many-Body Systems
    Annu. Rev. Condens. Matter Phys. (IF 14.833) Pub Date : 2019-03-11
    Thomas Vojta

    Impurities, defects, and other types of imperfections are ubiquitous in realistic quantum many-body systems and essentially unavoidable in solid state materials. Often, such random disorder is viewed purely negatively as it is believed to prevent interesting new quantum states of matter from forming and to smear out sharp features associated with the phase transitions between them. However, disorder

    更新日期:2019-03-11
  • Brittle Fracture Theory Describes the Onset of Frictional Motion
    Annu. Rev. Condens. Matter Phys. (IF 14.833) Pub Date : 2019-03-11
    Ilya Svetlizky, Elsa Bayart, Jay Fineberg

    Contacting bodies subjected to sufficiently large applied shear will undergo frictional sliding. The onset of this motion is mediated by dynamically propagating fronts, akin to earthquakes, that rupture the discrete contacts that form the interface separating the bodies. Macroscopic motion commences only after these ruptures have traversed the entire interface. Comparison of measured rupture dynamics

    更新日期:2019-03-11
  • From Biology to Physics and Back: The Problem of Brownian Movement
    Annu. Rev. Condens. Matter Phys. (IF 14.833) Pub Date : 2019-03-11
    Albert Libchaber

    This article focuses on the history of theoretical ideas but also on the developments of experimental tools. The experiments in our laboratory are used to illustrate the various developments associated with Brownian movement. In the first part of this review, we give an overview of the theory. We insist on the pre-Einstein approach to the problem by Lord Rayleigh, Bachelier, and Smoluchowski. In the

    更新日期:2019-03-11
  • Fractons
    Annu. Rev. Condens. Matter Phys. (IF 14.833) Pub Date : 2019-03-11
    Rahul M. Nandkishore, Michael Hermele

    Fracton phases constitute a new class of quantum state of matter. They are characterized by excitations that exhibit restricted mobility, being either immobile under local Hamiltonian dynamics or mobile only in certain directions. These phases do not wholly fit into any of the existing paradigms but connect to areas including glassy quantum dynamics, topological order, spin liquids, elasticity theory

    更新日期:2019-03-11
  • Square Lattice Iridates
    Annu. Rev. Condens. Matter Phys. (IF 14.833) Pub Date : 2019-03-11
    Joel Bertinshaw, Y.K. Kim, Giniyat Khaliullin, B.J. Kim

    Over the past few years, Sr2IrO4, a single-layer member of the Ruddlesden–Popper series iridates, has received much attention as a close analog of cuprate high-temperature superconductors. Although there is not yet firm evidence for superconductivity, a remarkable range of cuprate phenomenology has been reproduced in electron- and hole-doped iridates including pseudogaps, Fermi arcs, and d-wave gaps

    更新日期:2019-03-11
  • Sign-Problem-Free Fermionic Quantum Monte Carlo: Developments and Applications
    Annu. Rev. Condens. Matter Phys. (IF 14.833) Pub Date : 2019-03-11
    Zi-Xiang Li, Hong Yao

    Reliable simulations of correlated quantum systems, including high-temperature superconductors and frustrated magnets, are increasingly desired nowadays to further our understanding of essential features in such systems. Quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) is a unique numerically exact and intrinsically unbiased method to simulate interacting quantum many-body systems. More importantly, when QMC simulations

    更新日期:2019-03-11
  • Frustrated Quantum Rare-Earth Pyrochlores
    Annu. Rev. Condens. Matter Phys. (IF 14.833) Pub Date : 2019-03-11
    Jeffrey G. Rau, Michel J.P. Gingras

    In this review, we provide an introduction to the physics of a series of frustrated quantum rare-earth pyrochlores. We first give a background on the microscopic single- and two-ion physics of these materials, discussing the origins and properties of their exchange interactions and their minimal low-energy effective models before outlining what is known about their classical and quantum phases. We

    更新日期:2019-03-11
  • Floquet Engineering of Quantum Materials
    Annu. Rev. Condens. Matter Phys. (IF 14.833) Pub Date : 2019-03-11
    Takashi Oka, Sota Kitamura

    Floquet engineering, the control of quantum systems using periodic driving, is an old concept in condensed matter physics dating back to ideas such as the inverse Faraday effect. However, there is a renewed interest in this concept owing to (a) the rapid developments in laser and ultrafast spectroscopy techniques, (b) discovery and understanding of various “quantum materials” hosting interesting exotic

    更新日期:2019-03-11
  • The Remarkable Underlying Ground States of Cuprate Superconductors
    Annu. Rev. Condens. Matter Phys. (IF 14.833) Pub Date : 2019-03-11
    Cyril Proust, Louis Taillefer

    Cuprates exhibit exceptionally strong superconductivity. To understand why, it is essential to elucidate the nature of the electronic interactions that cause pairing. Superconductivity occurs on the backdrop of several underlying electronic phases, including a doped Mott insulator at low doping, a strange metal at high doping, and an enigmatic pseudogap phase in between—inside which a phase of charge-density

    更新日期:2019-03-11
  • Wrapping Liquids, Solids, and Gases in Thin Sheets
    Annu. Rev. Condens. Matter Phys. (IF 14.833) Pub Date : 2019-03-11
    Joseph D. Paulsen

    Many objects in nature and industry are wrapped in a thin sheet to enhance their chemical, mechanical, or optical properties. Similarly, there are a variety of methods for wrapping, from pressing a film onto a hard substrate to inflating a closed membrane, to spontaneously wrapping droplets using capillary forces. Each of these settings raises challenging nonlinear problems involving the geometry and

    更新日期:2019-03-11
  • A Field Guide to Spin Liquids
    Annu. Rev. Condens. Matter Phys. (IF 14.833) Pub Date : 2019-03-11
    J. Knolle, R. Moessner

    Spin liquids are collective phases of quantum matter that have eluded discovery in correlated magnetic materials for over half a century. Theoretical models of these enigmatic topological phases are no longer in short supply. In experiment there also exist plenty of promising candidate materials for their realization. One of the central challenges for the clear diagnosis of a spin liquid has been to

    更新日期:2019-03-11
  • Pushing Boundaries: My Personal and Scientific Journey
    Annu. Rev. Condens. Matter Phys. (IF 14.833) Pub Date : 2018-03-12
    Myriam P. Sarachik

    This autobiographical narrative offers a brief account of my journey and adventures in condensed matter physics (a.k.a. solid state physics) and some of the personal events that shaped my life and my career: my early years in Europe, my family's escape from the Nazis, growing up in Cuba, the difficult road into a field that was essentially closed to women, a personal disaster that knocked the wind

    更新日期:2018-03-12
  • Physics of the Kitaev Model: Fractionalization, Dynamic Correlations, and Material Connections
    Annu. Rev. Condens. Matter Phys. (IF 14.833) Pub Date : 2018-03-12
    M. Hermanns, I. Kimchi, J. Knolle

    Quantum spin liquids have fascinated condensed matter physicists for decades because of their unusual properties such as spin fractionalization and long-range entanglement. Unlike conventional symmetry breaking, the topological order underlying quantum spin liquids is hard to detect experimentally. Even theoretical models are scarce for which the ground state is established to be a quantum spin liquid

    更新日期:2018-03-12
  • High-Dimensional Disorder-Driven Phenomena in Weyl Semimetals, Semiconductors, and Related Systems
    Annu. Rev. Condens. Matter Phys. (IF 14.833) Pub Date : 2018-03-12
    Sergey V. Syzranov, Leo Radzihovsky

    It is commonly believed that a noninteracting disordered electronic system can undergo only the Anderson metal-insulator transition. It has been suggested, however, that a broad class of systems can display disorder-driven transitions distinct from Anderson localization that have manifestations in the disorder-averaged density of states, conductivity, and other observables. Such transitions have received

    更新日期:2018-03-12
  • Quantum Order-by-Disorder in Strongly Correlated Metals
    Annu. Rev. Condens. Matter Phys. (IF 14.833) Pub Date : 2018-03-12
    Andrew G. Green, Gareth Conduit, Frank Krüger

    Entropic forces in classical many-body systems, e.g., colloidal suspensions, can lead to the formation of new phases. Quantum fluctuations can have similar effects: spin fluctuations drive the superfluidity of helium-3, and a similar mechanism operating in metals can give rise to superconductivity. It is conventional to discuss the latter in terms of the forces induced by the quantum fluctuations.

    更新日期:2018-03-12
  • From Patterns to Function in Living Systems: Dryland Ecosystems as a Case Study
    Annu. Rev. Condens. Matter Phys. (IF 14.833) Pub Date : 2018-03-12
    Ehud Meron

    Spatial patterns are ubiquitous in animate matter. Besides their intricate structure and beauty they generally play functional roles. The capacity of living systems to remain functional in changing environments is a question of utmost importance, but its intimate relationship to pattern formation is largely unexplored. Here, we address this relationship using dryland vegetation as a case study. Following

    更新日期:2018-03-12
  • Experimental Insights into Ground-State Selection of Quantum XY Pyrochlores
    Annu. Rev. Condens. Matter Phys. (IF 14.833) Pub Date : 2018-03-12
    Alannah M. Hallas, Jonathan Gaudet, Bruce D. Gaulin

    Extensive experimental investigations of the magnetic structures and excitations in the XY pyrochlores have been carried out over the past decade. Three families of XY pyrochlores have emerged: Yb2B2O7, Er2B2O7, and, most recently, Co2F7. In each case, the magnetic cation (either Yb, Er, or Co) exhibits XY anisotropy within the local pyrochlore coordinates, a consequence of crystal field effects. Materials

    更新日期:2018-03-12
  • The Key Ingredients of the Electronic Structure of FeSe
    Annu. Rev. Condens. Matter Phys. (IF 14.833) Pub Date : 2018-03-12
    Amalia I. Coldea, Matthew D. Watson

    FeSe is a fascinating superconducting material at the frontier of research in condensed matter physics. Here, we provide an overview of the current understanding of the electronic structure of FeSe, focusing in particular on its low-energy electronic structure as determined from angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, quantum oscillations, and magnetotransport measurements of single-crystal samples

    更新日期:2018-03-12
  • Focused Ion Beam Microstructuring of Quantum Matter
    Annu. Rev. Condens. Matter Phys. (IF 14.833) Pub Date : 2018-03-12
    Philip J.W. Moll

    Focused ion beam (FIB) machining promises exciting new possibilities for the study of quantum materials through precise control over the shape and geometry of single crystals on the submicrometer scale. It offers viable routes to fabricate high-quality mesoscale structures from materials that cannot yet be grown in thin-film form and to enhance the experimentally accessible signatures of new physical

    更新日期:2018-03-12
  • Polymers in Fluid Flows
    Annu. Rev. Condens. Matter Phys. (IF 14.833) Pub Date : 2018-03-12
    Roberto Benzi, Emily S.C. Ching

    The interaction of flexible polymers with fluid flows leads to a number of intriguing phenomena observed in laboratory experiments, namely drag reduction, elastic turbulence, and heat transport modification in natural convection, and is one of the most challenging subjects in soft matter physics. In this review, we examine our present knowledge on the subject. Our present knowledge is mostly based

    更新日期:2018-03-12
  • Adaptation in Living Systems
    Annu. Rev. Condens. Matter Phys. (IF 14.833) Pub Date : 2018-03-12
    Yuhai Tu, Wouter-Jan Rappel

    Adaptation refers to the biological phenomenon where living systems change their internal states in response to changes in their environments in order to maintain certain key functions critical for their survival and fitness. Adaptation is one of the most ubiquitous and arguably one of the most fundamental properties of living systems. It occurs throughout all biological scales, from adaptation of

    更新日期:2018-03-12
  • Liquid Crystal Colloids
    Annu. Rev. Condens. Matter Phys. (IF 14.833) Pub Date : 2018-03-12
    Ivan I. Smalyukh

    Colloids are abundant in nature, science, and technology, with examples ranging from milk to quantum dots and the colloidal atom paradigm. Similarly, liquid crystal ordering is important in contexts ranging from biological membranes to laboratory models of cosmic strings and liquid crystal displays in consumer devices. Some of the most exciting recent developments in both of these soft matter fields

    更新日期:2018-03-12
  • Recent Developments in Non-Fermi Liquid Theory
    Annu. Rev. Condens. Matter Phys. (IF 14.833) Pub Date : 2018-03-12
    Sung-Sik Lee

    Non-Fermi liquids are unconventional metals whose physical properties deviate qualitatively from those of noninteracting fermions due to strong quantum fluctuations near Fermi surfaces. They arise when metals are subject to singular interactions mediated by soft collective modes. In the absence of well-defined quasiparticles, universal physics of non-Fermi liquids is captured by interacting field theories

    更新日期:2018-03-12
  • Routes to High-Temperature Superconductivity: A Lesson from FeSe/SrTiO3
    Annu. Rev. Condens. Matter Phys. (IF 14.833) Pub Date : 2018-03-12
    Dung-Hai Lee

    Raising the superconducting transition temperature to a point where applications are practical is one of the most important challenges in science. In this review, we aim at gaining insights on the Tc controlling factors for a particular high-temperature superconductor family—the FeSe-based superconductors. In particular, we discuss the mechanisms by which the Cooper pairing temperature is enhanced

    更新日期:2018-03-12
  • Capillary Assembly of Colloids: Interactions on Planar and Curved Interfaces
    Annu. Rev. Condens. Matter Phys. (IF 14.833) Pub Date : 2018-03-12
    Iris B. Liu, Nima Sharifi-Mood, Kathleen J. Stebe

    In directed assembly, small building blocks are assembled into an organized structure under the influence of guiding fields. Capillary interactions provide a versatile route for structure formation. Colloids adsorbed on fluid interfaces distort the interface, which creates an associated energy field. When neighboring distortions overlap, colloids interact to minimize interfacial area. Contact line

    更新日期:2018-03-12
  • Anyon Condensation and Its Applications
    Annu. Rev. Condens. Matter Phys. (IF 14.833) Pub Date : 2018-03-12
    F.J. Burnell

    Bose condensation is central to our understanding of quantum phases of matter. Here, we review Bose condensation in topologically ordered phases (also called topological symmetry breaking), where the condensing bosons have nontrivial mutual statistics with other quasiparticles in the system. We give a nontechnical overview of the relationship between the phases before and after condensation, drawing

    更新日期:2018-03-12
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