• Rev. Mod. Phys. (IF 38.296) Pub Date :
Chandra M. Varma

Abstract not available

更新日期：2020-02-19
• Rev. Mod. Phys. (IF 38.296) Pub Date :
K. B. Wharton and N. Argaman

Bell’s Theorem rules out many potential reformulations of quantum mechanics, but within a generalized framework, it does not exclude all locally-mediated'' models. Such models describe the correlations between entangled particles as mediated by intermediate parameters which track the particle world-lines and respect Lorentz covariance. These locally-mediated models require the relaxation of an arrow-of-time assumption which is typically taken for granted. Specifically, some of the mediating parameters in these models must functionally depend on measurement settings in their future, \emph{i.e.}, on input parameters associated with later times. This option (often calledretrocausal’‘) has been repeatedly pointed out in the literature, but the exploration of explicit locally-mediated toy-models capable of describing specific entanglement phenomena has begun only in the past decade. A brief survey of such models is included here. These models provide a continuous and consistent description of events associated with spacetime locations, with aspects that are solved "all-at-once" rather than unfolding from the past to the future. The tension between quantum mechanics and relativity which is usually associated with Bell’s Theorem does not occur here. Unlike conventional quantum models, the number of parameters needed to specify the state of a system does not grow exponentially with the number of entangled particles. The promise of generalizing such models to account for all quantum phenomena is identified as a grand challenge.

更新日期：2020-02-14
• Rev. Mod. Phys. (IF 38.296) Pub Date :
H. -W. Hammer, Sebastian König, and U. van Kolck

The nuclear physics landscape has been redesigned as} a sequence of effective field theories (EFTs) connected to the Standard Model through symmetries and lattice simulations of Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD). EFTs in this sequence are expansions around different low-energy limits of QCD, each with its own characteristics, scales, and ranges of applicability regarding energy and number of nucleons. We review each of the three main nuclear EFTs—Chiral, Pionless, Halo/Cluster—highlighting their similarities, differences, and connections. In doing so, we survey the structural properties and reactions of nuclei that have been derived from the solution of the few- and many-body problem built upon EFT input.

更新日期：2020-02-04
• Rev. Mod. Phys. (IF 38.296) Pub Date :
Feihu Xu, Xiongfeng Ma, Qiang Zhang, Hoi-Kwong Lo, and Jian-Wei Pan

In principle, quantum key distribution (QKD) offers information-theoretic security based on the laws of physics. In practice, however, the imperfections of realistic QKD de-vices might introduce deviations from the idealized models used in the security analysis. Can quantum code-breakers successfully hack real QKD systems by exploiting the side channels? Can quantum code-makers design innovative counter-measures to foil quantum code-breakers? This article reviews theoretical and experimental progress in the practical security aspects of quantum code-making and quantum code-breaking. After numerous efforts, researchers have extensively understood and managed the practical imperfections, and the recent advances, such as the measurement-device-independent QKD protocol, have closed the critical side channels in the physical implementations, enabling secure QKD with realistic devices.

更新日期：2020-02-04
• Rev. Mod. Phys. (IF 38.296) Pub Date :
Mauro L. Mugnai, Changbong Hyeon, Michael Hinczewski, and D. Thirumalai

Many biological functions are executed by molecular machines, which like man made motors consume energy and convert it into mechanical work. Biological machines have evolved to transport cargo, facilitate folding of proteins and RNA, remodel chromatin and replicate DNA. A common aspect of these machines is that their functions are driven by fuel provided by hydrolysis of ATP or GTP, thus driving them out of equilibrium. It is a challenge to provide a general framework for understanding the functions of biological machines, such as molecular motors (kinesin, dynein, and myosin), molecular chaperones, and helicases. Using these machines, whose structures have little resemblance to one another, as prototypical examples, we describe a few general theoretical methods that have provided insights into their functions. Although the theories rely on coarse-graining of these complex systems they have proven useful in not only accounting for many {} experiments but also address questions such as how the trade-off between precision, energetic costs and optimal performances are balanced. However, many complexities associated with biological machines will require one to go beyond current theoretical methods. We point out that simple point mutations in the enzyme could drastically alter functions, making the motors bi-directional or result in unexpected diseases or dramatically restrict the capacity of molecular chaperones to help proteins fold. These examples are reminders that while the search for principles of generality in biology is intellectually stimulating, one also ought to keep in mind that molecular details must be accounted for to develop a deeper understanding of processes driven by biological machines. Going beyond generic descriptions of {} behavior to making genuine understanding of {} functions will likely remain a major challenge for some time to come. In this context, the combination of careful experiments and the use of physics and physical chemistry principles will be useful in elucidating the rules governing the workings of biological machines.

更新日期：2020-01-29
• Rev. Mod. Phys. (IF 38.296) Pub Date :
Morgan W. Mitchell and Silvana Palacios Alvarez

Abstract not available

更新日期：2020-01-23
• Rev. Mod. Phys. (IF 38.296) Pub Date :
A. Avsar, H. Ochoa, F. Guinea, B. Özyilmaz, B. J. van Wees, and I. J. Vera-Marun

After the rst unequivocal demonstration of spin transport in graphene (Tombros et al., 2007), surprisingly at room temperature, it was quickly realized that this novel mate- rial was relevant for both fundamental spintronics and future applications. Over the decade since, exciting results have made the eld of graphene spintronics blossom, and a second generation of studies has extended to new two-dimensional (2D) compounds. This Colloquium reviews recent theoretical and experimental advances on electronic spin transport in graphene and related 2D materials, focusing on emergent phenomena in van der Waals heterostructures and the new perspectives provided by them. These phenomena include proximity-enabled spin-orbit ects, the coupling of electronic spin to light, electrical tunability, and 2D magnetism.

更新日期：2020-01-16
• Rev. Mod. Phys. (IF 38.296) Pub Date :
Stefan Kirchner, Silke Paschen, Qiuyun Chen, Steffen Wirth, Donglai Feng, Joe D. Thompson, and Qimiao Si

Angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) have become indispensable tools in the study of correlated quantum materials. Both probe complementary aspects of the single-particle excitation spectrum. Taken together, ARPES and STM have the potential to explore properties of the electronic Green function, a central object of many-body theory. In this article, we explicate this potential with a focus on heavy-electron quantum criticality, especially the role of Kondo destruction. We discuss how to probe the Kondo destruction effect across the quantum critical point using ARPES and STM measurements. We place particular emphasis on the question of how to distinguish between the signatures of the initial onset of hybridization-gap formation, which is the high-energy" physics to be expected in all heavy-electron systems, and those of Kondo destruction, which characterizes the low-energy physics and, hence, the nature of quantum criticality. We survey recent progress and possible challenges in the experimental investigations, compare the STM and ARPES spectra for several quantum critical heavy-electron compounds, and outline the prospects for further advances.

更新日期：2020-01-07
• Rev. Mod. Phys. (IF 38.296) Pub Date : 2019-12-30
Jihn E. Kim and Gianpaolo Carosi

DOI:https://doi.org/10.1103/RevModPhys.91.049902

更新日期：2019-12-30
• Rev. Mod. Phys. (IF 38.296) Pub Date : 2019-12-30
Antonio Ortiz-Ambriz, Cristiano Nisoli, Charles Reichhardt, Cynthia J. O. Reichhardt, and Pietro Tierno
更新日期：2019-12-30
• Rev. Mod. Phys. (IF 38.296) Pub Date : 2019-12-24
Jacob Linder and Alexander V. Balatsky
更新日期：2019-12-25
• Rev. Mod. Phys. (IF 38.296) Pub Date : 2019-12-20
Xiaona Fang, Karsten Kruse, Ting Lu, and Jin Wang
更新日期：2019-12-21
• Rev. Mod. Phys. (IF 38.296) Pub Date : 2019-12-12
Roman Kogler, Benjamin Nachman, Alexander Schmidt, Lily Asquith, Emma Winkels, Mario Campanelli, Chris Delitzsch, Philip Harris, Andreas Hinzmann, Deepak Kar, Christine McLean, Justin Pilot, Yuta Takahashi, Nhan Tran, Caterina Vernieri, and Marcel Vos
更新日期：2019-12-13
• Rev. Mod. Phys. (IF 38.296) Pub Date :
Sam McArdle, Suguru Endo, Alán Aspuru-Guzik, Simon C. Benjamin, and Xiao Yuan

One of the most promising suggested applications of quantum computing is solving classically intractable chemistry problems. This may help to answer unresolved questions about phenomena like: high temperature superconductivity, solid-state physics, transition metal catalysis, or certain biochemical reactions. In turn, this increased understanding may help us to re ne, and perhaps even one day design, new compounds of scienti c and industrial importance. However, building a suggestedciently large quantum computer will be a dicult scienti c challenge. As a result, developments that enable these problems to be tackled with fewer quantum resources should be considered very important. Driven by this potential utility, quantum computational chemistry is rapidly emerging as an interdisciplinary eld requiring knowledge of both quantum computing and computational chemistry. This review provides a comprehensive introduction to both computational chemistry and quantum computing, bridging the current knowledge gap. We review the major developments in this area, with a particular focus on near-term quantum computation. Illustrations of key methods are provided, explicitly demonstrating how to map chemical problems onto a quantum computer, and solve them. We conclude with an outlook for this nascent eld.

更新日期：2019-12-13
• Rev. Mod. Phys. (IF 38.296) Pub Date : 2019-12-06
Giuseppe Carleo, Ignacio Cirac, Kyle Cranmer, Laurent Daudet, Maria Schuld, Naftali Tishby, Leslie Vogt-Maranto, and Lenka Zdeborová
更新日期：2019-12-07
• Rev. Mod. Phys. (IF 38.296) Pub Date : 2019-12-04
Marina Artuso, Guennadi Borissov, and Alexander Lenz

DOI:https://doi.org/10.1103/RevModPhys.91.049901

更新日期：2019-12-05
• Rev. Mod. Phys. (IF 38.296) Pub Date :
Axel U. J. Lode, Camille Lévêque, Lars Bojer Madsen, Alexej I. Streltsov, and Ofir E. Alon

In this Colloquium, the wavefunction-based {M}ulticonfigurational {T}ime-{D}ependent {H}artree approaches to the dynamics of indistinguishable particles (MCTDH-F for {F}ermions and MCTDH-B for {B}osons) are reviewed. MCTDH-B and MCTDH-F or, together, MCTDH-X are methods for describing correlated quantum systems of identical particles by solving the time-dependent Schrdinger equation from first principles. MCTDH-X is used to accurately model the dynamics of real-world quantum many-body systems in atomic, molecular, and optical physics. The key feature of these approaches is the time-dependence and optimization of the single-particle states employed for the construction of a many-body basis set, which yields nonlinear working equations. We briefly describe the historical developments that have lead to the formulation of the MCTDH-X methods and motivate the necessity for wavefunction-based approaches. We sketch the derivation of the unified MCTDH-F and MCTDH-B equations of motion for complete and also specific restricted configuration spaces. The strengths and limitations of the MCTDH-X approach are assessed via benchmarks against an exactly solvable model and via convergence checks. We highlight some applications to instructive and experimentally-realized quantum many-body systems: the dynamics of atoms in Bose-Einstein condensates in magneto-optical and optical traps and of electrons in atoms and molecules. We discuss the current development and frontiers in the field of MCTDH-X: theories and numerical methods for indistinguishable particles, for mixtures of multiple species of indistinguishable particles, the inclusion of nuclear motion for the nonadiabatic dynamics of atomic and molecular systems, as well as the multilayer and second-quantized-representation approaches, and the orbital-adaptive time-dependent coupled-cluster theory are discussed.

更新日期：2019-12-02
• Rev. Mod. Phys. (IF 38.296) Pub Date :
Adam Bernstein, Nathaniel Bowden, Bethany L. Goldblum, Patrick Huber, Igor Jovanovic, and John Mattingly

For over 40 years, physicists have considered possible uses for neutrino detectors in nuclear nonproliferation, arms control, and fissile materials security. Neutrinos are an attractive fission signature because they readily pass through matter. The same property makes neutrinos challenging to detect in systems that would be practical for nuclear security applications. This colloquium presents a broad overview of several potential neutrino applications, including the near-field monitoring of known reactors, far-field monitoring of known or discovery of undeclared reactors, detection of reactor waste streams, and detection of nuclear explosions. We conclude that recent detector advances have made near-field monitoring feasible. Farther-field reactor detection and waste stream detection monitoring are possible in some cases with further research and development. Very long-range reactor monitoring and nuclear explosion detection do not appear feasible for the foreseeable future due to considerable physical and/or practical constraints.

更新日期：2019-11-28
• Rev. Mod. Phys. (IF 38.296) Pub Date : 2019-03-25
Tomoki Ozawa, Hannah M. Price, Alberto Amo, Nathan Goldman, Mohammad Hafezi, Ling Lu, Mikael C. Rechtsman, David Schuster, Jonathan Simon, Oded Zilberberg, and Iacopo Carusotto
更新日期：2019-11-18
• Rev. Mod. Phys. (IF 38.296) Pub Date : 2019-03-25
N. R. Cooper, J. Dalibard, and I. B. Spielman
更新日期：2019-11-18
• Rev. Mod. Phys. (IF 38.296) Pub Date : 2019-04-04
更新日期：2019-11-18
• Rev. Mod. Phys. (IF 38.296) Pub Date : 2019-04-25
S. V. Lebedev, A. Frank, and D. D. Ryutov
更新日期：2019-11-18
• Rev. Mod. Phys. (IF 38.296) Pub Date : 2019-05-10
F. S. Cipcigan, J. Crain, V. P. Sokhan, and G. J. Martyna
更新日期：2019-11-18
• Rev. Mod. Phys. (IF 38.296) Pub Date : 2019-05-22
Dmitry A. Abanin, Ehud Altman, Immanuel Bloch, and Maksym Serbyn
更新日期：2019-11-18
• Rev. Mod. Phys. (IF 38.296) Pub Date : 2019-05-28
Massimo Bernaschi, Simone Melchionna, and Sauro Succi
更新日期：2019-11-18
• Rev. Mod. Phys. (IF 38.296) Pub Date : 2019-06-07
P. Forn-Díaz, L. Lamata, E. Rico, J. Kono, and E. Solano
更新日期：2019-11-18
• Rev. Mod. Phys. (IF 38.296) Pub Date : 2019-06-11
Manasvi Lingam and Abraham Loeb
更新日期：2019-11-18
• Rev. Mod. Phys. (IF 38.296) Pub Date : 2019-06-20
Catalina Curceanu, Carlo Guaraldo, Mihail Iliescu, Michael Cargnelli, Ryugo Hayano, Johann Marton, Johann Zmeskal, Tomoichi Ishiwatari, Masa Iwasaki, Shinji Okada, Diana Laura Sirghi, and Hideyuki Tatsuno
更新日期：2019-11-18
• Rev. Mod. Phys. (IF 38.296) Pub Date : 2019-06-25
Gabriele La Nave, Kridsanaphong Limtragool, and Philip W. Phillips
更新日期：2019-11-18
• Rev. Mod. Phys. (IF 38.296) Pub Date : 2019-06-27
Subin Sahu and Michael Zwolak
更新日期：2019-11-18
• Rev. Mod. Phys. (IF 38.296) Pub Date : 2019-07-01
Randall D. Kamien, Hiroaki Aihara, Dietrich Belitz, Debbie Brodbar, A. H Castro Neto, Margaret S. Cheung, William D. Collins, Marjolein Dijkstra, David DiVincenzo, Paul D. Grannis, Arthur F. Hebard, Vicky Kalogera, Igor Klebanov, Wim Leemans, Klaus Mølmer, Witold Nazarewicz, Pierre Ramond, Roxanne Springer, Anthony F. Starace, and Friedel Thielemann

DOI:https://doi.org/10.1103/RevModPhys.91.030001

更新日期：2019-11-18
• Rev. Mod. Phys. (IF 38.296) Pub Date : 2019-07-02
Donna Strickland
更新日期：2019-11-18
• Rev. Mod. Phys. (IF 38.296) Pub Date : 2019-07-02
Gerard Mourou
更新日期：2019-11-18
• Rev. Mod. Phys. (IF 38.296) Pub Date : 2019-07-15
Michał Tomza, Krzysztof Jachymski, Rene Gerritsma, Antonio Negretti, Tommaso Calarco, Zbigniew Idziaszek, and Paul S. Julienne
更新日期：2019-11-18
• Rev. Mod. Phys. (IF 38.296) Pub Date : 2019-07-26
Nathan C. Keim, Joseph D. Paulsen, Zorana Zeravcic, Srikanth Sastry, and Sidney R. Nagel
更新日期：2019-11-18
• Rev. Mod. Phys. (IF 38.296) Pub Date : 2019-07-30
Jean-Pierre Eckmann, Jacques Rougemont, and Tsvi Tlusty
更新日期：2019-11-18
• Rev. Mod. Phys. (IF 38.296) Pub Date : 2019-06-07
P. Forn-Díaz, L. Lamata, E. Rico, J. Kono, and E. Solano

Recent experiments have demonstrated that light and matter can mix together to an extreme degree, and previously uncharted regimes of light-matter interactions are currently being explored in a variety of settings. The so-called ultrastrong coupling (USC) regime is established when the light-matter interaction energy is a comparable fraction of the bare frequencies of the uncoupled systems. Furthermore, when the interaction strengths become larger than the bare frequencies, the deep-strong coupling (DSC) regime emerges. This article reviews advances in the field of the USC and DSC regimes, in particular, for light modes confined in cavities interacting with two-level systems. An overview is first provided on the theoretical progress since the origins from the semiclassical Rabi model until recent developments of the quantum Rabi model. Next, several key experimental results from a variety of quantum platforms are described, including superconducting circuits, semiconductor quantum wells, and other hybrid quantum systems. Finally, anticipated applications are highlighted utilizing USC and DSC regimes, including novel quantum optical phenomena, quantum simulation, and quantum computation.

更新日期：2019-11-18
• Rev. Mod. Phys. (IF 38.296) Pub Date : 2019-08-19
A. Gover, R. Ianconescu, A. Friedman, C. Emma, N. Sudar, P. Musumeci, and C. Pellegrini

更新日期：2019-11-18
• Rev. Mod. Phys. (IF 38.296) Pub Date : 2019-06-27
Subin Sahu and Michael Zwolak

Ion transport through nanopores permeates through many areas of science and technology, from cell behavior to sensing and separation to catalysis and batteries. Two-dimensional materials, such as graphene, molybdenum disulfide (MoS2), and hexagonal boron nitride (hBN), are recent additions to these fields. Low-dimensional materials present new opportunities to develop filtration, sensing, and power technologies, encompassing ion exclusion membranes, DNA sequencing, single molecule detection, osmotic power generation, and beyond. Moreover, the physics of ionic transport through pores and constrictions within these materials is a distinct realm of competing many-particle interactions (e.g., solvation or dehydration, electrostatic blockade, hydrogen bond dynamics) and confinement. This opens up alternative routes to creating biomimetic pores and may even give analogs of quantum phenomena, such as quantized conductance, in the classical domain. These prospects make membranes of 2D materials, i.e., 2D membranes, fascinating. This Colloquium gives a discussion of the physics and applications of ionic transport through nanopores in 2D membranes.

更新日期：2019-11-18
• Rev. Mod. Phys. (IF 38.296) Pub Date : 2019-06-25
Gabriele La Nave, Kridsanaphong Limtragool, and Philip W. Phillips

A theory of fractional electricity and magnetism is presented here which is capable of describing phenomena as disparate as the nonlocality of the Pippard kernel in superconductivity and anomalous dimensions for conserved currents in holographic dilatonic models. While it is a standard result in field theory that the scaling dimension of conserved currents and their associated gauge fields are determined strictly by dimensional analysis and hence cannot change under any amount of renormalization, it is also the case that the standard conservation laws for currents, dJ=0, remain unchanged in form if any differential operator that commutes with the total exterior derivative, [d,Y^]=0, multiplies the current. Such an operator, effectively changing the dimension of the current, increases the allowable gauge transformations in electromagnetism and is at the heart of Nöther’s second theorem. However, this observation has not been exploited to generate new electromagnetisms. Here a consistent theory of electromagnetism is developed that exploits this hidden redundancy in which the standard gauge symmetry in electromagnetism is modified by the rotationally invariant operator, the fractional Laplacian. The resultant theories are shown to all allow for anomalous (nontraditional) scaling dimensions of the gauge field and the associated current. Using the Caffarelli-Silvestre theorem [Caffarelli, L., and L. Silvestre, 2007, Commun. Partial Differ. Equations 32, 1245.], its extension [La Nave, G., and P. Phillips, 2017, arXiv:1708.00863 [Commun. Math. Phys. (in press)] ] to p forms and the membrane paradigm, either the boundary (UV) or horizon (IR) theory of holographic dilatonic models are shown to both be described by such fractional electromagnetic theories. The nonlocal Pippard kernel introduced to solve the problem of the Meissner effect in elemental superconductors can also be formulated as a special case of fractional electromagnetism. Because the holographic dilatonic models produce boundary theories that are equivalent to those arising from a bulk theory with a massive gauge field along the radial direction, the common thread linking both of these problems is the breaking of U(1) symmetry down to Z2. The standard charge quantization rules fail when the gauge field acquires an anomalous dimension. The breakdown of charge quantization is discussed extensively in terms of the experimentally measurable modified Aharonov-Bohm effect in the strange metal phase of the cuprate superconductors.

更新日期：2019-11-18
• Rev. Mod. Phys. (IF 38.296) Pub Date : 2019-06-20
Catalina Curceanu, Carlo Guaraldo, Mihail Iliescu, Michael Cargnelli, Ryugo Hayano, Johann Marton, Johann Zmeskal, Tomoichi Ishiwatari, Masa Iwasaki, Shinji Okada, Diana Laura Sirghi, and Hideyuki Tatsuno

This review covers the modern era of experimental kaonic atom studies, encompassing 20 years of activity, defined by breakthroughs in technological developments which allowed performing a series of long-awaited precision measurements. Kaonic atoms are atomic systems where an electron is replaced by a negatively charged kaon, containing the strange quark, which interacts in the lowest orbits with the nucleus also by the strong interaction. As a result, their study offers the unique opportunity to perform experiments equivalent to scattering at vanishing relative energy. This allows one to study the strong interaction between the antikaon and the nucleon or the nucleus “at threshold,” namely, at zero relative energy, without the need of ad hoc extrapolation to zero energy, as in scattering experiments. The fast progress achieved in performing precision light kaonic atom experiments, which also solved long-pending inconsistencies with theoretical calculations generated by old measurements, relies on the development of novel cryogenic targets, x-ray detectors, and the availability of pure and intense charged kaon beams, which propelled an unprecedented progress in the field. Future experiments, based on new undergoing technological developments, will further boost the kaonic atom studies, thus fostering a deeper understanding of the low-energy strong interaction extended to the second family of quarks.

更新日期：2019-11-18
• Rev. Mod. Phys. (IF 38.296) Pub Date : 2019-06-11
Manasvi Lingam and Abraham Loeb

Recently, many Earth-sized planets have been discovered around stars other than the Sun that might possess appropriate conditions for life. The development of theoretical methods for assessing the putative habitability of these worlds is of paramount importance, since it serves the dual purpose of identifying and quantifying what types of biosignatures may exist and determining the selection of optimal target stars and planets for subsequent observations. This Colloquium discusses how a multitude of physical factors act in tandem to regulate the propensity of worlds for hosting detectable biospheres. The focus is primarily on planets around low-mass stars, as they are most readily accessible to searches for biosignatures. This Colloquium outlines how factors such as stellar winds, the availability of ultraviolet and visible light, the surface water and land fractions, stellar flares, and associated phenomena place potential constraints on the evolution of life on these planets.

更新日期：2019-11-18
• Rev. Mod. Phys. (IF 38.296) Pub Date : 2019-07-26
Nathan C. Keim, Joseph D. Paulsen, Zorana Zeravcic, Srikanth Sastry, and Sidney R. Nagel

Memory formation in matter is a theme of broad intellectual relevance; it sits at the interdisciplinary crossroads of physics, biology, chemistry, and computer science. Memory connotes the ability to encode, access, and erase signatures of past history in the state of a system. Once the system has completely relaxed to thermal equilibrium, it is no longer able to recall aspects of its evolution. The memory of initial conditions or previous training protocols will be lost. Thus many forms of memory are intrinsically tied to far-from-equilibrium behavior and to transient response to a perturbation. This general behavior arises in diverse contexts in condensed-matter physics and materials, including phase change memory, shape memory, echoes, memory effects in glasses, return-point memory in disordered magnets, as well as related contexts in computer science. Yet, as opposed to the situation in biology, there is currently no common categorization and description of the memory behavior that appears to be prevalent throughout condensed-matter systems. Here the focus is on material memories. The basic phenomenology of a few of the known behaviors that can be understood as constituting a memory will be described. The hope is that this will be a guide toward developing the unifying conceptual underpinnings for a broad understanding of memory effects that appear in materials.

更新日期：2019-11-18
• Rev. Mod. Phys. (IF 38.296) Pub Date : 2019-07-15
Michał Tomza, Krzysztof Jachymski, Rene Gerritsma, Antonio Negretti, Tommaso Calarco, Zbigniew Idziaszek, and Paul S. Julienne

Hybrid systems of laser-cooled trapped ions and ultracold atoms combined in a single experimental setup have recently emerged as a new platform for fundamental research in quantum physics. This paper reviews the theoretical and experimental progress in research on cold hybrid ion-atom systems which aim to combine the best features of the two well-established fields. A broad overview is provided of the theoretical description of ion-atom mixtures and their applications, and a report is given on advances in experiments with ions trapped in Paul or dipole traps overlapped with a cloud of cold atoms, and with ions directly produced in a Bose-Einstein condensate. This review begins with microscopic models describing the electronic structure, interactions, and collisional physics of ion-atom systems at low and ultralow temperatures, including radiative and nonradiative charge-transfer processes and their control with magnetically tunable Feshbach resonances. Then the relevant experimental techniques and the intrinsic properties of hybrid systems are described. In particular, the impact is discussed of the micromotion of ions in Paul traps on ion-atom hybrid systems. Next, a review of recent proposals is given for using ions immersed in ultracold gases for studying cold collisions, chemistry, many-body physics, quantum simulation, and quantum computation and their experimental realizations. The last part focuses on the formation of molecular ions via spontaneous radiative association, photoassociation, magnetoassociation, and sympathetic cooling. Applications and prospects are discussed of cold molecular ions for cold controlled chemistry and precision spectroscopy.

更新日期：2019-11-18
• Rev. Mod. Phys. (IF 38.296) Pub Date : 2019-07-02
Donna Strickland

DOI:https://doi.org/10.1103/RevModPhys.91.030502

更新日期：2019-11-18
• Rev. Mod. Phys. (IF 38.296) Pub Date : 2019-07-02
Gerard Mourou

DOI:https://doi.org/10.1103/RevModPhys.91.030501

更新日期：2019-11-18
• Rev. Mod. Phys. (IF 38.296) Pub Date : 2019-09-09
A. Manchon, J. Železný, I. M. Miron, T. Jungwirth, J. Sinova, A. Thiaville, K. Garello, and P. Gambardella

Spin-orbit coupling in inversion-asymmetric magnetic crystals and structures has emerged as a powerful tool to generate complex magnetic textures, interconvert charge and spin under applied current, and control magnetization dynamics. Current-induced spin-orbit torques mediate the transfer of angular momentum from the lattice to the spin system, leading to sustained magnetic oscillations or switching of ferromagnetic as well as antiferromagnetic structures. The manipulation of magnetic order, domain walls, and skyrmions by spin-orbit torques provides evidence of the microscopic interactions between charge and spin in a variety of materials and opens novel strategies to design spintronic devices with potentially high impact in data storage, nonvolatile logic, and magnonic applications. This paper reviews recent progress in the field of spin orbitronics, focusing on theoretical models, material properties, and experimental results obtained on bulk noncentrosymmetric conductors and multilayer heterostructures, including metals, semiconductors, and topological insulator systems. Relevant aspects for improving the understanding and optimizing the efficiency of nonequilibrium spin-orbit phenomena in future nanoscale devices are also discussed.

更新日期：2019-11-18
• Rev. Mod. Phys. (IF 38.296) Pub Date : 2019-07-30
Jean-Pierre Eckmann, Jacques Rougemont, and Tsvi Tlusty

Protein is matter of dual nature. As a physical object, a protein molecule is a folded chain of amino acids with diverse biochemistry. But it is also a point along an evolutionary trajectory determined by the function performed by the protein within a hierarchy of interwoven interaction networks of the cell, the organism, and the population. A physical theory of proteins therefore needs to unify both aspects, the biophysical and the evolutionary. Specifically, it should provide a model of how the DNA gene is mapped into the functional phenotype of the protein. Several physical approaches to the protein problem are reviewed, focusing on a mechanical framework which treats proteins as evolvable condensed matter: Mutations introduce localized perturbations in the gene, which are translated to localized perturbations in the protein matter. A natural tool to examine how mutations shape the phenotype are Green’s functions. They map the evolutionary linkage among mutations in the gene (termed epistasis) to cooperative physical interactions among the amino acids in the protein. The mechanistic view can be applied to examine basic questions of protein evolution and design.

更新日期：2019-11-18
• Rev. Mod. Phys. (IF 38.296) Pub Date : 2019-10-04
Deung-Jang Choi, Nicolas Lorente, Jens Wiebe, Kirsten von Bergmann, Alexander F. Otte, and Andreas J. Heinrich

Magnetism at low dimensions is a thriving field of research with exciting opportunities in technology. This Colloquium focuses on the properties of 1D magnetic systems on solid surfaces. From the emulation of 1D quantum phases to the potential realization of Majorana edge states, spin chains are unique systems to study. The advent of scanning tunneling microscope (STM) based techniques has permitted us to engineer spin chains in an atom-by-atom fashion via atom manipulation and to access their spin states on the ultimate atomic scale. Here the current state of research on spin correlations and dynamics of atomic spin chains as studied by the STM is presented. After a brief review of the main properties of spin chains on solid surfaces, spin chains are classified according to the coupling of their magnetic moments with the holding substrate. This classification scheme takes into account that the nature and lifetimes of the spin-chain excitations intrinsically depend on the holding substrate. Interest is shown of using insulating layers on metals, which generally results in an increase in the spin state’s lifetimes such that their quantized nature gets evident and they are individually accessible. Next shown is the use of semiconductor substrates promising additional control through the tunable electron density via doping. When the coupling to the substrate is increased for spin chains on metals, the substrate conduction electron mediated interactions can lead to emergent exotic phases of the coupled spin chain-substrate conduction electron system. A particularly interesting example is furnished by superconductors. Magnetic impurities induce states in the superconducting gap. Because of the extended nature of the spin chain, the in-gap states develop into bands that can lead to the emergence of 1D topological superconductivity and consequently to the appearance of Majorana edge states. Finally, an outlook is given on the use of spin chains in spintronics, quantum communication, quantum computing, quantum simulations, and quantum sensors.

更新日期：2019-11-18
• Rev. Mod. Phys. (IF 38.296) Pub Date : 2019-09-18
Christiane P. Koch, Mikhail Lemeshko, and Dominique Sugny

The angular momentum of molecules, or, equivalently, their rotation in three-dimensional space, is ideally suited for quantum control. Molecular angular momentum is naturally quantized, time evolution is governed by a well-known Hamiltonian with only a few accurately known parameters, and transitions between rotational levels can be driven by external fields from various parts of the electromagnetic spectrum. Control over the rotational motion can be exerted in one-, two-, and many-body scenarios, thereby allowing one to probe Anderson localization, target stereoselectivity of bimolecular reactions, or encode quantum information to name just a few examples. The corresponding approaches to quantum control are pursued within separate, and typically disjoint, subfields of physics, including ultrafast science, cold collisions, ultracold gases, quantum information science, and condensed-matter physics. It is the purpose of this review to present the various control phenomena, which all rely on the same underlying physics, within a unified framework. To this end, recall the Hamiltonian for free rotations, assuming the rigid rotor approximation to be valid, and summarize the different ways for a rotor to interact with external electromagnetic fields. These interactions can be exploited for control—from achieving alignment, orientation, or laser cooling in a one-body framework, steering bimolecular collisions, or realizing a quantum computer or quantum simulator in the many-body setting.

更新日期：2019-11-18
• Rev. Mod. Phys. (IF 38.296) Pub Date : 2019-09-25
Yanne K. Chembo, Daniel Brunner, Maxime Jacquot, and Laurent Larger

Time-delayed optoelectronic oscillators are at the center of a large body of scientific literature. The complex behavior of these nonlinear oscillators has been thoroughly explored both theoretically and experimentally, leading to a better understanding of their dynamical properties. Beyond fundamental research, these systems have also inspired a wide and diverse set of applications, such as optical chaos communications, pseudorandom number generation, optoelectronic machine learning based on reservoir computing, ultrapure microwave generation, optical pulse-train synthesis, and sensing. The aim of this review is to provide a comprehensive survey of this field, to outline the latest achievements, and discuss the main challenges ahead.

更新日期：2019-11-18
• Rev. Mod. Phys. (IF 38.296) Pub Date : 2019-10-16
Eric Braaten and Hong Zhang

The particle that makes up the dark matter of the Universe could be an axion or axionlike particle. A collection of axions can condense into a bound Bose-Einstein condensate called an axion star. It is possible that a significant fraction of the axion dark matter is in the form of axion stars. This would make some efforts to identify the axion as the dark matter particle more challenging, but it would also open up new possibilities. The basic properties of axion stars, which can be gravitationally bound or bound by self-interactions, are summarized. Axions are naturally described by a relativistic field theory with a real scalar field, but low-energy axions can be described more simply by a classical nonrelativistic effective field theory with a complex scalar field.

更新日期：2019-11-18
• Rev. Mod. Phys. (IF 38.296) Pub Date :
Roope Uola, Ana C. S. Costa, H. Chau Nguyen, and Otfried Gühne

This is a proposal for a review on quantum steering, focusing on the bipartite case. Steering is a quantum correlation intermediate between entanglement and Bell nonlocality, which captures the essence of the EPR argument. Due to its recent formalisation, it has attracted a lot of attention in the last years. We will start the review with the definition of steering, and in the sequence we present a summary of detection schemes and properties. We also discuss several applications and further related topics. This review is addressed to all physicists interested in quantum correlations or foundations of quantum mechanics. The length is expected to be ca. 30 pages.

更新日期：2019-11-14
• Rev. Mod. Phys. (IF 38.296) Pub Date :
Takaharu Otsuka, Alexandra Gade, Olivier Sorlin, Toshio Suzuki, and Yutaka Utsuno

We review how distinct features of exotic nuclei arise from characteristics of nuclear forces, with a focus on shell structure. Many of those features are not found in stable nuclei, and are related to an unbalanced proton/neutron ratio combined with unique characteristics of various components of nucleon-nucleon interactions, such as central, tensor, two-body spin-orbit and three-nucleon forces. The basics of the monopole interaction are reinvestigated starting from the definition for open-shell nuclei. We discuss how the evolution of shell structure, or shell evolution, occurs due to the monopole interactions of those forces. We survey, utilizing actual examples, the signatures of shell evolution in many experimental observables of low-energy nuclear physics. Those signatures suggest a massive shift of the `magic paradigm'', which includes the appearance of new magic numbers, such as 16, 32, 34, {\it etc.}, the disappearance of traditional magic numbers, such as 8, 20, 28 {\it etc.}, and other substantial changes of the shell structure, in certain regions of the Segr\e chart. This article reviews further how combined efforts by theoretical and experimental studies provide a comprehensive picture of exotic nuclei from the shell evolution up to their many-body consequences such as shape change/coexistence, mixing/merging of the shells, intruder bands, weak binding effects, {} We shall thus see the richness of the shell evolution in exotic nuclei and the resulting diversity of the physics of nuclei with wide unexplored frontiers.

更新日期：2019-11-07
• Rev. Mod. Phys. (IF 38.296) Pub Date : 2019-10-24
D. Guéry-Odelin, A. Ruschhaupt, A. Kiely, E. Torrontegui, S. Martínez-Garaot, and J. G. Muga
更新日期：2019-10-25
• Rev. Mod. Phys. (IF 38.296) Pub Date : 2019-10-16
Eric Braaten and Hong Zhang
更新日期：2019-10-17
• Rev. Mod. Phys. (IF 38.296) Pub Date :
John F. Barry, Jennifer M. Schloss, Erik Bauch, Matthew J. Turner, Connor A. Hart, Linh M. Pham, and Ronald L. Walsworth

Solid-state spin systems including nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers in diamond constitute an increasingly favored quantum sensing platform. However, present NV ensemble devices exhibit sensitivities orders of magnitude away from theoretical limits. The sensitivity shortfall both handicaps existing implementations and curtails the envisioned application space. This review analyzes present and proposed approaches to enhance the sensitivity of broadband ensemble-NV-diamond magnetometers. Improvements to the spin dephasing time, the readout fidelity, and the host diamond material properties are identified as the most promising avenues and are investigated extensively. Our analysis of sensitivity optimization establishes a foundation to stimulate development of new techniques for enhancing solid-state sensor performance.

更新日期：2019-10-07
• Rev. Mod. Phys. (IF 38.296) Pub Date : 2019-10-04
Deung-Jang Choi, Nicolas Lorente, Jens Wiebe, Kirsten von Bergmann, Alexander F. Otte, and Andreas J. Heinrich
更新日期：2019-10-05
• Rev. Mod. Phys. (IF 38.296) Pub Date :
Antonio Ortiz-Ambriz, Cristiano Nisoli, Charles Reichhardt, Cynthia J. O. Reichhardt, and Pietro Tierno

Geometric frustration and the ice rule are two concepts that are intimately connected and widespread across condensed matter. The first refers to the inability of a system to satisfy competing interactions in the presence of spatial constraints. The second, in its more general sense, represents a prescription for the minimization of the topological charges in a constrained system. Both can lead to manifolds of high susceptibility and non-trivial, constrained disorder where exotic behaviors can appear and even be designed deliberately. In this Colloquium, we describe the emergence of geometric frustration and the ice rule in soft condensed matter. This Review excludes the extensive developments of mathematical physics within the field of geometric frustration, but rather focuses on systems of confined micro- or mesoscopic particles that emerge as a novel paradigm exhibiting spin degrees of freedom. In such systems, geometric frustration can be engineered artificially by controlling the spatial topology and geometry of the lattice, the position of the individual particle units, or their relative filling fraction. These capabilities enable the creation of novel and exotic phases of matter, and also potentially lead towards technological applications related to memory and logic devices that are based on the motion of topological defects. We review the rapid progress in theory and experiments and discuss the intimate physical connections with other frustrated systems at different length scales.

更新日期：2019-10-05
• Rev. Mod. Phys. (IF 38.296) Pub Date :
Giuseppe Carleo, Ignacio Cirac, Kyle Cranmer, Laurent Daudet, Maria Schuld, Naftali Tishby, Leslie Vogt-Maranto, and Lenka Zdeborová

Machine learning encompasses a broad range of algorithms and modeling tools used for a vast array of data processing tasks, which has entered most scientific disciplines in recent years. We review in a selective way the recent research on the interface between machine learning and physical sciences. This includes conceptual developments in machine learning (ML) motivated by physical insights, applications of machine learning techniques to several domains in physics, and cross-fertilization between the two fields. After giving basic notion of machine learning methods and principles, we describe examples of how statistical physics is used to understand methods in ML. We then move to describe applications of ML methods in particle physics and cosmology, quantum many body physics, quantum computing, and chemical and material physics. We also highlight research and development into novel computing architectures aimed at accelerating ML. In each of the sections we describe recent successes as well as domain-specific methodology and challenges.

更新日期：2019-10-01
Contents have been reproduced by permission of the publishers.

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