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  • Rich heteroatom doping magnetic carbon electrode for flow-capacitive deionization with enhanced salt removal ability
    Desalination (IF 6.035) Pub Date : 2020-02-24
    Danping Li; Xun-An Ning; Chenghai Yang; Xiaohui Chen; Yi Wang
    更新日期:2020-02-24
  • Recent developments in forward osmosis membranes using carbon-based nanomaterials
    Desalination (IF 6.035) Pub Date : 2020-02-23
    Sudesh Yadav; Haleema Saleem; Ibrar Ibrar; Osamah Naji; Alaa A. Hawari; Adnan Alhathal Alanezi; Syed Javaid Zaidi; Ali Altaee; John Zhou

    Contamination and industrial development are among the reasons for water quality deterioration beyond treatability by conventional processes. Unfortunately, conventional water and wastewater treatment technologies are not always capable of handling industrial wastewaters, and hence more advanced treatment technologies are required. The new trend of osmotically driven membrane technologies has demonstrated an exceptional efficiency for water purification and treatment including seawater desalination. Compared to pressure-driven membrane processes, forward osmosis (FO) technology, as a standalone process, is more energy-efficient, and less prone to membrane fouling than its predecessor reverse osmosis (RO) technology. However, forward osmosis suffers a severe concentration polarization that is acting on both sides of the membrane and results in a sharp decline in water flux. A thinner support layer has been recommended to lessen the concentration polarization impact in the FO process but a very thin support layer compromises the membrane mechanical strength. Recently, researchers have applied different carbon-based nanomaterials to enhance water flux, fouling propensity, and mechanical strength of the FO membrane. This work reviews advancement in the FO membrane fabrication using carbon nanomaterials to improve the membrane characteristics. Despite a large number of laboratory experiments, carbon-based nanomaterials in the FO membrane are still at the early-stage of laboratory investigation and no commercial products are available yet. The study also reviews the main challenges that limit the application of carbon-based nanomaterials for FO membranes.

    更新日期:2020-02-23
  • Interpolymer ion exchange membranes for CapMix process
    Desalination (IF 6.035) Pub Date : 2020-02-23
    Katarzyna Smolinska-Kempisty; Anna Siekierka; Marek Bryjak

    In the presented paper interpolymeric ions exchange membranes were used in a capacitive mixing process. This was reach to increase the amount of energy generated during mixing waters with two different salinities. Membranes were prepared by extrusion of ethylene/styrene-co-divinylbenzene interpolymer followed by chemical modification of obtained foils. The extrudate contained 30 wt% of polystyrene crosslinked with different amount of divinylbenzene. Four pairs of membranes of different thickness were tested in CapMix process. It was found that the best membranes for energy harvesting were obtained from interpolymer with 2 wt% of DVB.

    更新日期:2020-02-23
  • Advanced supercritical water-based process concepts for treatment and beneficial reuse of brine in oil/gas production
    Desalination (IF 6.035) Pub Date : 2020-02-06
    Chad M. Able; Jason P. Trembly

    Produced water generated from oil/gas reservoirs is a cost burden for oil/gas producers, with over 21 billion barrels of the waste generated in 2019. Average disposal costs range from $4.00–$8.00·bbl−1, with up to $20·bbl−1 spent on transportation alone. Dissolved solids content is a contributing factor which limits economical treatment options for this waste stream. This work proposes a novel technique that can handle high salinity waste, employing favorable properties past the critical point of water. In this study, process simulation of two supercritical water desalination (SCWD) scenarios was completed. Zero liquid discharge (ZLD) and brine concentration operating scenarios were compared, weighing the associated economics and benefits for each case. The results were shown to be economically feasible for brines with a high dissolved solids content, ranging from $3.49 to $17.28·bbl−1 in an expanded sensitivity analysis.

    更新日期:2020-02-20
  • Novel two-chamber tubular microbial desalination cell for bioelectricity production, wastewater treatment and desalination with a focus on self-generated pH control
    Desalination (IF 6.035) Pub Date : 2020-02-07
    Tahereh Jafary; Abdullah Al-Mamun; Halima Alhimali; Mahad Said Baawain; Sadik Rahman; William A. Tarpeh; Bipro Ranjan Dhar; Byung Hong Kim
    更新日期:2020-02-20
  • Lithium extraction from brine in an ionic selective desalination battery
    Desalination (IF 6.035) Pub Date : 2020-02-07
    Xiaoyu Zhao; Minghui Feng; Yaoxin Jiao; Yingbing Zhang; Yanfei Wang; Zuoliang Sha
    更新日期:2020-02-20
  • Nickel hexacyanoferrate electrodes for high mono/divalent ion-selectivity in capacitive deionization
    Desalination (IF 6.035) Pub Date : 2020-02-06
    Kaustub Singh; Zexin Qian; P.M. Biesheuvel; Han Zuilhof; Slawomir Porada; Louis C.P.M. de Smet

    Selective ion removal has been a point of focus in capacitive deionization because of its industrial applications such as water purification, water softening, heavy metal separation and resource recovery. Conventionally, carbon is used as electrode material for selectivity. However, recent developments focus on intercalation materials such as Prussian Blue Analogues, due to their size-based preference towards cations. Selectivity of nickel hexacyanoferrate electrodes from a mixture of Na+, Mg2+, and Ca2+ ions was studied in this work. Here, a CDI cell with two identical NiHCF electrodes was operated in two desalination modes: (a) cyclic, in which ions are removed from and released into the same water reservoir and thus, the ion concentration remains the same after one cycle, and (b) continuous, in which ions are removed from one water reservoir and released back in a different reservoir. An average separation factor of ≈15 and 25, reflecting the selectivity of the electrodes, was obtained for Na+ over Ca2+ and Mg2+ from an equimolar solution of Na+, Ca2+ and Mg2+ in both, cyclic and continuous desalination. It was concluded that NiHCF, used in a symmetric CDI cell, is a promising material for highly selective removal of Na+ from a multivalent ion mixture.

    更新日期:2020-02-20
  • Anisotropic performance of a superhydrophobic polyvinyl difluoride membrane with corrugated pattern in direct contact membrane distillation
    Desalination (IF 6.035) Pub Date : 2020-02-07
    Yongjie Liu; Jin Wang; Zechun Xiao; Li Liu; Dongdong Li; Xuemei Li; Huabing Yin; Tao He
    更新日期:2020-02-20
  • MoS2@sponge with double layer structure for high-efficiency solar desalination
    Desalination (IF 6.035) Pub Date : 2020-02-07
    Qingmiao Wang; Feifei Jia; Anhua Huang; Yi Qin; Shaoxian Song; Yanmei Li; Mario Alberto Corona Arroyo

    A novel three-dimensional (3D) MoS2-based evaporator (MPU-PPU) was constructed for solar desalination in this work. This evaporator provided a typical design of double layer structure (DLS): the top layer which was formed via embedding nanoscale MoS2 onto frameworks of 3D porous polyurethane (PU) sponge, played the role of solar absorbing and photothermal conversion, while the bottom layer which was originated from PU sponge with the hydrophilic PDA coating, functioned as the thermal insulation layer and water pump. With low cost, facile construction pathway and good mechanical flexibility, the MPU-PPU evaporator simultaneously exhibited high evaporation efficiency of 85% under a low illumination of 1.0 kW m−2 and superhigh evaporation efficiencies over 90% under higher solar illumination (1.5–2.5 kW m−2), which outperformed many other reported advanced materials for solar desalination. The four factors: (1) high photothermal efficiency, (2) localized heating effect, (3) hydrophilic bottom layer to leverage capillary forces and promote fluid flow to the hot region, together with (4) the porous structure which enabled efficient water supply and vapor channel, mainly accounted for the high-efficiency solar desalination. Besides, the MPU-PPU evaporator exhibited the outstanding desalination efficiency and excellent recyclability, providing great potential in its commercial use for solar desalination.

    更新日期:2020-02-20
  • Transport analysis of material gap membrane distillation desalination processes
    Desalination (IF 6.035) Pub Date : 2020-02-07
    Jingcheng Cai; Hongchao Yin; Fei Guo
    更新日期:2020-02-20
  • Improved performance of thin-film nanofiltration membranes fabricated with the intervention of surfactants having different structures for water treatment
    Desalination (IF 6.035) Pub Date : 2020-02-07
    Micah Belle Marie Yap Ang; Chia-Lin Tang; Manuel Reyes De Guzman; Hazel Lynn C. Maganto; Alvin R. Caparanga; Shu-Hsien Huang; Hui-An Tsai; Chien-Chieh Hu; Kueir-Rarn Lee; Juin-Yih Lai
    更新日期:2020-02-20
  • Improved performance and long-term stability of activated carbon doped with nitrogen for capacitive deionization
    Desalination (IF 6.035) Pub Date : 2020-02-09
    Chun-Chia Hsu; Yi-Heng Tu; Yu-Hsiang Yang; Jeng-An Wang; Chi-Chang Hu
    更新日期:2020-02-20
  • In situ generation of carbonized polyaniline nanowires on thermally-treated and electrochemically-etched carbon fiber cloth for high efficient solar seawater desalination
    Desalination (IF 6.035) Pub Date : 2020-02-08
    Kai Wang; Bingbing Huo; Fang Liu; Yiwei Zheng; Minghao Zhang; Liang Cui; Jingquan Liu
    更新日期:2020-02-20
  • Reverse electrodialysis for power generation using seawater/municipal wastewater: Effect of coagulation pretreatment
    Desalination (IF 6.035) Pub Date : 2020-02-14
    Soroush Mehdizadeh; Masahiro Yasukawa; Tasuma Suzuki; Mitsuru Higa
    更新日期:2020-02-20
  • Dia-nanofiltration-electrodialysis hybrid process for selective removal of monovalent ions from Mg2+ rich brines
    Desalination (IF 6.035) Pub Date : 2020-02-13
    Paz Nativ; Noga Fridman-Bishop; Oded Nir; Ori Lahav

    A hybrid nanofiltration-electrodialysis process was developed and tested for highly-selective separation of MgSO4 from seawater. The magnesium-rich solution was produced primarily for replenishing Mg2+ into desalinated water within the post-treatment step in seawater desalination plants. The new three-step process consists of: (1) seawater nanofiltration (NF) for generation of a magnesium-rich retentate; (2) a Dia-NF step in which the NF retentate is used as feed, which is aimed at minimizing unwanted solutes (primarily B, Na+ and Cl−); and (3) a selective electrodialysis (ED) step on the retentate from step 2, aimed at further lowering the Cl−:Mg2+ mass ratio to below 0.2, to produce a high-purity MgSO4-rich product solution. Results are presented with an emphasis on the ED step, for which the effects of flow velocity, current density and two operation modes (constant-current and constant-potential) were assessed. The results show a highly-dependent selectivity of the monovalent-selective ion-exchange membrane to the cell potential, suggesting that it can serve as a fine-tuning tool for selective ED processes. The cost of adding 20 mgMg/L to one m3 of desalinated water was estimated at ~$0.014/m3, which is competitive compared to other separation techniques, and certainly versus the alternative of direct dosage of food-grade magnesium salts.

    更新日期:2020-02-20
  • Numerical investigation and optimization of indirect freeze desalination
    Desalination (IF 6.035) Pub Date : 2020-02-14
    Amirsaman Eghtesad; Mehdi Salakhi; Hossein Afshin; Siamak Kazemzadeh Hannani

    Access to potable water with standard quality is an inevitable component of human's lives. Freeze desalination, by consuming lower energy compared to other techniques, relies on the exertion of a cold source which is then accompanied by simultaneous rejection of impurities from water. Regarding this, a numerical study on freeze desalination in a hollow cylinder is carried out to determine the effects of the design variables such as heat flux, hydraulic diameter, initial salt concentration, and freezing time on the ice mass, ice salinity, ice generation speed, and Nusselt number on the cold surface of the inner tube. Results show that increasing the value of heat flux from −250 Wm2 to −1000 Wm2 imposes 3.9 times faster ice generation speed while decreasing the desalination rate by 22%. In opposite, increasing the hydraulic diameter from 2 to 8 cm, reduces the ice generation speed by 41% but improves its quality by 23.5%. Also, ice production and salinity would both increase with the freezing time which imposes a limit for freezing duration. Multi-objective optimization and artificial neural network with the purpose of obtaining the highest ice mass with lowest salinity are employed. Finally, multistage freeze desalination is explored to reach WHO standards.

    更新日期:2020-02-20
  • Novel membrane-free hybrid capacitive deionization with a radical polymer anode for stable desalination
    Desalination (IF 6.035) Pub Date : 2020-02-13
    Yuquan Li; Zibiao Ding; Jiabao Li; Kai Wang; Ting Lu; Likun Pan
    更新日期:2020-02-20
  • Techno-economic analysis of converting oil & gas produced water into valuable resources
    Desalination (IF 6.035) Pub Date : 2020-02-18
    Madison Wenzlick; Nicholas Siefert
    更新日期:2020-02-20
  • Improved anti-biofouling performance of pressure retarded osmosis (PRO) by dosing with chlorhexidine gluconate
    Desalination (IF 6.035) Pub Date : 2020-02-18
    Peng-Fei Sun; Taek-Seung Kim; Han-Shin Kim; So-Young Ham; Yongsun Jang; Yong-Gyun Park; Chuyang Y. Tang; Hee-Deung Park
    更新日期:2020-02-20
  • Atomic scale manipulation of sublayer with functional TiO2 nanofilm toward high-performance reverse osmosis membrane
    Desalination (IF 6.035) Pub Date : 2020-02-07
    Kiyoumars Zarshenas; Gaopeng Jiang; Jing Zhang; Mohd Altamash Jauhar; Zhongwei Chen
    更新日期:2020-02-07
  • An AC-driven desalination/salination system based on a Nafion cationic rectifier
    Desalination (IF 6.035) Pub Date : 2020-02-06
    Budi Riza Putra; Elena Madrid; Luthando Tshwenya; Omotayo A. Arotiba; Frank Marken
    更新日期:2020-02-07
  • The role of osmotic agent in water flux enhancement during osmotic membrane distillation (OMD) for treatment of highly saline brines
    Desalination (IF 6.035) Pub Date : 2020-02-04
    Zhongming Zhang; George Q. Chen; Baisong Hu; Huining Deng; Lixia Feng; Shaofeng Zhang

    Brine concentration is of critical importance in achieving zero liquid discharge in modern industrial processes. The effect of osmotic agent (OA) on the system performance in the treatment of different concentrations of brine using osmotic membrane distillation (OMD) was investigated. Significant improvement in water flux for concentrating the hypersaline brine was achieved compared to conventional membrane distillation processes. By altering the hydrodynamic conditions and using different combinations of feed streams and osmotic agents, a mathematical approach was applied, for the first time, to reveal the contribution of temperature and concentration polarization on flux enhancement in treating highly saline brines. This improvement was found to be caused mainly by the temperature polarization on the OA side of membrane, with less contribution from the decrease in vapor pressure of the bulk of the OA. This work illustrates that OMD is a promising process for efficient concentration of highly saline streams such as those found in the chlor-alkali industry. During the concentration of the spent brine from the electrolyte cell (NaCl concentration from 180 g/L to 310 g/L), OMD was shown to be the more cost and energy efficient compared to conventional MD processes.

    更新日期:2020-02-06
  • A renewable energy-driven thermoelectric-utilized solar still with external condenser loaded by silver/nanofluid for simultaneously water disinfection and desalination
    Desalination (IF 6.035) Pub Date : 2020-02-05
    Seyed Masoud Parsa; Amir Rahbar; M.H. Koleini; Sadegh Aberoumand; Masoud Afrand; Majid Amidpour

    The present study examined the performance of different modifications of identical solar stills (SSs) with heating/cooling and nanofluid. The first system is SS with thermoelectric heating (TEH) in the basin. The second system used TEH in the basin and loaded with nanofluid. The third SS used TEH as well as nanofluid and equipped with a double-slope symmetric external condenser that one side of it cooled by film of water and the other side with thermoelectric. Silver nanoparticle due to well-known characteristics in water disinfection was used with 0.03% weight. A series of experiment performed during one week in June 2019. Findings revealed that the daily yield and efficiency for SS with nanofluid/condenser and with nanofluid without condenser compared with SS without nanofluid/condenser improved by about 100.5%, 26.7% and 50.8%, 30.6% respectively. The highest productivity obtained by SS with nanofluid/condenser with 7760 cc/m2/day where the productivity from the glass-side increase by about 16.5% and 47.6% compared to SS with nanofluid without condenser and SS without nanofluid/condenser. Also it revealed that the contribution of external condenser in productivity is 26.3% of total productivity. Findings showed that the productivity of thermoelectric-side of condenser is more than 5 times higher than water film-side.

    更新日期:2020-02-06
  • Eutectic freeze crystallization of saline dairy effluent
    Desalination (IF 6.035) Pub Date : 2020-02-05
    G.Q. Chen; S.L. Gras; S.E. Kentish
    更新日期:2020-02-06
  • Robust stable MoS2/GO filtration membrane for effective removal of dyes and salts from water with enhanced permeability
    Desalination (IF 6.035) Pub Date : 2020-02-05
    Jing Ma; Xiaodong Tang; Yi He; Yi Fan; Jingyu Chen; HaoYu
    更新日期:2020-02-06
  • A novel procedure for transient CFD modeling of basin solar stills: Coupling of species and energy equations
    Desalination (IF 6.035) Pub Date : 2020-02-05
    M. Keshtkar; M. Eslami; K. Jafarpur

    A novel procedure for transient numerical modeling of solar stills is proposed in this study. With no need to specify the glass and water temperatures as boundary conditions, instantaneous weather and irradiance data are the only inputs in the present CFD simulation. The absorption of solar radiation and radiative heat transfer in different components of the solar still are accounted by solving the DO radiative transfer equation. Instead of applying costly multi-phase techniques, species equation for water vapor is solved by coupling with energy equation through user defined functions. In this method, the latent heat of evaporation/condensation is considered as a sink/source term in the energy equation. The required evaporation and condensation rates are calculated by integrating Fick's law on the water and glass surfaces. The latent heat of phase change is assumed to be shared between the two neighboring bodies by introducing a coefficient α with the appropriate value of 0.5. Therefore, transient temperature and concentration distributions and productivity in passive and active solar stills are calculated throughout a day with moderate computational cost. By applying the present method to multi-stage active solar stills, it is shown that increasing the number of stages beyond six is not beneficial.

    更新日期:2020-02-06
  • A state-of-the-art protocol to minimize the internal concentration polarization in forward osmosis membranes
    Desalination (IF 6.035) Pub Date : 2020-02-05
    Mehrzad Arjmandi; Majid Peyravi; Ali Altaee; Abolfazl Arjmandi; Mahdi Pourafshari Chenar; Mohsen Jahanshahi; Ehsan Binaeian
    更新日期:2020-02-06
  • Impact of salty water medium and condenser on the performance of single acting solar still incorporated with parabolic trough collector
    Desalination (IF 6.035) Pub Date : 2020-02-05
    Hamdy Hassan; M. Salem Ahmed; Mohamed Fathy; Mohamed S. Yousef

    The impact of salty water medium and condenser type on the performance of single slope solar still is experimentally performed. Two solar still types are examined; conventional solar still with glass condenser (CSS) and solar still with plated finned heat sink condenser (MSS). The study is investigated for three saline water mediums in the still basin; pure saline water, sand saturated with saline water and steel wire meshes submerged inside the saline water. These stills are investigated in case of still only or still incorporated with parabolic trough collector (PTC) in hot and cold climate conditions of upper Egypt. Findings show that utilizing wire mesh, sand and heat sink condenser (HSC) raises the still freshwater yield and efficiency. The maximum freshwater yield rising in summer is 67%, 7.3% and 6% due to using PTC, HSC, and sand, respectively compared to CSS. The efficiency of all still systems in summer is found greater than winter. Moreover, utilizing HSC raises the still efficiency by 11.6% in summer and 8% in winter compared to CSS. MSS achieves the greatest efficiency of 41.95% in summer and 31.96% in winter while MSS+sand+PTC accomplishes the minimum freshwater cost with a decrease of 25.2% compared to CSS.

    更新日期:2020-02-06
  • Impact of salt retention on true batch reverse osmosis energy consumption: Experiments and model validation
    Desalination (IF 6.035) Pub Date : 2020-02-03
    Quantum J. Wei; Carson I. Tucker; Priscilla J. Wu; Ali M. Trueworthy; Emily W. Tow; John H. Lienhard
    更新日期:2020-02-03
  • Removal of polar organic micropollutants by mixed-matrix reverse osmosis membranes
    Desalination (IF 6.035) Pub Date : 2020-01-30
    V. Albergamo; B. Blankert; W.G.J. van der Meer; P. de Voogt; E.R. Cornelissen

    Mixed-matrix reverse osmosis (RO) membranes have been proposed to outperform standard polyamide thin-film composite (TFC) membranes for the production of high-quality drinking water. We investigated the passage of 30 persistent polar micropollutants (MPs) in a pilot-scale RO system equipped with a 4-inch zeolite-embedded thin-film nanocomposite (TFN) membrane fed with raw riverbank filtrate. Additionally, MPs passage was investigated in a bench-scale system equipped with a 1.8-inch aquaporin-embedded RO membrane. Benchmark TFC membranes were used in both systems. In pilot-scale RO, MPs passage did not exceed 15% and 6% with the TFC and TFN membranes, respectively. In bench-scale RO, MPs passage values of up to 65% and 44% were quantified for the aquaporin and TFC membranes, respectively, suggesting a more open structure of the 1.8-inch modules. In both RO systems, uncharged polar MPs displayed the highest passage values. While neutral MPs of molecular weight lower than 150 Da were better removed by the TFN membrane in pilot-scale RO and by the TFC membrane in bench-scale RO, no substantial differences between passage values of other MPs were observed. Overall, this indicated that nanocomposite and biomimetic membranes are as effective as TFC membranes of the same module size in preventing breakthrough of polar organics.

    更新日期:2020-01-31
  • Capacitive deionization with MoS2/g-C3N4 electrodes
    Desalination (IF 6.035) Pub Date : 2020-01-30
    Shichao Tian; Xihui Zhang; Zhenghua Zhang
    更新日期:2020-01-31
  • 更新日期:2020-01-29
  • Tannic acid assisted interfacial polymerization based loose thin-film composite NF membrane for dye/salt separation
    Desalination (IF 6.035) Pub Date : 2020-01-28
    Qin Li; Zhipeng Liao; Xiaofeng Fang; Jia Xie; Linhan Ni; Dapeng Wang; Junwen Qi; Xiuyun Sun; Lianjun Wang; Jiansheng Li
    更新日期:2020-01-29
  • Recovery of monovalent mineral salts from urine in controlled ecological life support system by nanofiltration: Feasibility study
    Desalination (IF 6.035) Pub Date : 2020-01-28
    Jianxing Wang; Yuansong Wei

    In controlled ecological life support system (CELSS), the water, oxygen, food and other life-support materials should be provided through material closure and circulation. Monovalent mineral salts were one kind of essential life-support substances for astronaut. However, few studies were focus on their recovery in CELSS. In this study, nanofiltration (NF) was used to investigate the feasibility of separating and recovering monovalent mineral salts from urine in CELSS by two membranes of DL and NF3. Results showed that the DL had higher flux and better monovalent ion separation efficiency (both the Scation and Sanion were lower) than the NF3. The organics in NF permeate was mainly urea which could be hydrolyzed into NH4+-N in natural. Under operation pressure of 8 bar, cross-flow velocity of 0.8 m/s, pH of 6.0, volume reduction factor (VRF) of 4.0 and through storing for 72 h, the monovalent ions could be separated effectively with multivalent ions and organics. The main component of the solid part in the product solution were Na+, K+, and Cl−, which accounted for 26.32%, 18.00% and 49.96%, respectively. The results of this study suggested that recovery of mineral salt of NaCl and KCl from urine in CELSS by nanofiltration was feasible.

    更新日期:2020-01-29
  • Evaluation of anti-bacterial adhesion performance of polydopamine cross-linked graphene oxide RO membrane via in situ optical coherence tomography
    Desalination (IF 6.035) Pub Date : 2020-01-29
    Noman Khalid Khanzada; Shazia Rehman; Shao-Yuan Leu; Alicia Kyoungjin An
    更新日期:2020-01-29
  • Pressure and osmotically driven membrane processes: A review of the benefits and production of nano-enhanced membranes for desalination
    Desalination (IF 6.035) Pub Date : 2020-01-25
    Basma Al-Najar; Christian D. Peters; Hanan Albuflasa; Nicholas P. Hankins

    This review focuses on current research attempts to develop nano-enhanced polymeric desalination membranes. The novel contribution made by this work as compared to many recent reviews on membrane enhancement is that a critical review is made of the effect that the morphological, optical and magnetic properties of the applied nanomaterials have on the efficiency of desalination membranes. The focus on nanomaterials in this review is on both applying new chemical compositions at various concentrations, and also on altering the nanomaterials' morphology and other properties to reach the optimal membrane efficiency for desalination applications. The synthesis route has a major role of tuning the physical and chemical properties of the nanomaterials, and hence, the membrane morphological parameters can be altered, all of which are summarised in this review. The review surveys different types of nanomaterials used for membrane fabrication, such as single elements, metal oxides and nanotubes. Furthermore, mixed oxide composites and polymer/nanomaterial combinations are also considered for membrane enhancement. A wide application range is investigated for modified membranes in pressure and osmotically driven membrane processes for desalination, including reverse osmosis, forward osmosis, osmotically assisted reverse osmosis and pressure assisted forward osmosis.

    更新日期:2020-01-26
  • 更新日期:2020-01-26
  • A polyamide membrane with tubular crumples incorporating carboxylated single-walled carbon nanotubes for high water flux
    Desalination (IF 6.035) Pub Date : 2020-01-25
    Wen Yang; Hang Xu; Wei Chen; Zhen Shen; Mingmei Ding; Tao Lin; Hui Tao; Qing Kong; Guang Yang; Zongli Xie

    Membranes having excellent water permeability and high salt rejection are needed for developing nanofiltration technology. In the present work, a modified interfacial polymerization involving low-concentration monomers was utilized to synthesize an ultrathin polyamide (PA) layer. Carboxylated single-walled carbon nanotubes (COOH-SWCNT) were embedded into the ultrathin PA layer. The resultant additional molecular transportation pathways could reduce the trade-off effect. Besides, the morphology of ultrathin PA layer was sensitive to the presence of nanofillers, and contributed to a rougher surface of the thin film nanocomposite (TFN) membrane. As a result, the permeable area was increased, which is beneficial for water permeation. At the optimized COOH-SWCNT dosage of 0.001 wt%, even tubular crumples appeared on the fabricated membranes. Thereby, the membrane achieved an ultrahigh water permeance of 22.67 L·m−2·h−1·bar−1 while maintain a high rejection for divalent salt. For example, the rejection of Na2SO4 and MgSO4 were 95.69% and 90.03%, respectively. These excellent results were achieved using low loadings of nanofillers and under relatively low pressure (3.5 bar). The current work provides a feasible method to adjust the morphologies of NF membrane for improving its performance. And this is a promising approach due to its simplicity, and low consumptions of materials and energy.

    更新日期:2020-01-26
  • Performance analysis of the multi-channel membrane capacitive deionization with porous carbon electrode stacks
    Desalination (IF 6.035) Pub Date : 2020-01-24
    Nayeong Kim; Jiho Lee; Sung Pil Hong; Changha Lee; Choonsoo Kim; Jeyong Yoon
    更新日期:2020-01-24
  • Chemical grafting N-GOQD of polyamide reverse osmosis membrane with improved chlorine resistance, water flux and NaCl rejection
    Desalination (IF 6.035) Pub Date : 2020-01-23
    Zhan Yi; Feifei Shao; Liyan Yu; Na Song; Hongzhou Dong; Beili Pang; Jianhua Yu; Jianguang Feng; Lifeng Dong
    更新日期:2020-01-23
  • Pulse Flow RO - The new RO technology for waste and brackish water applications
    Desalination (IF 6.035) Pub Date : 2020-01-23
    B. Liberman; L. Eshed; G. Greenberg

    Pulse Flow Reverse Osmosis (PFRO) technology is a new, innovative method for operating Reverse Osmosis water reuse systems that enables high recovery, high flux and Chloramine-free operation. PFRO™ constantly changes the osmotic and hydraulic conditions, thus greatly diminishing biofouling and scaling. PFRO technology was demonstrated in a municipal wastewater (WW) treatment facility at Pismo Beach, CA, from October 2018 until October 2019, using secondary effluent of a municipal wastewater plant as source water. The unit operated with an average flux of 16.5 gfd (28 LMH), which is 50% higher than the standard design of 11 gfd (18–19 LMH). Specific flux was 0.12 GFD/PSI - about 25% higher than most well-operated wastewater reuse facilities that operate at the same recovery with specific flux of 0.09–0.1 gfd/psi. The unit operated at 86% recovery in a single RO stage. No chloramine was dosed, thus no disinfection byproducts were formed. The chloramine-free operation generates permeate with an Ultraviolet Transparency (UVT) value of about 100%, thereby saving 30–40% on Capital (CAPEX) and Operational Expenditure (OPEX) in the final Ultra Violet/Advanced Oxidation Process (UV/AOP) stage. The overall water cost in this process is 14–28% lower than a similar standard Fully Advanced Treatment (FAT) water reuse process.

    更新日期:2020-01-23
  • 更新日期:2020-01-23
  • A review of membrane wettability for the treatment of saline water deploying membrane distillation
    Desalination (IF 6.035) Pub Date : 2020-01-22
    Minwei Yao; Leonard D. Tijing; Gayathri Naidu; Seung-Hyun Kim; Hideto Matsuyama; Anthony G. Fane; Ho Kyong Shon
    更新日期:2020-01-23
  • Pilot-scale membrane capacitive deionisation for effective bromide removal and high water recovery in seawater desalination
    Desalination (IF 6.035) Pub Date : 2020-01-22
    Pema Dorji; David Inhyuk Kim; Seungkwan Hong; Sherub Phuntsho; Ho Kyong Shon
    更新日期:2020-01-22
  • Polymer ion-exchange membranes for capacitive deionization of aqueous media with low and high salt concentration
    Desalination (IF 6.035) Pub Date : 2020-01-20
    Yuan Zhang; Pattarachai Srimuk; Mesut Aslan; Markus Gallei; Volker Presser
    更新日期:2020-01-21
  • Towards enhanced antifouling and flux performances of thin-film composite forward osmosis membrane via constructing a sandwich-like carbon nanotubes-coated support
    Desalination (IF 6.035) Pub Date : 2020-01-20
    Luyao Deng; Qun Wang; Xiaochan An; Zhuangzhi Li; Yunxia Hu

    In this work, we fabricated a sandwich-like single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs)-coated support for the preparation of high-performance antifouling thin-film composite (TFC) forward osmosis (FO) membrane. This sandwich-like support was prepared through the deposition of polydopamine modified SWCNTs (PDA-SWCNTs) on both sides of the polyethersulfone (PES) microfiltration (MF) membrane. The CNTs top layer was found to facilitate the formation of polyamide layer. The CNTs back layer provided an antifouling surface for the prevention of foulants adsorption and intrusion into the PES support. Results demonstrate that the CNTs back layer imparted superior rejection towards bovine serum albumin (BSA) (~98.1%) and enhanced hydrophilicity. The TFC FO membrane (TFC-modified) having the sandwich-like SWCNTs-coated support exhibited excellent perm-selectivity with the water flux Jw of 35.7 Lm−2 h−1 and the reverse salt flux Js of 1.42 gm−2 h−1 when tested in the mode of active layer facing to draw solution (AL-DS) using 1 M NaCl as a draw solution. Dynamic fouling experiments confirm that the TFC-modified membrane possessed effective antifouling performances with a low relative fouling degree (RFD) of 19.0% during the cross-flow run and 8.4% during the BSA adsorption test, which were much lower than the corresponding values of 36.1% and 15.4% for the TFC-control membrane.

    更新日期:2020-01-21
  • Application of heterogeneous ion exchange membranes for simultaneous separation and recovery of lithium and boron from aqueous solution with bipolar membrane electrodialysis (EDBM)
    Desalination (IF 6.035) Pub Date : 2020-01-20
    Deniz İpekçi; Nalan Kabay; Samuel Bunani; Esra Altıok; Müşerref Arda; Kazuharu Yoshizuka; Syouhei Nishihama
    更新日期:2020-01-21
  • 更新日期:2020-01-21
  • Enhanced water collection of bio-inspired functional surfaces in high-speed flow for high performance demister
    Desalination (IF 6.035) Pub Date : 2020-01-17
    Sun Woo Kim; Jaehyun Kim; Sung Soon Park; Dong Rip Kim

    Performance enhancement of thermal desalination processes requires the excellent water separation capabilities in demisters. However, in high-speed gas flow, the re-entrainment of captured water from the surfaces to the gas flow can considerably decrease the water collection capabilities and the corresponding separation efficiency. Herein, we report fabrication of micro-structured polymer surfaces with excellent water capturing properties in low- and high-speed gas flow conditions by using a facile molding process. Inspired by the surfaces of bio-species, the fabricated surfaces possess vertically-aligned micro-scale cone arrays and sets of microchannels to significantly enhance the capillary pressure. As a result, those hybrid-structured surfaces exhibit up to 2.4 and 4.7 times higher excellent water collection capabilities than control planar at low- and high-speed flow conditions, respectively. In addition, the mist eliminator with the hybrid surfaces performs 1.8 times higher water collection behavior than the control mist eliminator with bare surfaces. The results show the promise of developing the surfaces with engineered structures for significantly enhancing water collection without changing the shapes of flow passages in target objects.

    更新日期:2020-01-17
  • 更新日期:2020-01-16
  • Hyper-branched dendritic structure modified PVDF electrospun membranes for air gap membrane distillation
    Desalination (IF 6.035) Pub Date : 2020-01-09
    Mohammad Reza Shirzad Kebria; Ahmad Rahimpour; Saeed Khoshhal Salestan; S. Fatemeh Seyedpour; Arman Jafari; Fatemeh Banisheykholeslami; Naser Tavajohi Hassan Kiadeh
    更新日期:2020-01-11
  • Water distillation performance of carbon nanotube membrane: Non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulation
    Desalination (IF 6.035) Pub Date : 2020-01-09
    Elnaz Norouzi; Chanwoo Park

    Carbon nanotube (CNT) has a great potential as membrane material for water distillation because of its smooth and hydrophobic surface. We numerically investigated the distillation performance of CNT membrane for direct contact membrane distillation using non-equilibrium molecular dynamics (NEMD) simulation by varying diameters and lengths of the CNT and system operating conditions such as temperature, temperature difference between feed (hot) and permeate (cold) reservoirs, and sodium chloride (NaCl) concentration in the feed reservoir. It was found from the NEMD simulations that the distillation performance is enhanced by increasing system temperature, reservoir temperature difference, and CNT diameter, and decreasing CNT length, atomic attraction strength between water molecules and CNT, and NaCl concentration. The NEMD simulation overpredicts the water vapor transport by approximately an order of magnitude as compared with the results from the Knudsen diffusion model. The simulated flooding pressure is in good agreement with the theoretical prediction by the Young-Laplace equation using the MD-calculated contact angle. Most importantly, the permeability of the CNT membrane is two orders-of-magnitudes higher than a common polymer-based membrane made of Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) due to almost two order-of-magnitude higher Knudsen diffusion of the CNT membrane than that of the PTFE membrane.

    更新日期:2020-01-09
  • Synthesis of ion-exchange polyaniline-carbon composite electrodes for capacitive deionization
    Desalination (IF 6.035) Pub Date : 2020-01-09
    Oneeb ul Haq; Jae-Hwan Choi; Youn-Sik Lee

    The electrodes made of polyaniline-activated carbon (PANI-AC) composite were reported to significantly improve the capacitive deionization (CDI) cell performance compared with the cell assembled using AC electrodes alone. In this study, we synthesized ion-exchange (–NH2+ and –SOH3−) PANI-AC composites, and assembled a CDI cell using them as electrodes. The performance of the ion-exchange PANI-AC cell was higher than that of the PANI-AC cell, and slightly higher than or at least comparable to that of membrane CDI cell (MCDI). The improved performance of the ion-exchange PANI-AC cell compared with the simple PANI-AC cell is attributed to the functional groups in the PANI chains that act similar to that of an ion-exchange membrane in MCDI cells.

    更新日期:2020-01-09
  • Removal of calcium and magnesium from lithium concentrated solution by solvent extraction method using D2EHPA
    Desalination (IF 6.035) Pub Date : 2020-01-08
    Dong Shi; Bin Cui; Lijuan Li; Min Xu; Yuze Zhang; Xiaowu Peng; Licheng Zhang; Fugen Song; Lianmin Ji

    In this work, a solvent extraction process for Ca2+ and Mg2+ removal from Li+ concentrated solution consisted of 30 g/L Li+, 1.5 g/L Ca2+ and 1.5 g/L Mg2+ was proposed, using di-(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid (D2EHPA) as extractant. The extraction process was a cation exchange mechanism, and the extraction sequence was Ca2+ > Mg2+ > Li+ > Na+. Under the optimum condition of 66% saponification degree, 3/2 phase ratio and three-stage extraction, the extraction efficiency of Ca2+, Mg2+ and Li+ reached 99.00%, 98.57% and 15.28%, respectively. The extracted cations could be completely stripped by HCl solution, and the co-extracted Li+ could be selectively stripped and separated from Ca2+ and Mg2+ using higher concentration HCl solution at higher phase ratio. A whole removal process for Ca2+ and Mg2+ involving extraction, scrubbing, stripping and saponification sections was put forward, and the process stability was continuously tested on centrifugal extractors. Removal efficiency of Ca2+ and Mg2+ reached 99.05% and 98.48% respectively. Meanwhile, the loss ratio of Li+ was as low as 5.22%.

    更新日期:2020-01-09
  • Performance enhancement of waste heat extraction from generator of a wind turbine for freshwater production via employing various nanofluids
    Desalination (IF 6.035) Pub Date : 2019-12-31
    Hadi Rostamzadeh; Saeed Rostami

    Water shortage issues are growing through the globe at higher rate than population growth. On the bright side, various methods are devised to capture energy from renewable energy or waste heat from different sectors. Among all inspected approaches, waste heat capturing through cooling process of the wind turbines' generators for desalination at small scale is paid less attention. However, in large wind farms, the scale of this dissipated thermal heat becomes appreciable which can drive several desalination units. Due to the above-pointed facts, the waste heat of a wind turbine with nominal capacity of 7358 kW and height of 24 m for desalinating seawater is inspected here, using a humidification-dehumidification (HDH) unit. Also, five nanoparticles of Cu, CuO, TiO2, Al2O3, and SiO2 with base fluid of water are used through the cooling process of the wind turbine's generator in order to produce more freshwater. The devised set-up is evaluated in terms of the first and second laws of thermodynamics for different selected nanofluids. It is found that wind turbine has the highest exergy destruction of 1125 kW, followed by heater. Also, the total exergy destruction (for all nanofluids) is calculated approximately 1387 kW. Also, among all employed nanoparticles, Cu/water mixture has the highest performance since it produces more freshwater, while SiO2/water mixture has the lowest performance. Moreover, the total energy efficiency reaches its maximum value in the range of 26.25–26.5% at wind speed of 11.5 m/s.

    更新日期:2019-12-31
  • Recent advances in nanofibrous membranes: Production and applications in water treatment and desalination
    Desalination (IF 6.035) Pub Date : 2019-12-28
    Haleema Saleem; Levent Trabzon; Ali Kilic; Syed Javaid Zaidi
    更新日期:2019-12-29
  • Experimental investigation on novel desalination system via gas hydrate
    Desalination (IF 6.035) Pub Date : 2019-12-27
    Jia-nan Zheng; Mingjun Yang

    Freshwater scarcity has been troubling the high-quality development of many countries and regions, and seawater desalination is a vital source of freshwater. Recently, gas hydrate based desalination (GHBD) technology attracts much attention because of bringing no extra pollution to water. We developed a novel multifunctional desalination apparatus via gas hydrate with various operation modes and separation methods. In this study, the desalination characters under different separation modes were conducted using simulated seawater, and the hydrate-purging method with a desalination efficiency of more than 80% was selected to desalt the natural seawater sample. In addition, the purging method can greatly improve the desalination effects of both squeezed hydrate column and loose hydrates. The experimental results indicate that the removal efficiencies of different ions in the seawater were similar and their difference was related to the strength of ionic hydration. And above all, we designed and conducted a continuous desalination process including multiple injection, separation, washing and purging operations. The ultimate desalination efficiency using hydrate-purging method was over 80%, and the freshwater recovery was above 30% with 200 mL initial seawater in this study. The experimental proposal and results of this study are of great significance to the development of GHBD technology.

    更新日期:2019-12-29
  • Heat and mass transfer evaluation of air-gap diffusion distillation by ε-NTU method
    Desalination (IF 6.035) Pub Date : 2019-12-28
    Lin Xu; Shiming Xu; Xi Wu; Ping Wang; Dongxu Jin; Junyong Hu; Lei Li; Le Chen; Qiang Leng; Debing Wu

    The effectiveness-number of transfer units (ε-NTU) method was used to develop the heat and mass transfer model of air-gap diffusion distillation (AGDD). In this model, the latent heat transfer of vapor in air-gap was regarded as an equivalent convective heat transfer to make a relationship with NTU. Compared with the full numerical model developed in our previous work, the new model was simple and performing with dramatic high computational efficiency. The accuracy of the model was as well as the full numerical model. The influences of structure and operation parameters on the performances of AGDD system were discussed furtherly by employing the model. Results shown that the air-gap height, the inlet temperature and feed flow rate of hot stream could be regarded as the strong parameters effected significantly on the performances of the system in comparison with the air-gap thickness and inlet temperature and salt concentration of cold stream. Therefore, these strong parameters should be considered firstly for improving the heat and mass transfer of AGDD.

    更新日期:2019-12-29
  • Efficient adsorbent for recovering uranium from seawater prepared by grafting amidoxime groups on chloromethylated MIL-101(Cr) via diaminomaleonitrile intermediate
    Desalination (IF 6.035) Pub Date : 2019-12-28
    Lijia Liu; Yueguang Fang; Yujiang Meng; Xinyi Wang; Fuqiu Ma; Chunhong Zhang; Hongxing Dong

    Here, reaction of a chloromethylated metal-organic framework (MOF) MIL-101 with diaminomaleonitrile (DAMN) following with an amidoximation reaction successfully produced a novel amidoxime functionalized porous material (MIL-101-AO). The chelation of amidoxime group to uranium and the large specific surface area afforded MIL-101-AO excellent selective adsorption ability for U (VI) in aqueous solutions (586 mg·g−1). Furthermore, MIL-101-AO showed much stronger selective adsorption for U (VI) than other co-existing metallic ions in the artificial seawater (removal rate reached 96%). The influence factors on the adsorption process were evaluated by batch adsorption experiments under different condition. The process of adsorbing uranium on MIL-101-AO fitted with the Langmuir model and the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The △H° and △G° values of uranium adsorption indicated that it was an endothermic heat process; a higher adsorption temperature could promote the adsorption on MIL-101-AO. All the experimental results indicated that MIL-101-AO was an adsorbent with the application value of extracting uranium in seawater.

    更新日期:2019-12-29
  • Enhanced performance of “Candidatus Brocadia sinica” treating nitrogen-laden saline wastewater resulting from sorbitol addition: Enzyme activities and kinetics
    Desalination (IF 6.035) Pub Date : 2019-12-28
    Lijing Bai; Jin Li; Basanta Kumar Biswal; Guanghao Chen

    Nitrogen removal performance and key enzyme activities of “Candidatus Brocadia sinica” with sorbitol addition were investigated in nitrogen-laden saline wastewater treatment. Nitrogen removal through “Candidatus Brocadia sinica” first increased and then decreased with sorbitol addition. Optimal ammonia removal rate and nitrite removal rate were 0.53 and 0.67 kg/(m3·d) at 0.8 mM sorbitol, which increased by 39.5% and 71.8%, respectively. Moreover, appropriate sorbitol content could resist salt stress and decrease extracellular polymeric substances content of “Candidatus Brocadia sinica”. Independent of sorbitol concentration, hydrazine dehydrogenase and nitrite reductase activities were enhanced about 1.37–2.36 folds. Remodified Logistic model was the most appropriate to analyze nitrogen removal process with sorbitol addition. Fitted Rmax (%/h) could be converted into Vmax (kg/(m3·d)) to predict optimal substrate conversion rates of “Candidatus Brocadia sinica” treating nitrogen-laden saline wastewater with various sorbitol contents.

    更新日期:2019-12-29
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