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  • Performance Evaluation and Environmental Benefit Assessment of Fine Particle Removal using a Co-Current Flow Rotating Packed Bed
    Process Saf. Environ. Prot. (IF 4.384) Pub Date : 2020-02-12
    Kai-Yu Lin; Tse-Lun Chen; Yi-Hung Chen; Pen-Chi Chiang

    The air pollutant emission related to the anthropogenic activities affecting the environment and human health was a critical problem. Fine or ultrafine particulate matters were the major air pollutant from the industries. Thus, the high-gravity technology has holistically been applied to the integrated air pollution control due to its advances of low land demand, high mass transfer rate, low economic cost and easy operation and maintenance. In this study, the fine particle removal using a co-current flow rotating packed bed (CF-RPB) was evaluated along with different key parameters, including high gravity factor and liquid-to-gas (L/G) ratio. The obtained results suggested that CF-RPB could improve the particle removal efficiency up to 99.75% which was increased as the high gravity factor and L/G ratio increased. In this study, a theoretical model was developed to describe that the particle size of 0.1 μm accounted for the major concentration. Furthermore, the environmental benefit of different particle control technologies was evaluated using environmental cost accounting. The results indicated that the application of CF-RPB for particle emissions control performed greater economic feasibility than Venturi scrubber and baghouse filter. CF-RPB could also be applied to the particulate and gaseous air pollutants removal, which has more advances than the electrostatic precipitator.

    更新日期:2020-02-12
  • Efficient utilization of waste plastics as raw material for metallic iron and syngas production by combining heat treatment pulverization and direct reduction
    Process Saf. Environ. Prot. (IF 4.384) Pub Date : 2020-02-12
    Guang Wang; Jingsong Wang; Qingguo Xue

    For the clean and efficient utilizaiton of waste plastics, an integrated flowsheet, including low temperature heat treatment pulverization and composite pellet reduction, has been proposed and the fundamental research has been conducted. The PE film could be easily pulverized by heat treatment at 250 °C for 20 min after mixed with coal powder (mass ratio of PE 20% of coal). The pulverized heated mixture had better reactivity than original coal and could be used as the reducing agent of composite pellet. The reducibility of heated mixture pellet was better than coal pellet with the C/O of 1.0. The appropriate reduction temperature should be around 1100 °C and the metallization degree was bigger than 90% when reduced for 30 min. The off gas of heated mixture pellet contained more H2 and CO. The concentration value of H2 peak of heated mixture pellet was 5 times of that of coal pellet. However, the concentration value of largest CO peak of heated mixture pellet was about 48.7% higher than that of coal pellet. The experimental results show the possibility that the novel technology can efficiently utilize iron ore and waste plastics to produce metallic iron and syngas.

    更新日期:2020-02-12
  • Contaminants in soil-like material recovered by landfill mining from five old dumps in India
    Process Saf. Environ. Prot. (IF 4.384) Pub Date : 2020-02-11
    Mohit Somani; Manoj Datta; G.V. Ramana; Trichur Ramaswamy Sreekrishnan

    Soil-like material (SLM) was mined from five municipal solid waste (MSW) dumps to assess its potential for reuse in earthwork projects. The contamination levels of SLM (< 4.75 mm) were determined based on organic content, total soluble solids, the release of colored leachate, and heavy metals. Organic content in SLM was found to be 4-24.5% whereas in the local soils (nearby areas) it was found to be 1-1.2%. Total soluble solids were found to be in the range of 4820-25220 mg/kg, several times higher than that of the local soils (500-1000 mg/kg). The intensity of yellow-brown color in the water extract from SLM was observed to be 205-925 PCU while in the water extract of local soils it was found to be 25-40 PCU, highlighting the potential for release of colored leachate from SLM. Heavy metals in the SLM including chromium, copper, nickel, zinc, cadmium, and lead were found to be moderately to strongly elevated. Though SLM appears to be an attractive option for reuse, the high levels of contaminants indicate SLM would require treatment before offsite reuse.

    更新日期:2020-02-12
  • Localization of multiple leaks in a fluid pipeline based on ultrasound velocity and improved GWO
    Process Saf. Environ. Prot. (IF 4.384) Pub Date : 2020-02-10
    Lang Xianming; Li Ping; Zhang Baocun; Cao Jiangtao; Guo Ying; Kan Zhe; Lu Siyu
    更新日期:2020-02-10
  • Synergistic effects of catalytic co-pyrolysis of macroalgae with waste plastics
    Process Saf. Environ. Prot. (IF 4.384) Pub Date : 2020-02-09
    Shannan Xu; Bin Cao; Benjamin Bernard Uzoejinwa; Emmanuel Alepu Odey; Shuang Wang; Hao Shang; Chunhou Li; Yamin Hu; Qian Wang; Joel N. Nwakaire

    This study unveiled the synergistic effects of catalytic co-pyrolysis of the macroalgae (Enteromorpha prolifera) and waste plastics (HDPE) for enhanced biofuels production. Results revealed that catalytic co-pyrolysis of macroalgae (seaweeds) and waste plastics lowered greatly the high contents of the acids, oxygenates and nitrogen-containing compounds in the seaweed bio-oils, while the aromatics and light hydrocarbons contents of the bio-oils were significantly increased, owing to blending of seaweeds with co-feeding element of high hydrogen content. Results also unveiled that the existence of the co-pyrolysis synergy inhibited catalytic coking and reduced solid residues’ formation. Also, the addition of HZSM-5 catalyst further improved the reaction activity, yields and selectivity of aliphatic hydrocarbons than aromatics, and reduced the activation energy without changing the reaction mechanisms. This significant reduction in activation energy can be easily observed in the results of non-isothermal kinetic analyses performed using the TGA data via five different methods: Friedman, FWO, Vyazovkin, KAS and DAEM methods, as a single kinetics-evaluation model lacks the flexibility to account for different types of materials without further modifications to reaction scheme. The FTIR-spectra of the catalytic co-pyrolysis oils were consistent with the results of the GC/MS analysis of the oils from catalytic-co-pyrolysis.

    更新日期:2020-02-10
  • Numerical simulations of the flow field and pollutant dispersion in an idealized urban area under different atmospheric stability conditions
    Process Saf. Environ. Prot. (IF 4.384) Pub Date : 2020-02-08
    Dongpeng Guo; Peng Zhao; Ran Wang; Rentai Yao; Jimin Hu

    This study simulated the flow and near-field plume dispersion in an urban-like environment under unstable, neutral and stable atmospheric stratification using the steady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) methodology. First, a validation study for two trials of the Mock Urban Setting Test (MUST) experiments is performed to examine the predictive performance of the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model, Fluidyn-PANACHE. The effects of atmospheric stability on the flow structure in street canyons under perpendicular incident flow conditions are investigated. In addition, the patterns of urban dispersion in different cases of stability are also analysed under perpendicular and oblique wind direction conditions. The results show that in the urban environment, the influence of atmospheric stability on the canyon vortex intensity, flow structure and plume dispersion is apparent; intense thermal turbulence enhances the vortex intensity and plume dilution in the street canyon under unstable conditions; when the atmospheric conditions are stable, the vertical profile of the streamwise velocity is significantly decreased by the obstacles, and the concentration level and spread of pollutants increase in the street canyon due to relatively weak turbulent motions; plume deflection within the obstacle array is noteworthy when the incident flow is oblique; in particular, the transport of the plume is basically independent of the wind direction very near the ground.

    更新日期:2020-02-10
  • 更新日期:2020-02-10
  • Underwater gas release modeling and verification analysis
    Process Saf. Environ. Prot. (IF 4.384) Pub Date : 2020-02-08
    Xinhong Li; Ziyue Han; Shangyu Yang; Guoming Chen

    Accidental subsea gas releases may cause an underwater gas plume migrating from the seafloor to the sea surface, which may pose offshore fire hazards or instability of ships. Numerical simulation is an efficient approach to model the underwater gas behavior and support risk assessment. To verify the availability of numerical modeling methods for the underwater gas release, this paper establishes a small-scale experiment system to simulate the underwater gas release, and several experiments with the typical conditions are conducted to obtain the plume parameters, e.g. shape, radium and fountain height. Two CFD models, i.e. Eulerian-Eulerian and Eulerian-Lagrangian approaches, are used to reproduce underwater gas plumes in the experimental conditions. The comparison between simulations and experiments is conducted to analyze the effectiveness and the rationality of numerical modeling methods. The results indicate that simulations with two methods are overall consistent with experiments. However, a detailed comparison reflects that Eulerian-Eulerian model cannot satisfactorily capture the transition of jet to plume and the entrainment during gas rising. In contrast, the results from Eulerian-Lagrangian model are better in agreement with experiments. This study verifies these two numerical modeling methods through a small-scale experiment. The validation against full scale tests is suggested in future work to use it as a reliable tool for risk assessment of subsea gas release incidents.

    更新日期:2020-02-10
  • FUNDAMENTAL STUDIES OF EXPLOSION ARRESTER MITIGATION MECHANISMS
    Process Saf. Environ. Prot. (IF 4.384) Pub Date : 2020-02-08
    Geraint THOMAS; Gwyn OAKLEY; Richard BAMBREY

    We report the results of laboratory investigations of the behaviour during explosion mitigation by channels typical of those used in commercial explosion arrester devices. Experimental results are presented first of shock and detonation wave interaction with a miniaturised matrix of narrow channels aligned parallel to the incoming flows. The results with a larger scale device using the same channel dimensions tested at more extreme conditions representative of overdriven detonation certification test conditions are consistent with the reduced scale laboratory measurements. To evaluate the applicability of laboratory scale evaluation of arrester elements for other types of explosion arrester, a further preliminary study is also reported with deflagration arrester elements. Finally, the present observations are interpreted in the light of published theories potentially relevant to explaining successful explosion mitigation, or otherwise, by commercial arrester devices. Using this approach, laboratory scale measurements are shown to be as a useful tool for investigating the dominant explosion mitigation mechanisms relevant to practical end user application safety devices and provide an opportunity for assisting with the design and evaluation of practical explosion, especially designs that could be supported by more comprehensive detailed CFD simulations where the supporting laboratory test configurations could also facilitate the use of more sophisticated diagnostic methods

    更新日期:2020-02-10
  • 更新日期:2020-02-07
  • The optimization of a dust suppression and clean production scheme in a TBM-constructed tunnel based on an orthogonal experiment
    Process Saf. Environ. Prot. (IF 4.384) Pub Date : 2020-02-07
    Xiaofei Liu; Wen Nie; Wenjie Zhou; Changqi Liu; Qiang Liu; Cunhou Wei
    更新日期:2020-02-07
  • Towards a room temperature oxidative desulfurization of refractory compounds over 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrachloroferrates/silica gel: the beneficial effects of immobilization
    Process Saf. Environ. Prot. (IF 4.384) Pub Date : 2020-02-06
    Hojatollah Haji Andevary; Azam Akbari; Zahra Rajabi; Mohammadreza Omidkhah

    A successful immobilization of 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrachloroferrates ([Omim][FeCl4]) thin films on a silica gel while remaining its mesoporousity, was accomplished in this work. The developed catalyst was highly active and cost-effective for deep oxidative desulfurization of refractory thiophenic compounds at room temperature utilizing H2O2 oxidation agent. The reaction products were well separated from fuel by the catalyst itself under a beneficial solvent-free condition. The catalyst was characterized applying different analyses of FT-IR, TGA, XRD, SEM, EDS, AFM, N2 adsorption desorption, BET, and BJH. A sufficiently large pore diameter (∼6.2 nm) and high surface area (∼490 m2/g) of the silica gel for supporting the Lewis acidic [Omim][FeCl4] having a proper anion and cation structure, synergistically enabled a high efficient and selective catalyst for removal of refractory thiophenes. The influences of reaction temperature and time, loading amount of ionic liquid (IL), catalyst and oxidant amount as crucial reaction factors were evaluated in order to have a maximum desulfurization yield. Impressively, only a very low IL loading of 5 wt.% on the silica gel support achieved complete elimination of dibenzothiophene at the optimal mild conditions and room temperature. In the presence of a non-sulfur aromatic hydrocarbon beside different thiophenic models, the desulfurization selectivity of [Omim][FeCl4] increased from 0.92 to 0.95 via immobilization on the silica gel support. A significant decline in the IL consumption was verified as another beneficial effect of this immobilization. The catalyst could be easily separated having a capability for 100% removal of dibenzothiophene after recycling four times. Meanwhile, GC–MS analysis was employed for further founding of the desulfurization pathway.

    更新日期:2020-02-07
  • Eco-friendly coffee-based colloid for performance augmentation of solar stills
    Process Saf. Environ. Prot. (IF 4.384) Pub Date : 2020-02-06
    F.A. Essa; Ammar H. Elsheikh; Almoataz A. Algazzar; Ravishankar Sathyamurthy; Mohamed Kamal Ahmed Ali; Mohamed Abd Elaziz; K. h. Salman

    Recently, nanofluids have been extensively used in water desalination systems because of their superior photo-thermal properties and heat transfer characteristics. Most of inorganic nanoparticles such as metal, metal oxides and carbon have adverse environmental impacts due to the risk related to their production and disposal processes as well as the toxicity of some types of them. In addition, their high production cost is another issue that motivates researchers to find low cost and eco-friendly alternatives to inorganic nanoparticles. In this study, coffee-based colloid has been proposed as an organic, low cost, and eco-friendly alternative to conventional inorganic-based nanofluids to augment the fresh water productivity of solar stills (SS). The performance of the modified solar still (MSS) has been experimentally investigated and compared with another conventional solar still (CSS) under the same conditions. The daily freshwater productivity obtained from the MSS was 4865.73 ml/m2 which was greater than that of CSS by 35.14%. Energy and exergy efficiencies of MSS were improved by 35.34% and 46.44%, respectively, compared with that of CSS. Finally, the economic evaluation of the MSS is carried out via performing cost analysis. The cost of distilled water per liter produced by the modified solar still is 0.0136 $/l.

    更新日期:2020-02-07
  • Safety Case process in Cuba: Transition from theory to practice
    Process Saf. Environ. Prot. (IF 4.384) Pub Date : 2020-02-06
    Fidel Ilizástigui Pérez

    Cuban Major Hazard/Safety Case regulations require that Facility Operators produce Operational Safety Cases with the aim of demonstrating that they can manage their risks of major accidents during facility operation to a level that is As Low as Reasonably Practicable (ALARP). The production of a good quality, fit-for-purpose Safety Case is a complex issue and must be cautiously approached by Facility Operators. Lessons from the Victoria Safety Case implementation and the Nimrod Review highlighted the need to ensure that a robust Safety Case process is in place before starting the work. This is of paramount importance in ensuring the process of production of the Operational Safety Cases delivers a final product – the documented Safety Case - that is Succinct, Home-grown, Accessible, Proportionate, Easy-to-understand and Document-lite (SHAPED). This paper provides insights into the manner in which the Safety Case production process is carried out by Facility Operators in accordance with a Safety Case Preparation Plan, which must previously be accepted by the Regulator. The Plan must be written in a way that defines the Safety Case process, emphasizes ownership and leadership of the process by the Facility Operator, maximizes workforce involvement in the production of the Safety Case deliverables and demonstrates and facilitates accessibility and usability of the final product – the documented Safety Case. The paper also provides information on the ‘Pilot’ Safety Case strategy which is a step-by-step, case-by-case process, currently being implemented by the Regulator, to lessen the burden of compliance with Safety Case requirements stated in the Regulations. According to this strategy, the entry of Major Hazard Facilities (MHFs) into the new regime will take place gradually and will not be linked to any specific licensing process.

    更新日期:2020-02-07
  • Ranking the occupational incident contributory factors: A Bayesian network model for the petroleum industry
    Process Saf. Environ. Prot. (IF 4.384) Pub Date : 2020-02-05
    Zahra Naghavi Konjin; Seyed Bagher Mortazavi; Hassan Asilian Mahabadi; Ebrahim Hajizadeh

    Introduction A vast amount of research has been conducted to identify human and organizational factors that contribute to the occurrence of occupational incidents. Considering the identified factors, the question is how much the occupational incident probability will decrease in the absence of one or more recognized contributory factors. Methods Twenty-one fatal accident reports were selected for Root Cause Analysis (RCA). The contributory factors were identified by content analysis of the accident scenarios. A 5-point Likert questionnaire was developed to measure the probability of identified factors. Using the identified contributory factors and their corresponding probabilities, a Bayesian network model was constructed for estimating the probability of the occupational incident in the absence of each contributory factor. Results Procedure violation, poor risk perception, and poor management commitment were three top-ranking contributory factors. The Bayesian network estimated that preventing procedures violation could cause a reduction of 44% in the occupational incident probability. Conclusion Using Bayesian network’s advantages is an effective technique for quantifying occupational safety risks. Ranking the contributory factors enables us to choose the most effective prevention strategies. Procedure violation (a type of unsafe act) was the most influencing factor in occupational incident probability.

    更新日期:2020-02-06
  • A Set Theory-Based Model for Safety Investment and Accident Control in Coal Mines
    Process Saf. Environ. Prot. (IF 4.384) Pub Date : 2020-02-05
    Fu-chuan Jiang; En Lai; Yu-xuan Shan; Fu-hao Tang; Hu-gang Li

    Mechanization and automation of the coal industry as well as increasing the government support for safety in coal mines in China resulted in a significant decrease in the death rate per million tons of coal produced. Nonetheless, major accidents still occur. As one of the five factors of safe production, safety investment plays a key role in ensuring the safe production of coal in mining enterprises. Coal mining enterprises can ensure safe production in the mines and maximize profits through optimum safety investment. In this study, safety system engineering principles and subsets in set theory were combined to develop a novel safety investment index system. The safety investment indices were categorized into human, machine, environment, and the intersection of these three indices. The elements in each investment set were examined, and a multivariate model of safety investment and accident control was created using gray forecasting theory. In addition, a case study was conducted to validate the reliability of the model. The results indicated that the proposed model can provide theoretical evidence and guidance for safety investment decision making in coal mining enterprises.

    更新日期:2020-02-06
  • A mathematical method for predicting flammability limits of gas mixtures
    Process Saf. Environ. Prot. (IF 4.384) Pub Date : 2020-02-05
    Lulu Zhou; Beibei Wang; Juncheng Jiang; Genserik Reniers; Longfei Liu
    更新日期:2020-02-06
  • A new Methodology to Measure Safety Level of a Process Plant Using a System Theory Based Method (STAMP)
    Process Saf. Environ. Prot. (IF 4.384) Pub Date : 2020-01-31
    Abouzar Yousefi

    Major accidents continue to happen in the process industry and often have serious consequences. There are questions on how these accidents happen and how we can monitor safety in a process plant to prevent these accidents. In order to explain how accidents happen, different accident causation models have been used, whereas most of them were developed long time ago. Significant changes have occurred in the industry and traditional models may have limitations in identifying causes of accidents in modern industry within complex sociotechnical environment. Consequently, new accident models based on systems theory have been developed lately. Safety is often measured by number of accidents, mishaps or near misses. This retrospective approach cannot help enough to prevent accidents. In this paper, a novel methodology is introduced to measure safety level in process plants with the purpose of preventing accidents. This methodology is based on Systems Theoretic Accident Model and Processes (STAMP), which is one of the systemic accident model developed recently. The methodology is tested using real data from a process plant and obtained promising results are provided in this paper.

    更新日期:2020-01-31
  • Microbial community analyses by high-throughput sequencing of rumen microorganisms fermenting office paper in mesophilic and thermophilic lysimeters
    Process Saf. Environ. Prot. (IF 4.384) Pub Date : 2020-01-31
    Lívia Silva Botta; Tiago Palladino Delforno; Camila Abreu B. Silva Rabelo; Edson Luiz Silva; Maria Bernadete Amâncio Varesche
    更新日期:2020-01-31
  • A Hybrid-Encoding Adaptive Evolutionary Strategy Algorithm for Windage Alteration Fault Diagnosis
    Process Saf. Environ. Prot. (IF 4.384) Pub Date : 2020-01-31
    De Huang; Jian Liu; Lijun Deng

    It is critically important that windage alteration faults (WAFs) within mine ventilation systems be quickly identified and mitigated in order to ensure a safe mine production environment. Thus, we propose a Hybrid-Encoding adaptive Evolution Strategy (ES) Algorithm to diagnose the fault’s location and volume quickly and accurately, as it combines classification and regression features. The Euclidean distance between the airflow set calculated via fault diagnosis and the airflow set obtained by the monitoring system was used as the objective function value. Six benchmark functions and one thousand six hundred tests were carried out to verify the feasibility of using Hybrid-Encoding for WAFs diagnosis. The effectiveness of adaptive ES was demonstrated by Genetic Algorithm (GA), Differential Evolution Algorithm (DEA), and Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO). The experimental results fully validate the Hybrid-Encoding adaptive ES superiority in terms of accuracy, precision, diagnostic errors, robustness, computational efficiency, and convergence speed, etc. Diagnostic accuracy and precision during field testing were both 92.5%, and 93.75% of the results showed relative errors of < 5%. Thus, our proposed Hybrid-Encoding adaptive ES Algorithm meets the requirements for fault diagnosis accuracy at the mine production site.

    更新日期:2020-01-31
  • Effect of hybrid (microwave-H2O2) feed sludge pretreatment on single and two-stage anaerobic digestion efficiency of real mixed sewage sludge
    Process Saf. Environ. Prot. (IF 4.384) Pub Date : 2020-01-31
    Herald Wilson Ambrose; Calvin Tse-Liang Chin; Eugene Hong; Ligy Philip; G.K. Suraishkumar; Tushar Kanti Sen; Mehdi Khiadani
    更新日期:2020-01-31
  • Removal of micropollutants in domestic wastewater by expanded granular sludge bed membrane bioreactor
    Process Saf. Environ. Prot. (IF 4.384) Pub Date : 2020-01-31
    Clara V. Faria; Bárbara C. Ricci; Ana F.R. Silva; Miriam C.S. Amaral; Fabiana V. Fonseca

    Sewage treatment plants effluent is considered the primary source of many micropollutants in aquatic systems since their biological treatment is commonly unable to remove persistent micropollutants. However, its efficacy can be achieved with the aid of advanced treatment technologies, such as membrane processes. This work evaluated the removal efficiency of 7 pharmaceuticals (Ketoprofen, Prednisone, Fenofibrate, Fluconazole, Betamethasone, Loratadine and 17α-Ethinyl estradiol) in a hybrid system (EGSB-MBR) where an ultrafiltration membrane was submerged in an anaerobic expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) reactor. This integrated system improved the removal efficiencies of pharmaceuticals (> 84%) and chemical oxygen demand (COD). The EGSB reactor alone showed COD reductions around 92%, while the EGSB-MBR system achieved COD reductions above 98%. Furthermore, the permeate showed lower concentrations of nutrients (P, N-NH4+) and volatile fatty acids (VFAs) than the effluent from the anaerobic reactor alone. Anaerobic biodegradability tests, together with bioreactor results, pointed out the mechanisms involved in the removal of each drug. The risk assessment showed that the permeate presented a low probability of risk to human health and that the UF membrane was able to reduce the risk of the final effluent.

    更新日期:2020-01-31
  • Investigation on underwater gas leakage and dispersion behaviors based on Coupled Eulerian-Lagrangian CFD model
    Process Saf. Environ. Prot. (IF 4.384) Pub Date : 2020-01-31
    Yuan Sun; Xuewen Cao; Fachun Liang; Jiang Bian

    Energy waste, environmental pollution, loss of human life and property can be caused once underwater gas leakage occurs. It is of great significance to establish an emergency response mechanism for underwater gas leakage and diffusion. A 3D model based on coupled Eulerian-Lagrangian approach is carried out to investigate the underwater release characteristics and diffusion law of gas leakage. The model is validated by the experimental data from literature and the results are accord with the experimental values. Influencing factors such as marine environment, leaking rate, current speed, and water depth are analyzed by numerical simulation. The calculation results indicate that ocean condition mainly affects underwater gas migration behaviors and gas plume consumes the longest rise time under wave and current. Water depth, current speed and leaking rate significantly influence the underwater gas migration but have limited effect on gas diffusion in atmosphere. The investigation will give some advice for emergency response formulation.

    更新日期:2020-01-31
  • Stratified flows and associated shear instabilities modelling over an inclined plan
    Process Saf. Environ. Prot. (IF 4.384) Pub Date : 2020-01-31
    Raphael R.C. Santos; Sávio S.V. Vianna

    We investigate isothermal continuous gravity currents down on an incline of 5°. The front region with strong mixing and the shallower layer behind it are modelled using computational fluid dynamics in order to discuss the dilution process in accidental releases. The simulations were performed using two different customised packages for compressible and a non-compressible flows. The heavy fluid dilution was analysed considering RANS (Reynolds Average Navier Stokes) approach and three turbulence models k − ɛ, k − ω SST and RNG k − ɛ. The simulated gravity currents were compared with experimental by means of the the density distribution in the flow and volume of the current. As far as dense gas cloud prediction is concerned, the numerical findings agree with the experimental data and there seems to be good indication that the solvers are suitable for consequence analysis. Shear instabilities caused by the flow of two fluids near the interface zone are well captured by RNG k − ɛ turbulence model. The simulations show that the modelling of small scale turbulence and associated rate of deformation are important to mimic the wavy instabilities and curling of the interface region of the released and ambient fluid. Such process is of paramount importance when predicting the mixing and dilution of the released material. Analysis of the results shows that better agreement is observed when the proper modelling of the shear instabilities is considered as well as the extra source of turbulence due to the effects of buoyancy.

    更新日期:2020-01-31
  • Chimney effect induced by smoldering fire in a U-shaped porous channel: A governing mechanism of the persistent underground coal fires
    Process Saf. Environ. Prot. (IF 4.384) Pub Date : 2020-01-30
    Zeyang Song; Xinyan Huang; Claudia Kuenzer; Hongqing Zhu; Juncheng Jiang; Xuhai Pan; Xiaoxing Zhong
    更新日期:2020-01-31
  • A new optimization model for wastewater treatment planning with a temporal component
    Process Saf. Environ. Prot. (IF 4.384) Pub Date : 2020-01-28
    Christian Blum; Marta Verdaguer; Hèctor Monclús; Manel Poch
    更新日期:2020-01-29
  • 更新日期:2020-01-29
  • 更新日期:2020-01-26
  • Understanding Loss of Containment of Non-radiological Chemotoxic Materials in the Civil Nuclear and Process Industries
    Process Saf. Environ. Prot. (IF 4.384) Pub Date : 2020-01-25
    Matt Clay; Moray Kidd; Andrew Gale; Tim Boardman; Jim Murphy; Tony Wynn; Steven Naylor; Jo Ellwood

    Loss of containment of toxic and flammable inventories from process plant is associated with a long history of major accidents including fires, explosions and toxic releases. Such accidents affect both workers and the offsite public. These issues are often associated with the onshore process industries which incorporate a very wide range of segments including pharmaceutical manufacture, tank storage, downstream oil & gas, fine and speciality chemical manufacture as well as many others. What may be less well appreciated is that while the Civil Nuclear sector has a key focus on containment of radiological materials, it also maintains significant inventories of flammable and toxic materials, which it terms ‘chemotoxic’ hazards. It follows that a very broad range of industries have a desire to prevent and mitigate the potential for loss of containment events which release chemotoxic materials. Existing sources of loss of containment intelligence include the Health & Safety Executive (HSE) and other databases which can be interrogated to glean process safety insights. Such systems incorporate some limited coding of data, but often feature much greater detail within unstructured free text. Systematic interrogation of such free text fields could yield greater detail within process safety insights as well as a potentially larger number of records with which to draw insight. The Discovering Safety Programme is a multidisciplinary initiative funded by the Lloyd’s Register Foundation. The programme aims to improve plateaued safety performance through better insight via data analysis tools including text mining and natural language processing. This paper describes the early stages of a project within the Discovering Safety Programme to obtain process safety insights from HSE’s regulatory database. This work includes analysis of coded information, proposals to extract intelligence from unstructured free text and also exploration of whether process safety intelligence can be extracted from a subset of occupational safety incidents. The paper describes the findings from industry consultation, including the civil nuclear sector.

    更新日期:2020-01-26
  • L-Histidine doped-TiO2-CdS nanocomposite blended UF membranes with photocatalytic and self-cleaning properties for remediation of effluent from a local waste stabilization pond (WSP) under visible light
    Process Saf. Environ. Prot. (IF 4.384) Pub Date : 2020-01-24
    Hadis Zangeneh; Zahra Rahimi; Ali Akbar Zinatizadeh; Sayed Hossein Razavizadeh; Sirus Zinadini

    In this study, a dual photocatalyst of TiO2-CdS doped by C, N nonmetals with the aid of L-Histidine (C, N-doped TiO2-CdS) was synthesized and then incorporated into polyethersulfone (PES) ultrafiltration (UF) membrane matrix in order to endow photocatalytic and self-antifouling properties. The resulting photocatalytic nanocomposite was first characterized by analyses of X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), photoluminescence (PL), and UV–Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS). The fabricated membranes were identified through tests of SEM, contact angle and Atomic force analysis (AFM). The membranes performance was evaluated in terms of pure water flux (PWF) and antifouling experiments in a dead end set up. To find out optimum conditions and investigate photocatalytic properties under continuous visible light irradiation, the impacts of two operating variables, i.e. working pressure (P, 1-5 bar) and cross flow rate (Q, 50-150 L/h) at three levels on four responses were investigated in a continuous regime using filtration of effluent from waste stabilization pound (WSP). From the results, the highest PWF, FRR and Rr were found to be 80.37 kg/m2h, 80. 2 %, and 56. 1 % for the membrane modified by 0.5 wt. % C, N doped TiO2-CdS contrast to 60.69 kg/m2h, 33 % and 15.6 % obtained for the control membrane. At optimum conditions, i.e. 3 bar and 150 L/h, the values of PWF, FRR and COD removal were 150.6 kg/m2h, 89.5 % and 65.26 %, respectively. An improvement of 1.4, 1.5 and 1.3 times in PWF, FRR, and COD removal, respectively, were achieved for the 0.5 wt.% membrane under visible light irradiation compared to the control one. These results were attributed to super hydrophilicity, photocatalytic properties and self-antifouling.

    更新日期:2020-01-24
  • Simplifying COSHH and Improving Chemical Safety
    Process Saf. Environ. Prot. (IF 4.384) Pub Date : 2020-01-24
    Stuart Morgan; Mark Stewart; Tasha Bennett

    At Heineken UK, we have applied 5S principles to the legislation and guidance set out by the Health and Safety Executive (HSE) to develop a set of procedures and training materials to simplify the entire COSHH process and ensure compliance with HSE regulations. Most notably, we have complete visibility of all COSHH assessments and safety data sheets through “COSHH Boards” and “COSHH Tubes” on each of our production lines for ease of access to critical information in an emergency. We have found these procedures and the application of 5S to drastically save time, improve COSHH assessment quality and chemical control across an entire site. The engagement and awareness of our colleagues on chemical safety has dramatically increased on our journey to a zero accident workplace.

    更新日期:2020-01-24
  • Agent-Based Model to Predict the Fate of the Degradation of Organic Compounds in the Aqueous-Phase UV/H2O2 Advanced Oxidation Process
    Process Saf. Environ. Prot. (IF 4.384) Pub Date : 2020-01-23
    Robert Zupko; Divya Kamath; Erica Coscarelli; Mark Rouleau; Daisuke Minakata
    更新日期:2020-01-23
  • Agglomeration Behaviour of Caprolactam Solution Concentrates Triggered by Cyclic Dimers in the Recovery Process: Characterisation, Mechanism, and Process Optimisation
    Process Saf. Environ. Prot. (IF 4.384) Pub Date : 2020-01-23
    Chunwang Yi; Ce Yang; Jie Li; Juan Chen; Shen Zhang; Huan Sun

    The cyclic dimer 1,8-diazacyclotetradecane-2,9-dione is one of the most important components of caprolactam solution concentrates and triggers significant agglomeration during the recovery process in industrial polyamide-6 plants. For this reason, the agglomeration behaviour and morphology changes of cyclic dimers in solution concentrates were investigated. Precipitates separated from an ∼80 wt.% solution concentrate were explored. Cyclic dimers aggregated in the solution concentrates at lower temperatures to form larger, thicker, and compacted structures or multi-layers structures. An appropriate increase in the solution temperature and addition of fresh caprolactam aid in avoiding agglomeration, but high temperatures (over 140 ℃) initiate the hydrolytic polymerisation of caprolactam in the solution concentrate, which aggravates blockages. Based on these results, an optimised process model is introduced to avoid aggregation.

    更新日期:2020-01-23
  • Root causes of coal mine accidents: Characteristics of safety culture deficiencies based on accident statistics
    Process Saf. Environ. Prot. (IF 4.384) Pub Date : 2020-01-22
    Jiangshi Zhang; Jing Fu

    Coal mine accidents pose a serious threat to miners and the surrounding environment. Despite a recent downward trend in the numbers of major accidents and casualties in Chinese coal mining enterprises, accident reoccurrence remains an on-going issue for the industry. This paper aims to identify the root causes, namely, the characteristics of safety culture deficiencies driving typical coal accidents. Using the accident analysis pathway of the 24Model and the logical thought of Why Because Analysis (WBA), 67 typical major accidents (gas explosion, gas outburst, flooding and fire) are analysed to identify the deficiencies in safety culture based on the determinations of the safety culture dimension and statistics of recurrent accident patterns. The related elements and occurrence frequencies of the deficiencies in safety culture can be inferred as follows: ignored safety laws and regulations (frequency is 100%), unrealized safety priority (100%), limited role of functional departments (86.6%), and insufficient attention to safety education for special operation personnel and mining workers (80.6%), among others. These characteristics are not concerned with accident types, and the most prominent characteristics are manifested in four aspects: unrealized safety priority, flaws in management actions towards safety, passive safety compliance and participation of employees, and imperfect work conditions. Specifically, we emphasize the role of departments, safety communication, safety participation and supervision climate in influencing and improving the safety culture to further reduce industrial accidents.

    更新日期:2020-01-22
  • Leak Frequency Analysis for Hydrogen-based Technology using Bayesian and Frequentist Methods
    Process Saf. Environ. Prot. (IF 4.384) Pub Date : 2020-01-22
    Mahesh Kodoth; Shu Aoyama; Junji Sakamoto; Naoya Kasai; Yehia Khalil; Tadahiro Shibutani; Atsumi Miyake

    Dealing with hazardous environments such as hydrogen poses considerable risks to property, people, and the environment. Leak frequency analysis is a method of understanding the characteristics of risks at hydrogen refueling stations (HRSs). This paper proposes leak rate estimation using time-based evaluation methods that utilize historical HRS accident information. In addition, leak frequency estimates from another two methods (non-parametric and leak-hole-size) were examined. In the non-parametric approach, the leak frequency is estimated based on a Bayesian update. The results from these three approaches are summarized to understand the trend of leak rate data. The leak rate data from the time-based method displays a similar trend to the leak size based method. However, the non-parametric method tends to be conservative due to high failure observations (new evidences) during the Bayesian update. Finally, the unrevealed leak time was calculated as a function of the leak frequency. The quantitative insights of this study can be used to set performance standards for the availability and reliability in the operation and maintenance of HRSs.

    更新日期:2020-01-22
  • Study on sealing effect of pre-drainage gas borehole in coal seam based on Air-Gas mixed flow coupling model
    Process Saf. Environ. Prot. (IF 4.384) Pub Date : 2020-01-21
    Hao Wang; Enyuan Wang; Zhonghui Li; Xiaoran Wang; Qiming Zhang; Bing Li; Muhammad. Ali

    The low gas extraction concentration is one of the main factors that affect the prevention and control effect of coal and gas outburst. Based on this, the factors of air leakage around the roadway and borehole are analyzed. The effect of extraction time, seal length and air leakage on the gas concentration is discussed by the fluid-solid coupling model, which is proved by the borehole environmental parameter instrument.The research findings show :(1) Influenced by roadway excavation and drilling, a large number of cracks are created inside the coal around the roadway and the boreholes, which are the main air leakage channels for the air to flow from roadway into borehole; (2) Inside the borehole, the closer it is to the bottom of the borehole, the fewer the cracks in the coal seam, the higher the gas concentration. The critical point of air leakage in which the gas concentration is 100% moves continuously to the bottom of the borehole with extraction time, until it is stable. The effective sealing length must exceed the position of critical point of air leakage; (3) The gas concentration is related to the sealing length and the amount of air leakage. Increasing the sealing length, and reducing the air leakage can greatly improve the extraction efficiency. Based on the above results, combined bag-type segmented grouting technique, which is to inject different sealing materials into different regions divided by the stress, is proposed to block the air leakage channel by comparing the crack characteristics of the coal surface in the abnormal stress zone and the normal stress zone by SEM technology. According to the field test results, the application of the new sealing technology blocks the crack channel, improves gas concentration and reduces the risk of coal and gas outburst. The results have important guiding significance for improving gas utilization rate, reducing greenhouse gas emission and enhancing safety in production.

    更新日期:2020-01-22
  • Study on Explosion Characteristics of the Inert Substances at Longkou Oil Shale of China
    Process Saf. Environ. Prot. (IF 4.384) Pub Date : 2020-01-20
    Bo Liu; Yuyuan Zhang; Xiangbao Meng; Jinshe Chen; Junfeng Wang; Xiang Wang; Yansong Zhang

    According to the chemical analysis, we found the inert substances of fossils in Longkou oil shale in China are mainly calcium carbonate (CaCO3) and quartz (SiO2). Their influence on the explosive characteristics of oil shale dust, through the macroscopic explosion experiments and microscopic analysis, was investigated. We found that CaCO3 has better explosion suppression effect than SiO2. There are two suppression effects during the oil shale dust explosion: adhesion and isolation of inert substances; inerting effect of carbon dioxide (CO2) generated from the complex reaction of CaCO3 and SiO2. Due to the existence of two suppression effects, the combustion of oil shale particles stops when the heat generated by the two combustion paths is less than the heat dissipated, i.e., the explosion either comes to an end or fails to occur.

    更新日期:2020-01-21
  • Solvothermal co-liquefaction of sugarcane bagasse and polyethylene under sub-supercritical conditions: optimization of process parameters
    Process Saf. Environ. Prot. (IF 4.384) Pub Date : 2020-01-18
    Humair Ahmed Baloch; M.T.H Siddiqui; Sabzoi Nizamuddin; N.M Mubarak; Mohammad Khalid; M.P Srinivasan; G.J Griffin
    更新日期:2020-01-21
  • 更新日期:2020-01-21
  • Gas-phase aromatic compounds degradation by a partially TiO2 coated photoreactor assisted with ozone
    Process Saf. Environ. Prot. (IF 4.384) Pub Date : 2020-01-18
    Bárbara Maria Borges Ribeiro; Tânia Miyoko Fujimoto; Bianca Gvozdenovic Medina Bricio; Ursula Luana Rochetto Doubek; Edson Tomaz
    更新日期:2020-01-21
  • Assessment of gas emission hazard associated with rockburst in coal containing methane
    Process Saf. Environ. Prot. (IF 4.384) Pub Date : 2020-01-18
    Mingyao Wei; Enyuan Wang; Xiaofei Liu

    The stress field and gas seepage field of methane react upon each other in the process of rockburst in coal seam containing methane. Therefore, it is important to reveal the coupling mechanism between them. Due to the fact that volumetric strain describes the development of fracture, damage evolution equation for coal is built by accounting volumetric strain as an internal factor. The evolution models for porosity and permeability are built by considering the effect of shear dilation on fracture deformation. A gas-solid simulation software called TOUGH2(CH4)-FLAC is developed based on effective stress equation and permeability model which is coupled by linking two existing simulators (TOUGH2 and FLAC3D). A simulation case for gas flow in process of rockburst is carried out. The simulated result indicates that several bands of failure zone were caused by dynamic disturbance forming spall in deep coal. Methane in sorption state turns into desorption and flows out rapidly through damage-induced path that result in a rise of methane concentration in roadway shortly. The simulation results reveal the mechanism of extreme gas emission after disturbance induced by rockburst.

    更新日期:2020-01-21
  • 更新日期:2020-01-17
  • Runaway inhibition of styrene polymerization: A simulation study by chaos divergence theory
    Process Saf. Environ. Prot. (IF 4.384) Pub Date : 2020-01-14
    Lei Ni; Jiawei Cui; Juncheng Jiang; Yong Pan; Hao Wu; Chi-Min Shu; Zhirong Wang; Shanjun Mou; Ning Shi

    We attempted to prevent the thermal risk of a runaway reaction of polymerization in a batch reactor and to realize online monitoring and emergency inhibition of the thermal runaway behavior. Styrene thermal initiation of bulk polymerization was studied. A full-size model of the styrene polymerization reactor was constructed by referring to the reactor model of the Mettler Toledo automatic calorimeter, which was combined with the kinetic and thermodynamic models of styrene polymerization. The DIV thermal runaway critical criterion based on chaos divergence theory was used to judge the thermal runaway reaction. The critical point of the runaway reaction was determined and used to inhibit the thermal runaway of styrene polymerization by injecting cooling diluents at the liquid surface. The influence of injection rate (vc=0.5、0.8、1m/s), injection position (in-1、in-2、in-3), and amount of cooling diluents (no add、50%、70%、100%) injected on the thermal runaway inhibition of the reaction was investigated and elucidated. The results indicated that a better inhibiting effect can be obtained by injecting the inhibitors at higher rates near the edge of the paddle blade. Moreover, appropriately increasing the injection amount of the inhibitors can achieve better inhibition of the runaway reaction.

    更新日期:2020-01-15
  • Thermal stability and flammability assessment of 1-ethyl-2, 3-dimethylimidazolium nitrate
    Process Saf. Environ. Prot. (IF 4.384) Pub Date : 2020-01-14
    Bin Zhang; Shang-Hao Liu; Jie Liu; Zhi-He Zhang; Bin Laiwang; Chi-Min Shu

    1-Ethyl-2, 3-dimethylimidazolium nitrate [C2mmim][NO3] is a typical solvent for industrial applications. Under inappropriate temperatures, [C2mmim][NO3] may present a flammability hazard due to thermal decomposition. This study investigated the thermal stability and flammability of [C2mmim][NO3] via simultaneous thermogravimetric analyzer, homemade combustion test device (CTD) with high speed camera, and thermogravimetry coupled with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (TG-FTIR). The thermal decomposition of [C2mmim][NO3] was divided into two parts based upon the dynamic experiments, and the maximum operating temperature was determined to comprehensively estimate the thermal stability of [C2mmim][NO3]. CTD experiments indicated that [C2mmim][NO3] could produce intense combustion when heated. Further TG-FTIR experiments confirmed that [C2mmim][NO3] decomposed to produce a large number of flammable gases, such as ethylene, which might be the reason that [C2mmim][NO3] has prominent flammability.

    更新日期:2020-01-14
  • Toward an efficient multi-step separation protocol to recover metallic components from waste leachates
    Process Saf. Environ. Prot. (IF 4.384) Pub Date : 2020-01-13
    E. Rivas; M.A. Martín-Lara; G. Blázquez; M.J. Muñoz-Batista; A. Pérez; M. Calero

    This work presents a study of the separation and recovery of metal elements, through a multi-step protocol based on solvent extraction, stripping and chemical precipitation processes. The waste leachate was produced during the treatment of the mixed solid waste from the decommissioning of a coal-fired power plant. The organophosphorus acid, di-(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid (DEHPA) was investigated as organic extracting agent during the solvent extraction (Step 1). A factorial design with three levels for the organic phase/aqueous phase ratio (O/W), DEHPA concentration and contact time were carried out and a prediction model obtained using a neural-fuzzy approach. Optimized extraction values for Ti (93.4 %), (V) 94.6 % and (Zn) 89.8 % were obtained using 60 min of contact time, a DEHPA concentration of 0.5 M and O/W ratio of 4. Stripping tests were performed using HCl, H2SO4, NaOH and KOH as stripping agents. The stripping step (step 2) showed optimum results (82% of Zn and 31% of V) using 1 M H2SO4 solution as stripping agent. A selective precipitation step (step 3) allowed the final separation of metals in aqueous solutions produced in Step 1 and 2. The results showed that an effective separation of Mn and Ni could be carried out at pH 9, while the best separation results for the solution obtained during the stripping step, which contains V and Ti, was obtained at pH 12.

    更新日期:2020-01-14
  • Advanced Treatment Technologies Efficacies and Mechanism of Per- and Poly-Fluoroalkyl Substances Removal from Water
    Process Saf. Environ. Prot. (IF 4.384) Pub Date : 2020-01-13
    Mohammad Boshir Ahmed; Md. Masruck Alam; John L. Zhou; Bentuo Xu; Md Abu Hasan Johir; Aneek Krishna Karmakar; Md Saifur Rahman; Jewel Hossen; A.T.M. Kamrul Hasan; Mohammad Ali Moni
    更新日期:2020-01-13
  • 更新日期:2020-01-13
  • 更新日期:2020-01-13
  • Analysis of the Corrosion Failure of a Semiconductor Polycrystalline Distillation Column
    Process Saf. Environ. Prot. (IF 4.384) Pub Date : 2020-01-11
    Peipei Sun; Zhirong Wang; Yawei Lu; Shuoxun Shen; Rongrong Yang; Anxue Xue; Trent Parker; Jian Wang; Qingsheng Wang

    Distillation column is a fundamental device for the production of the semiconductor polysilicon. Therefore, investigating corrosion leakage protection of the distillation column is of great significance because of the undetectable yet very significant consequences of corrosion leakage to the column. In this work, corrosion investigation of a polycrystalline silicon rectification tower is presented. The composition and crack morphology of the distillation column (316 L austenitic stainless steel) were detected and analysed using component and hardness analysers. The effects of pH and temperature on the corrosion rate were studied by conducting electrochemical experiments. According to the macroscopic test results, the surface of the tower was covered with a large number of pits and cracks of different depths. Furthermore, based on the metallographic analysis, SEM analysis, and energy spectrum analysis results, it was determined that the crack morphology was mostly intergranular and transgranular. Combined with the test data and process environment, it has been determined that the main forms of corrosion for rectification towers are pitting corrosion and stress corrosion caused by chloride ions. According to the results of electrochemical experiments, the corrosion rate of 316 L stainless steel is negatively correlated with pH value for a pH range of 4 to 6 at constant temperatures. However, the corrosion rate is positively correlated with temperature for the range of 60 °C to 90 °C at constant pH values. From the analysis of the corrosion morphology, the corrosion failure mode of 316 L stainless steel is largely attributed to pitting corrosion when the column is operated at low temperatures (60 °C and 70 °C). However, at high temperatures (90 °C), a transformation from pitting corrosion to stress corrosion occurs along the crystalline form. To ensure the stable operation of the polysilicon rectification tower, this paper proposes corrosion protection measures based on the results of the analysis as described.

    更新日期:2020-01-13
  • Bioconversion of Chicken Feather Wastes by Keratinolytic Bacteria
    Process Saf. Environ. Prot. (IF 4.384) Pub Date : 2020-01-11
    Samira Alahyaribeik; Seyed davood Sharifi; Fatemeh Tabandeh; Shirin Honarbakhsh; Shokoufeh Ghazanfari
    更新日期:2020-01-13
  • A New Simplified Calculation Model of Geometric Thermal Features of a Vertical Propane Jet Fire Based on Experimental and Computational Studies
    Process Saf. Environ. Prot. (IF 4.384) Pub Date : 2020-01-11
    Hossein Mashhadimoslem; Ahad Ghaemi; Amir Hossein Behroozi; Adriana Palacios

    Jet fires and their consequences are one of the significant factors responsible for catastrophic events in industrial process units. In this research, various types of turbulence models were investigated to simulate a vertical propane jet fire using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). CFD was applied to evaluate the following turbulence models of k-ε, SST, BSL, BSL RS and the Realizable k-epsilon (RNG k-ε), the Eddy Dissipation Concept (EDC) for combustion, and the Monte Carlo model for radiation. All the above-mentioned turbulence models are used for a temperature range of 1500 to 1700 K. The results showed that the SST turbulence model is the best option, with average error of 4.7% for a jet fire simulation, with a lower computational time. The simulation of the jet fire shape at surface temperature of 800 K was also compared with the experimental data obtained under the same conditions. By taking into account the time parameter in the simulation, the predicted ratio of flame length and equivalent flame diameter results are in good agreement with the experimental jet fire data.

    更新日期:2020-01-13
  • Empirical analysis of a steam explosion in a slag yard based on a field investigation and 3D explosion damage simulation
    Process Saf. Environ. Prot. (IF 4.384) Pub Date : 2020-01-11
    Jae Joon Lee; Hong Sik Yun; Young Jae Cho; Jae Hyeok Park

    Many types of explosions often occur in industrial settings, and research is being conducted to identify the causes and establish preventive measures. The aim of this study is to investigate slag yards, where metal residues are cooled in the steel industry, often causing steam explosions. The cause of accidents and explosion simulation analyses were used to investigate the sources of steam explosions in a slag yard. The explosion intensity of 4 kg of TNT was measured for the purpose of predicting the intensity of a steam explosion. This was compared with a simulation of explosion damage that occurred in 2017. These results could not be produced from small-scale experiments, and they indicate that damage resulting from actual explosions poses a potential risk to pipes that cannot be directly observed. We conclude that this damage can lead to a domino accident, and this study provides results for estimating the possibility of future damage.

    更新日期:2020-01-13
  • Organic ultraviolet-absorbing materials in street dust from Hefei, China: concentrations, profiles, and human health risks
    Process Saf. Environ. Prot. (IF 4.384) Pub Date : 2020-01-11
    Xiangyang Xing; Xue Han; Lei He; Jiali Cheng; Fuyong Zhong; Jiazheng Sun; Zhenwu Tang

    Organic ultraviolet absorbents (UVAs) are widely found in the environment. However, little is known about UVA distributions in street dust and the risks they pose to human health. We determined the concentrations of 12 UVAs in street dust from cultural, residential, traffic, and industrial areas in Hefei, China. 4-Methylbenzylidene camphor was not detected in the street dust samples. The total concentration range of the 11 other UVAs (Σ11UVAs) in the street dust samples was 6.42–94.2 ng/g. Octocrylene was the dominant UVA, contributing 53.8% of the Σ11UVA concentrations. The UVA concentrations were higher in dust from the industrial area than in dust from cultural, residential, and traffic areas. Source analysis was performed, and industrial activities and the use of cosmetics and personal care products were found to be the main sources of UVAs in street dust. The health risks posed to humans exposed to UVAs in street dust in Hefei were generally low. More research is required to improve our understanding of the health risks posed to humans exposed to UVAs through other pathways.

    更新日期:2020-01-13
  • Risk Assessment of Gas Explosion in Coal Mines Based on Fuzzy AHP and Bayesian Network
    Process Saf. Environ. Prot. (IF 4.384) Pub Date : 2020-01-11
    Min Li; Hetang Wang; Deming Wang; Zhenlu Shao; Shan He

    Gas explosion is one of the most deadly hazards in underground coal mining. Risk assessment has played an effective role in avoiding gas explosions and revising coal mine regulations. However, the traditional methods are deficient in quantitative evaluation, dynamic control and dealing with uncertainty. In this paper, a method of quantitative assessment the risk of gas explosion in underground coal mine using Bayesian network was proposed. A fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (FAHP) method based on subjective and objective information of experts was developed in the process of fuzzification. Through the Bayesian inference, the probability of occurrence of potential risk events and the probability distribution of risk factors can be calculated in real time according to on prior knowledge and evidence updating. Meanwhile, the most likely potential causes of accidents can be determined. A sensitivity analysis technique was utilized to investigate the contribution rate of each risk factor to a risk event, so as to determine the most critical risk factor. Taking Babao Coal Mine in China as the case, this study conducted a gas explosion risk assessment. The results show that the mothed of fuzzy AHP and Bayesian Network is feasible and applicable. It can be used as a decision-making tool to prevent coal mine gas explosions and provide decision makers with a technical guide for managing the coal mine gas explosion risk.

    更新日期:2020-01-13
  • Risk-based safety measure allocation to prevent and mitigate storage fire hazards
    Process Saf. Environ. Prot. (IF 4.384) Pub Date : 2020-01-11
    Long Ding; Faisal Khan; Jie Ji

    Fire is a main threat to property and human safety in materials storage of process industry plants as well as other industrial sectors, and risk management of materials storage fires is challenging due to potential accident causes and various safety measures. Complex accident causes, severe consequences, and effective safety measures have been the main concerns of industrial companies and researchers. However, for storage fires, a generic risk management model is absent. Bow-tie is an effective method to reveal causal relationships of accident causes, safety barriers, and possible accident consequences. In this study, based on bow-tie analysis, a generic framework for quantitative risk management of storage fires is established via analysis of previous storage fires. Pertinent safety measures are presented, allocation and efficacy of these safety measures to reduce storage fires risk is investigated. Finally, the methodology and proposed generic framework is applied to a major storage fire accident for a case study, the probabilities of fire accident and consequences are reduced significantly, which shows the efficacy and applicability of the proposed approach. The generic framework established in the present study can be tailored to various storage fire accidents with limited manipulation; and also, allocation and implementation of pertinent safety measures can reduce storage fires risk significantly.

    更新日期:2020-01-13
  • Effect of Fe2+ adding period on the biogas production and microbial community distribution during the dry anaerobic digestion process
    Process Saf. Environ. Prot. (IF 4.384) Pub Date : 2020-01-11
    Shaona Wang; Rongfang Yuan; Chengchen Liu; Beihai Zhou

    Fe2+ is essential for the improvement of biogas production and the growth of anaerobic microorganisms; however, it is often excessively added to anaerobic digesters, leading to the inhibition of biogas production. In this study, the dosing frequency of Fe2+ for the mesophilic and thermophilic biogas fermentation of high-solid swine manure was optimized. The most significant enhancing effect (13.44%-33.22%) induced by Fe2+ addition was observed with dosing frequency of 400 mg/L for every 5 d, and the maximum efficiency for unit concentration of Fe2+ occurred when the dosing frequency was 400 mg/L for every 15 d. Maximum biogas production was obtained in the group with dosing frequency of 400 mg/L for every 5 d, and biogas production potential was 465.24 mL/(g volatile solid (VS)) based on modified Gompertz predicted model with a maximum rate of 16.72 mL/(gVS·d), which was higher than that of the control group (6.78 mL/(gVS·d)). In addition, Fe2+ dosing displayed a stimulatory effect on SCOD removal, the SCOD removal with dosing frequency of 400 mg/L for every 5 d were highest in all reactors. The optimum dosing frequency of Fe2+ positively affected the microbial community structure. 16S rRNA gene sequencing revealed that the abundances of Firmicutes and Euryarchaeota were increased, which could enhance the hydrolysis-acidification and methanogenesis process during anaerobic digestion process.

    更新日期:2020-01-13
  • Regional evaluation of fire apparatus requirements for petrol stations based on travel times
    Process Saf. Environ. Prot. (IF 4.384) Pub Date : 2020-01-11
    Dingli Liu; Zhisheng Xu; Zhengyang Wang; Chuangang Fan
    更新日期:2020-01-13
  • Biomethane Recovery from Source-Diverted Household Blackwater: Impacts from Feed Sulfate
    Process Saf. Environ. Prot. (IF 4.384) Pub Date : 2020-01-11
    Mengjiao Gao; Bing Guo; Lei Zhang; Yingdi Zhang; Najiaowa Yu; Yang Liu
    更新日期:2020-01-13
  • 更新日期:2020-01-13
  • Assessment of low-temperature oxidation characteristics of coal based on standard oxygen consumption rate
    Process Saf. Environ. Prot. (IF 4.384) Pub Date : 2020-01-09
    Yueping Qin; Yipeng Song; Wei Liu; Jun Wei; Qianlong Lv

    To investigate the low-temperature oxidation characteristics of coal, programmed heating and oxidation experiments were conducted on single-particle-size coal samples from different mines. The inlet and outlet oxygen concentrations of the coal sample tank were measured to calculate the standard oxygen consumption rate (SOCR) of each coal sample at different temperatures. The relationship between the SOCR and temperature was fitted by an exponential function, and two regression coefficients ( A and B) related to the spontaneous combustion characteristics of coal were obtained, and the effects of both A and B on the spontaneous combustion of coal was analyzed. The results show that the A and B values are related to the physical structures and chemical properties of coal, respectively. Accordingly, taking the A and Bvalues of single-particle-size coal samples as the basic parameters, a new identification index describing the spontaneous combustion of coal is proposed. Compared with the chromatographic oxygen absorption method, the newly proposed identification index can reflect the degree of difficulty of spontaneous coal combustion more truly and intuitively. This research is of theoretical and practical significance for evaluating the characteristics of spontaneous coal combustion.

    更新日期:2020-01-11
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