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  • Multigenerational exposure to elevated temperatures leads to a reduction in standard metabolic rate in the wild
    Funct. Ecol. (IF 5.037) Pub Date : 2020-02-19
    Natalie Pilakouta; Shaun S. Killen; Bjarni K. Kristjánsson; Skúli Skúlason; Jan Lindström; Neil B. Metcalfe; Kevin J. Parsons
    更新日期:2020-02-19
  • Oxidative damage to lipids is rapidly reduced during migratory stopovers
    Funct. Ecol. (IF 5.037) Pub Date : 2020-02-18
    Cas Eikenaar; Erica Winslott; Sven Hessler; Caroline Isaksson
    更新日期:2020-02-18
  • Long‐term deepened snow cover alters litter layer turnover rate in temperate steppes
    Funct. Ecol. (IF 5.037) Pub Date : 2020-02-17
    Jing Wang; Weixing Liu; Ping Li; Zhou Jia; Meifeng Deng; Sen Yang; Lingli Liu
    更新日期:2020-02-18
  • Microhabitat partitioning correlates with opsin gene expression in coral reef cardinalfishes (Apogonidae)
    Funct. Ecol. (IF 5.037) Pub Date : 2020-02-16
    Martin Luehrmann; Fabio Cortesi; Karen L. Cheney; Fanny de Busserolles; N. Justin Marshall
    更新日期:2020-02-18
  • Intraspecific variation in surface water uptake in a perennial desert shrub
    Funct. Ecol. (IF 5.037) Pub Date : 2020-02-16
    Andrii Zaiats; Brynne E. Lazarus; Matthew J. Germino; Marcelo D. Serpe; Bryce A. Richardson; Sven Buerki; T. Trevor Caughlin

    Despite broad recognition that water is a major limiting factor in arid ecosystems, we lack an empirical understanding of how this resource is shared and distributed among neighboring plants. Intraspecific variability can further contribute to this variation via divergent life‐history traits, including root architecture. We investigated these questions in the shrub Artemisia tridentata and hypothesized that the ability to access and utilize surface water varies among subspecies and cytotypes. We used an isotope tracer to quantify belowground zone of influence in A. tridentata, and tested if spatial neighborhood characteristics can alter plant water uptake. We introduced deuterium‐enriched water to the soil in plant interspaces in a common‐garden experiment and measured deuterium composition of plant stems. We then applied spatially‐explicit models to test for differential water uptake by A. tridentata, including intermingled populations of three subspecies and two ploidy levels. The results suggest that lateral root functioning in A. tridentata is associated with intraspecific identity and ploidy level. Subspecies adapted to habitats with deep soils generally had a smaller horizontal reach, and polyploid cytotypes were associated with greater water uptake compared to their diploid variants. We also found that plant crown volume was a weak predictor of water uptake, and that neighborhood crowding had no discernable effect on water uptake. Intraspecific variation in lateral root functioning can lead to differential patterns of resource acquisition, an essential process in arid ecosystems in the contexts of changing climate and seasonal patterns of precipitation. Altogether, we found that lateral root development and activity is more strongly related to genetic variability within A. tridentata than to plant size. Our study highlights how intraspecific variation in life strategies is linked to mechanisms of resource acquisition.

    更新日期:2020-02-18
  • Habitat specific effects of bark on wood decomposition: influences of fragmentation, nitrogen concentration, and microbial community composition
    Funct. Ecol. (IF 5.037) Pub Date : 2020-02-15
    Jennifer M. Jones; Katy D. Heath; Astrid Ferrer; James W. Dalling

    Identifying the drivers of decomposition is critical for understanding carbon cycling dynamics in forest ecosystems. Woody biomass is an important pool of carbon, composed of bark and underlying wood which vary in structure, nutrient concentrations, and exposure to the environment. We hypothesized that higher nutrient concentrations in bark would speed the decomposition of underlying wood, and that this effect would be greater in streams, where nutrients are less available to decomposers than on land. Replicate branches of three tree species, with and without bark, were placed in streams and on land in a lowland tropical forest in Panama. After 3 and 11 months of decomposition, we measured mass loss and nitrogen (N) concentrations and sequenced the fungal and bacterial communities of both wood and bark tissues. While bark decomposed faster than the underlying wood and had higher N concentrations, bark presence slowed wood mass loss. Nitrogen concentration could account for interspecific variation in wood mass loss, but not bark mass loss. In contrast, bark mass loss, but not wood mass loss, was faster in streams than on land, suggesting fragmentation is more important for bark mass loss in streams. Differences in fungal and bacterial community composition between bark and wood substrates were significant but small. Our results indicate that bark can slow wood decomposition instead of promoting it, and that at least for branch wood, the primary drivers of decomposition differ between bark and wood. Differences in the factors driving decomposition rate between bark and wood suggest that the contribution of bark to the decomposition of woody biomass may depend on habitat.

    更新日期:2020-02-18
  • A non‐vector herbivore indirectly increases the transmission of a vector‐borne virus by reducing plant chemical defences
    Funct. Ecol. (IF 5.037) Pub Date : 2020-02-13
    Qi Su; Fengbo Yang; Qixi Yao; Zhengke Peng; Hong Tong; Shaoli Wang; Wen Xie; Qingjun Wu; Youjun Zhang

    Vectors and viruses exist in communities consisting of many interacting species. Although the cascading effects of predators or parasitoids on disease spread via direct effects on vectors have been investigated, little is known about the effects of other free‐living species in communities on the transmission of vector‐borne viruses via indirect (host‐plant mediated) effects on vectors. In the present study, we used a food web consisting of tomato plants Solanum lycopersicum, two tomato herbivores (the vector whitefly, Bemisia tabaci, and the non‐vector two‐spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae) and a whitefly‐vectored plant virus (Tomato yellow leaf curl virus, TYLCV) to study how T. urticae may affect TYLCV transmission by B. tabaci via host‐plant mediated effects on B. tabaci. We found that T. urticae infestation promoted B. tabaci feeding, thereby increasing TYLCV transmission to tomato plants. These increases were associated with T. urticae‐induced reductions in two flavonoids (rutin and quercetin trisaccharide) of tomato plants. Elevation of rutin and quercetin trisaccharide levels in T. urticae‐infested plants via exogenous stem applications reduced B. tabaci feeding and TYLCV transmission. Therefore, suppression of these flavonoids by T. urticae infestation was the most likely explanation for the observed changes in B. tabaci feeding behaviour and TYLCV transmission. Our results show that by reducing flavonoids in tomato plants, a non‐vector herbivore can indirectly increase the transmission of a vector‐borne plant virus. These findings indicate that species that are far removed from the direct vector–virus interactions can indirectly affect vector‐borne virus transmission by altering the chemical defences of the shared host plant.

    更新日期:2020-02-13
  • Disentangling the effects of methanogen community and environment on peatland greenhouse gas production by a reciprocal transplant experiment
    Funct. Ecol. (IF 5.037) Pub Date : 2020-02-12
    Heli Juottonen

    Northern peatlands consist of a mosaic of peatland types that vary spatially and temporally and differ in their methane (CH4) production. Microbial community composition and environment both potentially control the processes that release carbon from anoxic peat either as CH4 or as carbon dioxide (CO2), a less potent greenhouse gas than CH4. However, the respective roles of these controls remain unclear, which prevents incorporating microbes in the predictions of peatland CH4 emissions. Here, a reciprocal transplant experiment was carried out to separate the influences of microbial community and environment in CH4 and anaerobic CO2 production. Peat from an acidic Sphagnum bog and a sedge fen with higher pH was enclosed in membrane bags with a pore size of 0.2 µm, preventing microbial colonization from the outside, and transplanted in the field for 2 months. Potential CH4 production was primarily controlled by the environment. The conditions in the bog suppressed the initially higher activity of fen methanogens and reduced CH4 production by 79%. Against expectations, the inhibition was not specific to acetate‐using Methanotrichaceae. Reciprocal transplantation favoured Methanosarcinaceae and potentially methylotrophic methanogenesis in general. Bog methanogens, mostly hydrogenotrophic Methanoregulaceae, retained their community structure and activity in the fen with a slight increase (+37%) in CH4 production. Anaerobic CO2 production was controlled by both the microbial community and the environment. Transplantation led to increased CO2 production in both bog (+50%) and fen peat (+57%) with distinct bacterial community, showing that the new environment directed more carbon to other anaerobic processes than methanogenesis. Taken together, these results relate differences in CH4 production of bogs and fens to ecophysiology of specific methanogen groups. The sensitiveness of fen methanogens to the acidic conditions in Sphagnum bogs can help explain the decrease in CH4 emission in the typical boreal peatland succession from young fens to older bogs. Increase in anaerobic CO2 versus CH4 production with transplantation shows that disturbances of boreal peatlands can activate poorly defined pathways of anaerobic decomposition.

    更新日期:2020-02-13
  • Impact of rainfall seasonality on intraspecific trait variation in a shrub from a Mediterranean climate
    Funct. Ecol. (IF 5.037) Pub Date : 2020-02-11
    Timothy E. Moore; Cynthia S. Jones; Caroline Chong; Carl D. Schlichting

    Selection pressures along climate gradients give rise to predictable variation in plant functional traits of individual species suggestive of local adaptation. Species whose ranges include winter rainfall, Mediterranean climates, or other strongly seasonal climates, may be exposed to divergent selection pressures at different ends of seasonality gradients. Here, we evaluate how rainfall seasonality in conjunction with other key climatic variables impacts patterns of trait variation in Pelargonium scabrum, a woody shrub from the Greater Cape Floristic Region of South Africa. This biodiversity hotspot encompasses a Mediterranean climate (wet winters and hot, dry summers) and displays steep gradients in temperature and water availability. We used Bayesian regression models to evaluate leaf trait–trait and trait–climate relationships among 26 populations. Models included rainfall seasonality and its interaction with other climate variables (mean annual temperature, mean annual precipitation and potential evapotranspiration) as predictors to test for the impact of climate variation on three leaf traits: size, dissection and leaf mass per area (LMA). We evaluated model explanatory power by calculating Bayesian R2 values, and predictive power via leave‐one‐out cross‐validation. Trait–trait associations were modulated by rainfall seasonality, including a reversal in the relationship between leaf size and dissection depending on the proportion of rain received in winter. Trait–climate models were improved by including rainfall seasonality as a predictor for both explanatory and predictive power. For leaf dissection and LMA, we detected significant interactions between rainfall seasonality and other environmental variables, leading to reversals in the relationships between these traits and the three environmental variables depending on the proportion of winter rainfall. Differences in the timing of rainfall, coupled with strong differences in the covariation of climate variables, impose divergent selection pressures on P. scabrum populations resulting in divergence of trait values, trait integration and responses to climate gradients. These patterns are consistent with local adaptation of P. scabrum populations mediated by the interactions between temperature and the amount and timing of rainfall. Species arrayed along broad climate gradients represent an excellent opportunity for investigating patterns of trait variation and abundances and distributions of species in relation to future changes in climate.

    更新日期:2020-02-11
  • High contrast yellow mosaic patterns are prey attractants for orb‐weaving spiders
    Funct. Ecol. (IF 5.037) Pub Date : 2020-02-11
    Po Peng; Devi Stuart‐Fox; Szu‐Wei Chen; Eunice J. Tan; Guan‐Lin Kuo; Sean J. Blamires; I‐Min Tso; Mark A. Elgar

    Many animals improve their foraging success by producing signals that exploit the sensory biases of potential prey, but the specific properties that make these sensory traps effective remain unclear. We combine field experiments with phylogenetic comparative analyses to investigate the visual luring properties of different signal designs in web‐building spiders. Our field experiments used cardboard spider models to examine the effects of area of colour patches, colour and pattern on the foraging success of the colourful giant wood spider, Nephila pilipes. These experiments revealed that both the colour (yellow) and pattern (yellow and black mosaic) are essential for luring prey in a high ambient light environment. We subsequently used phylogenetic comparative analyses to demonstrate an evolutionary association between prey viewing environment and spider ventral signal among 63 species of orb‐weavers from 53 genera. Combined, our data show that (a) the colour of the bright body parts of orb‐weavers is essential for both diurnal and nocturnal prey attraction, whereas the pattern and area of colour patches are important for diurnal foraging and (b) the evolution of these visual lures is associated with the viewing environment, specifically ambient light intensity. We conclude that the effectiveness of colour luring might be a major driver of the convergent evolution of yellow mosaic patterns in phylogenetically divergent orb‐weavers. Our discoveries indicate that prey colour preferences and signal efficacy play a significant role in the evolution of visually mediated prey‐luring systems.

    更新日期:2020-02-11
  • Variation in butterfly diapause duration in relation to voltinism suggests adaptation to autumn warmth, not winter cold
    Funct. Ecol. (IF 5.037) Pub Date : 2020-02-11
    Olle Lindestad; Loke von Schmalensee; Philipp Lehmann; Karl Gotthard

    The life cycles of animals vary in relation to local climate, as a result of both direct environmental effects and population‐level variation in plastic responses. Insects often respond to the approach of winter by entering diapause, a hormonally programmed resting state where development is suspended and metabolism suppressed. Populations often differ in the duration of diapause, but the adaptive reasons for this are unclear. We performed a common‐garden overwintering experiment with respirometric measurements in order to investigate the progression of diapause in the butterfly Pararge aegeria. Both the duration of diapause and the depth of metabolic suppression were shown to vary between populations. In contrast to previous results from various insects, diapause duration did not correspond to the local length of winter. Instead, the observed pattern was consistent with a scenario in which diapause duration is primarily a product of selection for suppressed metabolism during warm autumn conditions. The relationship between optimal diapause duration and the length of the warm season is complicated by variation in the number of yearly generations (voltinism). These results shed new light on variation in diapause ecophysiology, and highlight voltinism as an integrated product of selection at multiple points in the seasonal cycle.

    更新日期:2020-02-11
  • Environmental and ecological correlates of avian field metabolic rate and water flux
    Funct. Ecol. (IF 5.037) Pub Date : 2020-02-10
    Soorim Song; Steven R. Beissinger

    The field metabolic rate (FMR) of an endothermic animal represents its energy expenditure in a natural environment, or its energy budget, and its field water flux (FWF) reflects the animal's water requirements. We examined FMR of 103 species and FWF of 75 species of adult birds from direct field measurements using the doubly labelled water method, and used the phylogenetic generalized least squares method to conduct a phylogenetically informed, comprehensive analysis of the relationship between FMR, FWF and multiple environmental and biological variables. Field metabolic rate was strongly positively associated with body mass with an allometric exponent of 0.66, and seabirds had lower FMR than terrestrial species. Birds consuming plant matter had lower FMR compared to omnivores, carnivores or nectarivores and low ambient temperature was associated with higher FMR. There was little evidence for phylogenetic covariance in FMR, even though previous studies identified a phylogenetic signal for basal metabolic rate. Life‐history traits, such as fecundity and migration, were also not strongly associated with FMR. Field water flux was strongly positively associated with body mass with an allometric exponent of 0.61, and was strongly related to precipitation but not to temperature. Diet and habitat use had significant effects on FWF, with nectarivores and marine species exhibiting higher values than granivores and forest birds. Thus, FMR and FWF are affected similarly by body size and differently by environmental temperature and precipitation, while the roles of diet, life‐history traits and habitat are more nuanced and generalities remain elusive.

    更新日期:2020-02-10
  • Cover Picture and Issue Information
    Funct. Ecol. (IF 5.037) Pub Date : 2020-02-09

    Cover image: Podarcis lizard from the Southern Adriatic (Croatia). These lizards often include plant matter into their diet, and some populations have rapidly adapted to these novel diets after having been introduced on some islands. Epigenetic mechanisms have been invoked to explain the rapid phenotypic changes that have taken place in these introduced populations. Our Special Feature: Epigenetics in Ecology and Evolution highlights the diversity of epigenetic mechanisms that may lead to rapid changes in phenotype and the importance of epigenetic mechanisms in ecology and evolution. Photo credit: Anne‐Claire Fabre.

    更新日期:2020-02-10
  • The role of sensory ecology and cognition in social decisions: Costs of acquiring information matter
    Funct. Ecol. (IF 5.037) Pub Date : 2020-02-09
    Karin Schneeberger; Michael Taborsky

    We generally assume that animals should maximize information acquisition about their environment to make prudent decisions. But this is a naïve assumption, as gaining information typically involves costs. This is especially so in the social context, where interests between interacting partners usually diverge. The arms race involved in mutual assessment is characterized by the attempt to obtain revealing information from a partner while providing only as much information by oneself as is conducive to one's own intentions. If obtaining information occasions costs in terms of time, energy and risk, animals should be selected to base their decisions on a cost–benefit ratio that takes account of the trade‐off between the risk of making wrong choices and the costs involved in information acquisition, processing and use. In addition, there may be physiological and/or environmental constraints limiting the ability to obtaining, processing and utilizing reliable information. Here, we discuss recent empirical evidence for the proposition that social decisions are to an important extent based on the costs that result from acquiring, processing, evaluating and storing information. Using examples from different taxa and ecological contexts, we aim at drawing attention to the often neglected costs of information recipience, with emphasis on the potential role of sensory ecology and cognition in social decisions.

    更新日期:2020-02-10
  • 更新日期:2020-02-10
  • Vocal information and the navigation of social decisions in bats: Is social complexity linked to vocal complexity?
    Funct. Ecol. (IF 5.037) Pub Date : 2019-07-27
    Mirjam Knörnschild; Ahana Aurora Fernandez; Martina Nagy
    更新日期:2020-02-10
  • The correlated evolution of social competence and social cognition
    Funct. Ecol. (IF 5.037) Pub Date : 2019-08-07
    Susana A. M. Varela; Magda C. Teles; Rui F. Oliveira
    更新日期:2020-02-10
  • The challenge of detecting prey: Private and social information use in predatory bats
    Funct. Ecol. (IF 5.037) Pub Date : 2019-09-23
    Rachel A. Page; Ximena E. Bernal
    更新日期:2020-02-10
  • Aggressive communication in aquatic environments
    Funct. Ecol. (IF 5.037) Pub Date : 2019-11-22
    Joachim G. Frommen
    更新日期:2020-02-10
  • Epigenetics in ecology and evolution
    Funct. Ecol. (IF 5.037) Pub Date : 2020-02-09
    Anthony Herrel; Dominique Joly; Etienne Danchin

    The discovery of the multidimensional nature of the inherited information carried by the epigenome and the characterization of its intra‐ and intergenerational dynamics have profoundly changed our understanding of the functioning of biological organisms and the origins of phenotypic diversity. This has raised considerable interest in the study of epigenetics which is emerging as a ‘missing link’ between environmental and phenotypic variation. Recent discoveries have provided important insights into the mechanisms of phenotypic plasticity, inheritance and adaptation; key concepts at the crossroads of individual‐centred approaches (that mostly study proximate mechanisms); and supra‐individual ones (that mostly study ultimate processes). In this context, epigenetics emerges as a major source of inquiry for the study of ecological and evolutionary dynamics. This special feature provides an overview of the role of epigenetics in ecology and evolution.

    更新日期:2020-02-10
  • Biological invasion: The influence of the hidden side of the (epi)genome
    Funct. Ecol. (IF 5.037) Pub Date : 2019-03-12
    Pierre Marin; Julien Genitoni; Dominique Barloy; Stéphane Maury; Patricia Gibert; Cameron K. Ghalambor; Cristina Vieira
    更新日期:2020-02-10
  • 更新日期:2020-02-10
  • Linking epigenetics and biological conservation: Towards a conservation epigenetics perspective
    Funct. Ecol. (IF 5.037) Pub Date : 2019-08-22
    Olivier Rey; Christophe Eizaguirre; Bernard Angers; Miguel Baltazar‐Soares; Kostas Sagonas; Jérôme G. Prunier; Simon Blanchet
    更新日期:2020-02-10
  • 更新日期:2020-02-10
  • Vellozioid roots allow for habitat specialization among rock‐ and soil‐dwelling Velloziaceae in campos rupestres
    Funct. Ecol. (IF 5.037) Pub Date : 2019-12-14
    Anna Abrahão; Patricia de Britto Costa; Grazielle S. Teodoro; Hans Lambers; Diego L. Nascimento; Sara Adrián López de Andrade; Megan H. Ryan; Rafael Silva Oliveira
    更新日期:2020-02-10
  • 更新日期:2020-02-10
  • Energetic constraints on mammalian home‐range size
    Funct. Ecol. (IF 5.037) Pub Date : 2019-12-18
    Zbyszek Boratyński
    更新日期:2020-02-10
  • Water availability and temperature induce changes in oxidative status during pregnancy in a viviparous lizard
    Funct. Ecol. (IF 5.037) Pub Date : 2019-12-02
    Andréaz Dupoué; Pauline Blaimont; David Rozen‐Rechels; Murielle Richard; Sandrine Meylan; Jean Clobert; Donald B. Miles; Rémi Martin; Beatriz Decencière; Simon Agostini; Jean‐François Le Galliard
    更新日期:2020-02-10
  • An emerging fungal pathogen is associated with increased resting metabolic rate and total evaporative water loss rate in a winter‐active snake
    Funct. Ecol. (IF 5.037) Pub Date : 2019-12-18
    Joseph Agugliaro; Craig M. Lind; Jeffrey M. Lorch; Terence M. Farrell
    更新日期:2020-02-10
  • The advantages of diving deep: Fin whales quadruple their energy intake when targeting deep krill patches
    Funct. Ecol. (IF 5.037) Pub Date : 2019-11-05
    Ari S. Friedlaender; Matthew T. Bowers; David Cade; Elliott L. Hazen; Alison K. Stimpert; Ann N. Allen; John Calambokidis; James Fahlbusch; Paolo Segre; Fleur Visser; Brandon L. Southall; Jeremy A. Goldbogen
    更新日期:2020-02-10
  • Volatiles of bacteria associated with parasitoid habitats elicit distinct olfactory responses in an aphid parasitoid and its hyperparasitoid
    Funct. Ecol. (IF 5.037) Pub Date : 2020-01-08
    Tim Goelen; Islam S. Sobhy; Christophe Vanderaa; Jetske G. de Boer; Frank Delvigne; Frédéric Francis; Felix Wäckers; Hans Rediers; Kevin J. Verstrepen; Tom Wenseleers; Hans Jacquemyn; Bart Lievens
    更新日期:2020-02-10
  • The return of the trophic chain: Fundamental vs. realized interactions in a simple arthropod food web
    Funct. Ecol. (IF 5.037) Pub Date : 2019-11-07
    Inmaculada Torres‐Campos; Sara Magalhães; Jordi Moya‐Laraño; Marta Montserrat
    更新日期:2020-02-10
  • Habitat loss and fragmentation increase realized predator–prey body size ratios
    Funct. Ecol. (IF 5.037) Pub Date : 2019-11-07
    Jasmijn Hillaert; Martijn L. Vandegehuchte; Thomas Hovestadt; Dries Bonte
    更新日期:2020-02-10
  • Dual community assembly processes in dryland biocrust communities
    Funct. Ecol. (IF 5.037) Pub Date : 2020-02-06
    Santiago Soliveres; David J. Eldridge

    Biocrusts are critical components of drylands where they regulate a wide range of ecosystem functions, however, their response to the world‐wide phenomenon of shrub encroachment and to livestock grazing, the most extensive land use in drylands, is not well studied. Grazing by livestock and increases in shrub cover could influence biocrust communities directly via trampling or shading, or indirectly, by altering biotic interactions amongst biocrust taxa. The extent of these changes in biocrust cover, diversity and composition are poorly known. We used linear models and structural equation modelling to examine the direct effects of grazing and shrubs on biocrust community composition and the indirect effects mediated by changes in species interactions. Biocrust richness and cover increased with increasing shrub cover at the site level. This pattern occurred despite the negative response we found (lower cover and richness) under shrub patches versus open areas, which was consistent irrespective of the grazing level. Functional diversity and evenness were similar between shrubs and open at low grazing intensity, but at high grazing functional diversity was greater in the open. Competition between biocrust species was an important driver of their community assembly irrespective of shrub cover, grazing intensity or patch type. Structural equation models showed that the effects of grazing and shrub cover on functional evenness, functional diversity and richness were controlled by biotic interactions within the shrub microsites. In the open, however, these effects were either direct or mediated by changes in cover. Biocrust cover, species richness and functional diversity increase with shrub cover at the site scale, despite the negative effects at the microsite level. We demonstrate here that drivers of community assembly differ markedly at small spatial scales. Though biocrust communities were directly driven by environmental filtering in the open, biotic interactions played a fundamental role in their assembly when growing beneath shrubs.

    更新日期:2020-02-07
  • From individuals to populations: How intraspecific competition shapes thermal reaction norms
    Funct. Ecol. (IF 5.037) Pub Date : 2020-02-05
    François Mallard; Vincent Le Bourlot; Christie Le Coeur; Monique Avnaim; Romain Péronnet; David Claessen; Thomas Tully

    Most ectotherms follow the temperature‐size rule (TSR): in cold environments individuals grow slowly but reach a large asymptotic length. Intraspecific competition can induce plastic changes of growth rate and asymptotic length and competition may itself be modulated by temperature. Our aim was to disentangle the joint effects of temperature and intraspecific competition on growth rate and asymptotic length. We used two distinct clonal lineages of the Collembola Folsomia candida, to describe thermal reaction norms of growth rate, asymptotic length and reproduction over six temperatures between 6 and 29°C. In parallel, we measured the long‐term size structure and dynamics of springtail populations reared under the same temperatures to measure growth rates and asymptotic lengths in populations and to quantify the joint effects of competition and temperature on these traits. We show that intraspecific competition modulates the temperature‐size rule. In dense populations there is a direct negative effect of temperature on asymptotic length, but there is no temperature dependence of the growth rate, the dominant factor regulating growth being competition. The two lineages responded differently to the joint effects of temperature and competition on growth and asymptotic size and these genetic differences have marked effects on population structure along our temperature gradient. Our results reinforce the idea that the TSR of ectotherms can be modulated by biotic and abiotic stressors when studied in non‐optimal laboratory experiments. Untangling complex interactions between the environment and demography will help to understand how growth trajectories respond to environmental change and how climate change may influence population size structure.

    更新日期:2020-02-07
  • What explains vast differences in jumping power within a clade? Diversity, ecology, and evolution of anuran jumping power
    Funct. Ecol. (IF 5.037) Pub Date : 2020-02-06
    Elizabeth Mendoza; Emanuel Azizi; Daniel S. Moen

    1. Anuran (frog and toad) jumping power varies greatly across species, yet muscle power does not. Given that the jumping power of some species is up to five times higher than typical muscle power, power amplification by elastic elements is suggested to explain this discrepancy. However, the ecological reasons for this variation in jumping power are unclear. One hypothesis is that small jumpers are limited by the time available to accelerate their body during take‐off, leading to small species needing greater power production than larger species to achieve similar jumping performance. Another (non‐mutually exclusive) hypothesis is that the microhabitat species inhabit may drive variation through trade‐offs with performance in microhabitat‐specific, non‐jumping behaviors.

    更新日期:2020-02-07
  • Choosy grazers: Influence of plant traits on forage selection by three cattle breeds
    Funct. Ecol. (IF 5.037) Pub Date : 2020-02-05
    Caren M. Pauler; Johannes Isselstein; Matthias Suter; Joel Berard; Thomas Braunbeck; Manuel K. Schneider

    1.Forage selection by herbivores is a major driver of plant diversity in pasture vegetation. Yet, we know relatively little about how plant traits influence decisions of different herbivore species and breeds to select or avoid a certain plant species on semi‐natural pastures.

    更新日期:2020-02-07
  • Lack of vulnerability segmentation among woody species in a diverse dry sclerophyll woodland community
    Funct. Ecol. (IF 5.037) Pub Date : 2020-02-05
    Chris M. Smith‐Martin; Robert Paul Skelton; Kate M. Johnson; Christopher Lucani; Timothy J. Brodribb

    Recent findings suggest that tree mortality and post‐drought recovery of gas exchange can be predicted from loss of function within the water transport system. Understanding the susceptibility of plants to hydraulic damage requires knowledge about the vulnerability of different plant organs to stress‐induced hydraulic dysfunction. This is particularly important in the context of vulnerability segmentation between plant tissues which is believed to protect more energetically ‘costly’ tissues, such as woody stems, by sacrificing ‘cheaper’ leaves early under drought conditions. Differences in vulnerability segmentation between co‐occurring plant species could explain divergent behaviours during drought, yet there are few studies considering how this characteristic may vary within a plant community. Here we investigated community‐wide vulnerability segmentation by comparing leaf/shoot and stem vulnerability in all coexistent dominant canopy and understory woody species in a diverse dry sclerophyll woodland community, including multiple angiosperms and one gymnosperm. Previously published terminal leaf/shoot vulnerability to loss of water transport capacity was compared with stem xylem vulnerability to embolism measured on the same species at the same site. We calculated hydraulic safety margins for stems to determine variation in the risk of hydraulic failure during drought among species. The xylem of all species was found to be highly resistant to hydraulic dysfunction, with only two of the eight species exhibiting significantly different vulnerability to the overall mean. No evidence of vulnerability segmentation between shoots/leaves and stems was found in seven of the eight species. Phylogenetically diverse canopy and understory species in this evergreen sclerophyll woodland appear to have evolved similar strategies of drought resistance, including low xylem vulnerability to embolism and general lack of vulnerability segmentation. This convergence in hydraulic safety indicates a lack of hydraulic niche partitioning in this woodland community.

    更新日期:2020-02-06
  • The role of fine‐root mass, specific root length and life span in tree performance: A whole‐tree exploration
    Funct. Ecol. (IF 5.037) Pub Date : 2020-02-05
    Monique Weemstra; Natasa Kiorapostolou; Jasper van Ruijven; Liesje Mommer; Jorad de Vries; Frank Sterck

    The root economics spectrum (RES) hypothesis predicts that fast‐growing tree species have short‐lived roots with high specific root length (SRL) to allow rapid resource uptake, and opposite trait expressions for slow‐growing species. Yet, the mixed support for this hypothesis suggests that trees can adopt alternative strategies to increase resource uptake, besides an increase in SRL. We combined a novel mechanistic whole‐tree model and empirical fine‐root data of 10 tree species to test the effects of one of these alternative strategies, notably increasing fine‐root mass, on the tree's net C gain (used here as a proxy for tree performance), and to assess how fine‐root life span influences the relative importance of SRL and fine‐root mass for the C balance of trees. Our results indicate that accounting for the short life span of high‐SRL roots has important implications for explaining tree performance and the role of roots herein. Without considering their faster turnover, high‐SRL roots and low fine‐root mass resulted in the highest performance as predicted from the RES. Yet, when their higher turnover rates were accounted for, a high fine‐root mass and low SRL lead to the highest performance. Both our model outcomes and field data further show a negative relationship between SRL and fine‐root mass through which species aim to realize a similar root length density. This trade‐off further indicates how high a SRL and low fine‐root mass as well as opposite trait values can both lead to a positive C balance in a similar environment. Our study may explain why high‐SRL roots do not necessarily lead to the fastest tree growth as often hypothesized and demonstrates the importance of fine‐root mass in combination with fine‐root life span for explaining interspecific differences in tree performance. More generally, our work demonstrates the value of identifying and investigating different below‐ground strategies across species from a whole‐plant modelling perspective, and identifies the relationship between SRL, fine‐root biomass and life span as an important functional dimension to variation in species’ performance.

    更新日期:2020-02-06
  • Towards a framework for understanding the context‐dependence of impacts of non‐native tree species
    Funct. Ecol. (IF 5.037) Pub Date : 2020-02-05
    Sarah J. Sapsford; Angela J. Brandt; Kimberley T. Davis; Guadalupe Peralta; Ian A. Dickie; Robert D. Gibson; Joanna L. Green; Philip E. Hulme; Martin A. Nuñez; Kate H. Orwin; Anibal Pauchard; David A. Wardle; Duane A. Peltzer

    Biological invasions are a major driver of ecosystem change but causes of variation in their environmental impacts over space and time remain poorly understood. Most approaches used to quantify the impacts of non‐native species assume there are interactions among per capita (i.e., individual level) effects, species abundance and the area occupied by the species. However, studies rarely evaluate these factors and their interactions and often fail to recognise that the magnitude of impacts can be highly context‐dependent. Understanding what drives the context‐dependence of non‐native species impacts can improve our understanding and predictions of ecosystem change and better inform options for mitigation. Conifers, especially pines, are among the most problematic non‐native plant species globally. We use Pinaceae to illustrate how context‐dependence in biodiversity and environmental impacts of non‐native plant species can be generated by at least four processes: non‐linear density effects; intraspecific variation in functional traits; shifts in impacts over time; and persistence of impacts as biological or ecosystem legacies following non‐native species removal. Using this understanding, we develop a framework to better quantify interactions of impacts along environmental gradients (e.g., soil fertility, climate, ecosystem age). We demonstrate how impacts of non‐native species can occur at both low and high density, and that failing to account for intraspecific variation in effect traits can lead to significant errors in the prediction of impacts. By incorporating context‐dependence in regard to density and functional traits, we can measure how the interaction of this context‐dependence will shift along environmental gradients. Moreover, disentangling the roles of species and abundance along such gradients will provide new insights into the net effects of both the native and non‐native components of communities. We use a working example of our framework that incorporates all four processes to demonstrate how to measure fire risk impacts of Pinus contorta. We show that ecosystem impacts of non‐native tree species are not fixed but rather vary predictably along major environmental gradients. Moreover, removal of non‐native species through management provides an important tool for revealing biological and ecosystem legacy effects. Although we focus here on relatively well‐documented Pinaceae, the new insights into context‐dependence of impacts can be widely applied across species, environments and regions.

    更新日期:2020-02-06
  • Ecological strategies begin at germination: traits, plasticity, and survival in the first four days of plant life
    Funct. Ecol. (IF 5.037) Pub Date : 2020-02-05
    Julie E. Larson; Brian L. Anacker; Sara Wanous; Jennifer L. Funk

    We commonly use trait variation to characterize plant function within and among species and understand how vegetation responds to the environment. Seedling emergence is an especially vulnerable window affecting population and community dynamics, yet trait‐based frameworks often bypass this earliest stage of plant life. Here we assess whether traits vary in ecologically‐meaningful ways when seedlings are just days old. How do shared evolutionary history and environmental conditions shape trait expression, and can traits explain which seedlings endure drought?. We measured seedling traits in the first four days of life for 16 annual plant species under two water treatments, exploring trait tradeoffs, species‐level plasticity, and the ability of traits to predict duration of survival under drought. Nearly half of traits showed the imprint of evolutionary history (i.e., significant phylogenetic signal), often reflecting differences between grasses and forbs, two groups separated by a deep evolutionary split. Water availability altered trait expression in most cases, though species‐level plastic responses also reflected evolutionary history. On average, new seedlings exhibited substantial trait variation structured as multiple tradeoffs like those found in mature plants. Some species invested in thick roots and shoots while others invested in more efficient tissues. Separately, some invested in tougher roots and others in deeper roots. We also observed tradeoffs related to growth rates (fast or slow) and biomass allocation (above or belowground). Drought survival time was correlated most strongly with seed mass, root construction and allocation traits, and phylogeny (grasses versus forbs). Synthesis. Our results show that seed and seedling trait variation among annual species is substantial, and that a few attributes could capture major dimensions of ecological strategies during emergence. With seedling survival times ranging two‐fold among annuals (from 7.5 to 14.5 days), these strategies could mitigate recruitment responses to more frequent or longer dry spells. Multivariate trait and plasticity strategies should be further explored in studies designed to assess trait‐fitness linkages during recruitment.

    更新日期:2020-02-06
  • Plasticity and habitat choice match colour to function in an ambush bug
    Funct. Ecol. (IF 5.037) Pub Date : 2020-02-03
    Julia Boyle; Denon Start

    Individuals aim to maximize their fitness by matching their own phenotype to the optimum phenotype in their environment. Individuals can achieve matching through several mechanisms including habitat choice and adaptive plasticity. A key trait of interest to biologists is colour, with background matching reciprocally camouflaging predators and prey. However, the multiple mechanisms matching an individual's colour to their background, and its consequences for function (e.g. species interactions), are rarely explored simultaneously. Here we investigate colour variation in ambush bugs, Phymata americana, that feed on insects visiting white and yellow flowers. We conducted surveys of wild populations to establish phenotype–environment matching and its effects on prey capture, then performed habitat choice and plasticity (colour change) trials to test for the mechanisms underlying putative patterns of habitat matching. Ambush bugs matched their background—yellower ambush bugs were found on yellow flowers and whiter ambush bugs on white flowers, and matching increased prey capture. This pattern was seemingly driven by a combination of plasticity and habitat choice. Our study highlights how organisms can optimize trait values through a combination of plasticity and habitat choice with tangible effects on individual performance. We suggest that multiple mechanisms interactively shape phenotypes, optimizing function and fitness in the wild.

    更新日期:2020-02-04
  • Drivers of plant traits that allow survival in wetlands
    Funct. Ecol. (IF 5.037) Pub Date : 2020-02-03
    Yingji Pan; Ellen Cieraad; Beverley R. Clarkson; Timothy D. Colmer; Ole Pedersen; Eric J.W. Visser; Laurentius A.C.J. Voesenek; Peter M. van Bodegom

    Plants have developed a suite of traits to survive the anaerobic and anoxic soil conditions in wetlands. Previous studies on wetland plant adaptive traits have focused mainly on physiological aspects under experimental conditions, or compared the trait expression of the local species pool. Thus, a comprehensive analysis of potential factors driving wetland plant adaptive traits under natural environmental conditions is still missing. In this study, we analysed three important wetland adaptive traits, i.e. root porosity, root/shoot ratio and underwater photosynthetic rate, to explore driving factors using a newly compiled dataset of wetland plants. Based on 21 studies at 38 sites across different biomes, we found that root porosity was affected by an interaction of temperature and hydrological regime; root:shoot ratio was affected by temperature, precipitation and habitat type; and underwater photosynthetic rate was affected by precipitation and life form. This suggests that a variety of driving mechanisms affect the expression of different adaptive traits. The quantitative relationships we observed between the adaptive traits and their driving factors will be a useful reference for future global methane and denitrification modelling studies. Our results also stress that besides the traditionally emphasized hydrological driving factors, other factors at several spatial scales should also be taken into consideration in the context of future functional wetland ecology.

    更新日期:2020-02-04
  • Synergistic impacts of co‐occurring invasive grasses cause persistent effects in the soil‐plant system after selective removal
    Funct. Ecol. (IF 5.037) Pub Date : 2020-02-03
    Rafael D. Zenni; Wanderson L. da Cunha; Carolina Musso; Jocemara V. de Souza; Gabriela B. Nardoto; Heloisa S. Miranda

    Human influence on the environment is so extensive that virtually all ecosystems on the planet are now affected by biological invasions. And, often, ecosystems are invaded by multiple co‐occurring non‐native species. Hence, it is important to understand the impacts these invasions are producing on biodiversity and ecosystem processes. Here, we present results of a 2‐year long field experiment where we tested the effects of co‐occurring invasive C4 African grasses in a Cerrado area in central Brazil. We compared plant and arthropod communities, plant biomass, and soil nitrogen dynamics and soil chemical characteristics across five experimental treatments: Urochloa decumbens removal; Melinis minutiflora removal; both U. decumbens and M. minutiflora removal; U. decumbens and M. minutiflora invaded plots; and uninvaded Cerrado. We hypothesized that selective removal of invasive grasses would have distinct effects on the native ecosystem structure and functioning. We expected that each invasive grass would produce a different type of impact on the native ecosystem and that their impacts would be synergistic when co‐occurring. Removal of M. minutiflora doubled native plant diversity and biomass when compared to invaded plots, whereas removal of U. decumbens did not alter these parameters. Cerrado plots had four times more plant species than plots cleared of invasives. Removal of invasive grasses did not affect the species richness or community composition of soil epigeal fauna. Cerrado soils had lower fertility, organic matter content and pH than invaded soils. The effects were generally higher when both invasive grasses were removed, suggesting impacts were synergistic, but M. minutiflora had greater effects on plants and soils than U. decumbens. Both invasive species produced negative impacts, but a single species was the main driver. We also detected persistent effects of the invasive grass species on the ecosystem after 2 years of removal. We conclude that invasive species of the same functional group have similar types of effects in native ecosystems, but the magnitude of impact was largely dependent on invasive species biomass and cover. Where multiple invasive species are present, research and management of invaded ecosystems should tackle the interacting effects of co‐occurring invaders.

    更新日期:2020-02-03
  • Environmental filtering and convergent evolution determine the ecological specialization of subterranean spiders
    Funct. Ecol. (IF 5.037) Pub Date : 2020-01-31
    Stefano Mammola; Miquel A. Arnedo; Cene Fišer; Pedro Cardoso; Andrea J. Dejanaz; Marco Isaia
    更新日期:2020-01-31
  • Habitat variability in an underwater forest: Using a trait‐based approach to predict associated communities
    Funct. Ecol. (IF 5.037) Pub Date : 2020-01-30
    Talia P. Stelling‐Wood; Paul E. Gribben; Alistair G. B. Poore
    更新日期:2020-01-31
  • Causes and consequences of facultative sea crossing in a soaring migrant
    Funct. Ecol. (IF 5.037) Pub Date : 2020-01-30
    Paolo Becciu; Shay Rotics; Nir Horvitz; Michael Kaatz; Wolfgang Fiedler; Damaris Zurell; Andrea Flack; Florian Jeltsch; Martin Wikelski; Ran Nathan; Nir Sapir

    Studying the causes and consequences of route selection in animal migration is important for understanding the evolution of migratory systems and how they may be affected by environmental factors at various spatial and temporal scales. One key decision during migration is whether to cross “high transport cost” areas, or to circumvent them. Soaring birds may face this choice when encountering waterbodies where convective updrafts are weak or scarce. Crossing these waterbodies requires flying using energetically costly flapping flight, while circumventing them over land permits energetically cheap soaring. We tested how several atmospheric factors (e.g., wind, thermal uplift) and geographic, seasonal and state‐related factors (sex and age) affected route selection in migrating white storks (Ciconia ciconia). We used 196 GPS tracks of 70 individuals either crossing or circumventing the north‐easternmost section of the Mediterranean Sea, over Iskenderun Bay in southern Turkey. We found that westward and southward winds promoted a cross‐bay journey in spring and autumn, respectively, acting as tailwinds. Also, overall weaker winds promoted a sea crossing in spring. Sea crossing was associated with flapping flight and higher values of Overall Dynamic Body Acceleration (ODBA) and resulted in higher ground speed than travel over land. The combined environmental conditions and the effects of route selection on movement‐related energy costs and speed were likely responsible for an increase in the time spent flying and distance travelled of migrating storks that decided to cross the bay during spring. Notably, daily travel distances of spring migrants crossing the bay were 60 kilometres longer than those of land‐detouring birds, allowing them to reach their destination faster but likely incurring a higher energetic flight cost. No such benefit was found during autumn. Our findings confirm that atmospheric conditions can strongly affect bird route selection. Consequently, migration timing, speed and movement‐related energy expenditure differed considerably between the two migratory seasons and the two route choices, highlighting a time‐energy trade‐off in the migration of white storks.

    更新日期:2020-01-31
  • Beneficial microbes ameliorate abiotic and biotic sources of stress on plants
    Funct. Ecol. (IF 5.037) Pub Date : 2020-01-28
    Stephanie S. Porter; Roxanne Bantay; Colleen A. Friel; Aaron Garoutte; Kristi Gdanetz; Kathleen Ibarreta; Bethany M. Moore; Prateek Shetty; Eleanor Siler; Maren L. Friesen
    更新日期:2020-01-29
  • Substrate quality and not dominant plant community determines the vertical distribution and C assimilation of enchytraeids in peatlands
    Funct. Ecol. (IF 5.037) Pub Date : 2020-01-27
    María Jesús Iglesias Briones; Noela Carrera; Jinhua Huang; Maria Esther Barreal; Rudiger Schmelz; Mark H. Garnett

    Peatlands are important carbon (C) stores as a result of acidity, waterlogging conditions and low temperatures slowing decomposition rates. However, climate change is predicted to bring not only changes in abiotic conditions, but also the replacement of peat‐forming vegetation, such as Sphagnum mosses, with vascular plants. In these systems, enchytraeid worms represent the dominant mesofaunal group, and previous climate change manipulations have shown that their abundances and vertical distribution are strongly influenced by temperature and moisture gradients, with important implications for C cycling. Therefore, determining their behavioural responses to changes in both abiotic and biotic factors is crucial to quantify their contribution to decomposition processes.

    更新日期:2020-01-27
  • Does the size and developmental stage of traits at fledging reflect juvenile flight ability among songbirds?
    Funct. Ecol. (IF 5.037) Pub Date : 2020-01-24
    Todd M. Jones; Thomas J. Benson; Michael P. Ward
    更新日期:2020-01-26
  • Microbial rescue effects: How microbiomes can save hosts from extinction
    Funct. Ecol. (IF 5.037) Pub Date : 2020-01-21
    Emmi A. Mueller; Nathan I. Wisnoski; Ariane L. Peralta; Jay T. Lennon
    更新日期:2020-01-23
  • Global effects of land use on biodiversity differ among functional groups
    Funct. Ecol. (IF 5.037) Pub Date : 2020-01-20
    Tim Newbold; Laura F. Bentley; Samantha L. L. Hill; Melanie J. Edgar; Matthew Horton; Geoffrey Su; Çağan H. Şekercioğlu; Ben Collen; Andy Purvis
    更新日期:2020-01-22
  • Distinguishing between active plasticity due to thermal acclimation and passive plasticity due to Q10 effects: Why methodology matters
    Funct. Ecol. (IF 5.037) Pub Date : 2020-01-19
    Justin C. Havird; Jennifer L. Neuwald; Alisha A. Shah; Alexander Mauro; Craig A. Marshall; Cameron K. Ghalambor

    Characterizing thermal acclimation is a common goal of eco‐physiological studies and has important implications for models of climate change and environmental adaptation. However, quantifying thermal acclimation in biological rate processes is not straight‐forward because many rates increase with temperature due to the acute effect of thermodynamics on molecular interactions. Disentangling such passive plastic responses from active acclimation responses is critical for describing patterns of thermal acclimation. Here, we reviewed published studies and distinguished between different study designs measuring the acute (i.e., passive) and acclimated effects of temperature on metabolic rate. We then developed a method to quantify and classify acclimation responses by comparing acute and acclimated Q10 values. Finally, we applied this method using meta‐analysis to characterize thermal acclimation in metabolic rates of ectothermic animals. We reviewed 258 studies measuring thermal effects on metabolic rates, and found that a majority of these studies (74%) did not allow for quantifying the independent effects of acclimation. Such studies were more common when testing aquatic taxa and continue to be published even in recent years. A meta‐analysis of 96 studies where acclimation could be quantified (using 1072 Q10 values) revealed that “partial compensation” was the most common acclimation response (i.e. acclimation tended to offset the passive change in metabolic rate due to acute temperature changes). However, “no acclimation” and “inverse compensation”, in which acclimation further augmented the acute change in metabolic rate, were also common. Acclimation responses differed among taxa, habitats, and with experimental design. Amphibians and other terrestrial taxa tended to show weak acclimation responses, while fishes and other aquatic taxa tended to show stronger compensatory responses. Increasing how long the animal was allowed to adjust to a new test temperature increased the acclimation response, but body size did not. Acclimation responses were also stronger with longer acclimation durations. Collectively, these results highlight the importance of using the appropriate experimental design to investigate and estimate thermal acclimation of biological rates. To facilitate and guide future studies of thermal acclimation, we end with some suggestions for designing and interpreting experiments.

    更新日期:2020-01-21
  • 更新日期:2020-01-16
  • Plant roots stimulate the decomposition of complex, but not simple, soil carbon
    Funct. Ecol. (IF 5.037) Pub Date : 2020-01-14
    Jessica A. M. Moore; Benjamin N. Sulman; Melanie A. Mayes; Courtney M. Patterson; Aimée T. Classen
    更新日期:2020-01-14
  • Odours of non‐predatory species help prey moderate their risk assessment
    Funct. Ecol. (IF 5.037) Pub Date : 2020-01-13
    Moshe Zaguri; Dror Hawlena
    更新日期:2020-01-14
  • Trophic selectivity in aquatic isopods increases with the availability of resources
    Funct. Ecol. (IF 5.037) Pub Date : 2020-01-13
    Clémentine M. Francois; Laurent Simon; Florian Malard; Tristan Lefébure; Christophe J. Douady; Florian Mermillod‐Blondin

    Trophic selectivity has major influences on consumers’ fitness, stability of predator and prey populations, and nutrient fluxes in food webs. Trophic selectivity occurs when the relative abundances of resources in a consumer's diet differ from their relative abundances in the environment. This discrepancy between resources abundance and use has been predicted to increase with the availability of resources in the environment. Trophic selectivity has also been predicted to increase with the heterogeneity of resources quality in the environment. Despite their ecological and evolutionary implications, conclusive in situ tests of these predictions are still lacking. We challenged these two predictions by studying 15 closely related species of isopods distributed along a wide range of resource availability (from 1.3 to 57.6 grams of organic carbon per square meter). The dataset ranged from deep cave systems, considered as some of the most resource‐limited environments on Earth, to highly‐productive surface streams. For each species, we quantified the relative abundance of all available resources in the environment and estimated the heterogeneity in the stoichiometric quality of these resources. Isopod diet was determined using C and N stable isotopes and a Bayesian mixing model. The degree of trophic selectivity was then calculated for each species. By coupling a standardized quantification of trophic resources with a fine determination of diets using stable isotopes, we uncovered a positive relationship between resource availability and trophic selectivity. Contrary to our second prediction, trophic selectivity did not correlate with the heterogeneity of resources quality. Our results have important implications in trophic ecology by highlighting that resource availability was a main driver of trophic choices in aquatic invertebrates across a broad range of environments. These findings call for further evaluation of the mechanisms (e.g. trophic competition) causing the positive relationship between trophic selectivity and resource availability, as these mechanisms could be closely linked to those generating the documented relationship between species richness and productive energy.

    更新日期:2020-01-13
  • Cover Picture and Issue Information
    Funct. Ecol. (IF 5.037) Pub Date : 2020-01-13
    更新日期:2020-01-13
  • An integrative view of senescence in nature
    Funct. Ecol. (IF 5.037) Pub Date : 2020-01-13
    Jean‐Michel Gaillard; Jean‐François Lemaître

    Senescence—the decline in age‐specific contribution to fitness with increasing age—has been widely investigated in evolutionary ecology. A tremendous amount of detailed empirical analyses have now revealed the widespread occurrence of demographic senescence (i.e. both actuarial and reproductive senescence) and have started to identify factors (e.g. environmental conditions) that modulate its timing and intensity, both within and across species. In this special feature, we have built on this flourishing work to highlight several axes of research that would benefit from more integrative and multidisciplinary approaches. Several contributions compiled in this special feature emphasize that our understanding of senescence remains taxonomically limited, mostly focused on birds and mammals, and is therefore not representative of the biological diversity displayed across the tree of life. In line with this observation, the influence of some peculiar lifestyles (e.g. involving sociality or modularity) on the evolution of senescence is yet to be deciphered. Understanding of the diversity of senescence patterns across and within species and among traits will necessitate the establishment of new metrics as a golden standard to fully account for age‐specific changes recorded in individuals’ performance. This is illustrated with the specific case of actuarial senescence. This special feature also highlights that the diversity of biological samples collected from wild plants and animals, along with accurate demographic data, is expanding. The fast development of new molecular tools now offers a unique opportunity to launch research programmes at the interface of physiology, health and ageing in non‐model organisms. We argue that while these different research axes constitute key avenues of investigations for the coming years, they are only the tip of the iceberg. To appreciate the full complexity of the senescence process in nature, from its evolutionary causes to its demographic consequences, we also need a better understanding of the role played by both environmental conditions and gene–environment interactions, of constraints, and of senescence, an improved assessment of the influence of individual heterogeneity, and the consideration of transgenerational effects when quantifying the fitness consequences of senescence.

    更新日期:2020-01-13
  • Life‐history trade‐offs and senescence in plants
    Funct. Ecol. (IF 5.037) Pub Date : 2019-10-18
    Deborah A. Roach; Erin F. Smith
    更新日期:2020-01-13
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