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  • Study of the Factors Influencing Diffusive Tortuosity Based on Pore-Scale SPH Simulation of Granular Soil
    Transp Porous Media (IF 1.997) Pub Date : 2020-02-24
    Dengyu Rao, Bing Bai

    Abstract Tortuosity quantitatively reflects the complexity of porous media. For the diffusion process in porous media, diffusive tortuosity is inevitably an important research topic. A simulation experimental method is proposed to study diffusive tortuosity in granular soil based on 3D pore-scale simulation by smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH). On the basis of the simulation results, the relationships between diffusive tortuosity and microstructural parameters are discussed. Simulation experiments are implemented on 3D granular soil columns generated by PFC software and soil layers formed by periodic expansion of the soil columns. The accuracy of the pore-scale SPH diffusion model is verified by the analytic solution for the particular case of a pure water column. The results show that the dimensionality does affect the diffusive tortuosity. 2D profiles cannot represent the original 3D medium in terms of the diffusion characteristics. Within the limited range of the variation of porosity during soil compression, the relationship between porosity and diffusive tortuosity can be considered to be linear. In addition, for the case of uniform granule size, diffusive tortuosity is almost linearly related to the specific surface area. Tortuosity values for soil columns are larger than those for the soil layer, which denotes that the effect of the sidewall on diffusion cannot be overlooked for a centimeter-scale soil column.

    更新日期:2020-02-24
  • Solute Dispersion of Organic Compounds on Undisturbed Soil Columns
    Transp Porous Media (IF 1.997) Pub Date : 2020-02-13
    Ramile Gomes Uzêda Sousa, Iara Brandão de Oliveira, Sandro Lemos Machado, Miriam de Fátima Carvalho

    Abstract Results of column tests performed on large undisturbed samples are presented, focusing on the behavior of the hydrodynamic dispersion coefficient (\(D_h\)). Tests were performed employing petroleum produced water from onshore facilities percolating sandy soils with different fine contents. To measure the organic content of the produced water, this work used the parameter TPH (total petroleum hydrocarbons). The obtained results show that the longitudinal dispersion coefficient (\(\alpha _L\)) varies with flow velocity (\(v_s\)) and that both the ratio between the hydrodynamic dispersion and diffusion coefficients (\(D_h/D\)) and \(\alpha _L\) are approximately two orders of magnitude higher than the values normally found in the literature for the same type of soil. This is probably related to the fact that the organic compounds measured by TPH in the produced water are partially in dissolved form, but dispersed particles are also transported by water flow, increasing the experimental values of \(D_h\).

    更新日期:2020-02-13
  • The Porosity and Permeability of Binary Grain Mixtures
    Transp Porous Media (IF 1.997) Pub Date : 2020-02-08
    Paul W. J. Glover, Miao Luo

    Abstract The processes that control binary mixing of two sizes of grains have been investigated theoretically and validated by comparison with experimental data. These seemingly simple experiments are difficult to carry out with the degree of precision needed to test the models. We have developed a methodology allowing porosity and permeability to be measured to within ± 4.415% and ± 4.989% (at a flow rate of 5.13 cm3/s) of each value, respectively. Theoretical considerations recognise mixing processes: (1) an interstitiation process whereby small grains fit between larger grains and (2) a replacement process whereby large grains replace smaller grains and the porosity associated with them. A major result of this work is that the theoretical models describing these two processes are independent of grain size and grain shape. The latter of these two findings infers that the models developed in this work are applicable to any shape of grain or type of packing, providing that a representative porosity of each size of grain pack is known independently, either experimentally or theoretically. Experimental validation has shown that the newly developed relationships for porosity described measurements of porosity for near-ideal binary mixtures extremely well, confirming that porosity is always reduced by binary mixing, and that the degree of reduction depends upon the size of the ratio between the two grain sizes. Calculation of permeability from the packing model has also been done. Six different permeability estimation methods have been used. It was found that the most accurate representations of the experimental permeability were obtained (1) when the exact RGPZ (Revil, Glover, Pezard, Zamora) method was used with the porosity mixing models developed in this work and (2) when the exact RGPZ method was used with the weighted geometric mean to calculate a representative grain size.

    更新日期:2020-02-10
  • Coordinated Variation of Contact Angles During Mobilization of Double Liquid–Gas Interfaces in a Microcapillary
    Transp Porous Media (IF 1.997) Pub Date : 2020-02-05
    Da Lei, Mian Lin, Yun Li, Wenbin Jiang

    Abstract Effectively mobilizing displacement and predicting mobilization pressure in a porous-type reservoir filled with bubbles or blobs require the knowledge of variation of contact angles and capillary pressure. A bubble/blob has two interfaces and thus has two contact angles. It has been found that double interfaces cause resistance to displacement, and the resisting pressure rises while one contact angle increasing and the other decreasing during mobilization. To quantitatively explain how the resistance to flow builds up according to the contact angle variations during mobilization, it is assumed that (1) contact points remain unmoved; (2) the volume of a bubble or blob maintains constant; (3) once the interface starts moving at low capillary number, the contact angle remains to be the advancing or receding angle; (4) the viscous effect on pressure drop can be ignored; and (5) the two angles of two interfaces are equal to an equilibrium angle at the initiation of mobilization. A theoretical model is developed based on these assumptions, and the quantitative relationship of the two angles is expressed by an implicit function. Combining Young–Laplace equation, the capillary pressure induced by double interfaces is obtained. The model’s prediction is in good agreement with experiments in studies. The equilibrium angle has strong influence on the variation of the two angles. When the equilibrium angle is less than 90 degrees, a relatively greater change in the contact angle at the advancing interface leads to a smaller change in the other one. Otherwise, the opposite is true. The changes of the two angles are equal when the equilibrium angle is 90 degrees. Moreover, a linear trend proposed by a previous investigation is incorporated into the model, to predict the ending of mobilization stage and to predict the maximum mobilization pressure on a given solid surface.

    更新日期:2020-02-06
  • Solution Construction to a Class of Riemann Problems of Multiphase Flow in Porous Media
    Transp Porous Media (IF 1.997) Pub Date : 2020-02-03
    Mehran Mehrabi, Kamy Sepehrnoori, Mojdeh Delshad

    Abstract Fluid displacement in porous media can usually be formulated as a Riemann problem. Finding the solution to such a problem helps shed light on the dynamics of flow and consequently optimize operational parameters such as injected fluid composition. We developed an algorithm to find solutions to a class of Riemann problems of multiphase flow in porous media. In general, the solution to a Riemann problem in state space is a curve connecting the left and right states of the problem. The solution curves studied here are composed of classical wave curves. For a given Riemann problem, our procedure to find the solution consists of three steps: (1) guess the initial lengths of the solution’s constitutive wave curves; (2) construct each wave curve off the last state of its antecedent wave curve; and (3) iterate over the lengths of the constitutive wave curves, using an iterative solver, until the solution curve ends at the right state of the problem. We used benchmark cases from literature to verify the accuracy of the developed algorithm. Using the developed algorithm, we found solutions to some challenging cases where otherwise numerical simulators would be needed to find the type of the involved waves (i.e., rarefaction, shock or composite waves) and the coordinates of the middle states in the state space. Saturation profiles, oil cut and oil recovery for all the studied cases were computed. This information will assist us to: gain insight about the dynamics of flow, interpret core flooding measurements, assess the accuracy of developed models for foam physical properties, and verify the results of numerical simulators.

    更新日期:2020-02-04
  • Admissible Parameters for Two-Phase Coreflood and Welge–JBN Method
    Transp Porous Media (IF 1.997) Pub Date : 2019-11-16
    A. Al-Sarihi, Z. You, A. Behr, L. Genolet, P. Kowollik, A. Zeinijahromi, P. Bedrikovetsky

    Abstract The Welge–JBN method for determining relative permeability from unsteady-state waterflood test is commonly used for two-phase flows in porous media. We discuss the theoretical criteria that limits application of the basic Buckley–Leverett model and Welge–JBN method and the operational criteria of the accuracy of measurements during core waterflood tests. The objective is determination of the waterflood test parameters (core length, flow velocity and effluent sampling frequency) that fulfil the theoretical and operational criteria. The overall set of criteria results in five inequalities in three-dimensional Euclidian space of these parameters. For known rock and fluid properties, a formula for minimum core length to fulfil Welge–JBN criteria is derived. For cases where the core length is given, formulae for test’s flow velocity and sampling period are provided to satisfy the test admissibility conditions. The application of the proposed methodology is illustrated by two coreflood tests.

    更新日期:2020-02-04
  • Radius of Investigation in Pressure Transient Testing
    Transp Porous Media (IF 1.997) Pub Date : 2019-11-25
    T. S. Ramakrishnan, M. D. Prange, F. J. Kuchuk

    Abstract The spatial domain of interpretation in pressure transient and formation testing is constrained by its radius of investigation. A classical descriptor for this radius relies on the time derivative of pressure within a bounded domain becoming time independent. Another approach quantifies the radius of investigation based on the distance at which the pressure change is greater than the characteristic noise or resolution in the measurement system. In this paper, we postulate that the correct measure of radius of investigation is the distance at which the inversion of noisy test data is able to discern an anomaly within a given tolerance. This paper details the design requirements for a testing and measurement system suitable for a given investigation distance, measurement noise, and the confidence requirements for the inferred distance. The approach is demonstrated with two specific models. The first is a formation with a sealing fault in an infinite medium, and the second is a formation with a single-layer boundary vertically displaced from a production probe. With normally distributed random and correlated noise, computed results show that the measure of distance investigated is highly dependent upon the background over which the anomaly is imposed. Although the methodology is illustrated with particular models, the principles are applicable in general.

    更新日期:2020-02-04
  • Characterizing the Impact of Fractured Caprock Heterogeneity on Supercritical CO $$_2$$2 Injection
    Transp Porous Media (IF 1.997) Pub Date : 2019-11-28
    Jeffrey D. Hyman, Joaquin Jiménez-Martínez, Carl W. Gable, Philip H. Stauffer, Rajesh J. Pawar

    Abstract We present a set of multiphase flow simulations where supercritical CO\(_2\) (scCO\(_2\)) displaces water at hydrostatic conditions within three-dimensional discrete fracture networks that represent paths for potential leakage through caprock above CO\(_2\) storage reservoirs. The simulations are performed to characterize and compare the relative impact of hydraulic and structural heterogeneity in fractured media on the initial movement of scCO\(_2\) through these caprock formations. In one scenario, intrinsic fracture permeabilities are varied stochastically within a fixed network structure. In another scenario, we generate multiple independent, identically distributed network realizations with varying fracture network densities to explore a wide range of geometric and topological configurations. Analysis of the simulations indicates that network structure, specifically connectivity and the presence of hanging fractures, plays a larger role in controlling the displacement of water by scCO\(_2\) than variations in local hydraulic properties. We identify active surface area of the network as a single-phase feature that could provide a lower bound on the percentage of the network surface area reached by scCO\(_2\).

    更新日期:2020-02-04
  • Detailed Assessment of Compositional and Interfacial Tension Effects on the Fluid Behaviour During Immiscible and Near-Miscible CO 2 Continuous and WAG Displacements
    Transp Porous Media (IF 1.997) Pub Date : 2019-11-19
    Gang Wang, Gillian E. Pickup, Kenneth S. Sorbie, Eric J. Mackay

    Abstract This study seeks to improve numerical simulations of the key physics occurring in CO2 enhanced oil recovery (CO2-EOR) processes, with a particular focus on the transition from immiscible to miscible displacements. In the previous work, we have investigated interactions between compositional effects and the underlying heterogeneities of the flow field in near-miscible floods (Wang et al. in Transp Porous Media 129(3):743–759, 2019a). In this current study, we have further analysed the effects of reduction in interfacial tension (IFT) on the flow behaviour, as motivated by the study on the film-flow mechanism previously presented by Sorbie and van Dijke (SPE improved oil recovery symposium, Society of Petroleum Engineers, 2010). We identify two clear mechanisms of oil recovery that may occur in near-miscible CO2 (or other gas) injection processes, which we denote, MCE, as oil stripping or conventional compositional effects, and MIFT as lower IFT oil film-flow effects. The latter MIFT effects are described by an enhanced hydrocarbon relative permeability in the near-miscible three-phase relative permeabilities (3PRP). Various combinations between the MCE and MIFT mechanisms were tested by numerical simulations to evaluate the impact of each mechanism on the flow behaviour, i.e. their separate and joint effects on quantities such as the local oil displacement efficiency, phase flow vectors and the ultimate oil recovery. When acting in combination, the oil stripping and IFT effects can greatly improve the local displacement performance even when viscous fingering flow occurs. Viscous fingering is well known to lead to bypassed oil in the “non-preferential” flow paths between the main fingers. We show that the remaining oil in these non-preferential flow paths (i.e. bypassed oil) can be efficiently recovered by the combined MCE and MIFT mechanisms, but only with the application of water alternating gas (WAG). In contrast to oil stripping effects, the IFT effect is not dependent on continuous contact between oil and CO2. Instead, the remaining oil is mobilized by gas as the IFT is reduced and can be efficiently produced by subsequent water injection. This MIFT mechanism has much less impact in cases with continuous CO2 injection compared to its efficiency in WAG. This is because during continuous injection, gas fingers are dominant in the preferential flow paths, and therefore the local displacement efficiency is very good, but only in these preferential routes. On the other hand, WAG is able to make full use of the IFT effects because of its relatively stable displacing front, which allows the MIFT mechanism to contribute. In this study, the effects of using different three-phase relative permeability methods were investigated and, as expected, different methods yielded different results. However, an important observation is that when IFT effects (MIFT) were included, there was much less difference in the final oil recovery using the different 3PRP models; our analysis shows why this is the case.

    更新日期:2020-02-04
  • Characterization of Viscous Fingering and Channeling for the Assessment of Polymer-Based Heavy Oil Displacements
    Transp Porous Media (IF 1.997) Pub Date : 2019-11-30
    Sarah Bouquet, Frederic Douarche, Frederic Roggero, Sarah Leray

    Abstract The ability to determine a predictive stability criterion is of great practical importance for designing stable polymer-based displacements. Where one usually resorts to a limited number of core-scale experiments or coarse-scale reservoir simulations, the first ones are potentially impacted by length scale issues, while the second ones possibly smooth out sharp displacing fronts and physical instability due to numerical diffusion. This paper proposes a new hydrodynamical stability criterion based on the previous linear stability analysis results. This criterion is tested for 2D polymer oil displacement by performing high viscosity contrasts, high-resolution numerical experiments at pilot scale. We investigate mesh resolution issues and several perturbation ideas. Different factors are considered such as mobility ratios, polymer adsorption and degradation and heterogeneities. The analysis is based on a combination of reservoir simulation and image processing techniques. We show the development of viscous fingering in homogeneous porous media is driven by the shock mobility ratio defined as the ratio of the total fluids upstream mobility over the total fluids downstream mobility. This stability criterion proves to predict both the polymer upstream and polymer-free downstream saturation fronts stability, typical of a polymer displacement, whether polymer adsorbs on the rock or degradates, or not. The observed fingers dynamical behavior is in line with previous works addressing single-phase miscible flow or immiscible oil displacement in porous media: fingers transversally merge while growing in the flow direction. Time evolution of fingers spreading and number is linear. Investigation on porous media of variable heterogeneity distributions shows how viscous fingering couples with heterogeneity and leads to even more marked, distorted and unstable flow patterns. In those cases, flow patterns are not solely driven by the porous medium heterogeneity. The more unstable the flow is, the more sensitive it is to heterogeneity. In-depth fingers analysis shows a very specific time evolution behavior, quite different from viscous fingering in homogeneous media. Such a flow pattern is related to production data such as water and polymer breakthrough times and/or oil recovery profiles as a function of time, which can be used in turn to interpret displacement stability and porous medium heterogeneity features.

    更新日期:2020-02-04
  • Four Modes of Droplet Permeation Through a Micro-pore with a T-Shaped Junction During Spreading
    Transp Porous Media (IF 1.997) Pub Date : 2020-01-31
    Zhongyi Liu, Siqi Li, Haisheng Fang, Xiaolong Pan

    Abstract Permeation accompanying droplet spreading is a well-known phenomenon in additive manufacturing, for example in inkjet printing and coating, where the extremely dynamic evolution of the free surface influences printing accuracy and uniformity. It is exceedingly difficult to track the permeation interface and dynamically deformed surface by experimental methods alone. In the work reported here, we adopted a meshless computational method to investigate the dynamic behavior of the permeable fluid passing through a T-shaped junction to elucidate the permeation phenomenon. Four permeation modes—retraction, suspension or capture (SOC), asymmetric transverse penetration (ATP), and symmetrical transverse penetration (STP)—have been studied under different forces and wettability. Regime maps between the Weber number and the wetting conditions are presented to reveal the mechanisms of the permeation modes and the transitions from one to another. The retraction pattern that dominates the permeation behavior on a hydrophobic substrate is already well known (and called the Cassie–Baxter state). For the hydrophilic condition, the permeation pattern is determined by the ratio of the inertia force to the capillary force. The SOC, ATP, and STP modes emerge sequentially as the inertia force rises. The ATP mode occurs when the maximal amplitude of the meniscus interface reaches the bottom wall, and the STP mode depends on the inertia force overcoming the capillary force. These two permeation mechanisms result in different tendencies of mode transition. A porous model of arrayed T-junctions is also presented to investigate the combined process of permeation and spreading. It is found that various combinations of permeation modes during droplet spreading play an important role in the permeation dynamics, and that inhibition of transverse creeping enhances the spreading on a highly porous substrate.

    更新日期:2020-01-31
  • Can Moderately Rarefied Gas Transport Through Round and Flat Tight Channels of Fractured Porous Media be Described Accurately?
    Transp Porous Media (IF 1.997) Pub Date : 2020-01-27
    Faruk Civan

    Abstract This paper provides critical insights into the rigorous formulation of moderately rarefied gas transport through narrow channels in naturally and induced fractured porous media, such as gas shale rocks, approximated as round (cylindrical) and flat (slit) types. This formulation considers critical improvements over the previous attempts by proper implementation of the effective equivalent mean hydraulic radius of tight flow channels, the wall-slip effect accommodation of Maxwell (Philos Trans R Soc Lond A 170:231–256, 1879), the variable cross-section hard sphere model of gas molecules and the modified bulk mean free-path of Bird (Phys Fluids 26(11):3222–3223, 1983. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.864095), the apparent viscosity and mean free path for the confined-state gas behavior modification, the flow through narrow capillary tubes represented by a Hagen–Poiseuille-type equation, the Knudsen diffusivity, and an improved relationship between the apparent permeability and the intrinsic permeability. The description of gas transport through extremely tight channels is accomplished by superposition of the Poiseuille bulk flow (convection) and the Knudsen transport (diffusion) mechanisms. This approach is applied to investigate the accuracy of several previous studies on the modeling of gas transport through extremely tight narrow channels of round and flat types under moderately rarefied conditions. Although the simulation results reported by the previous studies of Roy et al. (J Appl Phys 93(8):4870–4879, 2003), Javadpour (J Can Pet Technol 48(8):16–21, 2009), and Veltzke and Thöming (J Gas Mech 698:406–422, 2012) appear to follow the trends observed in the experimental studies of Roy et al. (2003) flowing argon gas through a round channel (tube) and Ewart et al. (J Gas Mech 584:337–356, 2007. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0022112007006374) flowing helium gas through a single straight flat narrow channel, it is concluded that these results are not actually accurate for several reasons. The accuracy of the basic model presented by Javadpour (2009) suffers from some formulation issues and the low-order accuracy of the numerical approximations. The complicated model presented by Veltzke and Thöming (2012) is impractical and difficult because of the two-dimensional solutions of the Navier–Stokes equations with no-slip boundary condition and produces inaccurate solutions because of the improper definition of the effective radius of the straight flat narrow channel. The improved pressure equation of the compressible rarefied gas flow in tight channels developed in the present paper is highly nonlinear. The possibility of numerical calculation errors associated with the solution of the differential pressure equation was eliminated completely by an application of an integral transformation by facilitating a pseudo-transfer or flow potential function, and the solution of this equation was obtained accurately and fully analytically. It is shown that the proper formulation and accurate analytical solution developed in this paper can indeed lead to significantly accurate matches of the same experimental data than those reported by the previous studies. Thus, the deviation of the previous simulation results from the experimental data cannot be attributed simply to possible experimental errors associated with the laboratory tests but also to the limitations in formulation and inaccuracies in numerical solution. The exercises presented in this paper reveal that the previous modeling efforts certainly involve various types of errors and the experimental data cannot be matched by the gas transport models simply by adjusting the values of the unknown model parameters unless the models and their parameters are theoretically meaningful.

    更新日期:2020-01-27
  • A Permeability–Throat Diameter Correlation for a Medium Generated with Delaunay Tessellation and Voronoi Algorithm
    Transp Porous Media (IF 1.997) Pub Date : 2020-01-25
    Ángel Encalada, Julio Barzola-Monteses, Mayken Espinoza-Andaluz

    Abstract Describing different transport phenomena through porous media at micro- and mesoscale represents a convenient pre-step in experimental characterization for materials. A detailed study of transport properties in porous materials is required to find suitable microstructural configurations which allow a better performance into mechanic/hydraulic system. Porous media are widely used in several fields of application such as in fuel cells (different layers inside the device) and geological sciences (soil properties). The purpose of the present work is to propose a permeability correlation for digitally created three-dimensional (3D) pore media considering the diameter of the throats connecting the pores within the domain. The 3D samples are generated by means of the Delaunay tessellation and Voronoi algorithm for pore position and throat characteristics, respectively. The model implementation is carried out by using OpenPNM, an open-source pore network modeling package, which has proven to be a powerful tool to compute several transport phenomena for porous media applications. Several samples have been created keeping the pore diameter as a constant, while the throat diameter connecting the pores is changing for a selected range of values in order to analyze the impact of the throat diameter on the permeability. A correlation to compute the permeability as a function of the throat diameter with a coefficient of determination of 95% has been proposed.

    更新日期:2020-01-26
  • Homogenization of Solute Transport in Unsaturated Double-Porosity Media: Model and Numerical Validation
    Transp Porous Media (IF 1.997) Pub Date : 2020-01-23
    T. D. Tran Ngoc, Nam H. N. Le, Tieng V. Tran, Azita Ahmadi, Henri Bertin

    Abstract The development of a macroscopic model for solute transport coupled with unsaturated water flow in double-porosity media is presented in this work, by using the asymptotic homogenization method. The model was derived for the case in which the medium exhibits a strong contrast of transport properties by upscaling rigorously the transport mechanisms from micro-scale to macro-scale. It consists of two coupled equations for dispersion–convection processes at macroscopic level and diffusion intervention from local scale that can be described by a non-Fickian behaviour of solute concentration breakthrough. The proposed model was numerically implemented in the environment of a finite element code (commercial software) and applied to 2D examples with different boundary conditions. To validate, a comparative analysis between the results obtained from the homogenized model and the fine scale model (reference solution obtained from explicit heterogeneous representation of the medium structure) was carried out. The obtained numerical tool for the two-scale implementation enables treating various types of two-equation models to study the macroscopic non-Fickian transport and also non-equilibrium evolution of concentration fields inside the micro-porous medium.

    更新日期:2020-01-23
  • An Upscaled Model for Permeable Biofilm in a Thin Channel and Tube
    Transp Porous Media (IF 1.997) Pub Date : 2020-01-21
    David Landa-Marbán, Gunhild Bødtker, Kundan Kumar, Iuliu S. Pop, Florin A. Radu

    Abstract In this paper, we derive upscaled equations for modeling biofilm growth in porous media. The resulting macroscale mathematical models consider permeable multi-species biofilm including water flow, transport, detachment and reactions. The biofilm is composed of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), water, active bacteria and dead bacteria. The free flow is described by the Stokes and continuity equations, and the water flux inside the biofilm by the Brinkman and continuity equations. The nutrients are transported in the water phase by convection and diffusion. This pore-scale model includes variations in the biofilm composition and size due to reproduction of bacteria, production of EPS, death of bacteria and shear forces. The model includes a water–biofilm interface between the free flow and the biofilm. Homogenization techniques are applied to obtain upscaled models in a thin channel and a tube, by investigating the limit as the ratio of the aperture to the length \(\varepsilon\) of both geometries approaches to zero. As \(\varepsilon\) gets smaller, we obtain that the percentage of biofilm coverage area over time predicted by the pore-scale model approaches the one obtained using the effective equations, which shows a correspondence between both models. The two derived porosity–permeability relations are compared to two empirical relations from the literature. The resulting numerical computations are presented to compare the outcome of the effective (upscaled) models for the two mentioned geometries.

    更新日期:2020-01-22
  • On Numerical Stabilization in Modeling Double-Diffusive Viscous Fingering
    Transp Porous Media (IF 1.997) Pub Date : 2020-01-21
    M. Shabouei, K. B. Nakshatrala

    Abstract A firm understanding and control of viscous fingering (VF) and miscible displacement will be vital to a wide range of industrial, environmental, and pharmaceutical applications, such as geological carbon dioxide sequestration, enhanced oil recovery, and drug delivery. We restrict our study to VF, a well-known hydrodynamic instability, in miscible fluid systems but consider double-diffusive (DD) effects—the combined effect of compositional changes because of solute transport and temperature. One often uses numerical formulations to study VF with DD effects. The primary aim of the current study is to show that popular formulations have limitations to study VF with DD effect. These limitations include exhibiting node-to-node spurious oscillations, violating physical constraints such as the nonnegativity of the concentration field or mathematical principles such as the maximum principle, and suppressing physical instabilities. We will use several popular stabilized finite element formulations—the SUPG formulations and three modifications based on the SOLD approach—in our study. Using representative numerical results, we will illustrate two critical limitations. First, we document that these formulations do not respect the nonnegative constraint and the maximum principle for the concentration field. We will also show the impact of these violations on how viscous fingers develop. Second, we show that these stabilized formulations, often used to suppress numerical instabilities, may also suppress physical instabilities, such as viscous fingering. Our study will be valuable to practitioners who use existing numerical formulations and to computational mathematicians who develop new formulations. Graphic Abstract This figure shows the unphysical concentration values got using the SUPG stabilized formulation on the quarter five-spot problem. The numerical solution for the concentration field violated the nonnegative constraint (left) and the maximum principle (right). The mathematical model comprises coupled flow-thermal-transport equations.

    更新日期:2020-01-21
  • Uncertainty Propagation for Compositional Flow Using a Probability Distribution Method
    Transp Porous Media (IF 1.997) Pub Date : 2020-01-20
    Olga Fuks, Fayadhoi Ibrahima, Pavel Tomin, Hamdi A. Tchelepi

    Abstract The paper presents a novel approach for uncertainty propagation in multicomponent two-phase displacements. This approach originates from and extends the frozen streamlines (FROST) distribution method for two-phase Buckley–Leverett displacements described in Ibrahima et al. (Transp Porous Media 109(1):81–107, 2015). The developed FROST method for multicomponent systems relies on the analytical solutions of gas–oil displacements provided by the theory of gas injection processes. With examples considering a stochastic porosity field in 1-D, we apply the developed framework to uncertainty propagation in three- and four-component systems to obtain the probability distribution of different compositions in space and time and verify that the results are in excellent agreement with the reference analytical Monte Carlo simulations.

    更新日期:2020-01-21
  • Two- and Three-Dimensional Absolute Instabilities in a Porous Medium with Inclined Temperature Gradient and Vertical Throughflow
    Transp Porous Media (IF 1.997) Pub Date : 2020-01-16
    Mateus Schuabb, Leonardo S. de B. Alves, Silvia da C. Hirata

    A linear stability analysis for the onset of mixed convection in a saturated porous medium through an absolute instability of both two- and three-dimensional disturbances is performed. Relevant control parameters associated with the inclined temperature gradient and the vertical throughflow are the vertical and horizontal Rayleigh numbers, \(R_{\mathrm{v}}\) and \(R_{\mathrm{h}}\), and the vertical Péclet number, \(Q_{\mathrm{v}}\), respectively. This work extends previous studies on the very same problem in two fronts. For two-dimensional disturbances, the present results do not agree with the literature for a few of the parametric conditions reported. This is caused by the collision of the convectively unstable downstream propagating branch with multiple upstream propagating branches, which generates several saddle points and, hence, makes the identification of the correct pinching point more difficult. In other words, literature results are all saddle points but not always pinching points. For three-dimensional disturbances, this issue is not present and the current results agree with the literature. On the other hand, due to the inherent difficulties associated with a three-dimensional absolute instability analysis, literature results have only been able to report the group velocities at the onset of convective instability. When their real parts are zero, transition occurs directly from stable to absolutely unstable. Otherwise, transition occurs from stable to convectively unstable first and nothing can be said about the onset of absolute instability. In this work, a novel technique recently developed by the authors allowed the identification of the onset of absolute instability under all parametric conditions investigated in the literature, extending earlier results. Doing so confirmed the dichotomy already observed in these earlier studies, i.e., the onset of absolute instability for two- and three-dimensional longitudinal modes indeed differs.

    更新日期:2020-01-16
  • A Coupled Model for Heat and Moisture Transport Simulation in Porous Materials Exposed to Thermal Radiation
    Transp Porous Media (IF 1.997) Pub Date : 2019-11-01
    Yun Su, Jun Li, Xianghui Zhang

    Abstract Understanding mechanism of transmitted and stored heat in porous materials was extremely important for improving thermal protective performance of clothing. A coupled heat and moisture transfer model in a three-layer fabric system while exposing to a low-level thermal radiation was developed in this study. The model simulated the transmitted and stored heat in porous materials, and considered the effect of moisture transport on the transmitted and stored heat. The predicted results from the coupled model were validated with the experimental results, and compared with the predicted results from the previous model without considering the moisture effect. It was found that the prediction accuracies in skin burn and skin temperature through the coupled model were further improved. The coupled model was used to examine the moisture effect on heat transport and storage in porous materials. The results demonstrated that the moisture within porous materials increased the heat storage and discharge, but decreased the heat transport. The increases in initial moisture content and fiber moisture regain, while increasing the thermal hazardous effect, greatly enhanced the thermal protective performance of clothing. Therefore, it suggested that the moisture management in porous materials was a key consideration for thermal functional design of fabric.

    更新日期:2020-01-15
  • Stokesian Dynamics Simulation of Suspension Flow in Porous Media
    Transp Porous Media (IF 1.997) Pub Date : 2019-10-31
    Niloy De, Anugrah Singh

    Suspension flow through porous medium was studied using the Stokesian dynamics simulation method. Stokesian dynamics is an efficient tool to carry out numerical simulations for suspension of rigid particles interacting through hydrodynamic and non-hydrodynamic forces. After validating the simulation method for a single particle flowing through an array of fixed grain particles, we have analysed the suspension transport through porous medium. It was observed that the hydrodynamic interactions and the inter-particle non-hydrodynamic forces between the moving and fixed grain particles have a strong influence on the particle trajectories. This was apparent from the change in particle flux with the fractional channel width in the presence of non-hydrodynamic forces. Hydrodynamic interaction between the suspension and grain particles was also studied for large-scale porous system that was generated by a random arrangement of the particles in a periodic cell. It was found that the change in porosity leads to change in the average fluctuation velocity of the suspension. The fluctuation velocity was observed to vary linearly with the particle concentration and average suspension velocity. Finally, a comparative study was performed with suspension flow in a straight channel and it was observed that the shear-induced particle migration in porous medium is altered by the presence of grain particles.

    更新日期:2020-01-15
  • Heated and Salted Below Porous Convection with Generalized Temperature and Solute Boundary Conditions
    Transp Porous Media (IF 1.997) Pub Date : 2019-11-13
    Brian Straughan

    Abstract We address the problem of initiation of convective motion in the case of a fluid saturated porous layer, containing a salt in solution, which is heated and salted below. We amplify the very interesting recent results of Nield and Kuznetsov and examine in detail a whole range of temperature and salt boundary conditions allowing for a combination of prescribed heat flux and temperature. The behaviour of the transition from stationary to oscillatory convection is examined in detail as the boundary conditions vary from prescribed temperature and salt concentration toward those of prescribed heat flux and salt flux.

    更新日期:2020-01-15
  • A Non-normal-mode Marginal State of Convection in a Porous Box with Insulating End-Walls
    Transp Porous Media (IF 1.997) Pub Date : 2019-11-09
    Peder A. Tyvand, Jonas Kristiansen Nøland

    Abstract The 4th order Darcy–Bénard eigenvalue problem for the onset of thermal convection in a 3D rectangular porous box is investigated. We start from a recent 2D model Tyvand et al. (Transp Porous Med 128:633–651, 2019) for a rectangle with handpicked boundary conditions defying separation of variables so that the eigenfunctions are of non-normal mode type. In this paper, the previous 2D model (Tyvand et al. 2019) is extended to 3D by a Fourier component with wave number k in the horizontal y direction, due to insulating and impermeable sidewalls. As a result, the eigenvalue problem is 2D in the vertical xz-plane, with k as a parameter. The transition from a preferred 2D mode to 3D mode of convection onset is studied with a 2D non-normal mode eigenfunction. We study the 2D eigenfunctions for a unit width in the lateral y direction to compare the four lowest modes \(k_m = m \pi ~(m=0,1,2,3)\), to see whether the 2D mode \((m=0)\) or a 3D mode \((m\ge 1)\) is preferred. Further, a continuous spectrum is allowed for the lateral wave number k, searching for the global minimum Rayleigh number at \(k=k_c\) and the transition between 2D and 3D flow at \(k=k^*\). Finally, these wave numbers \(k_c\) and \(k^*\) are studied as functions of the aspect ratio.

    更新日期:2020-01-15
  • Is There a Representative Elementary Volume for Anomalous Dispersion?
    Transp Porous Media (IF 1.997) Pub Date : 2019-11-16
    Alexandre Puyguiraud, Philippe Gouze, Marco Dentz

    Abstract The concept of the representative elementary volume (REV) is often associated with the notion of hydrodynamic dispersion and Fickian transport. However, it has been frequently observed experimentally and in numerical pore-scale simulations that transport is non-Fickian and cannot be characterized by hydrodynamic dispersion. Does this mean that the concept of the REV is invalid? We investigate this question by a comparative analysis of the advective mechanisms of Fickian and non-Fickian dispersions and their representation in large-scale transport models. Specifically, we focus on the microscopic foundations for the modeling of pore-scale fluctuations of Lagrangian velocity in terms of Brownian dynamics (hydrodynamic dispersion) and in terms of continuous-time random walks, which account for non-Fickian transport through broad distributions of advection times. We find that both approaches require the existence of an REV that, however, is defined in terms of the representativeness of Eulerian flow properties. This is in contrast to classical definitions in terms of medium properties such as porosity, for example.

    更新日期:2020-01-15
  • Improved Eddy-Viscosity Modelling of Turbulent Flow around Porous–Fluid Interface Regions
    Transp Porous Media (IF 1.997) Pub Date : 2019-11-01
    Qahtan Al-Aabidy, Timothy J. Craft, Hector Iacovides

    Abstract The RANS modelling of turbulence across fluid-porous interface regions within ribbed channels has been investigated by applying double (both volume and Reynolds) averaging to the Navier–Stokes equations. In this study, turbulence is represented by using the Launder and Sharma (Lett Heat Mass Transf 1:131–137, 1974) low-Reynolds-number \(k-\varepsilon \) turbulence model, modified via proposals by either Nakayama and Kuwahara (J Fluids Eng 130:101205, 2008) or Pedras and de Lemos (Int Commun Heat Mass Transf 27:211–220, 2000), for extra source terms in turbulent transport equations to account for the porous structure. One important region of the flow, for modelling purposes, is the interface region between the porous medium and clear fluid regions. Here, corrections have been proposed to the above porous drag/source terms in the k and \(\varepsilon \) transport equations that are designed to account for the effective increase in porosity across a thin near-interface region of the porous medium, and which bring about significant improvements in predictive accuracy. These terms are based on proposals put forward by Kuwata and Suga (Int J Heat Fluid Flow 43:35–51, 2013), for second-moment closures. Two types of porous channel flows have been considered. The first case is a fully developed turbulent porous channel flow, where the results are compared with DNS predictions obtained by Breugem et al. (J Fluid Mech 562:35–72, 2006) and experimental data produced by Suga et al. (Int J Heat Fluid Flow 31:974–984, 2010). The second case is a turbulent solid/porous rib channel flow to examine the behaviour of flow through and around the solid/porous rib, which is validated against experimental work carried out by Suga et al. (Flow Turbul Combust 91:19–40, 2013). Cases are simulated covering a range of porous properties, such as permeability and porosity. Through the comparisons with the available data, it is demonstrated that the extended model proposed here shows generally satisfactory accuracy, except for some predictive weaknesses in regions of either impingement or adverse pressure gradients, associated with the underlying eddy-viscosity turbulence model formulation.

    更新日期:2020-01-15
  • The Impact of Mineral Dissolution on Drainage Relative Permeability and Residual Trapping in Two Carbonate Rocks
    Transp Porous Media (IF 1.997) Pub Date : 2019-11-22
    Ben Niu, Samuel Krevor

    Abstract Carbon dioxide injection into deep saline aquifers is governed by a number of physico-chemical processes including mineral dissolution and precipitation, multiphase fluid flow, and capillary trapping. These processes can be coupled; however, the impact of fluid–rock reaction on the multiphase flow properties is difficult to study and is not simply correlated with variations in porosity. We observed the impact of rock mineral dissolution on multiphase flow properties in two carbonate rocks with distinct pore structures. Observations of steady-state \(\hbox {N}_2\)–water relative permeability and residual trapping were obtained, along with mercury injection capillary pressure characteristics. These tests alternated with eight stages in which 0.5% of the mineral volume was uniformly dissolved into solution from the rock cores using an aqueous solution with a temperature-controlled acid. Variations in the multiphase flow properties did not relate simply to changes in porosity, but corresponded to the changes in the underlying pore structure. In the Ketton carbonate, dissolution resulted in an increase in the fraction of pore volume made up by the smallest pores and a decrease in the fraction made up by the largest pores. This resulted in an increase in the relative permeability to the nonwetting phase, a decrease in the relative permeability to the wetting phase, and a modest, but systematic decrease in residual trapping. In the Estaillades carbonate, dissolution resulted in an increase in the fraction of pore volume made up by pores in the central range of the initial pore size distribution, and a corresponding decrease in the fraction made up by both the smallest and largest pores. This resulted in a decrease in the relative permeability to both the wetting and nonwetting fluid phases and no discernible impact on the residual trapping. In summary, the impact of rock matrix dissolution will be strongly dependent on the impact of that dissolution on the underlying pore structure of the rock. However, if the variation in pore structure can be observed or estimated with modelling, then it should be possible to estimate the impacts on multiphase flow properties.

    更新日期:2020-01-15
  • Diffusion of Gold Nanoparticles in Inverse Opals Probed by Heterodyne Dynamic Light Scattering
    Transp Porous Media (IF 1.997) Pub Date : 2019-11-12
    Cédric Giraudet, Matthias S. G. Knoll, Yaraset Galvan, Sebastian Süß, Doris Segets, Nicolas Vogel, Michael H. Rausch, Andreas P. Fröba

    The diffusive behavior of nanoparticles inside porous materials is attracting a lot of interest in the context of understanding, modeling, and optimization of many technical processes. A very powerful technique for characterizing the diffusive behavior of particles in free media is dynamic light scattering (DLS). The applicability of the method in porous media is considered, however, to be rather difficult due to the presence of multiple sources of scattering. In contrast to most of the previous approaches, the DLS method was applied without ensuring matching refractive indices of solvent and porous matrix in the present study. To test the capabilities of the method, the diffusion of spherical gold nanoparticles within the interconnected, periodic nanopores of inverse opals was analyzed. Despite the complexity of this system, which involves many interfaces and different refractive indices, a clear signal related to the motion of particles inside the porous media was obtained. As expected, the diffusive process inside the porous sample slowed down compared to the particle diffusion in free media. The obtained effective diffusion coefficients were found to be wave vector-dependent. They increased linearly with increasing spatial extension of the probed particle concentration fluctuations. On average, the slowing-down factor measured in this work agrees within combined uncertainties with literature data.

    更新日期:2020-01-15
  • Linking Morphology of Porous Media to Their Macroscopic Permeability by Deep Learning
    Transp Porous Media (IF 1.997) Pub Date : 2019-10-29
    Serveh Kamrava, Pejman Tahmasebi, Muhammad Sahimi

    Abstract Flow, transport, mechanical, and fracture properties of porous media depend on their morphology and are usually estimated by experimental and/or computational methods. The precision of the computational approaches depends on the accuracy of the model that represents the morphology. If high accuracy is required, the computations and even experiments can be quite time-consuming. At the same time, linking the morphology directly to the permeability, as well as other important flow and transport properties, has been a long-standing problem. In this paper, we develop a new network that utilizes a deep learning (DL) algorithm to link the morphology of porous media to their permeability. The network is neither a purely traditional artificial neural network (ANN), nor is it a purely DL algorithm, but, rather, it is a hybrid of both. The input data include three-dimensional images of sandstones, hundreds of their stochastic realizations generated by a reconstruction method, and synthetic unconsolidated porous media produced by a Boolean method. To develop the network, we first extract important features of the images using a DL algorithm and then feed them to an ANN to estimate the permeabilities. We demonstrate that the network is successfully trained, such that it can develop accurate correlations between the morphology of porous media and their effective permeability. The high accuracy of the network is demonstrated by its predictions for the permeability of a variety of porous media.

    更新日期:2020-01-15
  • Investigation of Stress Field and Fracture Development During Shale Maturation Using Analog Rock Systems
    Transp Porous Media (IF 1.997) Pub Date : 2019-11-06
    B. Vega, J. Yang, H. Tchelepi, A. R. Kovscek

    Abstract The emergence of hydrocarbons within shale as a major recoverable resource has sparked interest in fluid transport through these tight mudstones. Recent studies suggest the importance to recovery of microfracture networks that connect localized zones with large organic content to the inorganic matrix. This paper presents a joint modeling and experimental study to examine the onset, formation, and evolution of microfracture networks as shale matures. Both the stress field and fractures are simulated and imaged. A novel laboratory-scale, phase-field fracture propagation model was developed to characterize the material failure mechanisms that play a significant role during the shale maturation process. The numerical model developed consists of coupled solid deformation, pore pressure, and fracture propagation mechanisms. Benchmark tests were conducted to validate model accuracy. Laboratory-grade gelatins with varying Young’s modulus were used as scaled-rock analogs in a two-dimensional Hele-Shaw cell apparatus. Yeast within the gelatin generates gas in a fashion analogous to hydrocarbon formation as shale matures. These setups allow study and visualization of host rock elastic-brittle fracture and fracture network propagation mechanisms. The experimental setup was fitted to utilize photoelasticity principles coupled with birefringence properties of gelatin to explore visually the stress field of the gelatin as the fracture network developed. Stress optics image analysis and linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM) principles for crack propagation were used to monitor fracture growth for each gelatin type. Observed and simulated responses suggest gas diffusion within and deformation of the gelatin matrix as predominant mechanisms for energy dissipation depending on gelatin strength. LEFM, an experimental estimation of principal stress development with fracture growth, at different stages was determined for each gelatin rheology. The interplay of gas diffusion and material deformation determines the resulting frequency and pattern of fractures. Results correlate with Young’s modulus. Experimental and computed stress fields reveal that fractures resulting from internal gas generation are similar to, but not identical to, type 1 opening mode.

    更新日期:2020-01-15
  • New General Maximum Entropy Model for Flow Through Porous Media
    Transp Porous Media (IF 1.997) Pub Date : 2019-11-16
    Fábio Cunha Lofrano, Dione Mari Morita, Fernando Akira Kurokawa, Podalyro Amaral de Souza

    Abstract New experimental and numerical techniques constitute the major recent advancements in the study of flow through porous media. However, a model that duly links the micro- and macroscales of this phenomenon is still lacking. Therefore, the present work describes a new, analytical model suitable for both Darcian and post-Darcian flow. Unlike its predecessors, most of which are based on empirical assessments or on some derivation of the Navier–Stokes equations, the presented model employed the principle of maximum entropy, along with a reduced number of premises. Nevertheless, it is compatible with classic expressions, such as Darcy’s and Forchheimer’s laws. Also, great adherence to previously published experimental results was observed. Moreover, the developed model allows for the delimitation of Darcian and post-Darcian regimes. It enabled the determination of a probabilistic distribution function of flow velocities within the pore space. Further, it bestowed richer interpretations of the physical meanings of principal flow parameters. Finally, through a new quantity called the entropy parameter, the proposed model may serve as a bridge between experimental and numerical findings both at the micro- and macroscales. Therefore, the present research yielded an analytical, entropy-based model for flow through porous media that is sufficiently general and robust to be applied in several fields of knowledge. Graphic Abstract

    更新日期:2020-01-15
  • Foam Generation, Propagation and Stability in Porous Medium
    Transp Porous Media (IF 1.997) Pub Date : 2019-03-11
    Arne Skauge, Jonas Solbakken, Per Arne Ormehaug, Morten Gunnar Aarra

    Abstract There have been several foam field applications in recent years. Foam treatments targeting gas mobility control in injectors as well as gas blocking in production wells have been performed without causing operational problems. The most widely used injection strategy of foam has been injecting alternating slugs of surfactant in brine with gas injection. This procedure seems to be beneficial as injection is easy to perform and control below fracturing pressure. Simultaneous injection of surfactant solution and gas may give difficulties, especially with interpretation of the tests, if fracturing pressure are exceeded during the injection period. This paper reviews critical aspects of foam for reservoir applications and intends to motivate for further field trials. Key parameters for qualification of foam are: foam generation, propagation in porous medium, foam strength and stability of foam. Stability is discussed, especially in the presence of oil at reservoir conditions. Data on each of these topics are included, as well as extracted summary of relevant literature. Experimental studies have shown that foam is generated at low surfactant concentration even below the CMC (critical micelle concentration). Results indicate that in situ foam generation in porous medium may depend on available nucleation sites. In situ generation of foam is complex and has been found to be especially difficult in oil wet carbonate rocks. Foam propagation in porous medium has been summarized, and propagation rate for a given experiment seems to be constant with time and distance. Laboratory studies confirm a propagation rate of 1–3 m/day. Field tests performed have not given reliable information of foam propagation rate, and future field pilots are encouraged to include observation wells in order to gain information of field-scale foam propagation. Foam strength is generally high with all gases. The exception is CO2 at high pressure where CO2 becomes supercritical. Stability of foam has been studied in laboratory and field tests, and has confirmed long-term stability of foam.

    更新日期:2020-01-11
  • Pore Network Investigation of Trapped Gas and Foam Generation Mechanisms
    Transp Porous Media (IF 1.997) Pub Date : 2019-01-01
    Muhammad M. Almajid, Anthony R. Kovscek

    Abstract The mobility of gas is greatly reduced when the injected gas is foamed. The reduction in gas mobility is attributed to the reduction in gas relative permeability and the increase in gas effective viscosity. The reduction in the gas relative permeability is a consequence of the larger amount of gas trapped when foam is present while the increase in gas effective viscosity is explicitly a function of foam texture. Therefore, understanding how foam is generated and subsequent trapped foam behavior is of paramount importance to modeling of gas mobility. In this paper, we push the envelope to enlighten our decisions of which descriptions are most physical to foam flow in porous media regarding both the flowing foam fraction and the rate of generation. We use a statistical pore network interwoven with the invasion percolation with memory algorithm to model foam flow as a drainage process and investigate the dependence of the flowing foam fraction on the pressure gradient and to shed light on foam generation mechanisms. A critical snap-off probability is required for strong foam to emerge in our network. The pressure gradient and, hence, the gas mobility reduction are very low below this critical snap-off probability. Above this snap-off probability threshold, we find that the steady-state flowing lamellae fraction scales as \((\nabla \tilde{p})^{0.19}\) in 2D lattices and as \((\nabla \tilde{p})^{0.32}\) in 3D lattices. Results obtained from our network were convolved with percolation network scaling ideas to compare the probabilities of snap-off and lamella division mechanisms in the network during the initial gas displacement at the leading edge of the gas front. At this front, during strong foam flow, lamella division is practically nonexistent in 2D lattices. In 3D lattices, lamella division occurs, but the probability of snap-off is always greater than the probability of lamella division.

    更新日期:2020-01-11
  • Laboratory Investigation of Liquid Injectivity in Surfactant-Alternating-Gas Foam Enhanced Oil Recovery
    Transp Porous Media (IF 1.997) Pub Date : 2019-02-18
    J. Gong, S. Vincent-Bonnieu, R. Z. Kamarul Bahrim, C. A. N. B. Che Mamat, J. Groenenboom, R. Farajzadeh, W. R. Rossen

    Abstract Surfactant-alternating-gas (SAG) is a favored method of foam injection, in part because of excellent gas injectivity. However, liquid injectivity is usually very poor in SAG. We report a core-flood study of liquid injectivity under conditions like those near an injection well in SAG application in the field, i.e., after a prolonged period of gas injection following foam. We inject foam [gas (nitrogen) and surfactant solution] into a 17-cm-long Berea core at temperature of 90 °C with 40 bar back pressure. Pressure differences are measured and supplemented with CT scans to relate water saturation to mobilities. Liquid injectivity directly following foam is very poor. During prolonged gas injection following foam, a collapsed-foam region forms near the inlet and slowly propagates downstream, in which water saturation is reduced. This decline in liquid saturation reflects in part liquid evaporation, also pressure-driven flow and capillary effects on the core scale. In the collapsed-foam region, liquid mobility during subsequent liquid injection is much greater than downstream, and liquid sweeps the entire core cross section rather than a single finger. Mobility in the region of liquid fingering is insensitive to the quality of foam injected before gas and the duration of the period of gas injection. This implies that at the start of liquid injection in a SAG process in the field, there is a small region very near the well, crucial to injectivity, substantially different from that further out, and not described by current foam models. The results can guide the development of a model for liquid injectivity based on radial propagation of the various banks seen in the experiments.

    更新日期:2020-01-11
  • Foam Flow and Mobility Control in Natural Fracture Networks
    Transp Porous Media (IF 1.997) Pub Date : 2019-02-27
    Bergit Brattekås, Øyvind Eide, Sigbjørn Aasheim Johansen, Snorre Sande Vasshus, Andreas Grøteide Polden, Martin A. Fernø

    Abstract We study the generation and flow of foam through rough-walled, fractured marble rocks that mimic natural fracture systems in carbonate reservoirs. Flow was isolated to the fracture network because of the very low rock permeability of the marble samples and foam generated in situ during co-injection of surfactant solution and gas. The foam apparent viscosities were calculated at steady pressure gradients for a range of gas fractions, and similar to foam flow in porous media, we identified two flow regimes for foam flow in fractures: a high-quality flow regime only dependent on liquid velocity and a low-quality flow regime determined by the gas and liquid velocities. Variations in local fluid saturation during co-injection were visualized and quantified using positron emission tomography combined with computed tomography.

    更新日期:2020-01-11
  • Development and Validation of a New Model for In Situ Foam Generation Using Foamer Droplets Injection
    Transp Porous Media (IF 1.997) Pub Date : 2018-10-03
    Juan D. Valencia, Alonso Ocampo, Juan M. Mejía

    Abstract Foam generation and transport in porous media are a proven method to improve the sweep efficiency of a flooding fluid in enhanced oil recovery process and increase the effectiveness of a treatment fluid in well intervention procedures. Foam in the porous media is often generated using surfactant alternating gas or co-injection. Although these operations result in good incremental production, the profit losses could be high due to surfactant retention and lack of water injection facilities in the target fields. One way of reducing foam generation operations expenses is by injecting the surfactant solution disperse throughout the gas phase in a process called “disperse foam.” Core-flooding experimental results have shown that disperse foam techniques reduce the surfactant retention and increase cumulative oil production. This increase means that not only the foam is being generated but also it is blocking the high mobility channels and enhancing the sweep efficiency. Additionally, the operational implementation in field operations is very simple and reduces significantly operational costs of the process. Because few laboratory core-flooding tests and field pilots have been executed using the disperse foam technique, there is a high level of uncertainty associated with the method. Besides, the models reported in the literature do not account for all the associated phenomena, including the surfactant droplets transfer between the gas and liquid phases, and the lamellae stability at low water saturation. For this reason, the development of a mechanistic disperse foam model is key to understand the phenomena associated with “disperse foam” operations. In this work, we use a previous foam mechanistic model to develop a disperse foam model that includes the physicochemical mechanisms of the foaming process a core scale. The model accounts for the foamer mass transference between the gas and liquid phases in a non-equilibrium state with a particle interception model, also accounts for the reversible and irreversible surfactant adsorption on the rock surface in dynamic conditions with a first-order kinetic model, and includes foam generation, coalescence and, transport using a population balance mechanistic model.

    更新日期:2020-01-11
  • A Pore Scale Study of Non-Newtonian Effect on Foam Propagation in Porous Media
    Transp Porous Media (IF 1.997) Pub Date : 2018-09-22
    Galang B. Ramadhan, Quoc P. Nguyen

    Abstract CO2 injection is one of the most promising techniques to enhance oil recovery. However, an unfavorable mobility ratio, reservoir heterogeneity and gravity segregation can reduce the macroscopic sweep efficiency. In situ foaming of injected CO2 is the method that has the most potential for improving sweep efficiency based on controlling CO2 mobility. This study investigates the foaming behavior of N,N,N′-trimethyl-N′-tallow-1,3-diaminopropane (DTTM) surfactant with CO2 in a transparent porous microflow model with natural rock pore structures. It focuses on the effect of the salinity induced non-Newtonian behavior of DTTM solution on foam propagation. The performance of foams stabilized by 0.5 wt% DTTM solution over the viscosity range from 0.71 (at 5 wt% NaCl) to 41 cp (at 20 wt% NaCl) was compared with conventional polymer-enhanced foams whose liquid phase contained a commonly used foaming surfactant, C15–18 Internal Olefin Sulfonate (C15–18 IOS) and a hydrolyzed polyacrylamide. Such comparisons have also provided insight into the respective impacts of liquid phase viscosification by worm-like surfactant micelles and polymer on foam texture associated with its rheological characteristics. It was found that at low aqueous phase viscosity (injection liquid viscosity of 0.71 cp) the maximum achievable viscosity of DDTM foam was around 1000 cp, which was 80 times IOS stabilized foam. The interfacial tension of DTTM was higher than that of IOS, resulting coarser foam texture and higher individual lamella resistance. An increase in DTTM solution viscosity by a factor of 33 decreased foam generation and viscosity for gas injection. This was not observed for the simultaneous injection of gas and DTTM solution. Overall, the effect of liquid phase viscosity on transient foam behavior during gas injection is similar for both DTTM and IOS regardless of the difference in the nature of viscosifying agents (WLM vs 3330 s polymer). An increase in gas injection pressure without liquid injection delayed foam propagation and reduced the magnitude of foam viscosity. The results from this study indicated that DTTM surfactant is an important alternative to commercially available polymers that have been used to enhance foam performance in porous media. This particular surfactant type also overcomes several disadvantages of polymers such as limited temperature and salinity tolerance, shear degradation, and filtering in low permeability formations.

    更新日期:2020-01-11
  • A Comparative Study of Gas Flooding and Foam-Assisted Chemical Flooding in Bentheimer Sandstones
    Transp Porous Media (IF 1.997) Pub Date : 2019-01-02
    Martijn T. G. Janssen, Rashidah M. Pilus, Pacelli L. J. Zitha

    A laboratory study of principal immiscible gas flooding schemes is reported. Very well-controlled experiments on continuous gas injection, water-alternating-gas (WAG) and alkaline–surfactant–foam (ASF) flooding were conducted. The merits of WAG and ASF compared to continuous gas injection were examined. The impact of ultra-low oil–water (o/w) interfacial tension (IFT), an essential feature of the ASF scheme along with foaming, on oil mobilisation and displacement of residual oil to waterflood was also assessed. Incremental oil recoveries and related displacement mechanisms by ASF and WAG compared to continuous gas injection were investigated by conducting CT-scanned core-flood experiments using n-hexadecane and Bentheimer sandstone cores. Ultimate oil recoveries for WAG and ASF at under-optimum salinity (o/w IFT of 10−1 mN/m) were found to be similar [60 ± 5% of the oil initially in place (OIIP)]. However, ultimate oil recovery for ASF at (near-)optimum salinity (o/w IFT of 10−2 mN/m) reached 74 ± 8% of the OIIP. Results support the idea that WAG increases oil recovery over continuous gas injection by drastically increasing the trapped gas saturation at the end of the first few WAG cycles. ASF flooding was able to enhance oil recovery over WAG by effectively lowering o/w IFT (< 10−1 mN/m) for oil mobilisation. ASF at (near-)optimum salinity increased clean oil fraction in the production stream over under-optimum salinity ASF.

    更新日期:2020-01-11
  • Modeling and Experimental Validation of Rheological Transition During Foam Flow in Porous Media
    Transp Porous Media (IF 1.997) Pub Date : 2019-02-28
    M. Simjoo, P. L. J. Zitha

    Abstract Flow of nitrogen foam stabilized by alpha olefin sulfonate (C14-16 AOS) was studied in a natural sandstone porous media using X-ray Computed Tomography. Foam was generated by a simultaneous injection of gas and surfactant solution into a porous medium initially saturated with the surfactant solution. It was found that the foam undergoes a transition from a weak to a strong state at a characteristic gas saturation of Sgc = 0.75 ± 0.02. This transition coincided with a substantial reduction in foam mobility by a two-order of magnitude and also with a large reduction in overall water saturation to as low as 0.10 ± 0.02. Foam mobility transition was interpreted by the surge of yield stress as gas saturation exceeded the Sgc. We proposed a simple power-law functional relationship between yield stress and gas saturation. The proposed rheological model captured successfully the mobility transition of foams stabilized by different surfactant concentrations and for different core lengths.

    更新日期:2020-01-11
  • Tracking a Foam Front in a 3D, Heterogeneous Porous Medium
    Transp Porous Media (IF 1.997) Pub Date : 2018-11-08
    C. S. Boeije, C. Portois, M. Schmutz, O. Atteia

    Abstract Foam is to be used as a blocking agent for confining a pollutant source zone and avoid spreading in an aquifer. To this end, it is necessary to determine where injected foam flows and stays inside a porous medium. This study examines the use of electrical resistivity tomography for this purpose. Foam is injected in a large-scale 3D heterogeneous porous medium (0.84 × 0.84 × 0.84 m). During the injection, electrical resistivity tomography measurements are performed. We show that combining a large number of measurements with inversion techniques allows for the monitoring of a foam front in 3D during the injection process.

    更新日期:2020-01-11
  • Modeling Nanoparticle Transport in Porous Media in the Presence of a Foam
    Transp Porous Media (IF 1.997) Pub Date : 2019-01-30
    Qingjian Li, Valentina Prigiobbe

    Nano-remediation is a promising in situ remediation technology. It consists in injecting reactive nanoparticles (NPs) into the subsurface for the displacement or the degradation of contaminants. However, due to the poor mobility control of the reactive nanoparticle suspension, the application of nano-remediation has some major challenges, such as high mobility of the particles, which may favor override of the contamination, and particle aggregation, which can lead to a limited distance of influence. Previous experimental studies show the potential of combining nano-remediation with foam flooding to overcome these issues. However, in order to design and optimize the process, a model which couples nanoparticle and foam transport is necessary. In this paper, a mechanistic model to describe the transport of NPs with and by a foam is presented. The model considers the delivery of nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) and accounts for the processes of aggregation, attachment/detachment, and generation/destruction. Simulations show that when NPs are dispersed in the liquid phase, even in the presence of a foam, they may travel much slower than the NPs carried by the foam bubbles. This is because the nanoparticles in suspension are affected by the attachment onto the rock walls and straining at the pore throats. When the nanoparticle surface is, instead, modified in order to favor their adsorption onto the gas bubbles, NPs are carried by the foam without retardation, except for the small fraction suspended in the liquid phase. Moreover, very stable high-quality foam (\(f_\mathrm{g}\)), i.e., 80–90 vol% of gas, can be attained using properly surface-modified nZVI (i.e., a nanoparticle-stabilized foam), allowing a significant reduction of water for the operation, while increasing the efficiency of nZVI delivery, even in a low-permeability medium within the shallow subsurface.

    更新日期:2020-01-11
  • Surfactant Foam Selection for Enhanced Light Non-Aqueous Phase Liquids (LNAPL) Recovery in Contaminated Aquifers
    Transp Porous Media (IF 1.997) Pub Date : 2019-05-14
    Mélanie Longpré-Girard, Richard Martel, Thomas Robert, René Lefebvre, Jean-Marc Lauzon, Neil Thomson

    Abstract Foam is promising for the remediation of non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPL) source zones; however, the production of foam and its behavior in porous media are poorly understood. A methodology for the selection of surfactants suitable for foam production applied to NAPL remediation was developed. Two criteria were initially used for surfactant selection: foamability as evaluated by the Ross–Miles test and interfacial tension reduction measured with the pendant drop method. Three promising surfactants were identified and used in sand column tests: Genapol LRO because it produced the highest foam height in the Ross–Miles test, Ammonyx Lo which exhibited the lowest interfacial tension with p-xylene and had the second highest foam height, and Tomadol 900 because it showed intermediate results in both tests. Viscosity was found to be proportional to foamability. Genapol LRO produced a foam so viscous that it destabilized by the end of the experiment. Ammonyx Lo produced a less viscous foam but with a stable front. Tomadol 900 produced an unstable foam with poor viscosity. Results from column tests gave indications of optimal conditions needed to produce a stable and viscous foam front.

    更新日期:2020-01-11
  • Calibrating and Scaling Semi-empirical Foam Flow Models for the Assessment of Foam-Based EOR Processes (in Heterogeneous Reservoirs)
    Transp Porous Media (IF 1.997) Pub Date : 2019-01-17
    O. Gassara, F. Douarche, B. Braconnier, B. Bourbiaux

    Abstract Models for simulating foam-based displacements fall into two categories: population-balance (PB) models that derive explicitly foam texture or bubble size from pore-level mechanisms related to lamellas generation and coalescence, and steady-state semi-empirical (SE) models that account implicitly for foam texture effects through a gas mobility reduction factor. This mobility reduction factor has to be calibrated from a large number of experiments on a case-by-case basis in order to match the physical effect of parameters impacting foam flow behaviour such as fluids saturation and velocity. This paper proposes a methodology to set up steady-state SE models of foam flow on the basis of an equivalence between SE model and PB model under steady-state flow conditions. The underlying approach consists in linking foam mobility and foam lamellas density (or texture) data inferred from foam corefloods performed with different foam qualities and velocities on a series of sandstones of different permeabilities. Its advantages lie in a deterministic non-iterative transcription of flow measurements into texture data and in a separation of texture effects and shear-thinning (velocity) effects. Then, scaling of foam flow parameters with porous medium permeability is established from the analysis of calibrated foam model parameters on cores of different permeability, with the help of theoretical representations of foam flow in a confined medium. Although they remain to be further confirmed from other well-documented experimental data sets, the significance of those scaling laws is great for the assessment of foam-based enhanced oil recovery (EOR) processes because foam EOR addresses heterogeneous reservoirs. Simulations of foam displacement in a reservoir cross section demonstrate the necessity to scale foam SE models with respect to facies heterogeneity for reliable evaluation.

    更新日期:2020-01-11
  • Investigating Supercritical CO 2 Foam Propagation Distance: Conversion from Strong Foam to Weak Foam vs. Gravity Segregation
    Transp Porous Media (IF 1.997) Pub Date : 2018-07-24
    M. Izadi, S. I. Kam

    Abstract This study investigates how to determine the optimal supercritical CO2 foam injection strategies, in terms of total injection rate (or injection pressure, equivalently) and injection foam quality, to place injected foams deep and far into the reservoir. Two different mechanisms that limit field foam propagation, such as “conversion from strong foam to weak foam” and “gravity segregation,” are examined separately, and the results are combined together. The first is performed by using a mechanistic foam model based on bubble population balance, while the second is conducted by an analytical model (called Stone and Jenkins model) and reservoir simulations with a commercial software (CMG-STARS). Note that the gas-phase mobility, required as a key input parameter for gravity segregation simulations, is calibrated by the mechanistic model, which is a significant advance in this study. The results from both mechanisms show in general that foam propagation distance increases with increasing injection pressure or rate (which is often limited by the formation fracturing pressure) and increases with decreasing foam quality down to a certain threshold foam quality below which the distance is not sensitive to foam quality any longer. It is found that the mobilization pressure gradient (i.e., the pressure gradient above which foam films are mobilized to create a population of bubbles) plays a key role to determine the distance. Therefore, the injection of supercritical CO2 foams with lower mobilization pressure gradient should be more favored in field applications. As a step prior to real-world reservoir applications, this study deals with a relatively ideal reservoir (i.e., large homogeneous cylindrical reservoir) focusing on the steady state after foam treatment in the absence of oil.

    更新日期:2020-01-11
  • Correlation Between Foam Flow Structure in Porous Media and Surfactant Formulation Properties
    Transp Porous Media (IF 1.997) Pub Date : 2019-02-13
    Eloïse Chevallier, Nils Demazy, Amandine Cuenca, Max Chabert

    The optimization of foam injection in porous media for enhanced oil recovery or soil remediation requires a large screening of surfactant formulations. Tests of foam stability in vials often used quick criteria to accelerate selection and ensure performance in porous media. Using a selection of surfactant formulations of different chemistry and foam behaviors, the correlation between foam in vials and in porous media is investigated. Along with foam stability, foamability which quantifies the ability to create foam is shown to play a role in the maximum apparent viscosity. This is a first evidence that foamability is a key parameter for the maximum apparent viscosity reached in a steady state of apparent viscosity. To account for the relative contribution of foamability and foam stability, a parameter is inspired from the widely accepted model of population balance. These results support a workflow based on large foam screening in a first step and sandpack experiments in a second step, prior to more representative but longer coreflood tests. Finally, these experimental data emphasize the relevance of population balance simulations as a description based on experimental measurement. Second, the flow visualization in the sandpack allows the extraction of a local velocity of the liquid in the flowing foam. This parameter gives an experimental evidence that the transition between the high-quality and low-quality regime corresponds to a change in the efficiency of foam lamellae network to transport gas concomitantly to liquid. The local liquid velocity also represents an indirect and easy measurement of flow structure, and it is shown to change from one formulation to another. This observation highlights the complex relation between local microstructure and physical chemistry of surfactants.

    更新日期:2020-01-11
  • Study of Nanoparticle-Stabilized Foams in Harsh Reservoir Conditions
    Transp Porous Media (IF 1.997) Pub Date : 2018-12-04
    Robin Singh, Kishore K. Mohanty

    Abstract Many oil reservoirs are at high temperatures and contain brines of high salinity and hardness. The focus of this work is to develop robust foams stabilized by a mixture of nanoparticles and surfactants for such reservoirs. Two types of silica nanoparticles (Si-NP1, Si-NP2) with different grafted low molecular weight ligands/polymers were used. First, aqueous stability analysis of these nanoparticle dispersions were conducted at high-temperature (80 °C) and high-salinity conditions (API Brine; 8 wt% NaCl and 2 wt% CaCl2). The screened nanoparticles were used in combination with an anionic surfactant. Second, bulk foam and emulsion stability tests were performed to investigate their performance in stabilizing the air–water and oil–water interface, respectively. Third, foam flow experiments in the absence of oil were performed to characterize the foam rheology. Finally, oil displacement experiments were conducted in an in-house, custom-built 2D sand pack with flow visualization. The sand pack had two layers of different mesh size silica sand which yielded a permeability contrast of 6:1. Brine floods followed by foam floods (80% quality) were conducted, and foam flow dynamics were monitored. The grafting of low molecular weight polymers/ligands on silica nanoparticle surfaces resulted in steric stabilization under high-temperature and high-salinity conditions. Foam flow experiments revealed a synergy between Si-NP2 and surfactant in stabilizing foam in the absence of crude oil. In the oil displacement experiments in the layered sand packs, the waterflood recoveries were low (~ 33% original oil in place) due to channeling in the top high-permeability zone, leaving the bottom low-permeability zone completely unswept. Foam flooding with just the surfactant leads to a drastic improvement in sweep efficiency. It resulted in an incremental oil recovery as high as 43.3% OOIP. Different cross-flow behaviors were observed during foam flooding. Significant cross-flow of oil from low-permeability zone to high-permeability zone was observed for the case of surfactant. Conversely, the Si-NP2-surfactant blend resulted in no cross-flow from the low-permeability region with complete blocking of the high-permeability region due to the formation of in situ emulsion. Such selective plugging of high-perm zones using nanoparticles with tailored surface coating and concentration has significant potential in recovering oil from heterogeneous reservoirs.

    更新日期:2020-01-11
  • Calculation of Infiltration of AlSi12 Alloys into Si Porous Preforms with General and Modified Infiltration Equations
    Transp Porous Media (IF 1.997) Pub Date : 2019-12-14
    Ruizhe Liu, Haidong Zhao, Bin Xie

    A high-resolution (~ 1 μm) three-dimensional (3D) X-ray micro-computed tomography (μ-CT) was used to nondestructively detect pore characteristics in silicon particle preforms with different starch contents (10%, 20% and 30%) and particle sizes (20, 50 and 90 μm). A pressure infiltration equipment was made to infiltrate the preforms. The preforms were infiltrated at constant temperature (800 °C) and pressure (400 kPa) with different pressure-applied times (3, 5, 8, 11 and 15 s). Since the discrepancy between the infiltration heights measured in the experiment and calculated with the general infiltration equation was found, a modified infiltration equation was proposed considering the pore characteristic parameters from 3D μ-CT. The results of the modified infiltration equation showed good agreement with the experiment.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Nonlinear Flow Behavior in Packed Beds of Natural and Variably Graded Granular Materials
    Transp Porous Media (IF 1.997) Pub Date : 2019-12-10
    J. H. van Lopik, L. Zazai, N. Hartog, R. J. Schotting

    Abstract Under certain flow conditions, fluid flow through porous media starts to deviate from the linear relationship between flow rate and hydraulic gradient. At such flow conditions, Darcy’s law for laminar flow can no longer be assumed and nonlinear relationships are required to predict flow in the Forchheimer regime. To date, most of the nonlinear flow behavior data is obtained from flow experiments on packed beds of uniformly graded granular materials (Cu = d60/d10 < 2) with various average grain sizes, ranging from sands to cobbles. However, natural deposits of sand and gravel in the subsurface could have a wide variety of grain size distributions. Therefore, in the present study we investigated the impact of variable grain size distributions on the extent of nonlinear flow behavior through 18 different packed beds of natural sand and gravel deposits, as well as composite filter sand and gravel mixtures within the investigated range of uniformity (2.0 < Cu < 17.35) and porosity values (0.23 < n < 0.36). Increased flow resistance is observed for the sand and gravel with high Cu values and low porosity values. The present study shows that for granular material with wider grain size distributions (Cu > 2), the d10 instead of the average grain size (d50) as characteristic pore length should be used. Ergun constants A and B with values of 63.1 and 1.72, respectively, resulted in a reasonable prediction of the Forchheimer coefficients for the investigated granular materials.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Gas Diffusion in Coal Powders is a Multi-rate Process
    Transp Porous Media (IF 1.997) Pub Date : 2019-12-10
    Simon A. Mathias, Marco Dentz, Qingquan Liu

    Gas migration in coal is strongly controlled by surface diffusion of adsorbed gas within the coal matrix. Surface diffusion coefficients are obtained by inverse modelling of transient gas desorption data from powdered coals. The diffusion coefficient is frequently considered to be dependent on time and initial pressure. In this article, it is shown that the pressure dependence can be eliminated by performing a joint inversion of both the diffusion coefficient and adsorption isotherm. A study of the log–log slope of desorbed gas production rate against time reveals that diffusion within the individual coal particles is a multi-rate process. The application of a power-law probability density function of diffusion rates enables the determination of a single gas diffusion coefficient that is constant in both time and initial pressure.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Computational Analysis of Interfacial Dynamics in Angled Hele-Shaw Cells: Instability Regimes
    Transp Porous Media (IF 1.997) Pub Date : 2019-12-07
    Daihui Lu, Federico Municchi, Ivan C. Christov

    Abstract We present a theoretical and numerical study on the (in)stability of the interface between two immiscible liquids, i.e., viscous fingering, in angled Hele-Shaw cells across a range of capillary numbers (Ca). We consider two types of angled Hele-Shaw cells: diverging cells with a positive depth gradient and converging cells with a negative depth gradient, and compare those against parallel cells without a depth gradient. A modified linear stability analysis is employed to derive an expression for the growth rate of perturbations on the interface and for the critical capillary number (\(Ca_c\)) for such tapered Hele-Shaw cells with small gap gradients. Based on this new expression for \(Ca_c\), a three-regime theory is formulated to describe the interface (in)stability: (i) in Regime I, the growth rate is always negative, thus the interface is stable; (ii) in Regime II, the growth rate remains zero (parallel cells), changes from negative to positive (converging cells), or from positive to negative (diverging cells), thus the interface (in)stability possibly changes type at some location in the cell; (iii) in Regime III, the growth rate is always positive, thus the interface is unstable. We conduct three-dimensional direct numerical simulations of the full Navier–Stokes equations, using a phase field method to enforce surface tension at the interface, to verify the theory and explore the effect of depth gradient on the interface (in)stability. We demonstrate that the depth gradient has only a slight influence in Regime I, and its effect is most pronounced in Regime III. Finally, we provide a critical discussion of the stability diagram derived from theoretical considerations versus the one obtained from direct numerical simulations.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • The Sensitivity of Estimates of Multiphase Fluid and Solid Properties of Porous Rocks to Image Processing
    Transp Porous Media (IF 1.997) Pub Date : 2019-12-07
    Gaetano Garfi, Cédric M. John, Steffen Berg, Samuel Krevor

    Abstract X-ray microcomputed tomography (X-ray μ-CT) is a rapidly advancing technology that has been successfully employed to study flow phenomena in porous media. It offers an alternative approach to core scale experiments for the estimation of traditional petrophysical properties such as porosity and single-phase flow permeability. It can also be used to investigate properties that control multiphase flow such as rock wettability or mineral topology. In most applications, analyses are performed on segmented images obtained employing a specific processing pipeline on the greyscale images. The workflow leading to a segmented image is not straightforward or unique and, for most of the properties of interest, a ground truth is not available. For this reason, it is crucial to understand how image processing choices control properties estimation. In this work, we assess the sensitivity of porosity, permeability, specific surface area, in situ contact angle measurements, fluid–fluid interfacial curvature measurements and mineral composition to processing choices. We compare the results obtained upon the employment of two processing pipelines: non-local means filtering followed by watershed segmentation; segmentation by a manually trained random forest classifier. Single-phase flow permeability, in situ contact angle measurements and mineral-to-pore total surface area are the most sensitive properties, as a result of the sensitivity to processing of the phase boundary identification task. Porosity, interfacial fluid–fluid curvature and specific mineral descriptors are robust to processing. The sensitivity of the property estimates increases with the complexity of its definition and its relationship to boundary shape.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Study on Permeability Anisotropy of Bedded Coal Under True Triaxial Stress and Its Application
    Transp Porous Media (IF 1.997) Pub Date : 2019-12-04
    Minke Duan, Changbao Jiang, Quan Gan, Hongbao Zhao, Yang Yang, Zhengke Li

    Anisotropy is a very typical observation in the intrinsic bedding structure of coal. To study the influence of anisotropy of coal structure and stress state on the evolution of permeability, a newly developed multifunctional true triaxial geophysical apparatus was used to carry out mechanical and seepage experiments on bedded coal. The permeability and deformation of three orthogonal directions in cubic coal samples were collected under true triaxial stress. It has detected the significant permeability anisotropy, and the anisotropy is firmly determined by the bedding direction and stress state of coal. Based on the true triaxial mechanical and seepage test results, the coal with bedding was simplified to be represented by a cubic model, and the dynamic anisotropic (D-A) permeability model was derived by considering the influence of bedding and stress state. The rationality of the permeability model was verified by the experimental data. Comparing the permeability model with Wang and Zang (W–Z) model, Cui and Bustin (C–B) model and Shi and Durucan (S–D) model, it is found that the theoretical calculated values of the D-A permeability model are in better agreement with the experimental measured values, reflecting the superiority of the D-A permeability model. Based on incorporating the model of D-A permeability under the concept of multiphysics field coupling, the numerical simulation experiments of coal seam gas extraction with different initial permeability anisotropic ratios were carried out by using COMSOL multiphysics simulator. The influence of initial permeability anisotropy ratio on gas pressure distribution in coal seam during gas extraction was explored, which provides theoretical guidance for the optimization of borehole layout for gas extraction in coal mine.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Foundations and Their Practical Implications for the Constitutive Coefficients of Poromechanical Dual-Continuum Models
    Transp Porous Media (IF 1.997) Pub Date : 2019-09-16
    Mark Ashworth, Florian Doster

    Abstract A dual-continuum model can offer a practical approach to understanding first-order behaviours of poromechanically coupled multiscale systems. To close the governing equations, constitutive equations with models to calculate effective constitutive coefficients are required. Several coefficient models have been proposed within the literature. However, a holistic overview of the different modelling concepts is still missing. To address this we first compare and contrast the dominant models existing within the literature. In terms of the constitutive relations themselves, early relations were indirectly postulated that implicitly neglected the effect of the mechanical interaction arising between continuum pressures. Further, recent users of complete constitutive systems that include inter-continuum pressure coupling have explicitly neglected these couplings as a means of providing direct relations between composite and constituent properties, and to simplify coefficient models. Within the framework of micromechanics, we show heuristically that these explicit decouplings are in fact coincident with bounds on the effective parameters themselves. Depending on the formulation, these bounds correspond to end-member states of isostress or isostrain. We show the impacts of using constitutive coefficient models, decoupling assumptions and parameter bounds on poromechanical behaviours using analytical solutions for a 2D model problem. Based on the findings herein, we offer recommendations for how and when to use different coefficient modelling concepts.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Analysis of Variance of Porosity and Heterogeneity of Permeability at the Pore Scale
    Transp Porous Media (IF 1.997) Pub Date : 2019-09-28
    Arne Jacob, Frieder Enzmann, Christian Hinz, Michael Kersten

    We present a new statistical variance approach for characterizing heterogeneities related to pore spaces in reservoir rocks. Laboratory-based computer microtomography data for reservoir sandstone samples were acquired and processed using advanced image segmentation techniques. The samples were processed using a method based on the digital rock physics concept using the high-performance Navier–Stokes flow solver in the GeoDict commercial software package. The digitized structures were subjected to computational fluid dynamic simulations. The effects of structural matrix modifications caused by the precipitation of minerals on the porosity–permeability relationship and the characterization of the representative elementary volume were assessed. The variances of the digital flow fields were compared at the pore scale (6 µm). The algorithm for analysing variance was benchmarked using a synthetic dataset that provided artificial repetitive structural patterns at both low and high resolutions. This gave an estimate of the sensitivity of the proposed algorithm to minor inhomogeneities. Representative elementary volume variance analysis was performed by comparing the correlation coefficients for various pore–grain composition patterns with the variances of simulated mean flow velocities. Probability density functions indicate that the flow velocities and pore space geometries differed greatly for different samples. The normalized probability density functions of the mean flows shifted to higher velocities as the resolution decreased. We found that a representative elementary volume analysis was more reliably achieved by analysing the mean flow velocity variance than by analysing the pore microstructure alone.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Landfill Gas Flow: Collection by Horizontal Wells
    Transp Porous Media (IF 1.997) Pub Date : 2019-09-27
    Yana Nec, Greg Huculak

    Collection of landfill gas by horizontal perforated wells is studied. The problem combines flow through porous media in the landfill and unobstructed pipe flow in the well. Respective analytical solutions to flow equations are used in an iterative numerical procedure to solve the coupled system. Realistic landfill input parameters confirm the feasibility of estimates obtained with the model. The study identifies flow control parameters and furnishes tools to evaluate surface flux and radius of influence for this type of well.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Impact of Thermal Non-equilibrium on Weak Nonlinear Rotating Porous Convection
    Transp Porous Media (IF 1.997) Pub Date : 2019-10-04
    R. N. Dayananda, I. S. Shivakumara

    The consequences of local thermal non-equilibrium (LTNE) on both stationary and oscillatory weak nonlinear stability of gravity-driven porous convection in an incompressible fluid-saturated rotating porous layer are investigated. A stability map is drawn in the Darcy–Taylor and scaled Vadasz number plane to demarcate the regions of stationary and oscillatory convection, and thereby, co-dimension-2 points are determined. It is found that the effect of increasing interphase heat transfer coefficient is to enhance the region of stationary convection and decrease the region of oscillatory convection. The complex Ginzburg–Landau equations are derived using the multi-scale method, and pitchfork and Hopf bifurcations occur at stationary and oscillatory critical Darcy–Rayleigh numbers, respectively. The linear and nonlinear oscillatory neutral curves are illustrated, and at the quartic point, the transition from supercritical to subcritical bifurcations is identified for the governing parameters. The impact of LTNE model is to enhance the region of forward bifurcation and post-transient amplitude compared to LTE case. Heat transfer is obtained in terms of Nusselt number for both stationary and oscillatory convection. The region of enhancement in heat flux for oscillatory convection in the smaller scaled Vadasz number domain with increasing Darcy–Taylor number increases with increasing interphase heat transfer coefficient and the porosity-modified conductivity ratio.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Luikov’s Analytical Solution with Complex Eigenvalues in Intensive Drying
    Transp Porous Media (IF 1.997) Pub Date : 2019-10-19
    Puvikkarasan Jayapragasam, Pasacal Le Bideau, Tahar Loulou

    Abstract Luikov’s equations of heat and mass transfer with pressure gradient have significant applications especially in the case of intensive drying in porous media. The established analytical solution of Luikov’s equations including pressure gradient effect in a complete form is presented in this work. The existence of complex roots in the analytical solution describing intensive drying with pressure gradient was overlooked in literature. A Matlab function capable of searching and sorting out the complex eigenvalues is also showcased. Three test cases are analyzed and compared with numerical solutions: one theoretical case to emphasize the importance of complex roots in analytical solution while two cases of drying process in ceramic and barley kernel to ensure practical applicability. Excellent matching between analytical and numerical results is noticed when complex eigenvalues are included.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Mechanisms of Microscopic Displacement During Enhanced Oil Recovery in Mixed-Wet Rocks Revealed Using Direct Numerical Simulation
    Transp Porous Media (IF 1.997) Pub Date : 2019-09-25
    Takashi Akai, Amer M. Alhammadi, Martin J. Blunt, Branko Bijeljic

    We demonstrate how to use numerical simulation models directly on micro-CT images to understand the impact of several enhanced oil recovery (EOR) methods on microscopic displacement efficiency. To describe the physics with high-fidelity, we calibrate the model to match a water-flooding experiment conducted on the same rock sample (Akai et al. in Transp Porous Media 127(2):393–414, 2019.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11242-018-1198-8). First we show comparisons of water-flooding processes between the experiment and simulation, focusing on the characteristics of remaining oil after water-flooding in a mixed-wet state. In both the experiment and simulation, oil is mainly present as thin oil layers confined to pore walls. Then, taking this calibrated simulation model as a base case, we examine the application of three EOR processes: low salinity water-flooding, surfactant flooding and polymer flooding. In low salinity water-flooding, the increase in oil recovery was caused by displacement of oil from the centers of pores without leaving oil layers behind. Surfactant flooding gave the best improvement in the recovery factor of 16% by reducing the amount of oil trapped by capillary forces. Polymer flooding indicated improvement in microscopic sweep efficiency at a higher capillary number, while it did not show an improvement at a low capillary number. Overall, this work quantifies the impact of different EOR processes on local displacement efficiency and establishes a workflow based on combining experiment and modeling to design optimal recovery processes.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Effect of Characteristic Time on Scaling of Breakthrough Time Distribution for Two-Phase Displacement in Percolation Porous Media
    Transp Porous Media (IF 1.997) Pub Date : 2019-10-01
    Sara Shokrollahzadeh Behbahani, Mohsen Masihi, Mohammad Hossein Ghazanfari, Peter R. King

    Determining the time of breakthrough of injected water is important when assessing waterflood in an oil reservoir. Breakthrough time distribution for a passive tracer (for example water) in percolation porous media (near the percolation threshold) gives insights into the dynamic behavior of flow in geometrically complex systems. However, the application of such distribution to realistic two-phase displacements can be done based on scaling of all parameters. Here, we propose two new approaches for scaling of breakthrough time (characteristic times) in two-dimensional flow through percolation porous media. The first is based on the flow geometry, and the second uses the flow parameters of a representative homogenous model. We have tested the effectiveness of these two approaches using a large number of dynamic simulations. The results show significant improved distribution curves for the breakthrough (transit) time between an injector and a producer located in a heterogeneous porous medium in comparison with the previous scaling methods.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Application of Non-toxic Yield Stress Fluids Porosimetry Method and Pore-Network Modelling to Characterize the Pore Size Distribution of Packs of Spherical Beads
    Transp Porous Media (IF 1.997) Pub Date : 2019-09-20
    Antonio Rodríguez de Castro, Mehrez Agnaou, Azita Ahmadi-Sénichault, Abdelaziz Omari

    With X-ray computed tomography still being flawed as a result of limitations in terms of spatial resolution and cost, toxic mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP) is nowadays the prevailing technique to determine PSDs of most porous media. Recently, yield stress fluids porosimetry method (YSM) has been identified as a promising clean alternative to MIP. This technique is based on the particular percolation patterns followed by yield stress fluids, which only flow through certain pores when injected at a given pressure gradient. In previous works, YSM was used to characterize natural and synthetic porous media, and the results were compared with MIP showing reasonable agreement. However, considerable uncertainty still remains regarding the characterized pore dimension with each method arising from the highly complex geometry of the interstices in real porous media. Therefore, a critical stage for the validation of YSM consists in achieving successful characterization of model porous media with well-known pore morphology and topology. With this objective in mind, a set of four packs of glass beads each with a given monodisperse bead size were characterized in the present work using different porosimetry methods: experimental YSM, numerically simulation of MIP and pore-network extraction from a 3D image. The results provided by these techniques were compared, allowing the identification of the pore dimensions being characterized in each case. The results of this research elucidate the causes of the discrepancies between the considered porosimetry methods and demonstrate the usefulness of the PSD provided by YSM when predicting flow in porous media.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Long-Term Evolution of Coal Permeability Under Effective Stresses Gap Between Matrix and Fracture During CO 2 Injection
    Transp Porous Media (IF 1.997) Pub Date : 2019-10-24
    Mingyao Wei, Jishan Liu, Rui Shi, Derek Elsworth, Zhanghao Liu

    Understanding the long-term evolution of coal permeability under the influence of gas adsorption-induced multiple processes is crucial for the efficient sequestration of CO2, coalbed methane extraction and enhanced coal bed methane recovery. In previous studies, coal permeability is normally measured as a function of gas pressure under the conditions of constant effective stresses, uniaxial strains and constant confining pressures. In all these experiments, an equilibrium state between coal matrix and fracture is normally assumed. This assumption has essentially excluded the effect of matrix–fracture interactions on the evolution of coal permeability. In this study, we hypothesize that the current equilibrium assumption is responsible for the discrepancy between theoretical expectations and experimental measurements. Under this hypothesis, the evolution of coal permeability is determined by the effective stress gap between coal matrix and fracture. This hypothesis is tested through an experiment of CO2 injection into a coal core under the constant effective stress. In this experiment, the effective stress in the fracture system is unchanged while the effective stress in the matrix evolves as a function of time. In the experiment, the coal permeability was measured continuously throughout the whole period of the experiment (~ 80 days). The experimental results show that the core expands rapidly at the beginning due to the gas injection-induced poroelastic effect. After the injection, the core length remains almost unchanged. But, the measured permeability declines from 60 to 0.48 μD for the first month. It rebounds slowly for the subsequent 2 months. These results indicate that the effective stress gap has a significant impact on the evolution of coal permeability. The switch of permeability from the initial reduction (the first 30 days) to rebound (the subsequent 50 days) suggests a transition of matrix deformation from nearby the fracture wall to further away area. These findings demonstrate that the evolution of coal permeability is primarily controlled by the spatial transformation of effective stresses between matrix and fracture.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Hydrodynamic Dispersion and Lamb Surfaces in Darcy Flow
    Transp Porous Media (IF 1.997) Pub Date : 2019-10-17
    Daniel R. Lester, Aditya Bandopadhyay, Marco Dentz, Tanguy Le Borgne

    Transport processes such as the dispersion and mixing of solutes are governed by the interplay of advection and diffusion, where advection acts to organise fluid streamlines and diffusion acts to randomise solute molecules. Thus, the structure and organisation of streamlines, termed the Lagrangian kinematics of the flow, is central to the understanding and modelling of these transport processes. A key question is whether the streamlines in three-dimensional (3D) Darcy flows can wander freely through the fluid domain, or whether all streamlines of the flow are organised into a series of smooth, non-intersecting two-dimensional (2D) surfaces. The existence of such a foliation of surfaces constrains the Lagrangian kinematics in a manner similar to that of 2D flows, which in turn constrains the allowable transport processes. In a series of pioneering studies, Sposito (Water Resour. Res., 30(8):2395–2401, 1994; Adv. Water Resour., 24(7):793–801, 2001) argues that steady Darcy flow in locally isotropic media gives rise to Lamb surfaces, 2D material surfaces which are spanned by both the streamlines and vortex lines (field lines of the vorticity vector) of the flow. Hence, the existence of these surfaces renders the kinematics of such 3D steady Darcy flow as two dimensions. This topological constraint strongly affects transverse mixing and dispersion because 2D steady flow fields limit the rate of deformation of fluid elements and can only admit zero hydrodynamic transverse dispersion. In this study, however, we show that Lamb surfaces are not ubiquitous to all steady Darcy flows in locally isotropic media. We derive the conditions for when Lamb surfaces exist in such Darcy flows, and discuss the implications of these findings for the transport, mixing, and dispersion of solutes.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
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