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  • Development of Disulfide Bond Crosslinked Gelatin/ε-Polylysine Active Edible Film with Antibacterial and Antioxidant Activities
    Food Bioproc. Tech. (IF 3.032) Pub Date : 2020-02-21
    Lei Deng, Xinying Li, Keyan Miao, Xinyan Mao, Miao Han, Defu Li, Changdao Mu, Liming Ge

    Abstract It is of great significance to use safe raw materials, and spontaneously form covalent crosslinking during the fabrication process to obtain active edible films with excellent performance. Herein, l-cysteine as the source of thiol group was firstly conjugated onto gelatin backbone via 1-ethyl-3-(30-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide (EDC) and N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) chemistry. Afterwards, the thiol groups in gelatin-l-cysteine (G-Cys) conjugates were oxidized in air to form disulfide bonds, meanwhile the antibacterial polypeptide ε-polylysine (ε-PL) was incorporated into gelatin matrix to fabricate gelatin/ε-polylysine active edible films. The results show that the amount of conjugated l-Cys in G-Cys conjugates ranges from 43.5 to 159.4 mg/g. The disulfide bond crosslinking generated by the oxidation of thiol groups resulted in compact and dense microstructure, which in turn could decrease the moisture content, total soluble matter, water vapor permeability and swelling behavior of gelatin-based edible films, means enhanced water resistance. Moreover, the fabricated gelatin-based edible films showed good mechanical properties, excellent UV light barrier property and effective antioxidant activity. In addition, the incorporated antibacterial polypeptide ε-PL endowed gelatin-based edible films with robust antibacterial activity. Overall, the disulfide bond crosslinked gelatin-based edible films incorporated with ε-PL could find potential application in the food and drug packaging fields.

  • Texture Modification of 3D Printed Air-Fried Potato Snack by Varying Its Internal Structure with the Potential to Reduce Oil Content
    Food Bioproc. Tech. (IF 3.032) Pub Date : 2020-02-20
    Zhenbin Liu, Arianna Dick, Sangeeta Prakash, Bhesh Bhandari, Min Zhang

    Abstract An air-fried 3D printed snack was developed to potentially provide consumer an alternative choice of potato snack with reduced oil. One cylindrical shape was firstly 3D printed with variable internal structures, followed by air-frying post-printing. The unfried printed samples well matched the designed geometry but with a slight shrinkage after air-frying process. Hardness and fracturability of air-fried potato snack, significantly affected by infill pattern, also significantly decreased when infill level decreased. The 100% infill printed and cast samples were observed with a serious puffing phenomenon during air-frying process. Finally, one kind of a food structure comprised of different parts illustrating multiple textures was developed by varying infill structure. The results suggested that the textural properties of the air-fried 3D printed potato snack could be modified by altering its internal structure, possibly offering a new way of oil reduction for potato-based snacks by creating customized internal structure by applying 3D printing.

  • Applicability of Rice Doughs as Promising Food Materials in Extrusion-Based 3D Printing
    Food Bioproc. Tech. (IF 3.032) Pub Date : 2020-02-19
    Yuntao Liu, Tingting Tang, Songqi Duan, Zhizhi Qin, Hui Zhao, Meiyan Wang, Cheng Li, Zhiqing Zhang, Aiping Liu, Guoquan Han, Dingtao Wu, Hong Chen, Li Shen, Wenjuan Wu, Yuping Dong

    Abstract 3D food printing has attracted considerable attention as promising technique to manufacture foods customization in shape, color, texture and even nutrition. In this study, the effect of material formulation (water content and rice types including waxy rice, japonica rice, and indica rice) on the quality of 3D-printed rice-based foods was investigated. Results showed that rheological properties of rice doughs were obviously influenced by its formulation and qualitatively but not quantitatively correlated with its printability ever further. The 3D-printed waxy rice product with flour-to-water ratio of 100:90 (3DWRD-3) exhibited best shape, highest precision, and most compact microstructure, followed by indica rice product (3DIRD-2) and japonica rice product (3DJRD-4) with flour-to-water ratio of 100:85 and 100:95, respectively. To further study the compatibility of 3D printing with conventional food processing technologies, 3D-printed products were steamed. The study revealed that 3DWRD-3 has swollen during steaming due to the highest amylopectin content of waxy rice and further showed the worst shape stability and highest in vitro starch digestibility. But opposite phenomenon arose in steamed 3DIRD-2 and steamed 3DJRD-4, indicating that indica and japonica rice could be promising materials for 3D printing. Graphical Abstract

  • Encapsulated Cumin Seed Essential Oil-Loaded Active Papers: Characterization and Evaluation of the Effect on Quality Attributes of Beef Hamburger
    Food Bioproc. Tech. (IF 3.032) Pub Date : 2020-02-17
    Farrin Hemmatkhah, Fariba Zeynali, Hadi Almasi

    Abstract The aim of this research was to fabricate an active paper containing encapsulated cumin seed essential oil (CSEO) for shelf-life extension of beef hamburger. CSEO-loaded nanoemulsions (NE) and Pickering emulsions (PE) were prepared by Tween80 and blend of whey protein isolate (WPI) and inulin, respectively. The NE had the lowest droplet size and zeta potential values. The blending of inulin with WPI decreased the particle size of PE microcapsules and increased their encapsulation efficiency. Uniformly shaped PE microcapsules and occurring of chemical bonds between CSEO and wall materials were approved by FE-SEM and FT-IR tests. At the second step, the obtained nanocarriers were incorporated into the cellulosic papers (10%wt.) and the morphological, antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of active papers were investigated. Finally, the effect of active papers on quality and shelf-life of beef hamburgers stored at 4 °C for 7 days and at − 18 °C for 60 days was investigated. The highest water holding capacity and the lowest color difference were observed for active papers amended with WPI/inulin-stabilized PE at the 7th day of refrigeration. TBARS value and counts of mesophilic and psychrophilic bacteria increased during storage and PE-WPI/In treatment had the maximum effect on controlling of microbial growth and lipid oxidation of hamburger. The effect of active papers on the refrigerated samples was more than the frozen ones. In brief, application of microencapsulated CSEO-loaded cellulose papers has the potential to extend the shelf-life of beef hamburger.

  • Preparation and characterization of irradiated kafirin-quercetin film for packaging cod ( Gadus morhua ) during cold storage at 4 °C
    Food Bioproc. Tech. (IF 3.032) Pub Date : 2020-02-17
    Tao Huang, Junjie Lin, Zhongxiang Fang, Wenwen Yu, Zhuoheng Li, Dalun Xu, Wenge Yang, Jinjie Zhang

    Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of electron beam (EB) irradiation dosage on the physical and structural properties of kafirin-quercetin (KQ) films for packaging cod (Gadus morhua) fillets during cold storage at 4 °C. The results showed that irradiation significantly increased mechanical and thermal properties of KQ films, while decreased water vapor permeability, water solubility, and transparency. EB irradiation also produced KQ films with dense structure by the formation of new cross-link among polymers. Additionally, compared with other packaging films, EB-treated KQ films could effectively protect the overall sensory quality of cod by slowing down microbial growth (estimated by TVC counts) and both total volatile basic nitrogen and TBAR formation during cold storage. Thus, EB-irradiated kafirin-quercetin film had excellent potential as food packaging material to prolong the shelf life of fresh fish products.

  • Development of Corn Fiber Gum–Soybean Protein Isolate Double Network Hydrogels Through Synergistic Gelation
    Food Bioproc. Tech. (IF 3.032) Pub Date : 2020-02-15
    Wenjia Yan, Lijun Yin, Jinlong Li, Madhav P. Yadav, Xin Jia

    Abstract Corn fiber gum (CFG)–soybean protein isolate (SPI) double network (DN) hydrogel was fabricated under the action of laccase and D-(+)-gluconic acid δ-lactone (GDL) at room temperature. Time sweep dynamic rheological analysis indicated that laccase and GDL work synergistically to enhance the gel strength of CFG-SPI DN hydrogels. The gel strength of CFG-SPI DN hydrogel was higher than those of hydrogels prepared by either constituent. Uniaxial compression test and texture profile analysis showed that CFG-SPI DN hydrogel integrated the mechanical properties of CFG and SPI networks, whose fracture strain was 20 times higher than that of CFG hydrogel, while the hardness was about twice the value that of SPI hydrogel. Scanning electron microscopy observation confirmed that both CFG and SPI participated in the formation of CFG-SPI DN hydrogel. CFG-SPI DN hydrogel showed a more regular and denser microstructure as compared with hydrogels prepared by single constituent. CFG-SPI DN hydrogels with various mechanical properties, water-holding capacities and microstructures were prepared by controlling the concentrations of CFG and SPI. Among which, CFG-SPI double network hydrogel with 7.0% SPI and 1.0% CFG exhibited the highest hardness and water-holding capacity.

  • Interfacial Assembly of a Cashew Nut ( Anacardium occidentale ) Testa Extract onto a Cellulose-Based Film from Sugarcane Bagasse to Produce an Active Packaging Film with pH-Triggered Release Mechanism
    Food Bioproc. Tech. (IF 3.032) Pub Date : 2020-02-13
    Jaslyn Jie Lin Lee, Xi Cui, Kong Fei Chai, Guili Zhao, Wei Ning Chen

    Abstract This study aims to produce a biodegradable active packaging film that is pH sensitive, and has a good antioxidant and antimicrobial activity. To do this, a novel phenolic extract was interfacially assembled onto a cellulose film, resulting in a film with a pH-triggered release mechanism of the active polyphenol agent. First, an aqueous extraction of cashew nut testa (CTE) was performed and subsequently, the CTE was characterized. The disc diffusion assay showed that CTE exhibited antimicrobial activity towards the food pathogens Escherichia coli (6 mm) and Staphylcoccus aureus (12 mm). CTE was also cytotoxic against cancer HepG2 and HEK293 cells, reducing the viability to 52% and 47%, respectively. It was incorporated into a cellulose-based packaging film, prepared from the by-product, sugarcane bagasse (SC) through interfacial assembly. The incorporation of CTE resulted in a film with good antimicrobial activity, excellent antioxidant content (91%), and has extremely high thermal stability (290 °C). FTIR indicated the formation of hydrogen bond between the SC cellulose-based film and CTE. The hydrogen bonds formed between the cellulose film and CTE became the driving force behind the pH-triggered release mechanism. It was found that the active agent, tannic acid, could be controllably released from the film, depending on the pH of the environment. Our strategy to produce a cellulose-based film impregnated with a phenolic extract, using interfacial assembly, resulted in an active packaging film with pH-triggered release mechanism. This film could be useful to extend the shelf life of perishable food items.

  • A Bio-Electrochemical Calculation Model for Color Decline Kinetics of Bruised “Shine Muscat” Fruit During Storage
    Food Bioproc. Tech. (IF 3.032) Pub Date : 2020-02-10
    Takashi Watanabe

    Abstract Physical damage of fruits and vegetables during distribution accelerate their decline in quality during storage. This study was aimed to analyze the quality degradation that takes injuries into consideration by using estimation models. Estimation models for bruised “Shine Muscat” grapes during storage were investigated based on bio-electrochemical theory. An electrical indicator, LTO, defined as the length from the origin of the coordinate at the top of the circular arc of the Cole−Cole plot, was demonstrated to effectively quantify the degree of a bruise with high accuracy (r2 > 99). The color-change kinetics constant increased as LTO decreased, and a strong correlation was confirmed between these two parameters (p < 0.01). These results demonstrate that the LTO parameter can be used to characterize physical damage incurred by the fruit, and it may be used as an injury parameter to calculate their color-change kinetics constant during storage after physical damage.

  • Layer-by-Layer Electrostatic Deposition of Edible Coatings for Enhancing the Storage Stability of Fresh-Cut Lotus Root ( Nelumbo nucifera )
    Food Bioproc. Tech. (IF 3.032) Pub Date : 2020-02-08
    Grace R. Lara, Kunihiko Uemura, Nauman Khalid, Isao Kobayashi, Chieko Takahashi, Mitsutoshi Nakajima, Marcos A. Neves

    Abstract Various strategies have been employed to improve the storage stability of fresh-cut lotus root, which is prone to undesirable changes such as enzymatic oxidation. In our research, we targeted the formulation of polysaccharide-based edible coatings with different ionic charges from natural gum sources, such as guar gum, xanthan gum, and chitosan, due to the limited information regarding its application as coating material for fresh-cut lotus root. We have also compared the effect of single layer coatings versus layer-by-layer deposition as edible coating techniques for fresh-cut lotus root. Our results have shown that layer-by-layer coatings consisting of xanthan gum and chitosan were the most effective among all treatments, thereby reducing whiteness color (L*) changes and weight loss up to 60% and 86%, respectively. Overall, the layer-by-layer coating technique was more effective than single layer coating, which shows a promising strategy to increase the storage stability of fresh-cut lotus root especially during transport and distribution. Graphical Abstract

  • Characterization of Food Application and Quality of Porcine Plasma Protein–Based Films Incorporated with Chitosan or Encapsulated Turmeric Oil
    Food Bioproc. Tech. (IF 3.032) Pub Date : 2020-01-30
    Namfon Samsalee, Rungsinee Sothornvit

    Abstract Porcine plasma protein (PPP), modified PPP (MPPP), chitosan (CS), blended PPP and CS and PPP and MPPP with encapsulated turmeric oil were formed biopolymer films and characterized the properties prior to food application. The PPP-encapsulated films revealed flexibility and seal strength, while the blended film improved water-resistant and thermal properties. CS film presented higher water barrier. Thus, the PPP-based films were formed sachets and pack rice, and the rice quality was determined during storage compared with a polypropylene (PP) sachet. As expected, the total phenolic content, antioxidant activity and total anthocyanin content of rice grains and cooked rice decreased with storage time including the change in textural parameters. Interestingly, the PPP sachet maintained the rice grain quality for not more than 40 days, while the MPPP+ Encapsulated and PP sachets can be used for at least 50 days. Therefore, PPP-based films can be used as food packaging materials to maintain the quality and extend the shelf life of food and agricultural products.

  • Structuring Diluted Wheat Matrices: Impact of Heat-Moisture Treatment on Protein Aggregation and Viscoelasticity of Hydrated Composite Flours
    Food Bioproc. Tech. (IF 3.032) Pub Date : 2020-01-24
    Concha Collar, Marina Villanueva, Felicidad Ronda

    Abstract The influence of heat-moisture treatment (HMT) and flour hydration (DY) on the restoration of dough viscoelasticity of wheat/non-wheat binary matrices was investigated by applying fundamental and empirical rheological procedures, and the protein structural reorganization was monitored by measuring residual protein solubility in different media, and by assessing the accessibility of thiol groups inside the protein network. Single chestnut (CN), chickpea (CP), millet (MI), and teff (T) flour samples submitted to HMT (15% moisture content, 1 h and 120 °C) were blended with wheat flour at 10% (CN, CP) and 30% (MI, T) of replacement, and binary matrices hydrated at low (L), medium (M), and high (H) DY. Structuring ability of HMT was mainly observed in cereal flour blends (T, MI), where higher elastic moduli and lower loss tangent together with solid-like elastic structure over higher shear stress were observed as compared with treated non-cereal flour blends (CN, CP). Increased flour hydration significantly weakened blends structure, inducing a stepped decrease in dynamic moduli values particularly noticed in cereal blends at highest level of flour hydration, and a shift from elastic-like to viscous-like structure at lower shear stress in non-wheat cereal matrices. The formation of a protein network with reinforced compact structure associated to the presence or formation of intramolecular (CN, CP, T) and intermolecular disulphide bonds (CN, CP, MI, T), water-soluble (CN, MI) and water-insoluble aggregates (CP, T) is feasible to achieve with proteins of non-wheat flours submitted to HMT, particularly in high DY doughs. The lower the amount of free thiols in high molecular weight proteins encompassing high degree of crosslinking, corresponded to thermally treated samples (T, MI) blended at L and M hydration levels. For thermally treated samples, the lower the amount of free thiols in high molecular weight proteins encompassing high degree of crosslinking, corresponded to T and MI binary matrices blended at L and M hydration levels. These samples exhibited a solid-like elastic structure over higher shear stress and showed increased tolerance to stress/strain before losing the structure.

  • Measurement and Calculation Methods on Absorption and Scattering Properties of Turbid Food in Vis/NIR Range
    Food Bioproc. Tech. (IF 3.032) Pub Date : 2020-01-20
    Dandan Xie, Wenchuan Guo

    Abstract In terms of optical properties, most of the foods are turbid. The ability of light to penetrate a turbid material mainly depends on its absorption and scattering properties. Understanding the absorption and scattering properties of food is not only helpful to understand their chemical and physical properties, but also useful to optimize and develop effective devices for quality determination of food. To provide information for further studies on absorption and scattering properties of turbid food, the measurement techniques, such as integrating sphere, spatially resolved, frequency-domain, and time-resolved spectroscopes, and calculation algorithms, such as inverse adding double, Monte Carlo, and diffuse approximation, on obtaining absorption and scattering properties over the visible and near-infrared wavelength range were reviewed. The characteristics of these methods as well as the future trend on studying absorption and scattering properties of turbid food were also presented.

  • Ultrasonication of Milky Stage Rice Milk with Bioactive Peptides from Rice Bran: Its Bioactivities and Absorption
    Food Bioproc. Tech. (IF 3.032) Pub Date : 2020-01-17
    Samuchaya Ngamsuk, Jue-Liang Hsu, Tzou-Chi Huang, Prisana Suwannaporn

    Abstract Rice in early development stage contains peptides and various bioactive compounds. Rice protein hydrolysate was prepared from Riceberry bran protein hydrolysed with Alcalase® and trypsin. Protein hydrolysate from Alcalase® (MW < 3 kDa) was fractionated into 12 fractions using RP-HPLC and tested for antioxidant, ACE, and ROS-inhibitory activity. Peptide from RP-HPLC fraction 1 showed that the lowest ROS inhibition and highest antioxidant were identified by LC-MS/MS as Val-Leu-Ala-Ala-Gly-Cys-Pro-Leu. Peptide fraction 4 showed that the strongest in vitro ACE-inhibitory activity was identified as Ala-Met-Ser-Phe-Ala-Glu-Met. Young Riceberry milk was then enriched with Alcalase® protein hydrolysate (MW < 3 kDa) and sonicated at amplitude 20% for 30 min and 40% for 60 min. Particle size, transmittance, and Caco-2 cell absorption were measured. The highest peptide content and % absorption was found in young rice milk ultrasonicated at 40% for 60 min. Rice bran protein hydrolysate produced by Alcalase® had much smaller MW bioactive peptides and could be used as a potent functional food ingredient. The young rice milk fortified with bioactive peptides after high power ultra-sonication could increase the in vitro intestinal absorption.

  • A Review on the Potential Reuse of Functional Polysaccharides Extracted from the By-Products of Mushroom Processing
    Food Bioproc. Tech. (IF 3.032) Pub Date : 2020-01-16
    Chung-Yi Wang

    Abstract Mushrooms contain many types of nutrients; they are widely regarded as healthy food product. The development of the global mushroom industry has resulted the production of by-products such as stipes, discarded space bags, and broken fruiting bodies. Mushroom by-products account for approximately 20% of mushroom weight and have a high recycling value. Mushroom by-products are most commonly used as compost and animal feed. They contain large amounts of polysaccharides, triterpenes, ergosterol, glycoproteins, dietary fiber, and other components from which functional components could be extracted. Among those components, polysaccharides have been widely studied. This review paper evaluated current research findings, which revealed that new extraction techniques such as microwave, ultrasound, pulsed electrical fields, and high pressure could be used to increase the efficiency of polysaccharide recovery from mushroom by-products. We also separately discussed the functionality of various types of polysaccharides extracted from different mushroom by-products with regard to immune regulation, alleviation of cardiovascular disease, protection of intestinal health, as well as anticancer, antibacterial, and other health promoting effects. This review highlights that mushroom waste contains many types of functional polysaccharide components that have potential applications in foodstuffs and medicine. The use of new extraction techniques can improve the utilization of whole mushrooms. Effective recovery of polysaccharide components from mushroom by-products can increase the overall value of mushroom cultivation and decrease the production of agricultural waste.

  • Repeated Heat-Moisture Treatment: a more EffectiveWay for Structural and Physicochemical Modification of Mung Bean Starch Compared with Continuous Way
    Food Bioproc. Tech. (IF 3.032) Pub Date : 2020-01-13
    Kun Zhao, Bo Zhang, Chunyan Su, Bing Gong, Jianmei Zheng, Hao Jiang, Guoquan Zhang, Wenhao Li

    Effects of repeated heat-moisture treatment (RHM) and continuous heat-moisture treatment (CHM) on structural, physicochemical, and digestibility properties of mung bean starch were investigated. Rupture and scallops appeared on the surface of starch granules and some polarization cross disappeared after CHM and RHM. Besides, CHM starch exhibited severe rupture than RHM with the same treatment time. Crystal type of CHM and RHM starch maintained A-type while crystallinity decreased first but then increased as treating time increased. Besides, the relative crystallinity, transition temperatures, ΔH, and slowly digestible starch and rapidly digestible starch content of RHM were significantly higher than CHM whereas solubility, swelling power, and pasting viscosities of RHM samples were lower than CHM under the same treating time. Overall, RHM measures have more advantages than CHM in the modification of the structural, physicochemical, and digestibility properties of starch.

  • Effects of Extrusion Technology Combined with Enzymatic Hydrolysis on the Structural and Physicochemical Properties of Porous Corn Starch
    Food Bioproc. Tech. (IF 3.032) Pub Date : 2020-01-09
    Wenqi Wu, Aiquan Jiao, Enbo Xu, Yuan Chen, Zhengyu Jin

    Abstract Effects of the combination of extrusion pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis on corn starch are investigated through its microstructural and physicochemical properties. This combined modification resulted in the formation of more pores on the surface of native starches (NS), as revealed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Compared with either single-treatment modified starch samples, starch that was bioextruded and treated by enzymatic hydrolysis achieved higher crystallinity, more uniform pore structure, and higher gelatinization temperature than those of native porous starch, as determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Low-temperature nitrogen adsorption experiments showed that the specific surface area (2.52 m2/g), total pore volume (4.53 × 10−3 cm3/g), and average pore size (7.36 nm) of porous starch were significantly increased by bioextrusion combined with enzyme hydrolysis (P < 0.05). The results of hydrolysis degree (DH) also showed that bioextrusion could improve the efficiency of hydrolysis. Starch that was bioextruded followed by enzyme hydrolysis showed the highest adsorption capacity in adsorption tests of adsorption of oil (63.29%), water (162.61%), and methylene blue (6.04%). The present study suggests that the combination of bioextrusion pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis is an attractive alternative for preparing porous corn starches.

  • Effect of Ultrasonic Power on Water Removal Kinetics and Moisture Migration of Kiwifruit Slices During Contact Ultrasound Intensified Heat Pump Drying
    Food Bioproc. Tech. (IF 3.032) Pub Date : 2020-01-03
    Yunhong Liu, Ya Zeng, Xiaoyue Hu, Xue Sun

    Abstract The experiments of contact ultrasound intensified heat pump drying (CUHPD) of kiwifruit slices were conducted to investigate the effect of ultrasonic power on dehydration process and water migration of kiwifruit during CUHPD. The results clarified that contact ultrasound (CU) application could reduce the drying time of HPD significantly, and the rise of ultrasonic power had stronger reinforcing effect on dehydration rate. Weibull distribution function could simulate the dehydration process of CUHPD of kiwifruit with high precision, and the β values verified that ultrasonic power improvement could transform the moisture diffusion mechanism of CUHPD from total internal moisture diffusion control to partial internal moisture diffusion control. The Dcal values were 2.304 × 10−9~4.026 × 10−9 m2/s and increased as the rise of ultrasonic power. The scanning electron microscopy results illustrated that increasing ultrasonic power could produce more porous and spacious microstructure which was beneficial for water migration. The low-field nuclear magnetic resonance results elucidated that free water, immobilized water, and bound water in kiwifruit migrated and changed during CUHPD. Free water with the highest mobility was the most abundant water in kiwifruit, and was the first kind of water to be completely removed. With drying progressed, the contents of immobilized water and bound water gradually increased and then decreased, but they were not completely removed. The increasing in ultrasonic power was beneficial to promoting internal water migration and shortening the required dehydration time, especially for free water. Proton density images visualized that increasing ultrasonic power could significantly promote the water diffusion from internal kiwifruit outward the surface, and thereby accelerate the rate of water removal. Therefore, CU application is a suitable method to accelerate the water diffusion and moisture migration of HPD process.

  • Effect of Peppermint Oil on the Storage Quality of White Button Mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus)
    Food Bioproc. Tech. (IF 3.032) Pub Date : 2020-01-02
    Tongtong Qu, Beibei Li, Xiaofei Huang, Xianxian Li, Yang Ding, Jifeng Chen, Xuanming Tang

    White button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) were treated with 5 μl L−1, 10 μl L−1, 20 μl L−1, and 50 μl L−1 peppermint oil and then stored at 4 °C for 8 days to investigate with respect to browning and postharvest qualities. It was found that 20 μl L−1 peppermint oil treatment could provide the best effect on inhibiting browning of fruit bodies. Our results indicated 20 μl L−1 peppermint oil fumigation restrains browning development and alleviated membrane lipid peroxidation, as reflected by lower electrolyte leakage (17.42%), malondialdehyde (MDA) content (21.95%), and weight loss (1.69%) compared with those of the control mushrooms at 8 days, respectively. In addition, the 20 μl L−1 peppermint oil fumigation had 1.49-fold and 1.24-fold higher phenolics and flavonoids accumulation respectively than those in control and retained high levels of soluble protein and total sugar at the end of the storage time. Furthermore, peppermint oil treatment significantly improved the antioxidant system, which increased the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and phenylalnine ammonia lyase (PAL), and inhibited the activity of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POD), as well as regulated the relative expression levels of genes encoding polyphenol oxidase (AbPPO1, AbPPO2, AbPPO5, AbPPO6) and phenylalanine ammonia lyase (AbPAL1, AbPAL2) during the storage period. These findings suggest that peppermint oil fumigation is a promising method to control browning and improve the quality of button mushrooms.

  • Correction to: the Inhibitory Effect of Chlorogenic Acid on Lipid Oxidation of Grass Carp ( Ctenopharyngodon idellus ) during Chilled Storage
    Food Bioproc. Tech. (IF 3.032) Pub Date : 2020-01-02
    Qiongju Cao, Hongying Du, Yuan Huang, Yang Hu, Juan You, Ru Liu, Shanbai Xiong, Anne Manyande

    The original version of this article unfortunately contained some mistakes.

  • The Impact of High-Pressure Processing on the Structure and Sensory Properties of Egg White-Whey Protein Mixture at Acidic Conditions
    Food Bioproc. Tech. (IF 3.032) Pub Date : 2020-01-02
    Zhong Zhang, Ying Li, Michelle C. Lee, Raheleh Ravanfar, Olga I. Padilla-Zakour, Alireza Abbaspourrad

    Abstract This study aims to unveil the impact of high-pressure processing (HPP) on the structure and sensory properties of the mixture of egg white and whey protein at acidified conditions. Under HPP treatment, we hypothesized that egg white protein can form gel structures and encapsulate or crosslink with the whey protein, thus masking the interaction sites of whey protein with salivary protein and reduce its astringency at pH 3.5. Various characterization techniques, including turbidity measurements, zeta size, optical and scanning microscopy, native and sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, were used to illustrate the structural changes of the proteins and the interactions between the egg white and whey proteins. The results show that HPP treatment at 450 MPa and 600 MPa can induce significant changes to the egg white-whey protein mixture in terms of size, microstructure, secondary structure, and crosslinking. We also confirmed by electrophoresis that the egg white and whey protein form complexes through covalent bonding that feature a molecular weight of ~ 90 kDa under HPP treatment at a pH value of 3.5. Although the egg white forms microgel and may partially encapsulate the whey protein, sensory studies showed such complexation does not reduce the astringency of whey protein at acidified conditions (control astringency score = 9.0). On the contrary, the HPP-treated samples showed a higher astringency (astringency score = 11.1–11.3), possibly due to the exposure of more hydrophobic sites on the proteins.

  • Investigation of Hot Air–Assisted Radio Frequency as a Final-Stage Drying of Pre-dried Carrot Cubes
    Food Bioproc. Tech. (IF 3.032) Pub Date : 2020-01-02
    Chuting Gong, Meiji Liao, Hangjin Zhang, Yuanrong Xu, Yubin Miao, Shunshan Jiao

    Carrot cubes were firstly blanched by radio frequency (RF) heating and then pre-dried by ultrasound-assisted osmotic dehydration (UOD). Hot air–assisted radio frequency (HA-RF) was applied as a final-stage drying method for pre-dried carrot cubes in this study. HA-RF drying characteristics and associated quality of carrot cubes were evaluated by comparing with those dried by conventional hot air (HA) and vacuum freeze (VF) drying. Moisture content of carrot cubes was reduced to < 10% (w.b.) after 235–260 min HA-RF drying with 6.0–7.0-cm electrode gap and 60 °C HA; the drying time was reduced by > 50% when compared with conventional HA drying (550 min). LF-NMR and MRI results showed that the inside moisture migrated to the outside along with the evaporation of surface moisture during the drying process which indicated that HA-RF was a relatively uniform drying process. Logarithmic model was found to be more suitable for HA-RF drying with R2, RMSE, and SEM value at 0.994, 0.013, and 0.004, respectively. Carrot cubes dried by HA-RF had expected redness and relatively high hardness, and Vc retention rate was comparable with that dried by VF. This study demonstrated that HA-RF is an effective final-stage drying method for pre-dried carrot cubes.

  • Structure Restoration of Thermally Denatured Collagen by Ultrahigh Pressure Treatment
    Food Bioproc. Tech. (IF 3.032) Pub Date : 2019-12-24
    Man Sun, Xu Wei, Haibo Wang, Chengzhi Xu, Benmei Wei, Juntao Zhang, Lang He, Yuling Xu, Sheng Li

    Thermal denaturation is the primary reason for the loss of excellent performance for collagen-based materials. It is particularly urgent to explore an effective structure restoration strategy for thermally denatured collagen. In this study, three different degrees of collagen thermal denaturation models were constructed; the effects of ultrahigh pressure treatments of varying intensities on the structure and properties of partially thermal denatured collagen were investigated. Those results showed that ultrahigh pressure partially restores the triple helix conformation and the α helix of low thermally denatured collagen molecules and moderately restores collagen thermal stability. However, this recovery is not a “perfect” structural restoration; it cannot effectively restore the fibrotic ability of collagen which leads to a decrease in the fiber diameter of the product and an increase in the storage modulus of the product gel. As the degree of thermal denaturation of collagen increases, the ultrahigh pressure recovery effect is gradually lost. For moderate thermally denatured collagen, ultrahigh pressure treatments only recover a small amount of its triple helical conformation. For high thermally denatured collagen, ultrahigh pressure treatments exacerbate the destruction of the three-dimensional structure of collagen molecules, thereby losing the order of molecular structure and the capability of fibrosis self-assembly.

  • Electrohydrodynamic Encapsulation of Resveratrol Using Food-Grade Nanofibres: Process Optimization, Characterization and Fortification
    Food Bioproc. Tech. (IF 3.032) Pub Date : 2019-12-23
    B.G. Seethu, Heartwin A. Pushpadass, F. Magdaline Eljeeva Emerald, B. Surendra Nath, N. Laxmana Naik, K.S. Subramanian

    Utilization of resveratrol as a nutraceutical in foods is limited due to its low bioavailability and chemical instability. Therefore, resveratrol was encapsulated into nanofibres by electrospinning at concentrations of 15, 18 and 21% TS, applied voltage of 13, 18 and 23 kV and feed rates of 0.6 and 1 mL/h using WPI-pullulan as wall material. Electrospinning conditions were optimized as 18% TS, 18 kV applied voltage and 0.6 mL/h flow rate. SEM images showed formation of clean and continuous fibres at 18 and 23 kV applied voltage, with a mean fibre diameter of 63 to 208 nm and encapsulation efficiency of 74 and 96.70%. Successful encapsulation of resveratrol was confirmed by FTIR and XRD analyses. The zeta potential of resveratrol-loaded nanofibres was in the range of − 20.5 to − 32.2 mV, suggestive of higher stability. The antioxidant property of resveratrol in nanofibres was retained. No significant physiochemical and sensorial changes were observed in resveratrol fortified milk.

  • Effect of Carboxymethyl Chitosan Magnetic Nanoparticles Plus Herring Antifreeze Protein on Conformation and Oxidation of Myofibrillar Protein From Red Sea Bream ( Pagrosomus major ) After Freeze-Thaw Treatment
    Food Bioproc. Tech. (IF 3.032) Pub Date : 2019-12-23
    Luyun Cai, Linyu Nian, Ailing Cao, Yuhao Zhang, Xiuxia Li

    The effects on the quality of frozen red sea bream, which were pretreated by soaking in solutions containing trehalose, carboxymethyl chitosan magnetic nanoparticles (CCMN), and glycerin or 0.1% herring antifreeze protein (hAFP), were investigated. In this study, the viscoelastic properties of protein studied with the dynamic rheology, Raman and intrinsic fluorescence spectrometry were used to explore the conformation changes of MFP. Surface hydrophobicity, particle size, and zeta potential were carried out to analyze protein aggregation. Solubility, the content of total sulfhydryl/disulfide bond/carbonyl/dityrosine, and the Ca2+-ATPase activity were measured to explore the degree of protein oxidation. SDS-PAGE was conducted to analyze the protein denaturation. Results showed that the pretreatment of red sea bream with soak solutions could improve the viscoelasticity of fillets protein, stabilize the secondary and tertiary conformation of the MFP, inhibit the protein aggregation and oxidation, and decrease the degree of protein denaturation compared with the control (4 °C thawing), especially the soak solutions containing hAFP could minimize the freeze-thaw damage. To summarize, the hAFP helped to retain the above characteristics of frozen fillets much better than that of conventional cryoprotectants (glycerin) to improve the quality of the frozen product after thawing.

  • Legume Seeds Treated by High Hydrostatic Pressure: Effect on Functional Properties of Flours
    Food Bioproc. Tech. (IF 3.032) Pub Date : 2019-12-17
    Eliana Fernández Sosa, Cinthia Thompson, María G. Chaves, Belén A. Acevedo, María V. Avanza

    Pigeon pea (PP), cowpea (CU), dolichos bean (DB), and jack bean (JB) are legumes that constitute the daily diet in many countries. Legumes are a good source of proteins, carbohydrates, and minerals. Considering that legumes present potentials to be used as ingredients for food formulation, the study of functional and physicochemical properties of flours obtained from legume seeds treated by high hydrostatic pressure treatment (HHPT) (200, 400, 600 MPa) was conducted. Flours were evaluated for polypeptide composition (SDS-PAGE), fluorescence spectroscopy, color, protein solubility (PS), water-holding capacity (WHC), oil-holding capacity (OHC), emulsion activity (EA), emulsion stability (ES), foaming capacity (FC), foaming stability (FS), and least gelation concentration (LGC). PS of PP, CU, and DB diminished with the increase of pressure and only CU showed an increase of PS (7–40%) at the isoelectric point. WHC of PP, CU, and DB varied with the pressure applied; however, WHC of JB was not modified by HHPT as we observed in lambda max fluorescence-emission values and PS. Only PP showed an increment of OHC at 400 and 600 MPa. EA of PP was not affected by HPPT, while DB and JB showed a decrease. ES of CU, DB, and JB was not affected by HHPT. FC of PP, DB, and JB diminished with the increase of pressure. FS of DB and CU (400 MPa) was improved and continued for 120 min. LGC values and the equilibrium moisture content of flours were not influenced by HHPT, but the last decreased with the increase of temperature. Moisture sorption isotherms of flours fitted adequately to H-H equation covering the practical range of water activity (0.10–0.90) at the three temperatures tested. High pressure processed flours of PP, CU, DB, and JB showed functional properties that could be useful for food formulation.

  • Cheese Whey and Ricotta Whey for the Growth and Encapsulation of Endogenous Lactic Acid Bacteria
    Food Bioproc. Tech. (IF 3.032) Pub Date : 2019-12-14
    Gabriela Rabaioli Rama, Daniel Kuhn, Simone Beux, Mônica Jachetti Maciel, Claucia Fernanda Volken de Souza

    The aim of this study was to compare the ability of endogenous Lactobacillus paracasei ATR6 to grow in unsupplemented bovine cheese whey (CW) and ricotta whey (RW), and to evaluate the efficiency of these media as encapsulating agents for the spray-drying (SD) of this bacterium. Growth assays indicated that both CW and RW are adequate culture media since L. paracasei ATR6 grew satisfactorily (~ 4 log cycles) in both compared to the control medium (skimmed milk). Concerning their potential as encapsulating agents, results showed that survival rates after SD were similar for CW and RW (> 78%), as were the yields (> 47%) of this process. CW allowed the formation of smaller capsules (5.31 ± 1.27 μm) than RW (15.21 ± 7.24 μm), with lower moisture: 8.60% and 13.52%, respectively. Powders were stored at 25 °C for 60 days, during which CW and RW maintained satisfactory bacterial viability. Water activity increased, yet remained below 0.3. Moisture content of CW and RW powders was relatively stable throughout the 60 days; however, values obtained in this study are considered to lie outside the adequate range (4–7%) for product stability. We did not observe color changes in CW and RW microcapsules during storage. Due to its lower protein content, RW offered less protection, which led to higher loss in acidification ability of the strain. CW and RW are suitable culture media and encapsulating agents for the growth of L. paracasei ATR6; however, the former offered better protection, which enabled the maintenance of biological activity.

  • Effect of Pectin Coating Infused with Gallic Acid on the Quality and Shelf Life of Japanese Sea Bass ( Lateolabrax japonicas ) Fillets
    Food Bioproc. Tech. (IF 3.032) Pub Date : 2019-12-13
    Xiaobao Nie, Zhe Gao, Xinrong Ren, Qiannan Jiang, Songlin Li, Changxing Jiang, Bin Liu, Xinfu Liu, Fangyun He

    In the present study, the effect of a pectin (PE) coating infused with gallic acid (GA) on the quality of fresh Japanese sea bass (Lateolabrax japonicas) fillets stored at 4 °C was evaluated over a 20-day period. PE or GA treatment alone and the PE infused with GA coating (PE-GA) all reduced microbial counts, with the PE-GA providing the greatest reduction. In general, samples of fish fillet treated with PE-GA had significantly lower levels of total volatile basic nitrogen, lipid oxidation, and total sulfhydryls, but higher Ca2+-ATPase activity during the storage period, compared with the untreated (control), PE-coated, and GA-treated fillets. Notably, PE-GA-treated samples also had the highest sensory quality rating. Results of the present study indicate that the PE-GA composite coating represents a promising food-grade biopreservative that can be used for maintaining the storage quality of fresh fish fillet.

  • Characterization of Water Binding Properties of Apple Pectin Modified by Instant Controlled Pressure Drop Drying (DIC) by LF-NMR and DSC Methods
    Food Bioproc. Tech. (IF 3.032) Pub Date : 2019-12-13
    Xiao Li, Jinfeng Bi, Xin Jin, Xuan Li, Xinye Wu, Jian Lyu

    Effects of instant controlled pressure drop drying (DIC) on the hygroscopic behavior of water-soluble pectin (WSP), chelator-soluble pectin (CSP), and sodium-carbonate-soluble pectin (NSP) were explored to reveal the modification effect of DIC treatment on apple pectin and the correlations between water binding capacity and the inherent characteristic of pectin. The results showed that DIC treatment significantly increased the water binding properties of CSP even though it was decreased slightly in WSP and NSP. Meanwhile, the methylesterification degree (DE) of CSP decreased significantly by 43.04% whereas it was increased slightly in WSP and NSP. Although the effect of DIC on GalA contents and the changes in the functional group structures were negligible, the changes in the crystalline state of three pectin fractions were significant. The results suggest that there are strong correlations between the water binding properties and the DE and the crystalline state of the three pectin fractions after DIC drying.

  • Relationship between Formulation, Gelation Kinetics, Micro/Nanostructure and Rheological Properties of Sodium Caseinate Nanoemulsion-Based Acid Gels for Food Applications
    Food Bioproc. Tech. (IF 3.032) Pub Date : 2019-12-13
    Juan M. Montes de Oca-Ávalos, Virginia Borroni, Cristián Huck-Iriart, Alba S. Navarro, Roberto J. Candal, María L. Herrera

    Legislation and concerns about health effects of trans and saturated fatty acids have led to elimination or reduction of them in foods formulation. One of the alternatives for structuring food with healthy ingredients is using food-grade biopolymers such as proteins or polysaccharides to formulate hydrogels. The aim of the present work was to study the relationship among formulation, gelation kinetics, structure, and rheological properties of sodium caseinate (NaCas)/sunflower oil hydrogels prepared from nanoemulsions. NaCas was used as stabilizer in concentrations of 1, 2, 3, or 4 wt.%. Sucrose was also added in 2, 4, 6, or 8 wt.% to the 4-wt.% nanoemulsion. Gelation kinetics was studied by two methods: oscillatory rheometry and Turbiscan. Although gelation time values were significantly different between methods, tendencies were similar: values decreased with increasing protein and sucrose contents. However, the most influential factor on gelation time was the ratio glucono-delta-lactone (GDL)/NaCas. Structure was analyzed by confocal laser scanning microscopy and synchrotron X-ray microtomography. Low-protein content hydrogels (1 or 2 wt.%) had an inhomogeneous structure containing nano- and conventional-size droplets while the 4-wt.% hydrogel kept the initial structural characteristics: homogeneity in dispersed phase distribution and non-aggregated nanodroplets. Sucrose improved structure in terms of homogeneity. Analyses of X-ray microtomoghraphy data showed that while the porosity diminished, the wall width increased with increasing protein and sucrose contents. The hydrogel formulated with 4 wt.% NaCas and 8 wt.% sucrose showed a structure with nanodroplets evenly distributed and the highest G′∞ values of all hydrogels.

  • Stability of Fish Oil in Calcium Alginate Microcapsules Cross-Linked by In Situ Internal Gelation During Spray Drying
    Food Bioproc. Tech. (IF 3.032) Pub Date : 2019-12-13
    Scott A. Strobel, Kevin Hudnall, Benjamin Arbaugh, Julia C. Cunniffe, Herbert B. Scher, Tina Jeoh

    Microencapsulating bioactive compounds, such as polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), in dry cross-linked alginate serves to enhance their shelf life, mask unwanted flavors and odors, facilitate their incorporation into food products, and provide an intestinal release mechanism. Alginate microencapsulation is challenging to implement at industrial scale, but a recently developed process provides scalability by accomplishing alginate cross-linking in situ during spray drying. This study investigated how formulation variables affect the oxidative stability of fish oil in cross-linked alginate microcapsules (CLAMs) prepared via this industrially scalable process. Storage stability of PUFA from fish oil was prolonged by microencapsulation in CLAMs, relative to nonencapsulated fish oil. Neither the choice of emulsifier (Tween 80 or whey protein isolate) nor the extent of alginate cross-linking influenced the duration of storage stability of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). However, the retention of EPA and DHA during spray drying was significantly lower for CLAMs prepared with Tween 80. The addition of n-octenyl succinic anhydride (OSA) modified starch into spray-drying formulations improved the storage stability of microencapsulated fish oil. With increasing OSA-starch content in CLAMs, surface oil content decreased, particle size and powder yield increased, and PUFA storage stability increased. Despite OSA-starch being the majority component, OSA-starch CLAMs exhibited gastrointestinal release properties more akin to CLAMs than control OSA-starch microcapsules. OSA-starch CLAMs retained fish oil cargo in simulated gastric fluid and released it in simulated intestinal fluid, while OSA-starch microcapsules completely released cargo in either fluid. Overall, OSA-starch CLAMs show promise as an industrial-scale system for stabilizing PUFA while providing an enteric delivery mechanism.

  • Encapsulation of Oils Recovered from brewer’s Spent Grain by Particles from Gas Saturated Solutions Technique
    Food Bioproc. Tech. (IF 3.032) Pub Date : 2019-12-11
    John Ndayishimiye, Giovanna Ferrentino, Haman Nabil, Matteo Scampicchio

    The work aimed to encapsulate oils recovered from brewer’s spent grain by particles from gas saturated solutions technique using supercritical carbon dioxide as solvent and polyethylene glycol as wall material. The process conditions (pressure and temperature) and the wall material content were tested to produce an ingredient with enhanced physical properties and oxidative stability. Among the applied pressures (10, 20, 30, and 35 MPa), temperatures (45 and 55 °C) and oil to polyethylene glycol mixing ratios (1:5; 1:3, 1:2.5 and 1:2), the highest encapsulation efficiency was obtained at 20 MPa, 55 °C with an oil to polyethylene glycol mixing ratio equal to 1:3. With such conditions, the particles reported 73.5 ± 1.5% of encapsulated oil, with 58.1 ± 2.8% of the powder showing a mean diameter equal to 375 μm. The bulk and tapped densities were equal to 0.35 ± 0.01 and 0.38 ± 0.01 g · cm−3, while the wettability resulted of 3.2 ± 0.01 min. Furthermore, the encapsulated oil was oxidative stable up to 130 ± 3.2 h at 40 °C, as measured by isothermal calorimetry and peroxide value. The findings showed the potentials of particles from gas saturated solutions technique for the production of an ingredient for food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical applications.

  • Effect of Applied Voltage on the Aggregation and Conformational Changes in Peroxidase Under Electrospray
    Food Bioproc. Tech. (IF 3.032) Pub Date : 2019-12-11
    Jingjing Xu, Bo Wang, Yuchuan Wang, Min Zhang, Bimal Chitrakar

    The application of electrospray to treat enzyme solution can produce electrically charged micro- or nanoparticles. Peroxidase is usually regarded as a typical enzyme indicating quality changes. In this study, we evaluated the effect of voltage on peroxidase inactivation under electrospray, and the structural changes caused by increasing voltages were analyzed. The results showed that peroxidase activity decreased with the increasing applied voltages. The relative residual activity of peroxidase reduced to 7.7% by electrospray applied with the voltage of 25 kV. The alteration of particle size and zeta potential indicated that the applied voltage caused aggregation or dissociation of peroxidase, affecting the activity of the peroxidase. From the analysis of spectra for electrospray treatment and control (no voltage), the former had a significant effect (p < 0.05) on the damage of secondary structure (α-helix) stability and has changed the spatial position of tertiary structure. This study provides a sound basis for the application of electrospray in enzyme inactivation and advanced food processing.

  • Linear and Non-linear Rheology of Bread Doughs Made from Blends of Wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.) and Rye ( Secale cereale L.) Flour
    Food Bioproc. Tech. (IF 3.032) Pub Date : 2019-12-09
    Yannick Meeus, Frederik Janssen, Arno G. B. Wouters, Jan A. Delcour, Paula Moldenaers

    Strain hardening of wheat flour (WF) proteins during fermentation and baking is at the basis of the excellent quality of wheat breads. Yet, there are good reasons to use rye flour (RF), such as its high content of dietary fiber and other bioactives. However, rye proteins lack the ability to form dough with sufficient strain hardening capacity under extension, which partially explains the inferior quality of rye breads. A promising strategy to make high-quality breads with high nutritional value is the use of WF and RF blends. Despite this, the rheological behavior of WF/RF bread doughs has not yet been investigated. This study examines their rheology by non-linear uniaxial extensional and small-amplitude oscillatory shear measurements, and relates these measurements to the quality of the resulting breads. The strain hardening index (SHI), derived from extensional measurements, is expressed as the transient extensional viscosity at maximum strain [ηe+(εmax)] relative to the linear extensional viscosity extrapolated to maximum strain [ηe0+(εmax)]. Both the SHI and bread volume decreased when the level of RF in the blend increased. As an example, replacing 60% WF by RF led to a relative decrease of the SHI and bread volume of 34 and 64%, respectively. The decrease of the SHI is correlated to an increase in ηe0+(εmax). Comparison of the extensional curves of doughs made with blends of WF and RF and doughs made with blends of WF and wheat starch (WS) further revealed that RF components play a major role in the rheology of the doughs. In conclusion, it was found that WF/RF blends need to contain at least 60% WF to obtain bread of proper quality.

  • Effects of ε-Polylysine/Chitosan Composite Coating and Pressurized Argon in Combination with MAP on Quality and Microorganisms of Fresh-Cut Potatoes
    Food Bioproc. Tech. (IF 3.032) Pub Date : 2019-12-09
    Xu Shen, Min Zhang, Kai Fan, Zhimei Guo

    Effects of ε-polylysine/chitosan (ε-PL/CS) composite coating and pressurized argon (Ar) in combination with modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) on the quality and the microbial load of fresh-cut potatoes during refrigeration were studied. Sliced potatoes were treated with pressurized Ar at 4 MPa for 1 h, and then immersed in ε-PL (1 g L−1)/CS solution for 1 min. Treated samples were sealed in MAP (94% N2, 4% O2, 2% CO2), and stored at 4 °C. Water loss, ascorbic acid content, respiration rate, malondialdehyde content, color, firmness, enzyme activities, and microbial load were measured at 3-day intervals. Results indicated that synergistic treatment (ε-PL/CS + pressurized Ar) significantly delayed the losses of water, ascorbic acid, color, and firmness, and inhibited the increase of respiratory rate, MDA content, and enzyme activity (PPO and POD). The microbial loads including coliform, mold, and yeast counts were significantly reduced. Preservation effect of pressurized Ar was noted to be superior to that of ε-PL/CS composite coating. Therefore, ε-PL/CS composite coating and pressurized Ar in combination with MAP is an effective method for maintaining the quality and improving the safety of fresh-cut potatoes during refrigeration.

  • Effect of High Hydrostatic Pressure (HHP) Processing on Immunoreactivity and Spatial Structure of Peanut Major Allergen Ara h 1
    Food Bioproc. Tech. (IF 3.032) Pub Date : 2019-12-06
    Di Pan, Biling Tang, Huipeng Liu, Zhenglong Li, Rongrong Ma, Yajuan Peng, Xuee Wu, Liming Che, Ning He, Xueping Ling, Yuanpeng Wang

    Ara h 1 is recognized as a major peanut allergen. The effects of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) on the immunoreactivity and structure of Ara h 1 were investigated in this study. The immunoreactivity of Ara h 1 was considerably reduced (P < 0.01) after HHP treatment (≥ 400 MPa) with the increase of pressure holding time. The maximum reduction of 74.32% was achieved at 600 MPa for 1200 s. The particle size and molecular weight of Ara h 1 increased, and the secondary/tertiary structure changed markedly. The decrease of the immunoreactivity of Ara h 1 was mainly due to the changes in conformation (especially the tertiary structure) and the formation of new multimers, resulting in the inactivation of immunoreactive sites. Results indicate that HHP technology has the potential to be applied to the preparation of hypoallergenic peanut products.

  • Aldehydes as Wort Off-Flavours in Alcohol-Free Beers—Origin and Control
    Food Bioproc. Tech. (IF 3.032) Pub Date : 2019-12-03
    D. C. Gernat, E. Brouwer, M. Ottens

    Although present in concentrations in microgrammes per litre level, aldehydes, in particular those derived from Strecker degradation, are known to majorly contribute to the undesired wort flavour of alcohol-free beers. In order to improve currently available products, one needs to understand the underlying cause for the over-prevalence and identify leverage points and methods to selectively reduce the aldehydes in alcohol-free beers. This work gives a short overview on relevant flavour-active wort flavours identified in alcohol-free beer and on their involved chemical formation pathways. Consequently, aldehyde removal technologies in general and in brewing industry are presented. Adsorptive removal of off-flavours by aldehyde-scavenging groups is already widely exploited in the packaging industry and may achieve reduction of these components to near depletion, depending on the process conditions. Its principles are adaptable to recovering off-flavours before filling. Also, supercritical CO2 extraction has been successfully applied to separate flavours from food matrices. In brewing, the focus has been set to biologic conversion by restricted fermentation steps, but the reduction of key components of more than 70% is not achieved. Newer developments focus on thermal separation techniques that not only include non-specific physical dealcoholisation but also more selective technologies such as pervaporation, where aldehydes are reduced to near depletion. However, for most unit operations, selectivity and capacity are not yet investigated. Future research should explore the shortcomings of current techniques and overcome bottlenecks either by developing more specific methods for aldehyde removal and/or a clever combination of unit operations to optimise the separation and process integration.

  • Effect of Salicylic Acid Incorporated Chitosan Coating on Shelf Life Extension of Fresh In-Hull Pistachio Fruit
    Food Bioproc. Tech. (IF 3.032) Pub Date : 2019-12-02
    Homa Molamohammadi, Zahra Pakkish, Hamid-Reza Akhavan, Vahid Reza Saffari

    The effect of edible coating on the postharvest quality of fresh pistachio covered by a yellow-red colored soft shell (hull) was evaluated. Fresh pistachio fruit were immersed in different surface treatment solutions of 2% (w/v) chitosan (CT) in 0.5% acetic acid solution, 2 mmol L−1 salicylic acid (SA), and the combination of CT and SA (CT-SA), then packed in perforated polyethylene terephthalate (PET), and stored in a refrigerator for 28 days at 4 °C. Distilled water and 0.5% acetic acid solution containing 0.1% Tween were considered as control treatments. The weight loss and also the peroxide and free fatty acid values of treated fresh pistachio fruit were lower than the controls at the end of the storage period. The activity of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and peroxidase enzymes in the treated pistachio fruit was significantly higher compared to controls (p < 0.05). The SA-treated pistachio fruit shows the lowest activity of polyphenol oxidase. Also, the pistachio fruit treated with CT and SA were lighter (L*), redder (a*), and more yellow (b*) in color as compared with controls, so that the highest sensory scores of color, texture, and overall acceptance were attributed to these treatments. Interestingly, SA treatment resulted in a remarkable superiority of the fruit color score among the samples. Furthermore, the CT and SA treatments alone or in combination significantly reduced the growth of bacteria and fungi. Overall, it can be concluded that SA and CT-SA treatments can assure the safety and quality of fresh pistachio fruit in refrigerated storage.

  • Effect of Sustainable Chemical Modifications on Pasting and Gel Properties of Sorghum and Cassava Starch
    Food Bioproc. Tech. (IF 3.032) Pub Date : 2019-12-02
    Pablo Martín Palavecino, María Cecilia Penci, Pablo Daniel Ribotta

    Starch isolated from two different sorghum hybrids and a commercial cassava starch were modified in order to assess the improvement in rheological and thermal properties that could be produced by sustainable methods. Modifications were acetylation with acetic anhydride, hydrolysis with acetic acid, and esterification with octanoyl chloride. All sorghum starch paste exhibited higher syneresis than cassava ones and acetylation slightly improved water retention. In general, pasting profiles were significantly altered throughout modifications and the paste textural properties and rheological results suggested a physical gel behavior. Cassava and white sorghum unmodified gels showed higher values of textural parameters than those of brown sorghum. The flow data were adequately fitted by the power-law model (R2 > 0.96) with flow behavior index < 1. The acetylation, acid treatment, and octanoyl esterification of cassava and sorghum starch resulted in significant changes in water interaction, indicating a wider range of properties.

  • Gaseous Ozone as a Suitable Solution for Postharvest Chestnut Storage: Evaluation of Quality Parameter Trends
    Food Bioproc. Tech. (IF 3.032) Pub Date : 2019-11-30
    Anna Maria Vettraino, Vittorio Vinciguerra, Giulia Pacini, Roberto Forniti, Valentina Goffi, Rinaldo Botondi

    The storage of chestnuts is a highly critical phase due to the considerable postharvest losses of the product with relevant commercial impact. The effect on the chemical quality parameters of chestnuts treated with 300 ppb of gaseous ozone in air or in atmospheric air at T = 2 °C for 150 days during the storage has been investigated. The ozone treatment increased sucrose and total sugar contents; while tocopherols were reduced. No significant differences in weight loss and fatty acid content were recorded between chestnut treated with ozone and untreated fruits (P ≥ 0.05). In addition, chestnut ozone exposure for 150 days reduced the total microbial populations associated with the pericarps of about 1.6 logs for mesophilic bacteria and 1.0 logs for fungi. Overall, our results suggested that gaseous ozone treatment is a valid and economic technology to ensure the shelf life quality of chestnut during the long storage periods.

  • Evaluation of UV-C Irradiation Treatments on Microbial Safety, Ascorbic Acid, and Volatile Aromatics Content of Watermelon Beverage
    Food Bioproc. Tech. (IF 3.032) Pub Date : 2019-11-27
    Brahmaiah Pendyala, Ankit Patras, Ramaswamy Ravi, Vybhav Vipul Sudhir Gopisetty, Michael Sasges

    UV-C treatment technology is proposed as a potential alternative to thermal treatments for decontamination of beverages because heat may adversely affect the nutritive value and quality. Effects of UV-C irradiation processing on microbial inactivation, ascorbic acid, and volatile aromatics of watermelon beverage were evaluated using a flow-through UV system. Selected microbial agents Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Bacillus cereus endospores were inactivated by 5.31 ± 0.01 and 6.1 ± 0.01 log CFU mL−1 at UV equivalent fluence levels of 12 and 60 mJ cm−2, respectively. At UV pasteurization equivalent exposure (40 mJ cm−2), 93% ascorbic acid was retained. No significant loss of volatile aromatic aldehydes was noticed at fluence 40 mJ cm−2. Overall, the results support the UV-C processing as an alternative to traditional thermal processing to preserve quality in conjunction with microbial safety aspects of watermelon beverage.

  • Impact of the Pretreatment of Grains on the Interparticle Porosity of Feed Material and the Torque Supplied During the Extrusion of Brown Rice
    Food Bioproc. Tech. (IF 3.032) Pub Date : 2019-11-26
    Jhony Willian Vargas-Solórzano, José Luis Ramírez Ascheri, Carlos Wanderlei Piler Carvalho, Cristina Yoshie Takeiti, Melicia Cintia Galdeano

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of drying, grinder type, and moistening conditions on the interparticle porosity of feed material and the torque supplied to the screw during the single-screw extrusion processing of brown rice. The grains were dried at 60 °C up to moisture contents of 9 and 6% and then milled using two grinder types (disc and roller). The milled products were moistened at levels to produce extruded snacks (11 and 14%). Irrespective of drying the grains, lower particle diameters in the fine and coarse fractions, and narrower distributions were obtained by grinding brown rice in a roller mill than in a disc mill. The disc mill products presented lower interparticle porosity and generated higher torque values than the roller mill products. A reduction in grain moisture from 9 to 6% only decreased the interparticle porosity of disc mill products and increased the torque. An increase in feed moisture from 11 to 14% only increased the interparticle porosity of roller mill products and decreased the torque regardless of grain moisture. This work contributed to understanding the impact of the morphology of the particles in the torque variability during the extrusion processing of brown rice. Few published works correlate physical properties of the feed material with extrusion dependent variables. In the present study, feed materials with high interparticle porosity were produced with roller mill and when extruded they generated low variabilities in the torque.

  • Development and Characterization of Lipid-Based Nanosystems: Effect of Interfacial Composition on Nanoemulsion Behavior
    Food Bioproc. Tech. (IF 3.032) Pub Date : 2019-11-26
    Hélder D. Silva, Miguel A. Cerqueira, Francesco Donsì, Ana C. Pinheiro, Giovanna Ferrari, António A. Vicente

    Nanoemulsions were successfully developed through high-pressure homogenization. The layer-by-layer electrostatic technique was used for the subsequent deposition of a chitosan and alginate polyelectrolyte layers, thus leading to the development of a multilayer nanoemulsion. The effect of polyelectrolytes concentration in the development of multilayer nanoemulsions was evaluated in terms of hydrodynamic diameter (Hd), polydispersity index (PdI), zeta potential (Zp), and curcumin encapsulation efficiency. The interactions between polyelectrolytes and nanoemulsion were further analyzed using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and quartz crystal microbalance (QCM), while curcumin degradation was determined through the evaluation of the antioxidant capacity of the nanosystems. Results showed an encapsulation efficiency of 99.8 ± 0.8% and a loading capacity of 0.53 ± 0.03% (w/w). The presence of the multilayers leads to an increase of the Hd of the nanosystems, from 80.0 ± 0.9 nm (nanoemulsion) to 130.1 ± 1.5 nm (multilayer nanoemulsion). Release profiles were evaluated at different conditions, fitting a linear superposition model to experimental data suggests an anomalous behavior, being the relaxation of the surfactant and polyelectrolytes the rate-determining phenomena in curcumin release. The developed nanosystems showed great potential for the incorporation of lipophilic bioactive compounds, in view of their application in food and pharmaceutical products.

  • Clarification of Apple Juice Using New Generation Nanocomposite Membranes Fabricated with TiO 2 and Al 2 O 3 Nanoparticles
    Food Bioproc. Tech. (IF 3.032) Pub Date : 2019-11-26
    Solmaz Sebnem Severcan, Nigmet Uzal, Kevser Kahraman

    To enhance anti-fouling properties of polymeric membranes during apple juice clarification, PSF/PEI (20/2 wt%) ultrafiltration (UF) membranes were modified with TiO2 and Al2O3 nanoparticles using the phase inversion method. Turbid apple juice samples were clarified using cross-flow membrane filtration system. All fabricated nanocomposite UF membranes had higher apple juice flux values than PSF/PEI membrane. Membrane prepared with 0.01% TiO2 (UFT1) had the highest apple juice flux (at steady state, 44.6 L/m2h). The FRR (%) value of TiO2 and Al2O3 incorporated UF membranes was between 90.9–94.0% and 79.6–97.6%, respectively, and these FRR values were higher than that of PSF/PEI membrane (UF2, 60.3%). Porosity and hydrophilicity of the UF membranes significantly increased with the addition of nanoparticles and the highest porosity and hydrophilicity was achieved in the 0.01% TiO2 incorporated UF membrane (UFT1) membrane. Higher flux recovery ratio (FRR) and lower relative flux reduction (RFR) values of Al2O3 and TiO2 incorporated nanocomposite membranes, compared with the unmodified membrane, demonstrated the enhancement in the anti-fouling properties of the PSF/PEI membrane. SEM images of the nanocomposite membranes also proved the nanoparticle incorporation to the PSF/PEI matrix. Color, turbidity, total soluble solid, total phenolic content, and antioxidant capacity of the samples using nanocomposite membranes were better than that of clarified using both commercial and unmodified membranes. TiO2 incorporated nanocomposite membranes had superior performance than Al2O3 incorporated nanocomposite membranes and among these membranes, the ones prepared with the addition of 0.01 wt% TiO2 exhibit the best performance in terms of clarification of apple juice.

  • Encapsulation of Pomegranate Seed Oil by Emulsification Followed by Spray Drying: Evaluation of Different Biopolymers and Their Effect on Particle Properties
    Food Bioproc. Tech. (IF 3.032) Pub Date : 2019-11-25
    Talita A. Comunian, Ana Gabriela da Silva Anthero, Eveling Oliveira Bezerra, Izabel Cristina Freitas Moraes, Miriam Dupas Hubinger

    Pomegranate seed oil (PSO) is rich in bioactive compounds and is susceptible to oxidation. This research sought to encapsulate PSO in conventional and Pickering emulsions using whey protein isolate (WPI) microgels, WPI in its natural form, gum Arabic (GA), and WPI combinations with GA, maltodextrin (MD), and modified starch (Capsul®) as aqueous phase/emulsifier followed by spray drying. Emulsions with 1.39–2.55 μm droplet size, low viscosity (1.47–3.96 mPa s), and final interfacial tensions of 4.21–9.97 mN m−1 were obtained. All formulations were stable with the Turbiscan stability index between 4.57% and 12.95% at 24 h. Emulsions resulted in particles with encapsulation efficiency and yield of 56.28–73.83% and 28.07–93.99%, respectively. PSO powders had small particle sizes (9.86–22.60 μm), high glass transition temperature (103.24–121.62 °C), and oxidative stability index (OSI) of 2.71 h and in the range of 4.11–21.23 h for non-encapsulated and encapsulated PSO, respectively. All formulations promoted the oil oxidative protection when compared with the non-encapsulated one. Treatments presented feasible values of Aw, moisture, solubility, and hygroscopicity for handling and storage of the powders. WPI, WPI:Capsul®, and Pickering treatments promoted greater protection of the encapsulated oil; however, the combination of WPI with modified starch was considered the best wall material, allowing protection of PSO and future applications in the food industry.

  • Freshness Maintenance of Blueberries ( Vaccinium corymbosum L.) During Postharvest Using Ozone in Aqueous Phase: Microbiological, Structure, and Mechanical issues
    Food Bioproc. Tech. (IF 3.032) Pub Date : 2019-11-25
    Gabriela Jaramillo-Sánchez, Eunice V. Contigiani, Maria A. Castro, Karina Hodara, Stella M. Alzamora, Analía García Loredo, Andrea B. Nieto

    The effect of aqueous ozone at different doses on fungal incidence, microstructure, mechanical properties, and weight loss of blueberry fruit (Vaccinium corymbosum, cv. O’Neal) throughout 20 days of storage at 4 ± 1 °C was studied. Fruits were exposed to 10 and 18 mg O3 L-1 in a bubble column for different periods of time ranging from 10 to 30 min. Native mycobiota and Botrytis cinerea incidences were reduced by ozone exposure. After 15 days of storage, exposure to 18 mg O3 L-1 for 10 and 20 min reduced the percentage of infected fruit in ~ 34 and 40 %, respectively, when compared with untreated blueberries. Slight but no significant differences among ozone treatments were observed for native mycobiota and B. cinerea incidence. Stiffness, rupture force, and mechanical work required to break the fruit epidermis were not significantly affected by ozone treatments. The effect of ozone treatment on weight loss of blueberries was dose-dependent and was partially correlated with microstructural changes induced by ozone: disruptions in outer tangential and epidermal cell walls and alteration of the cuticle. Exposure times beyond 15 min significantly increased weight loss and did not achieve greater fungal inhibition with respect to 10- and 15-min ozonized fruit. Thus, the ozone dose to be selected would be limited by the negative effect on weight loss. Exposure to 18 mg O3 L-1 for 10 min would be the most suitable treatment to reduce fungal decay without causing an excessive loss of weight along cold storage.

  • Characteristics of Pitaya After Radio Frequency Treating: Structure, Phenolic Compounds, Antioxidant, and Antiproliferative Activity
    Food Bioproc. Tech. (IF 3.032) Pub Date : 2019-11-23
    Yingbin Shen, Luyao Zheng, Min Gou, Tianyu Xia, Wenhao Li, Xun Song, Hao Jiang

    The performances of radio frequency (RF) heating treatment of pitaya fruits, with varying distances between the electrode plates, were investigated. The data indicated that a large gap between the electrode plates would reduce the highest temperature and the temperature rising rates. Contrarily, Smaller gap between the electrode plates always resulted in non-uniform heating. However, the RF heating treatment method was effective for enzyme inactivation. The results of the antiproliferative activity and cellular antioxidant activity (CAA) assay indicated that the RF heat treatment had limited effects on the functional features of the samples. However, the functional features of the pitaya samples obtained from the 100-mm and 120-mm gap RF heat treatments were better than those of the 140-mm and 160-mm gap RF heat-treated pitaya samples. The results suggested that RF heat treatment is an efficient method for enzyme inactivation.

  • Effects of Golden Flaxseed Flour on Ice Recrystallization in Uvaia ( Eugenia pyriformis Cambess.) Diet Sherbet
    Food Bioproc. Tech. (IF 3.032) Pub Date : 2019-11-23
    Tales Márcio de Oliveira Giarola, Cristina Guimarães Pereira, Mônica Elisabeth Torres Prado, Luiz Ronaldo de Abreu, Jaime Vilela de Resende

    In this study, the effects of golden flaxseed flour (GFF; Linum usitatissimum) concentrations (0, 1, 2, and 3%; w/w) on ice recrystallization in uvaia (Eugenia pyriformis Cambess.) diet sherbets fortified with iron were evaluated. Experiments were performed to simulate the conditions of temperature fluctuations. Samples were transferred from storage (− 25 °C) to a freezer programmed to perform 14 temperature fluctuation cycles ranging from − 20 °C/12 h to − 10 °C/12 h (each cycle, 48 h). The chemical composition and pH were determined before the temperature cycles. Physical parameters such as overrun, rheological properties of steady and dynamic shear, hardness, thermal properties, and ice crystal sizes were measured before the temperature cycles and every 7 days for 4 weeks. The sensory attributes were evaluated using an optimized descriptive profile (ODP). The ash content and pH results were statistically significant, and their values increased as the GFF concentration increased. The results were significant for instrumental hardness, initial melt resistance, rheological behavior, frequency and temperature sweeps, ice crystal size, and recrystallization. In the sensory evaluation, scores for coarse texture decreased and scores for GFF flavor increased as the GFF concentration increased. The ODP results were consistent with those for the rheological parameters, which justified the ice crystal size and ice recrystallization observed in the sherbets.

  • Highly Stable Microparticles of Cashew Apple ( Anacardium occidentale L.) Juice with Maltodextrin and Chemically Modified Starch
    Food Bioproc. Tech. (IF 3.032) Pub Date : 2019-11-22
    Paola D. D. S. Maia, Diego dos Santos Baião, Victor Paulo F. da Silva, Verônica Maria de Araújo Calado, Christiane Queiroz, Cristiana Pedrosa, Vera Lúcia Valente-Mesquita, Anna Paola T. R. Pierucci

    The cashew apple (Anacardium occidentale L.) is rich in antioxidants such as ascorbic acid, carotenoids, and phenolic compounds, in addition to the macronutrients. In recent years, there has been a growing demand of “easy to prepare” fruit products for the general population. This work aimed to evaluate the microencapsulation of cashew apple juice by spray drying using different ratios of encapsulating matrices and different concentrations of total solids. The formed microparticles were evaluated by the retention of ascorbic acid, total phenolics, moisture, yield, solubility, and particle size and morphology. Three samples formulated with 15% total solids and three encapsulating matrices (40:60% of maltodextrin: starch octenylsuccinate, 100% of maltodextrin, and 100% starch octenylsuccinate) were selected for the stability study. All microparticles were 100% soluble, and the best results were obtained using the microparticles with the highest total solids ratios (15%). When using a single encapsulant, starch octenyl succinate was superior to maltodextrin in terms of ascorbic acid and total phenolics retention, moisture, yield, solubility, and particle size. The microparticles with 40:60% of maltodextrin: octenylsuccinate and 15% total solid showed the highest ascorbic acid and total phenolics retention as well as good physical properties and better performance when compared to other encapsulating matrix compositions. The microencapsulated cashew apple juice using such a formulation can be used in the food industry to produce functional and special-purpose foods to promote human health.

  • Microencapsulation of Garlic Extract by Complex Coacervation Using Whey Protein Isolate/Chitosan and Gum Arabic/Chitosan as Wall Materials: Influence of Anionic Biopolymers on the Physicochemical and Structural Properties of Microparticles
    Food Bioproc. Tech. (IF 3.032) Pub Date : 2019-11-21
    Loleny Tavares, Hélio Lopes Barbosa Barros, Júlio César Pacheco Vaghetti, Caciano Pelayo Zapata Noreña

    The aim of this study was to encapsulate garlic extract by complex coacervation method using whey protein isolate (WPI)/chitosan (CH) and gum Arabic (GA)/CH as wall materials. Two anionic biopolymers (GA and WPI) were used to find the most suitable wall materials to interact electrostatically with cationic CH. The complex coacervates were freeze-dried to obtain microparticles powders. The microparticles were examined for the nitrogen adsorption/desorption, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), sorption isotherms, zeta potential, antioxidant activity, total phenolic content, solubility, moisture content, hygroscopicity, size distribution, and water activity. X-ray diffractograms evidenced microparticles with amorphous structure. WPI/CH and GA/CH microparticles showed surface area of 2.23 and 2.40 m2 g−1 and mean pore diameter of 5.20 and 5.37 nm, respectively. The nitrogen adsorption/desorption assay showed that microparticles presented mesopores and macropores that resulted in quick completion of microparticles surface monolayer with nitrogen. The sorption characteristics of microparticles followed the type II isotherm and Guggenheim-Anderson-de Boer (GAB) model was the best model to fit the experimental data. FTIR spectrum of microparticles reveals physical interactions between garlic compounds and functional groups of wall materials, indicating that garlic compounds were intact and encapsulated. TGA results indicated that the wall materials were effective in protecting the garlic sensitive compounds. The negative carboxyl groups (–COO−) of GA were better than WPI for coacervation with positive amino groups (NH3+) of chitosan in terms of less hygroscopicity, smaller particle size, and higher retention of garlic phenolic compounds.

  • Effects of Pulsed Electric Fields on Vacuum Drying and Quality Characteristics of Dried Carrot
    Food Bioproc. Tech. (IF 3.032) Pub Date : 2019-11-21
    Caiyun Liu, Annachiara Pirozzi, Giovanna Ferrari, Eugene Vorobiev, Nabil Grimi

    This study investigates the effect of pulsed electric fields (PEF) on the kinetics of vacuum drying (VD) of carrot and on the preservation of the quality of dried carrot tissue. The impacts of PEF-treatment and VD on β-carotene content and color of carrot samples were studied. PEF treatment was applied with intensity E = 0.6 kV/cm and total treatment time tPEF = 0.1 s to reach a high level of carrot tissue electroporation. The VD was applied at the pressure p = 0.3 bar for different temperatures, Td = 25, 50, 75, and 90 °C. The spectrophotometric method was used to determine the β-carotene content. The color was measured using the CIE L* a* b* method. Obtained results indicated that PEF treatment let to a noticeable decrease of drying time (by 33–55% at Td = 25–90 °C). The activation energy was found to be 18.25 kJ/mol and 13.4 kJ/mol for untreated and PEF-pretreated samples, respectively. The reduction of drying time by PEF pretreatment was beneficial for the retention of β-carotene in dried samples. The application of PEF treatment resulted in smaller changes in color ∆E as compared with untreated samples; this tendency was observed for all studied temperatures.

  • Bimetallic and Trimetallic Nanoparticles for Active Food Packaging Applications: A Review
    Food Bioproc. Tech. (IF 3.032) Pub Date : 2019-11-18
    Nagaraj Basavegowda, Tapas K. Mandal, Kwang-Hyun Baek

    Nanotechnology is poised to have a huge impact on food packaging applications. Bimetallic and trimetallic nanoparticles (NPs) are formed by combining two and three different metals and metal oxides, respectively. Compared with monometallic NPs, bimetallic and trimetallic NPs have attracted immense attention because of their diverse shape, size, high surface-to-volume ratios, chemical/physical stability, activity, and greater degree of selectivity, with respect to both technological and scientific view. Metal and metal oxide NPs proved to be highly potent antimicrobial and antioxidant properties, together with nanobiosensors for tracing and monitoring the condition of food. These nanostructured materials embedded with both biodegradable and non-degradable polymer to increase mechanical strength and barrier properties to extend the shelf life of various foods. In addition, polymer nanocomposites are treated with essential oils (EOs) to improve their performance in food packaging. In this review, we summarized most recent innovations in food packaging, merits, and demerits of biodegradable and non-degradable polymer used for food packaging. It also provides the different synthetic methods, importance of bimetallic and trimetallic NPs in relation to food packaging to enhance the shelf life of food. Finally, mode of action, toxicity, regulation, and legislation for safety in human consumption and the environment are also discussed.

  • Psyllium as a Fat Replacer in Layer Cakes: Batter Characteristics and Cake Quality
    Food Bioproc. Tech. (IF 3.032) Pub Date : 2019-11-16
    Mayara Belorio, Marta Sahagún, Manuel Gómez

    Consumers are demanding healthier and lower calorific products. In this study, oil was substituted in layer cakes using a combination of psyllium and water. Psyllium was used as an oil replacer because of its gelling and emulsifying properties, as well as its beneficial health properties. Substitutions of 25, 50, 75 and 100% were carried out to evaluate batter (density and bubble distribution) and cake characteristics (specific volume, weight loss, texture and colour). An acceptability test was also made. A higher substitution of oil increased bubble size, but no significant difference was observed in batter density. Increasing the oil replacement decreased the specific volume of cakes; however, there was no significant difference in hardness compared with control cake, even after 7 days of storage. There was no significant difference in cohesiveness and springiness when 25% of the oil was replaced, but it did increase with higher substitution levels. Crust colour became lighter with increases in oil replacement, showing smaller values to a* and higher to b*. Cakes replaced with 25% of psyllium and water showed no significant differences in acceptability when compared with control cakes, but those with up to 75% of oil replacement were highly acceptable (7 out of 9 points).

  • High-Pressure Processing (HPP) for Decreasing Weight Loss of Fresh Albacore ( Thunnus alalunga ) Steaks
    Food Bioproc. Tech. (IF 3.032) Pub Date : 2019-11-12
    Lucía Cartagena, Eduardo Puértolas, Iñigo Martínez de Marañón

    This research is focused on optimizing high-pressure processing (HPP) for decreasing weight loss of albacore steaks (Thunnus alalunga) while retaining as much as possible the quality of fresh fish. After HPP treatments (0.1–500 MPa, 2 min), samples were stored (24 h, 4°C) and then analyzed (weight loss, color, texture, appearance, water holding capacity, salt-soluble protein content, and lipid oxidation). Weight loss increased from 50 to 150 MPa, without other substantial modification. Above 200 MPa, HPP treatment caused a progressive weight loss reduction. 200 MPa decreased weight loss by 41.6% with respect to 150 MPa, without noticeable changes in color, texture, appearance, or lipid oxidation. 250 MPa decreased weight loss by 50.1% compared to the controls but produced minor changes in color. 500 MPa provoked the maximum reduction of weight loss with respect to the controls (59%), although it caused marked differences in all quality parameters, which would affect consumer acceptance.

  • Influence of Novel Infrared Freeze Drying of Rose Flavored Yogurt Melts on Their Physicochemical Properties, Bioactive Compounds and Energy Consumption
    Food Bioproc. Tech. (IF 3.032) Pub Date : 2019-11-12
    Kay Khaing Hnin, Min Zhang, Sakamon Devahastin, Bin Wang

    Attempt was made to produce a novel snack viz. dried rose flavored yogurt melts via the use of infrared freeze drying (IRFD). Selected physicochemical properties; color; hardness; rehydration time; total phenolics, flavonoids, and anthocyanins contents; microstructure; as well as sensory characteristics of samples prepared at different drying temperatures (45, 55, and 65 °C) were determined. Energy consumption of the drying process was also evaluated. The results were compared with those of conventional freeze drying (FD). IRFD samples exhibited smaller total color changes than those prepared by FD at the same drying temperatures. Hardness of FD samples was lower than that of IRFD samples at the same drying temperatures; IRFD sample prepared at 55 °C nevertheless received the highest total score among all the samples. FD samples exhibited shorter rehydration time compared with IRFD samples at the same drying temperatures. The analysis of microstructure of IRFD samples showed more compact layer structure compared to FD samples at the same drying temperature. Drying at 55 °C resulted in higher contents of phenolics and flavonoids, while drying at 45 °C resulted in the highest retention of anthocyanins. IRFD could save 5–14% of the drying time and 9–19% of the energy compared to FD at different drying temperatures.

  • Vacuum Belt Dehydration of Chopped Beetroot ( Beta vulgaris ) and Optimization of Powder Production Based on Physical and Chemical Properties
    Food Bioproc. Tech. (IF 3.032) Pub Date : 2019-11-07
    William L. Kerr, Audrey Varner

    Beets contain the red and yellow pigments known as betalains, as well as nitrates and other phytochemicals that may affect human health, and have been studied for possible effects on lowering blood pressure and enhancing athletic performance. Betalains are heat-labile, so developing relatively low-temperature drying methods is one way to turn the perishable root vegetable into a value-added ingredient. The objective of this study was to determine if continuous vacuum belt drying (VBD) could be used to produce powdered ingredients with good color, physical properties, and retention of betalains. Drying studies showed that drying rate could be increased somewhat by increasing temperatures from 75 to 95 °C, with drying times ranging from 160 to 115 min. Drying times were substantially shorter than for powders produced by freeze drying (FD) (26 h) or hot air drying (HAD) (~ 6 h). Properties such as flowability or color did not depend on drying temperature. VBD beet powders had a red-purplish color that was slightly darker (L* = 25.74) than for freeze-dried powders (L* = 38.92). In contrast, HAD samples were much darker than VBD or FD powders, and showed signs of browning. Flowability was improved by the addition of maltodextrins, but at the expense of some increase in drying time. VBD powders were less hygroscopic than FD powders, but reached the same final moisture content. HAD powders were less hygroscopic. VBD samples had slightly lower betalain levels (261–273 mg betanin/g dry beet) than FD powders (291.2 mg betanin/g dry beet). Both had much greater levels than HAD powders (127.8 mg betanin/g dry beet). Powder dried at 95 °C without maltodextrin was optimal as it dried most quickly and had minimal betalain loss.

  • The Mediation of NO-Enhanced Chilling Tolerance by GSK-3 in Postharvest Peach Fruit
    Food Bioproc. Tech. (IF 3.032) Pub Date : 2019-11-07
    Caifeng Jiao, Yuquan Duan

    The role of glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) in nitric oxide (NO)-enhanced chilling tolerance in postharvest peach fruit was investigated. The fruits were immersed in sodium nitroprusside (SNP; exogenous NO donor) and bikinin (GSK-3 inhibitor). Results showed that the chilling injury (CI) index declined following the exposure of the peach fruit to exogenous SNP. SNP treatment also induced GSK-3 expression. Furthermore, SNP treatment reduced malondialdehyde (MDA) content and electrolyte leakage in the peach fruit. In addition, SNP treatment induced the increase in alternative oxidase (AOX) activity and the upregulation of the gene expression of 18.1-kDa class I heat shock protein (HSP), WRKY2, and C-repeat binding factor (CBF). The effects of SNP treatment were partly weakened by the addition of bikinin. These findings indicate that GSK-3 mediated the reduction of MDA content and electrolyte leakage and the activation of AOX, 18.1-kDa class I HSP, WRKY2, and CBF by NO, thereby inducing chilling tolerance in peach fruit.

  • The inhibitory effect of chlorogenic acid on lipid oxidation of grass carp ( Ctenopharyngodon idellus ) during chilled storage
    Food Bioproc. Tech. (IF 3.032) Pub Date : 2019-11-07
    Qiongju Cao, Hongying Du, Yuan Huang, Yang Hu, Juan You, Ru Liu, Shanbai Xiong, Anne Manyande

    Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) is a kind of freshwater fish which is rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids and easily exposed to lipid oxidation during refrigeration. The effect of chlorogenic acid (CGA) on lipid oxidation, protein oxidation, enzymatic activities, and color stability of grass carp muscle during chilled storage was investigated. The lipid oxidation was inhibited by CGA, as evidenced by lower thiobarbituric acid values, peroxide values, carbonyl valence, less free fatty acid content, and higher amount of unsaturated fatty acid compared to the control group. CGA also had a positive effect on the whiteness value and the stability of protein oxidation of fish samples. In addition, the inhibitory study of CGA on endogenous lipase and lipoxygenase activities of fish muscle can help to partly illustrate the mechanism that retains its freshness effect. The results indicate that CGA is a novel natural additive which can be used to inhibit lipid and protein oxidation and be applied in the storage of aquatic products or some similar fields.

  • Correction to: Fabrication of Gel-like Emulsions with Whey Protein Isolate Using Microfluidization: Rheological Properties and 3D Printing Performance
    Food Bioproc. Tech. (IF 3.032) Pub Date : 2019-11-05
    Yaowei Liu, Wenjin Zhang, Keyu Wang, Yulong Bao, Joe Mac Regenstein, Peng Zhou

    The original version of this article unfortunately contained some mistakes. The Fig. 7 was published with incomplete content due to incorrect image processing.

  • Behavioral Solubilization of Peanut Protein Isolate by Atmospheric Pressure Cold Plasma (ACP) Treatment
    Food Bioproc. Tech. (IF 3.032) Pub Date : 2019-11-04
    Hui Ji, Fei Han, Shanli Peng, Jiaojiao Yu, Ling Li, Yunguo Liu, Yue Chen, Shuhong Li, Ye Chen

    The solubilization of peanut protein isolate (PPI) powders modified by atmospheric pressure cold plasma (ACP) treatment was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (low-field NMR) spectroscopy, and FTIR spectroscopy. Significant improvements in both the solubility and water holding capacity (WHC) of the PPI gel were observed after treatment with ACP. The PPI solubility reached a maximum value after 7 min of treatment, with a 12.17% increase over the values observed for the untreated samples. In addition, the WHC increased by 17.90% after 3 min of treatment. The SEM and EDS data revealed that following the 7-min treatment, the PPI surface was rougher and more loosely bound than that of the untreated sample. This indicated an increase in the PPI specific surface area and exposed protein–water binding sites on the treated PPI surface as well as a marked increase in its oxygen content, suggesting an increase in the hydrophilic groups on the PPI surface. The low-filed NMR measurements revealed that the trend in the T21 peak area of the relaxation time was consistent with the data observed for the WHC. The FTIR results revealed a decrease in the proportion of β-sheets and an increase in that of the β-turns within 3 min of treatment, suggesting that the polarity and hydrophilicity of the protein surface were enhanced. The protein structure changed from a compact folding to a loose unfolding configuration after ACP treatment.

  • Microencapsulation of Microbial Transglutaminase by Ultrasonic Spray-Freeze Drying
    Food Bioproc. Tech. (IF 3.032) Pub Date : 2019-11-02
    Hilal Isleroglu, Izzet Turker, Banu Koc, Mehmet Tokatli

    Microencapsulation of partially purified microbial transglutaminase (mTG) was investigated using ultrasonic spray-freeze drying (USFD), and the optimum coating materials (gum arabic, maltodextrin, inulin) ratio and the process parameters (flow rate and nozzle frequency) were determined using a D-optimal combined design. Also, the microencapsulated samples by USFD were compared with microencapsulated samples by conventional freeze drying (CFD) and conventional spray drying (CSD) in terms of microencapsulation efficiency, enzyme stability at extreme pH and high temperature conditions, and the presence of metal ions, physical (moisture content, particle morphology, particle and pore size, surface area, pore volume distribution, density and flow properties, caking degree, color), and reconstitution (wettability and solubility) properties. As a result, the optimum coating materials composition was determined as 60% gum arabic and 40% inulin, and process conditions were found to be flow rate of 6.83 ml/min and nozzle frequency of 48 kHz applying desirability function method. Microcapsules with smaller particle size, pore volume, and porosity, with lower moisture content and good reconstitution characteristics, were obtained by USFD with a maximum microencapsulation efficiency of ~ 97%.

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