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  • Otto von Guericke’s Cometary Theory in Stanisław Lubieniecki’s Correspondence
    J. Hist. Astron. (IF 0.514) Pub Date : 2020-06-03
    Maciej Jasiński

    Drawing on the results of his experiments with vacuum, Otto von Guericke put forward his own theory of comets. He explained this theory in his letters to Stanisław Lubieniecki who later published Guericke’s and his own letters in his Theatrum cometicum (1666–1668). Guericke also wrote about comets in his Experimenta nova (1672), simply reprinting the correspondence from Lubieniecki’s book. All subsequent

    更新日期:2020-06-30
  • From Mythology to Astronomy: Lists and Catalogues of Variable Stars
    J. Hist. Astron. (IF 0.514) Pub Date : 2020-06-03
    Endre Zsoldos

    After the discovery of the new star of 1572, we find similar phenomena enumerated in the contemporary literature. The earliest of such lists, like that of Riccioli, looked like the cometary historiae of the time. They listed various kinds of objects, which could be put into three classes: mythological, astronomical, and astrological. These compilations were usually gathered from a perusal of the literature

    更新日期:2020-06-30
  • Fotheringham’s 1920 Accelerations of the Sun and Moon Revisited
    J. Hist. Astron. (IF 0.514) Pub Date : 2020-06-03
    Leslie V. Morrison; F. Richard Stephenson; Catherine Y. Hohenkerk

    One hundred years ago, J.K. Fotheringham famously derived the “accelerations” of the Sun and Moon from the reports of 11 classical solar eclipses. We review critically the reliability of these eclipse reports and rework his diagrammatic method, treating the deceleration of the Earth’s rotation as an unknown, rather than the “acceleration” of the Sun. There is some serendipity in his choice of the critical

    更新日期:2020-06-30
  • The Determination of Stellar Temperatures From Baron B. Harkányi to the Gaia Mission
    J. Hist. Astron. (IF 0.514) Pub Date : 2020-06-03
    Kristóf Petrovay

    The first determination of the surface temperature of stars other than the Sun is due to the Hungarian astrophysicist Béla Harkányi. Prompted by the recent unprecedented increase in the availability of stellar temperature estimates from Gaia, coinciding with the 150th anniversary of Harkányi’s birth, this article presents the life and work of this neglected, yet remarkable figure in the context of

    更新日期:2020-06-30
  • Finding a Point of Observation in the Global South: The C. L. Gerling and J.M. Gilliss Correspondence (1847–1856)
    J. Hist. Astron. (IF 0.514) Pub Date : 2020-06-03
    Carlos Sanhueza-Cerda; Lorena B. Valderrama

    Historians of science have amply demonstrated the transnational character of science; however, they have not sufficiently attended to how several scientific projects were coordinated as part of global initiatives. Our research – based on the unpublished, written correspondence between Christian Ludwig Gerling in Germany and James M. Gilliss in the United States, from 1847 to 1856 – examines the issues

    更新日期:2020-06-30
  • Longomontanus’ Model for the Longitudes of Mars
    J. Hist. Astron. (IF 0.514) Pub Date : 2020-06-03
    Christián C. Carman

    When at the beginning of 1600, Kepler arrived to work with Tycho Brahe, Longomontanus, Tycho’s principal assistant, who was working with a model for Mars that predicted with remarkable accuracy its longitudes at oppositions. According to Kepler, this hypothesis “represented all these oppositions within a distance of two minutes in longitude.” The model, however, was unsuccessful in predicting longitudes

    更新日期:2020-06-30
  • The Liber Theoreumacie (1214) and the Early History of the Quadrans Vetus
    J. Hist. Astron. (IF 0.514) Pub Date : 2020-02-03
    C. Philipp E. Nothaft

    The Liber theoreumacie is a neglected work of practical geometry, written in Strasbourg in 1214, which sheds valuable light on the study and practice of astronomy in early thirteenth-century Europe. In this article, I focus on the first two chapters of Book IV, which both deal with the construction of horary instruments. The first of these chapters contains the earliest known account of the type of

    更新日期:2020-02-03
  • Astronomical Assessment of the Solar and Lunar Eclipse Records in Bede’s Ecclesiastical History and Its Continuation
    J. Hist. Astron. (IF 0.514) Pub Date : 2020-02-03
    F. Richard Stephenson; Leslie V. Morrison; Catherine Y. Hohenkerk

    The reports of seven eclipses of the Sun and Moon in Bede’s Ecclesiastical History and its Continuation are investigated for their astronomical accuracy using modern-day calculations. The eclipses can all be identified from the given dates, which are accurate to within 2 days, except for one lunar eclipse. There is evidence that the reports were obtained from a range of sources beyond the NE of England

    更新日期:2020-02-03
  • Temporary Measures: Women Computers at the Royal Observatory, Greenwich, 1890–1895
    J. Hist. Astron. (IF 0.514) Pub Date : 2020-02-03
    Kane Mullen

    Between 1890 and 1895, five women “computers” were hired to work at the Royal Observatory, Greenwich, one of the world’s leading observatories at the time. Caroline Herschel notwithstanding, these women were the very first in Britain to be paid for astronomical observation. They were hired as supernumerary computers – normally a temporary position reserved for young schoolboys. Instead of adhering

    更新日期:2020-02-03
  • Christmas 1668 and After: How Jesuit Astronomy Was Restored to Power in Beijing
    J. Hist. Astron. (IF 0.514) Pub Date : 2020-02-03
    Christopher Cullen; Catherine Jami

    This article offers new insights into a series of dramatic events that took place at the imperial Chinese court in December 1668, in which astronomy, politics, and religion all played major roles. Jesuit missionaries had served the Manchu rulers of the Qing 清dynasty as official astronomers since the dynasty seized Beijing in 1644. But in autumn 1664, the Jesuits at court were imprisoned as a result

    更新日期:2020-02-03
  • A Possible Date for Ptolemy’s Development of a Model for the Second Lunar Anomaly
    J. Hist. Astron. (IF 0.514) Pub Date : 2019-11-13
    Christián C. Carman

    Ptolemy explicitly claims in the Almagest to have made 36 observations. For most of them, the date of the observation is determined by the kind of phenomenon observed, for example, the observation of a lunar eclipse or of an equinox. There are six observations, however, in which a particular date is not required by the nature of the phenomenon under investigation. In five of them, Ptolemy measures

    更新日期:2019-11-13
  • Ibn al-Ḥadib’s Tables for Finding True Syzygy
    J. Hist. Astron. (IF 0.514) Pub Date : 2019-11-13
    Bernard R. Goldstein; José Chabás

    Isaac ben Solomon Ibn al-Ḥadib (or al-Aḥdab) emigrated from Castile to Sicily no later than 1396. In astronomy, his most important work, written in Hebrew, is The paved way (Oraḥ selula), a set of tables for the motions of the Sun and the Moon. Here, we focus attention on his unusual tables for finding the difference in time and the difference in longitude between mean and true syzygy, where syzygy

    更新日期:2019-11-13
  • Comet 27 P/Crommelin Observed in Ancient Korea
    J. Hist. Astron. (IF 0.514) Pub Date : 2019-11-13
    Jong Yong-Ki; Kim Jik-Su; Kim Chol-Jun; Choe Chol-Min

    The comet 27 P/Crommelin was discovered in 1457 and since then observed six times up to 1956, so its average period is 27.79 years. According to Korean ancient annals, however, comet 27 P/Crommelin was first observed in B.C. 44 and was observed 16 times up to 1457. We traced the records with a period of about 28 years, compiled a list of them and showed that all those records are concerned with the

    更新日期:2019-11-13
  • Why Halley Did Not Discover Proper Motion and Why Cassini Did
    J. Hist. Astron. (IF 0.514) Pub Date : 2019-11-13
    Frank Verbunt; Marc van der Sluys

    In 1717, Halley compared contemporaneous measurements of the latitudes of four stars with earlier measurements by ancient Greek astronomers and by Brahe, and from the differences concluded that these four stars showed proper motion. An analysis with modern methods shows that the data used by Halley do not contain significant evidence for proper motion. What Halley found are the measurement errors of

    更新日期:2019-11-13
  • New Astronomy in Service of Old Astrology: Close Planetary Conjunctions in Pre-Modern China
    J. Hist. Astron. (IF 0.514) Pub Date : 2019-11-13
    Liang Li

    This article introduces various definitions and criteria for the astronomical phenomena of “encroachments” (close lunar and planetary conjunctions) in pre-modern China. With improvements in observations and mathematical astronomy, the standard of encroachments began to undergo many changes leading to more precise explanations of the phenomena. Before the adoption of Huihui Lifa (Islamic-Chinese calendrical

    更新日期:2019-11-13
  • Paris 1676: The Discovery of the Velocity of Light and the Roles of Rømer and Cassini
    J. Hist. Astron. (IF 0.514) Pub Date : 2019-11-13
    Claus Fabricius

    It is often claimed that the 1676 discoveries at the Paris Observatory of a new irregularity in the orbit of Jupiter’s first satellite and of the velocity of light were not due to Rømer alone but that Cassini played a major role or even that Rømer took over these ideas from Cassini. These claims indirectly accuse Rømer and Cassini of dishonesty. We investigate the foundations of these allegations through

    更新日期:2019-11-13
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