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  • Investigation of the physical properties of carbon under high temperatures (experimental studies)
    Phys.-Usp. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2020-12-30
    A I Savvatimskii and S V Onufriev

    Key experimental studies (mainly pulse heating) aimed at obtaining the physical properties of the most refractory substance-graphite-in the temperature range of 2000-8000 K are discussed. The properties considered are enthalpy, input (Joule) energy, thermal expansion, specific heat, and electrical resistance, as well as their dependence on the level of applied pressure. The results obtained by pulsed

    更新日期:2021-01-02
  • Conductivity of quantum dot arrays
    Phys.-Usp. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2020-12-30
    K V Reich

    Arrays of quantum dots (QDs), i.e., semiconducting nanoparticles with typical sizes of 3-10 nm, have become more than merely an object of scientific research; they are now used in electronic devices. They are appealing mainly due to their optical properties, which depend on the QD size. Here, we consider the electronic properties of such arrays. These properties typically inherit the properties of

    更新日期:2021-01-02
  • Collective plasma excitations in two-dimensional electron systems
    Phys.-Usp. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2020-12-30
    V M Muravev and I V Kukushkin

    The latest results on the study of collective plasma excitations in two-dimensional electron systems based on AlGaAs/GaAs, AlGaAs/AlAs, and MgZnO/ZnO nanostructures and graphene are considered. Special attention is paid to the interaction of two-dimensional plasma with light. The results of experimental work on the discovery of a new family of plasma oscillations are presented. Possible avenues for

    更新日期:2021-01-02
  • Dielectric magnonics: from gigahertz to terahertz
    Phys.-Usp. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2020-12-30
    S A Nikitov, A R Safin, D V Kalyabin, A V Sadovnikov, E N Beginin, M Logunov, M A Morozova, S A Odintsov, S A Osokin, A Yu Sharaevskaya, Yu P Sharaevsky and A I Kirilyuk

    State-of-the-art studies of dielectric magnonics and magnon spintronics are reviewed. Theoretical and experimental approaches to exploring physical processes in and calculations of the parameters of magnonic micro- and nanostructures are described. We discuss the basic concepts of magnon spintronics, the underlying physical phenomena, and the prospects for applying magnon spintronics for data processing

    更新日期:2021-01-02
  • Irrotational flow (of a magnetic field or incompressible fluid) around a screen with a slot
    Phys.-Usp. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2020-12-30
    S F Garanin and S D Kuznetsov

    Problems concerning irrotational flows past obstacles may have physical applications in magneto- and electrostatics, as well as in the description of hydrodynamical flows of incompressible fluids. It is shown that for a magnetic field flow (or a flow of incompressible fluid in the hydrodynamical case) around an ideally conducting (impermeable) screen of width D with a narrow slot of width Δ a substantial

    更新日期:2021-01-02
  • Exoplanets: nature and models
    Phys.-Usp. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2020-12-10
    M Ya Marov and I I Shevchenko

    Exoplanets represent a broad new class of astronomical objects, which became accessible for observations and studies only just before the end of the last century. Owing to continually improving techniques of ground-based observations, and especially observations from space, for a little bit more than two decades thousands of planetary systems of other stars have been discovered, and this process is

    更新日期:2020-12-13
  • Measuring the inclusive cross section of e + e - annihilation into hadrons in the pre-asymptotic energy range
    Phys.-Usp. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2020-12-10
    K Yu Todyshev

    Among the observed variety of the natural phenomena reflected in experimental results, there are just a few physical features offering a view of a given fragment of the mosaic of physical laws in its entirety. One such remarkable fundamental feature is R , the ratio of the inclusive cross section of electron-positron annihilation into hadrons to the cross section of muon pair production in the Born

    更新日期:2020-12-13
  • Precise determination of crystal lattice parameters
    Phys.-Usp. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2020-12-10
    V V Lider

    Precision X-ray methods for absolute and relative determination of crystal lattice parameters (interplanar distances) are described and compared, including the X-ray divergent-beam (Kossel) technique, the Bond method, the Renninger method, the back reflection method, the interference method, and the method of standards. It is shown that for most of the considered methods, a relative accuracy of ~ 10

    更新日期:2020-12-13
  • Resonant charge transfer during ion scattering on metallic surfaces
    Phys.-Usp. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2020-12-10
    I K Gainullin

    Electron transfer during low-energy ion scattering (LEIS) is discussed in the article. In most cases, the final charge state of ions/atoms scattered from a metallic surface is formed due to resonant charge transfer (RCT). The key concepts, model representations, and basic laws of electronic exchange are systemized in the article. For practical usage, RCT is primarily important for surface diagnostics

    更新日期:2020-12-13
  • Electromagnetic analogue of a first-type leaky surface elastic wave for the single interface between transparent dielectric media
    Phys.-Usp. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2020-12-10
    Yu V Gulyaev, S V Tarasenko and V G Shavrov

    Under conditions of total internal reflection of a TM- (TE-) type of plane volume electromagnetic wave from the surface of a semi-infinite transparent anisotropic dielectric medium, a special type of fast improper surface wave can be formed (an exceptional surface wave). For these types of waves, the instantaneous flow of energy through the interface is zero. In this case, the reflection of a quasi-plane

    更新日期:2020-12-13
  • Earth embosomed by the Sun: heliophysics and space weather (Scientific session of the Physical Sciences Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 5 June 2019)
    Phys.-Usp. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2020-10-28

    On 5 June 2019, the Physical Sciences Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS) held a scientific session, entitled "Earth embosomed by the Sun: heliophysics and space weather" in the Conference Hall of the Lebedev Physical Institute, RAS. The meeting proceedings include the following presentations: (1) Bogachev S A (Lebedev Physical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow; Samara National

    更新日期:2020-10-30
  • Heliophysics: from observations to models and applications
    Phys.-Usp. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2020-10-28
    V D Kuznetsov and A I Osin

    Study of the physical phenomena and processes on the Sun and in the heliosphere, a natural plasma laboratory, is based on near-earth and space-based observations and building models which help to obtain a general view of how the Sun was made and how it works, while allowing one to address the practical problems of solar activity influencing space weather and its impact on various areas of human activity

    更新日期:2020-10-30
  • Modern view of the solar wind from micro to macro scales
    Phys.-Usp. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2020-10-28
    A A Petrukovich, H V Malova, V Yu Popov, E V Maiewski, V V Izmodenov, O A Katushkina, A A Vinogradov, M O Riazantseva, L S Rakhmanova, T V Podladchikova, G N Zastenker, Yu I Yermolaev, I G Lodkina and L S Chesalin

    Solar wind—a plasma stream flowing out of the solar corona—is interesting both as a carrier of solar activity and as an example of a collisionless plasma. We present the main results of Russian studies in recent years. The original MHD model allows interpreting the bifurcation of the heliospheric current sheet during maximum activity years as occurring due to the quadrupole component of the heliomagnetic

    更新日期:2020-10-30
  • Optical phonons with a negative oscillator strength
    Phys.-Usp. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2020-10-28
    E A Vinogradov

    We discuss the nature of additional (redundant from the point of view of selection rules) optical phonons observed in most crystals with ion-covalent bonds between atoms, including in their solid solutions. These `redundant' phonons are located in the frequency range of the longitudinal-transverse splitting of fundamental phonons, where the real part of the crystal permittivity is negative. They are

    更新日期:2020-10-30
  • Nonequilibrium phase transformations in alloys under severe plastic deformation
    Phys.-Usp. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2020-10-28
    I K Razumov, A Y Yermakov, Yu N Gornostyrev and B B Straumal

    Experimental results and theoretical concepts of anomalous phase transformations in alloys under severe plastic deformation (SPD) are reviewed. The unconventional phase and structural state of alloys that emerges as a result of SPD determines the unique combination of physical and chemical properties that is of interest for various applications in technology. The driving forces and possible mechanisms

    更新日期:2020-10-30
  • Microflares and nanoflares in the solar corona
    Phys.-Usp. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2020-10-28
    S A Bogachev, A S Ulyanov, A S Kirichenko, I P Loboda and A A Reva

    Due to the increase in the spatial and temporal resolution of observations of the solar atmosphere, which is mainly associated with progress in space research, we now understand that the Sun's activity not only is associated with large centers, but also extends to significantly smaller scales. Each new advance in experimental technology over the past 60 years has led to the discovery of more and more

    更新日期:2020-10-30
  • Ultraperipheral nuclear interactions
    Phys.-Usp. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2020-10-28
    I M Dremin

    Long-distance ultraperipheral collisions of two relativistic ions are considered. Clouds of photons surrounding the ions are responsible for their distant electromagnetic interaction. The perturbative approach and the method of equivalent photons are described. It is shown that the total cross section of these collisions rapidly increases with an energy increase and is especially large for heavy ions

    更新日期:2020-10-30
  • Wave packet in the phase problem in optics and ptychography
    Phys.-Usp. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2020-10-28
    N L Popov, I A Artyukov, A V Vinogradov and V V Protopopov

    At present, ptychography seems to be the most natural and efficient method for approaching the diffraction-limited optical resolution. The general setup of a ptychoscope does not contain refracting or focusing elements and includes a coherent illumination source, a translation stage for displacement of a macroscopic object, and a detector for recording transmitted or reflected radiation from the object

    更新日期:2020-10-30
  • X-ray and gamma-ray emission from solar flares
    Phys.-Usp. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2020-10-28
    A L Lysenko, D D Frederiks, G D Fleishman, R L Aptekar, A T Altyntsev, S V Golenetskii, D S Svinkin, M V Ulanov, A E Tsvetkova and A V Ridnaia

    We present a brief review of the contemporary understanding of and topical problems in solar flare physics that can be clarified by methods of X-ray and gamma-ray astronomy. The review focuses on several issues, including the conditions and mechanisms of electron acceleration in solar flares, the flare energy distribution between thermal and nonthermal components, the gamma-ray emission from solar

    更新日期:2020-10-30
  • Pairwise interatomic interaction in alloys
    Phys.-Usp. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2020-09-24
    Yu I Ustinovshchikov

    The concepts of the physics of metallic alloys regarding the driving forces of diffusion phase transformations, the nature of solid solutions, the chemical interatomic interaction energy, the principles of plotting phase diagrams, and the principles of heat treatment of alloys are critically reviewed. The ordering-separation phase transition, which is caused by the recently detected property of alloys

    更新日期:2020-09-25
  • Structure and dynamics of concentrated mesoscale vortices in planetary atmospheres
    Phys.-Usp. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2020-09-24
    O G Onishchenko, O A Pokhotelov, N M Astaf'eva, W Horton and V N Fedun

    Concentrated vortices are spatially localized structures with nonzero vorticity surrounded by a potential flow. These structures include a broad class of mesoscale vortices, such as dust devils, water vortices, and fire vortices, as well as larger-scale and more intense tornados. From a rather broad class of concentrated mesoscale vortices, dust devils are selected as the simplest and most easily observable

    更新日期:2020-09-25
  • Photon entanglement for life-science imaging: rethinking the limits of the possible
    Phys.-Usp. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2020-09-24
    A M Zheltikov and M O Sculli

    Quantum entanglement is a powerful resource that revolutionizes information science, opens new horizons in communication technologies, and pushes the frontiers of sensing and imaging. Whether or not the methods of quantum entanglement can be extended to life-science imaging is far from clear. Live biological systems are eluding quantum-optical probes, proving, time and time again, too lossy, too noisy

    更新日期:2020-09-25
  • Topological insulators based on HgTe
    Phys.-Usp. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2020-09-24
    Z D Kvon, D A Kozlov, E B Olshanetsky, G M Gusev, N N Mikhailov and S A Dvoretsky

    The most interesting experimental results obtained in studies of 2D and 3D topological insulators (TIs) based on HgTe quantum wells and films are reviewed. In the case of 2D TIs, these include the observation of nonlocal ballistic and diffusion transport, the magnetic breakdown of 2D TIs, and an anomalous temperature dependence of edge-channel resistance. In 3D TIs, a record-setting high mobility (up

    更新日期:2020-09-25
  • Was Sommerfeld wrong? (To the history of the appearance of spin in relativistic wave equations)
    Phys.-Usp. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2020-09-24
    S V Petrov

    This article presents a brief history of the appearance of electron spin in relativistic wave equations. Dirac derived his wave equation in 1928 with the intention to obtain an equation for the 'simplest' particle with spin zero. But, as Dirac later announced at the European Conference on Particle Physics (Budapest, 4–9 July 1977), it was a big surprise for him that the equation described the states

    更新日期:2020-09-25
  • High resolution terahertz spectroscopy for analytical applications
    Phys.-Usp. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2020-09-24
    V L Vaks, V A Anfertev, V Yu Balakirev, S A Basov, E G Domracheva, A V Illyuk, P V Kupriyanov, S I Pripolzin and M B Chernyaeva

    The latest achievements in the area of terahertz spectrometers based on transient effects are presented. The potential to use these spectrometers in various applications demanding the composition analysis of multicomponent gas mixtures simultaneously with a high sensitivity (at the ppb level) and resolving power is considered. The results obtained with the use of transient terahertz spectroscopy for

    更新日期:2020-09-25
  • Field emission from carbon nanostructures: models and experiment
    Phys.-Usp. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2020-09-24
    E D Èidelman and A V Arkhipov

    Models of field (cold, autoelectron) emission from various types of carbon nanostructures, other than graphene, are described. The experimental results are compared with theoretical predictions.

    更新日期:2020-09-25
  • Silhouettes of invisible black holes
    Phys.-Usp. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2020-08-27
    V I Dokuchaev and N O Nazarova

    In general relativity, isolated black holes are invisible due to the infinitely large redshift of photons propagating from the event horizon to a remote observer. However, the dark shadow (silhouette) of a black hole can be visible on the background of matter radiation lensed by the gravitational field of the black hole. The black hole shadow is the celestial sphere projection of the cross section

    更新日期:2020-08-28
  • Ultrahard nanomaterials: myths and reality
    Phys.-Usp. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2020-08-27
    V V Brazhkin

    The last 25 years has witnessed a wealth of publications on the creation of carbon materials whose compression bulk modulus and hardness are much higher than those of diamond. This review presents a critical analysis of these studies. Three groups of myths that have emerged lately are discussed. The first is related to the possibility of creating materials whose bulk moduli are significantly higher

    更新日期:2020-08-28
  • Generalization of the ##IMG## [http://ej.iop.org/images/1063-7869/63/6/601/toc_tex_pu_8807_img1.gif] {$ k$} coefficient method in relativity to an arbitrary angle between the velocity of an observer (source) and the direction of the light ray from (to) a faraway source (o...
    Phys.-Usp. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2020-08-27
    V I Ritus

    The ##IMG## [http://ej.iop.org/images/1063-7869/63/6/601/toc_tex_pu_8807_img1.gif] {$ k$} coefficient method proposed by Bondi is extended to the general case where the angle ##IMG## [http://ej.iop.org/images/1063-7869/63/6/601/tex_pu_8807_img2.gif] {$ \alpha$} between the velocity of a signal from a distant source at rest and the velocity of the observer does not coincide with 0 or ##IMG## [http://ej

    更新日期:2020-08-28
  • Identity of the mechanisms of Weibel and Alfvén-cyclotron plasma instabilities
    Phys.-Usp. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2020-08-27
    A S Dzarakhokhova, N P Zaretskiĭ, A V Maksimychev, L I Menshikov and P L Menshikov

    A plasma with an anisotropic velocity distribution of particles in a magnetic field is considered. It is shown that the Weibel instability arises in the reference frame rotating together with the particles, for example, ions. When considered in the immobile reference frame, this instability is known as the Alfvén cyclotron instability.

    更新日期:2020-08-28
  • Study of exoplanets by spectroscopic methods
    Phys.-Usp. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2020-08-27
    V E Panchuk, Yu Yu Balega, V G Klochkova and M E Sachkov

    A review of spectroscopic methods for observations of stars in searching for and studying exoplanets is presented. Instrumental errors in measuring radial velocities and strategies to decrease (or fundamentally eliminate) them are considered. The role of astrometric and photometric methods is pointed out. The results of the study of the chemical composition of parent stars and the spectroscopy of transit

    更新日期:2020-08-28
  • Wormholes with entrances close to each other
    Phys.-Usp. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2020-08-27
    N S Kardashev, I D Novikov and S V Repin

    Theoretical and observational evidence is examined to verify the hypothesis put forward by N S Kardashev that some of the double images of galactic nuclei can be entrances to the same wormhole.

    更新日期:2020-08-28
  • Mechanisms and kinetics of gravity separation of granular materials
    Phys.-Usp. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2020-08-27
    V N Dolgunin, A N Kudi and M A Tuev

    Particle separation mechanisms and kinetics in granular materials in a gravity chute and under vibrational impact are analyzed. Special attention is given to separation and kinetics mechanisms operating under conditions of high heterogeneity of structural and kinematic characteristics of granular flows. An analysis of alternative expressions for the separation driving force arising from local and spatial

    更新日期:2020-08-28
  • Desorption processes in the measurement of weak currents
    Phys.-Usp. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2020-07-27
    V G Lukin and O G Khvostenko

    It was previously shown that the experimental measurement of the lifetime of gas-phase negative ions formed in autoionization states during resonant electron capture by molecules is inherently fraught with inaccuracy due to adsorption of ions on the walls of the ionization chamber, with some of them surviving there and staying stabilized as 'eternal' till they eventually desorb back into the vacuum

    更新日期:2020-07-28
  • Complex phase diagrams of systems with isotropic potentials: results of computer simulations
    Phys.-Usp. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2020-07-27
    V N Ryzhov, E E Tareyeva, Yu D Fomin and E N Tsiok

    This review is based on a talk by the authors at the field Scientific session of the Physical Sciences Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences devoted to the 60th anniversary of the Vereshchagin Institute for High Pressure Physics of the Russian Academy of Sciences. The dependence of phase-diagram characteristics and phase transitions on the shape of the intermolecular potential is reviewed and

    更新日期:2020-07-28
  • Interaction of a wave with an accelerating object and the equivalence principle
    Phys.-Usp. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2020-07-27
    A I Frank

    The paper presents a new view of the so-called accelerating matter effect. It was stated earlier that the effect is optical by its nature and is essentially a change in the frequency of the wave transmitted through a refractive sample that is moving with acceleration. But as follows from a simple consideration based on the equivalence principle, the opinion that the effect is related only to the phenomenon

    更新日期:2020-07-28
  • Traveling wave tubes: a history of people and fates
    Phys.-Usp. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2020-07-27
    D I Trubetskov and G M Vdovina

    The study of the interaction of electron beams with electromagnetic fields and of devices based on them is one of the central areas of the science of vibrations and waves. In the 20th century, Physics-Uspekhi published reviews devoted to the theory and description of new devices at that time. The theory and design of these devices and their place in the electromagnetic wave range have changed with

    更新日期:2020-07-28
  • Effects of action at a distance in water
    Phys.-Usp. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2020-07-27
    L I Menshikov, P L Menshikov and P O Fedichev

    Dipole-dipole interaction between molecules of hydrogen-bonding polar liquids (HBPLs), which has a collective and long-range nature, determines the basic large-scale properties of such liquids. We present a two-scale phenomenological vector model of polar liquids (VMPLs), wherein the liquid is described by a polarization vector. The simplest version of this model satisfactorily reproduces the well-known

    更新日期:2020-07-28
  • Low-power-threshold parametric decay instabilities of powerful microwave beams in toroidal fusion devices
    Phys.-Usp. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2020-06-25
    E Z Gusakov and A Yu Popov

    We discuss the experimental conditions responsible for a drastic decrease in the power threshold of parametric decay instabilities under auxiliary electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) in toroidal magnetic fusion devices when the upper hybrid (UH) resonance for the pump wave is absent. We show that for a finite-width pump in the presence of a non-monotonic (hollow) density profile occurring due

    更新日期:2020-06-26
  • Ballistic and shift currents in the bulk photovoltaic effect theory
    Phys.-Usp. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2020-06-25
    B I Sturman

    The bulk photovoltaic effect (BPVE)—the generation of electric currents by light in noncentrosymmetric materials in the absence of electric fields and gradients—was intensively investigated at the end of the last century. The outcomes, including all main aspects of this phenomenon, were summarized in reviews and books. A new upsurge of interest in the BPVE occurred recently, resulting in a flood of

    更新日期:2020-06-26
  • Nanotransport controlled by means of the ratchet effect
    Phys.-Usp. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2020-06-25
    Yu V Gulyaev, A S Bugaev, V M Rozenbaum and L I Trakhtenberg

    The directional motion of micro- and nanoparticles can be induced not only directly due to the effect of forces with a nonzero average value, which set the direction of the motion, but also, in the absence of such forces in systems with broken mirror symmetry, under the effect of nonequilibrium fluctuations of various natures (the motor or ratchet effect). Unlike other reviews on nanoparticle transport

    更新日期:2020-06-26
  • High-energy ball milling of nonstoichiometric compounds
    Phys.-Usp. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2020-06-25
    A I Gusev

    The preparation of nanocrystalline powders of nonstoichiometric compounds such as carbides and oxides by high-energy milling is considered. The modern state of milling models for nonstoichiometric compounds is described. The influence of nonstoichiometry on the particle size of the produced nanopowders is discussed. The model dependences of the size of nanopowder particles on the duration of milling

    更新日期:2020-06-26
  • Method of detection and spectrometry of charged particles produced in a superstrong electromagnetic field based on their transport by the magnetic field of a coaxial line
    Phys.-Usp. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2020-06-25
    S I Moshkunov and V Yu Khomich

    This paper presents methods of detection and spectrometry of high-energy electrons and positrons produced in the interaction of laser radiation with matter and vacuum. The methods are based on charged particle transport in the magnetic field of a hollow coaxial line through which a direct current flows. The methods make it possible to detect particles at a distance of several dozen meters from the

    更新日期:2020-06-26
  • Particles in finite and infinite one-dimensional periodic chains
    Phys.-Usp. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2020-06-25
    I F Ginzburg

    Particle motion in one-dimensional crystal chains is studied with the help of the transfer matrix method. The transition from a finite to an infinite chain is analyzed. In the cases where an analytic solution is impossible, the method allows calculating the energy spectra with reasonable accuracy, based on the known cell potential. It turns out that the structure of allowed and forbidden energy bands

    更新日期:2020-06-26
  • Nature of Poisson's ratio of amorphous polymers and glasses and its relation to structure-sensitive properties
    Phys.-Usp. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2020-06-25
    D S Sanditov

    A review and analysis of studies concerning the nature of Poisson's ratio ##IMG## [http://ej.iop.org/images/1063-7869/63/4/327/tex_pu_8787_img1.gif] {$ \mu$} of glassy systems are presented. The value of ##IMG## [http://ej.iop.org/images/1063-7869/63/4/327/tex_pu_8787_img1.gif] {$ \mu$} is a more pronounced structure-sensitive property than are elasticity moduli. The unique relation of ##IMG## [http://ej

    更新日期:2020-06-26
  • New results for laser isotope separation using low-energy methods
    Phys.-Usp. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2020-05-27
    G N Makarov

    Today, research aimed at the development of low-energy methods of molecular laser isotope separation (MLIS) is relevant and in demand. The main goal of these studies is to find efficient and cost-effective methods that can be used as the basis for the technology of laser separation of uranium isotopes, as well as other elements. To date, a number of approaches to the implementation of low-energy methods

    更新日期:2020-05-27
  • Diffraction radiation from a charge as radiation from a superluminal source in a vacuum
    Phys.-Usp. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2020-05-27
    A P Potylitsyn, D Yu Sergeeva, M N Strikhanov and A A Tishchenko

    An analysis of spectral-angular characteristics of diffraction radiation, both incoherent and coherent, has been performed. It is shown that radiation processes can be interpreted as Cherenkov radiation, which is produced by a region of dynamic polarization moving along a target edge with superluminal velocity ##IMG## [http://ej.iop.org/images/1063-7869/63/3/303/tex_pu_8784_img1.gif] {$ v _{\rm SL}$}

    更新日期:2020-05-27
  • Localized structures in magnetic systems without the center of inversion
    Phys.-Usp. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2020-05-27
    A B Borisov

    The main theoretical and experimental results of the study of magnetic skyrmions in films of isotropic chiral magnets are considered. A significant part of the paper presents new results that were not included in previous monographs and reviews. Skyrmions are formations characterized by a quant?ized topological number. They attract considerable attention of researchers due to their dynamics in external

    更新日期:2020-05-27
  • Evolution of close binary stars: theory and observations
    Phys.-Usp. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2020-05-27
    A V Tutukov and A M Cherepashchuk

    We review modern concepts in the physics and evolution of close binary stars. The review is based, on the one hand, on numerical simulations of the evolution of their components and the processes that accompany that evolution and, on the other hand, on the entire set of observational information in all ranges of electromagnetic and gravitation-wave radiation. These concepts underlie modern astrophysics

    更新日期:2020-05-27
  • Direct laser cooling of molecules
    Phys.-Usp. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2020-05-27
    T A Isaev

    The methods of laser cooling of atoms have long been applied to obtain cold and ultracold atomic gases, including degenerate states and the atomic Bose–Einstein condensate in particular. Until recently the application of laser cooling methods to molecules was assumed to be impossible because of the complex structure of molecular levels and the absence of closed cooling cycles for transitions between

    更新日期:2020-05-27
  • Nonequilibrium transitions, chaos, and chimera states in exciton–polariton systems
    Phys.-Usp. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2020-04-26
    S S Gavrilov

    The review is devoted to exciton polaritons, short-lived Bose particles which are optically excited in semiconductors and form macroscopically coherent states under conditions of coherent and resonant external driving. The interaction of polaritons results in multistability, spontaneous breaking of spin and spatial symmetries, self-pulsations, and pattern formation. As a result of symmetry breaking

    更新日期:2020-04-26
  • Structural dynamics of free molecules and condensed matter
    Phys.-Usp. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2020-04-26
    S A Aseyev, A S Akhmanov, G V Girichev, A A Ischenko, I V Kochikov, V Ya Panchenko and E A Ryabov

    Advances in the development of pulsed lasers provided a further breakthrough in the study of the structural dynamics of nuclei and electrons. As a result of this progress, the use of powerful femtosecond laser pulses, both for exciting a sample and for generating ultrashort (down to femto- and even subfemtosecond) photoelectron bunches synchronized with optical pulses for sensing matter, made it possible

    更新日期:2020-04-26
  • Spatio-temporal structures in ensembles of coupled chaotic systems
    Phys.-Usp. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2020-04-26
    G I Strelkova and V S Anishchenko

    We review numerical results of studies of the complex dynamics of one- and double-dimensional networks (ensembles) of nonlocally coupled identical chaotic oscillators in the form of discrete- and continuous-time systems, as well as lattices of coupled ensembles. We show that these complex networks can demonstrate specific types of spatio-temporal patterns in the form of chimera states, known as the

    更新日期:2020-04-26
  • Measurement problems: contemporary discussions and models
    Phys.-Usp. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2020-04-26
    V S Pronskikh

    The review discusses the basic concepts of measurement that have existed from the end of the 19th century to the present day, such as representational theory; realistic, operationalist, conventionalist, theoretical-informational, and theoretical-operational model approaches to measurement; and their advantages and weaknesses. Such characteristics of measurement as accuracy, precision, and various aspects

    更新日期:2020-04-26
  • Latest developments of models and calculation schemes for the quantitative analysis of the physical properties of polymers
    Phys.-Usp. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2020-04-26
    A A Askadskii and T A Matseevich

    The latest models and calculation schemes for the quantitative analysis of a number of physical properties of polymers are described. Among the physical properties are the glass transition temperature, flow temperature of polymer nanocomposites, thermal conductivity, boiling point of polymer solutions, water absorption and water permeability of polymers and nanocomposites, strength, viscosity, storage

    更新日期:2020-04-26
  • 更新日期:2020-04-22
  • On the relation between theoretical and experimental components in the papers on ball lightning; (reply toML Shmatov’s comments [ Phys. Usp. 63 96 (2020); Usp. Fiz. Nauk 190 107 (2020)] on the paper “On the possibility of making natural ball lightning using a new pulse discharge type...
    Phys.-Usp. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2020-03-27
    G D Shabanov

    In his letter [ Phys. Usp. 63 97 (2020); Usp. Fiz. Nauk 190 107 (2020)] Shmatov expresses a high opinion of the experimental part of Shabanov’s paper [ Phys. Usp. 62 92 (2019); Usp. Fiz. Nauk 189 95 (2019)] but presents some critical remarks on the theoretical character. We show in this reply that these remarks are based on a misunderstanding related to an excessively unambiguous treatment of elementary

    更新日期:2020-04-22
  • Once again on the Gatchina discharge and ball lightning: (comments on G D Shabanov’s paper “On the possibility of making natural ball lightning using a new pulse discharge type in the laboratory” [ Phys. Usp. 62 92 (2019); Usp. Fiz. Nauk 189 95 (2019)])
    Phys.-Usp. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2020-03-27
    M L Shmatov

    We show that a recent paper by Shabanov [ Phys. Usp. 62 92 (2019); Usp. Fiz. Nauk 189 95 (2019)] contains several important unsubstantiated and erroneous statements. In particular, the estimate of the average ball lightning charge presented in that paper corresponds to an impossible situation with an approximately 100-fold excess of the electric field strength near the outer boundary of the ball lightning

    更新日期:2020-04-22
  • Beryllium-based multilayer X-ray optics
    Phys.-Usp. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2020-03-27
    V N Polkovnikov, N N Salashchenko, M V Svechnikov and N I Chkhalo

    The article provides a review of the current state of affairs in the field of physics and technology of multilayer beryllium-containing mirrors intended for projection lithography and solar corona studies in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) region. The methods of synthesizing and studying beryllium-containing multilayer mirrors are described. The results of recent studies on the internal structure and

    更新日期:2020-04-22
  • Diffraction limited X-ray optics: technology, metrology, applications
    Phys.-Usp. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2020-03-27
    N I Chkhalo, I V Malyshev, A E Pestov, V N Polkovnikov, N N Salashchenko and M N Toropov

    Progress in the fabrication technology of normal incidence multilayer interference mirrors permits the traditional optical methods of microscopy, astronomy, and lithography to be transferred to the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV, wavelength: 10–200 nm) and the long-wavelength part of the soft X-ray (SXR, wavelength: 2–10 nm) ranges. Due to the short wavelength and properties of interaction with the substance

    更新日期:2020-04-22
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