• Phys.-Usp. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2020-12-30
A I Savvatimskii and S V Onufriev

Key experimental studies (mainly pulse heating) aimed at obtaining the physical properties of the most refractory substance-graphite-in the temperature range of 2000-8000 K are discussed. The properties considered are enthalpy, input (Joule) energy, thermal expansion, specific heat, and electrical resistance, as well as their dependence on the level of applied pressure. The results obtained by pulsed

更新日期：2021-01-02
• Phys.-Usp. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2020-12-30
K V Reich

Arrays of quantum dots (QDs), i.e., semiconducting nanoparticles with typical sizes of 3-10 nm, have become more than merely an object of scientific research; they are now used in electronic devices. They are appealing mainly due to their optical properties, which depend on the QD size. Here, we consider the electronic properties of such arrays. These properties typically inherit the properties of

更新日期：2021-01-02
• Phys.-Usp. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2020-12-30
V M Muravev and I V Kukushkin

The latest results on the study of collective plasma excitations in two-dimensional electron systems based on AlGaAs/GaAs, AlGaAs/AlAs, and MgZnO/ZnO nanostructures and graphene are considered. Special attention is paid to the interaction of two-dimensional plasma with light. The results of experimental work on the discovery of a new family of plasma oscillations are presented. Possible avenues for

更新日期：2021-01-02
• Phys.-Usp. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2020-12-30
S A Nikitov, A R Safin, D V Kalyabin, A V Sadovnikov, E N Beginin, M Logunov, M A Morozova, S A Odintsov, S A Osokin, A Yu Sharaevskaya, Yu P Sharaevsky and A I Kirilyuk

State-of-the-art studies of dielectric magnonics and magnon spintronics are reviewed. Theoretical and experimental approaches to exploring physical processes in and calculations of the parameters of magnonic micro- and nanostructures are described. We discuss the basic concepts of magnon spintronics, the underlying physical phenomena, and the prospects for applying magnon spintronics for data processing

更新日期：2021-01-02
• Phys.-Usp. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2020-12-30
S F Garanin and S D Kuznetsov

Problems concerning irrotational flows past obstacles may have physical applications in magneto- and electrostatics, as well as in the description of hydrodynamical flows of incompressible fluids. It is shown that for a magnetic field flow (or a flow of incompressible fluid in the hydrodynamical case) around an ideally conducting (impermeable) screen of width D with a narrow slot of width Δ a substantial

更新日期：2021-01-02
• Phys.-Usp. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2020-12-10
M Ya Marov and I I Shevchenko

Exoplanets represent a broad new class of astronomical objects, which became accessible for observations and studies only just before the end of the last century. Owing to continually improving techniques of ground-based observations, and especially observations from space, for a little bit more than two decades thousands of planetary systems of other stars have been discovered, and this process is

更新日期：2020-12-13
• Phys.-Usp. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2020-12-10
K Yu Todyshev

Among the observed variety of the natural phenomena reflected in experimental results, there are just a few physical features offering a view of a given fragment of the mosaic of physical laws in its entirety. One such remarkable fundamental feature is R , the ratio of the inclusive cross section of electron-positron annihilation into hadrons to the cross section of muon pair production in the Born

更新日期：2020-12-13
• Phys.-Usp. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2020-12-10
V V Lider

Precision X-ray methods for absolute and relative determination of crystal lattice parameters (interplanar distances) are described and compared, including the X-ray divergent-beam (Kossel) technique, the Bond method, the Renninger method, the back reflection method, the interference method, and the method of standards. It is shown that for most of the considered methods, a relative accuracy of ~ 10

更新日期：2020-12-13
• Phys.-Usp. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2020-12-10
I K Gainullin

Electron transfer during low-energy ion scattering (LEIS) is discussed in the article. In most cases, the final charge state of ions/atoms scattered from a metallic surface is formed due to resonant charge transfer (RCT). The key concepts, model representations, and basic laws of electronic exchange are systemized in the article. For practical usage, RCT is primarily important for surface diagnostics

更新日期：2020-12-13
• Phys.-Usp. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2020-12-10
Yu V Gulyaev, S V Tarasenko and V G Shavrov

Under conditions of total internal reflection of a TM- (TE-) type of plane volume electromagnetic wave from the surface of a semi-infinite transparent anisotropic dielectric medium, a special type of fast improper surface wave can be formed (an exceptional surface wave). For these types of waves, the instantaneous flow of energy through the interface is zero. In this case, the reflection of a quasi-plane

更新日期：2020-12-13
• Phys.-Usp. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2020-10-28

On 5 June 2019, the Physical Sciences Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS) held a scientific session, entitled "Earth embosomed by the Sun: heliophysics and space weather" in the Conference Hall of the Lebedev Physical Institute, RAS. The meeting proceedings include the following presentations: (1) Bogachev S A (Lebedev Physical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow; Samara National

更新日期：2020-10-30
• Phys.-Usp. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2020-10-28
V D Kuznetsov and A I Osin

Study of the physical phenomena and processes on the Sun and in the heliosphere, a natural plasma laboratory, is based on near-earth and space-based observations and building models which help to obtain a general view of how the Sun was made and how it works, while allowing one to address the practical problems of solar activity influencing space weather and its impact on various areas of human activity

更新日期：2020-10-30
• Phys.-Usp. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2020-10-28
A A Petrukovich, H V Malova, V Yu Popov, E V Maiewski, V V Izmodenov, O A Katushkina, A A Vinogradov, M O Riazantseva, L S Rakhmanova, T V Podladchikova, G N Zastenker, Yu I Yermolaev, I G Lodkina and L S Chesalin

Solar wind—a plasma stream flowing out of the solar corona—is interesting both as a carrier of solar activity and as an example of a collisionless plasma. We present the main results of Russian studies in recent years. The original MHD model allows interpreting the bifurcation of the heliospheric current sheet during maximum activity years as occurring due to the quadrupole component of the heliomagnetic

更新日期：2020-10-30
• Phys.-Usp. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2020-10-28

We discuss the nature of additional (redundant from the point of view of selection rules) optical phonons observed in most crystals with ion-covalent bonds between atoms, including in their solid solutions. These `redundant' phonons are located in the frequency range of the longitudinal-transverse splitting of fundamental phonons, where the real part of the crystal permittivity is negative. They are

更新日期：2020-10-30
• Phys.-Usp. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2020-10-28
I K Razumov, A Y Yermakov, Yu N Gornostyrev and B B Straumal

Experimental results and theoretical concepts of anomalous phase transformations in alloys under severe plastic deformation (SPD) are reviewed. The unconventional phase and structural state of alloys that emerges as a result of SPD determines the unique combination of physical and chemical properties that is of interest for various applications in technology. The driving forces and possible mechanisms

更新日期：2020-10-30
• Phys.-Usp. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2020-10-28
S A Bogachev, A S Ulyanov, A S Kirichenko, I P Loboda and A A Reva

Due to the increase in the spatial and temporal resolution of observations of the solar atmosphere, which is mainly associated with progress in space research, we now understand that the Sun's activity not only is associated with large centers, but also extends to significantly smaller scales. Each new advance in experimental technology over the past 60 years has led to the discovery of more and more

更新日期：2020-10-30
• Phys.-Usp. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2020-10-28
I M Dremin

Long-distance ultraperipheral collisions of two relativistic ions are considered. Clouds of photons surrounding the ions are responsible for their distant electromagnetic interaction. The perturbative approach and the method of equivalent photons are described. It is shown that the total cross section of these collisions rapidly increases with an energy increase and is especially large for heavy ions

更新日期：2020-10-30
• Phys.-Usp. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2020-10-28
N L Popov, I A Artyukov, A V Vinogradov and V V Protopopov

At present, ptychography seems to be the most natural and efficient method for approaching the diffraction-limited optical resolution. The general setup of a ptychoscope does not contain refracting or focusing elements and includes a coherent illumination source, a translation stage for displacement of a macroscopic object, and a detector for recording transmitted or reflected radiation from the object

更新日期：2020-10-30
• Phys.-Usp. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2020-10-28
A L Lysenko, D D Frederiks, G D Fleishman, R L Aptekar, A T Altyntsev, S V Golenetskii, D S Svinkin, M V Ulanov, A E Tsvetkova and A V Ridnaia

We present a brief review of the contemporary understanding of and topical problems in solar flare physics that can be clarified by methods of X-ray and gamma-ray astronomy. The review focuses on several issues, including the conditions and mechanisms of electron acceleration in solar flares, the flare energy distribution between thermal and nonthermal components, the gamma-ray emission from solar

更新日期：2020-10-30
• Phys.-Usp. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2020-09-24
Yu I Ustinovshchikov

The concepts of the physics of metallic alloys regarding the driving forces of diffusion phase transformations, the nature of solid solutions, the chemical interatomic interaction energy, the principles of plotting phase diagrams, and the principles of heat treatment of alloys are critically reviewed. The ordering-separation phase transition, which is caused by the recently detected property of alloys

更新日期：2020-09-25
• Phys.-Usp. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2020-09-24
O G Onishchenko, O A Pokhotelov, N M Astaf'eva, W Horton and V N Fedun

Concentrated vortices are spatially localized structures with nonzero vorticity surrounded by a potential flow. These structures include a broad class of mesoscale vortices, such as dust devils, water vortices, and fire vortices, as well as larger-scale and more intense tornados. From a rather broad class of concentrated mesoscale vortices, dust devils are selected as the simplest and most easily observable

更新日期：2020-09-25
• Phys.-Usp. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2020-09-24
A M Zheltikov and M O Sculli

Quantum entanglement is a powerful resource that revolutionizes information science, opens new horizons in communication technologies, and pushes the frontiers of sensing and imaging. Whether or not the methods of quantum entanglement can be extended to life-science imaging is far from clear. Live biological systems are eluding quantum-optical probes, proving, time and time again, too lossy, too noisy

更新日期：2020-09-25
• Phys.-Usp. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2020-09-24
Z D Kvon, D A Kozlov, E B Olshanetsky, G M Gusev, N N Mikhailov and S A Dvoretsky

The most interesting experimental results obtained in studies of 2D and 3D topological insulators (TIs) based on HgTe quantum wells and films are reviewed. In the case of 2D TIs, these include the observation of nonlocal ballistic and diffusion transport, the magnetic breakdown of 2D TIs, and an anomalous temperature dependence of edge-channel resistance. In 3D TIs, a record-setting high mobility (up

更新日期：2020-09-25
• Phys.-Usp. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2020-09-24
S V Petrov

This article presents a brief history of the appearance of electron spin in relativistic wave equations. Dirac derived his wave equation in 1928 with the intention to obtain an equation for the 'simplest' particle with spin zero. But, as Dirac later announced at the European Conference on Particle Physics (Budapest, 4–9 July 1977), it was a big surprise for him that the equation described the states

更新日期：2020-09-25
• Phys.-Usp. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2020-09-24
V L Vaks, V A Anfertev, V Yu Balakirev, S A Basov, E G Domracheva, A V Illyuk, P V Kupriyanov, S I Pripolzin and M B Chernyaeva

The latest achievements in the area of terahertz spectrometers based on transient effects are presented. The potential to use these spectrometers in various applications demanding the composition analysis of multicomponent gas mixtures simultaneously with a high sensitivity (at the ppb level) and resolving power is considered. The results obtained with the use of transient terahertz spectroscopy for

更新日期：2020-09-25
• Phys.-Usp. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2020-09-24
E D Èidelman and A V Arkhipov

Models of field (cold, autoelectron) emission from various types of carbon nanostructures, other than graphene, are described. The experimental results are compared with theoretical predictions.

更新日期：2020-09-25
• Phys.-Usp. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2020-08-27
V I Dokuchaev and N O Nazarova

In general relativity, isolated black holes are invisible due to the infinitely large redshift of photons propagating from the event horizon to a remote observer. However, the dark shadow (silhouette) of a black hole can be visible on the background of matter radiation lensed by the gravitational field of the black hole. The black hole shadow is the celestial sphere projection of the cross section

更新日期：2020-08-28
• Phys.-Usp. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2020-08-27
V V Brazhkin

The last 25 years has witnessed a wealth of publications on the creation of carbon materials whose compression bulk modulus and hardness are much higher than those of diamond. This review presents a critical analysis of these studies. Three groups of myths that have emerged lately are discussed. The first is related to the possibility of creating materials whose bulk moduli are significantly higher

更新日期：2020-08-28
• Phys.-Usp. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2020-08-27
V I Ritus

The ##IMG## [http://ej.iop.org/images/1063-7869/63/6/601/toc_tex_pu_8807_img1.gif] {$k$} coefficient method proposed by Bondi is extended to the general case where the angle ##IMG## [http://ej.iop.org/images/1063-7869/63/6/601/tex_pu_8807_img2.gif] {$\alpha$} between the velocity of a signal from a distant source at rest and the velocity of the observer does not coincide with 0 or ##IMG## [http://ej

更新日期：2020-08-28
• Phys.-Usp. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2020-08-27
A S Dzarakhokhova, N P Zaretskiĭ, A V Maksimychev, L I Menshikov and P L Menshikov

A plasma with an anisotropic velocity distribution of particles in a magnetic field is considered. It is shown that the Weibel instability arises in the reference frame rotating together with the particles, for example, ions. When considered in the immobile reference frame, this instability is known as the Alfvén cyclotron instability.

更新日期：2020-08-28
• Phys.-Usp. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2020-08-27
V E Panchuk, Yu Yu Balega, V G Klochkova and M E Sachkov

A review of spectroscopic methods for observations of stars in searching for and studying exoplanets is presented. Instrumental errors in measuring radial velocities and strategies to decrease (or fundamentally eliminate) them are considered. The role of astrometric and photometric methods is pointed out. The results of the study of the chemical composition of parent stars and the spectroscopy of transit

更新日期：2020-08-28
• Phys.-Usp. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2020-08-27
N S Kardashev, I D Novikov and S V Repin

Theoretical and observational evidence is examined to verify the hypothesis put forward by N S Kardashev that some of the double images of galactic nuclei can be entrances to the same wormhole.

更新日期：2020-08-28
• Phys.-Usp. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2020-08-27
V N Dolgunin, A N Kudi and M A Tuev

Particle separation mechanisms and kinetics in granular materials in a gravity chute and under vibrational impact are analyzed. Special attention is given to separation and kinetics mechanisms operating under conditions of high heterogeneity of structural and kinematic characteristics of granular flows. An analysis of alternative expressions for the separation driving force arising from local and spatial

更新日期：2020-08-28
• Phys.-Usp. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2020-07-27
V G Lukin and O G Khvostenko

It was previously shown that the experimental measurement of the lifetime of gas-phase negative ions formed in autoionization states during resonant electron capture by molecules is inherently fraught with inaccuracy due to adsorption of ions on the walls of the ionization chamber, with some of them surviving there and staying stabilized as 'eternal' till they eventually desorb back into the vacuum

更新日期：2020-07-28
• Phys.-Usp. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2020-07-27
V N Ryzhov, E E Tareyeva, Yu D Fomin and E N Tsiok

This review is based on a talk by the authors at the field Scientific session of the Physical Sciences Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences devoted to the 60th anniversary of the Vereshchagin Institute for High Pressure Physics of the Russian Academy of Sciences. The dependence of phase-diagram characteristics and phase transitions on the shape of the intermolecular potential is reviewed and

更新日期：2020-07-28
• Phys.-Usp. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2020-07-27
A I Frank

The paper presents a new view of the so-called accelerating matter effect. It was stated earlier that the effect is optical by its nature and is essentially a change in the frequency of the wave transmitted through a refractive sample that is moving with acceleration. But as follows from a simple consideration based on the equivalence principle, the opinion that the effect is related only to the phenomenon

更新日期：2020-07-28
• Phys.-Usp. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2020-07-27
D I Trubetskov and G M Vdovina

The study of the interaction of electron beams with electromagnetic fields and of devices based on them is one of the central areas of the science of vibrations and waves. In the 20th century, Physics-Uspekhi published reviews devoted to the theory and description of new devices at that time. The theory and design of these devices and their place in the electromagnetic wave range have changed with

更新日期：2020-07-28
• Phys.-Usp. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2020-07-27
L I Menshikov, P L Menshikov and P O Fedichev

Dipole-dipole interaction between molecules of hydrogen-bonding polar liquids (HBPLs), which has a collective and long-range nature, determines the basic large-scale properties of such liquids. We present a two-scale phenomenological vector model of polar liquids (VMPLs), wherein the liquid is described by a polarization vector. The simplest version of this model satisfactorily reproduces the well-known

更新日期：2020-07-28
• Phys.-Usp. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2020-06-25
E Z Gusakov and A Yu Popov

We discuss the experimental conditions responsible for a drastic decrease in the power threshold of parametric decay instabilities under auxiliary electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) in toroidal magnetic fusion devices when the upper hybrid (UH) resonance for the pump wave is absent. We show that for a finite-width pump in the presence of a non-monotonic (hollow) density profile occurring due

更新日期：2020-06-26
• Phys.-Usp. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2020-06-25
B I Sturman

The bulk photovoltaic effect (BPVE)—the generation of electric currents by light in noncentrosymmetric materials in the absence of electric fields and gradients—was intensively investigated at the end of the last century. The outcomes, including all main aspects of this phenomenon, were summarized in reviews and books. A new upsurge of interest in the BPVE occurred recently, resulting in a flood of

更新日期：2020-06-26
• Phys.-Usp. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2020-06-25
Yu V Gulyaev, A S Bugaev, V M Rozenbaum and L I Trakhtenberg

The directional motion of micro- and nanoparticles can be induced not only directly due to the effect of forces with a nonzero average value, which set the direction of the motion, but also, in the absence of such forces in systems with broken mirror symmetry, under the effect of nonequilibrium fluctuations of various natures (the motor or ratchet effect). Unlike other reviews on nanoparticle transport

更新日期：2020-06-26
• Phys.-Usp. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2020-06-25
A I Gusev

The preparation of nanocrystalline powders of nonstoichiometric compounds such as carbides and oxides by high-energy milling is considered. The modern state of milling models for nonstoichiometric compounds is described. The influence of nonstoichiometry on the particle size of the produced nanopowders is discussed. The model dependences of the size of nanopowder particles on the duration of milling

更新日期：2020-06-26
• Phys.-Usp. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2020-06-25
S I Moshkunov and V Yu Khomich

This paper presents methods of detection and spectrometry of high-energy electrons and positrons produced in the interaction of laser radiation with matter and vacuum. The methods are based on charged particle transport in the magnetic field of a hollow coaxial line through which a direct current flows. The methods make it possible to detect particles at a distance of several dozen meters from the

更新日期：2020-06-26
• Phys.-Usp. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2020-06-25
I F Ginzburg

Particle motion in one-dimensional crystal chains is studied with the help of the transfer matrix method. The transition from a finite to an infinite chain is analyzed. In the cases where an analytic solution is impossible, the method allows calculating the energy spectra with reasonable accuracy, based on the known cell potential. It turns out that the structure of allowed and forbidden energy bands

更新日期：2020-06-26
• Phys.-Usp. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2020-06-25
D S Sanditov

A review and analysis of studies concerning the nature of Poisson's ratio ##IMG## [http://ej.iop.org/images/1063-7869/63/4/327/tex_pu_8787_img1.gif] {$\mu$} of glassy systems are presented. The value of ##IMG## [http://ej.iop.org/images/1063-7869/63/4/327/tex_pu_8787_img1.gif] {$\mu$} is a more pronounced structure-sensitive property than are elasticity moduli. The unique relation of ##IMG## [http://ej

更新日期：2020-06-26
• Phys.-Usp. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2020-05-27
G N Makarov

Today, research aimed at the development of low-energy methods of molecular laser isotope separation (MLIS) is relevant and in demand. The main goal of these studies is to find efficient and cost-effective methods that can be used as the basis for the technology of laser separation of uranium isotopes, as well as other elements. To date, a number of approaches to the implementation of low-energy methods

更新日期：2020-05-27
• Phys.-Usp. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2020-05-27
A P Potylitsyn, D Yu Sergeeva, M N Strikhanov and A A Tishchenko

An analysis of spectral-angular characteristics of diffraction radiation, both incoherent and coherent, has been performed. It is shown that radiation processes can be interpreted as Cherenkov radiation, which is produced by a region of dynamic polarization moving along a target edge with superluminal velocity ##IMG## [http://ej.iop.org/images/1063-7869/63/3/303/tex_pu_8784_img1.gif] {$v _{\rm SL}$}

更新日期：2020-05-27
• Phys.-Usp. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2020-05-27
A B Borisov

The main theoretical and experimental results of the study of magnetic skyrmions in films of isotropic chiral magnets are considered. A significant part of the paper presents new results that were not included in previous monographs and reviews. Skyrmions are formations characterized by a quant?ized topological number. They attract considerable attention of researchers due to their dynamics in external

更新日期：2020-05-27
• Phys.-Usp. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2020-05-27
A V Tutukov and A M Cherepashchuk

We review modern concepts in the physics and evolution of close binary stars. The review is based, on the one hand, on numerical simulations of the evolution of their components and the processes that accompany that evolution and, on the other hand, on the entire set of observational information in all ranges of electromagnetic and gravitation-wave radiation. These concepts underlie modern astrophysics

更新日期：2020-05-27
• Phys.-Usp. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2020-05-27
T A Isaev

The methods of laser cooling of atoms have long been applied to obtain cold and ultracold atomic gases, including degenerate states and the atomic Bose–Einstein condensate in particular. Until recently the application of laser cooling methods to molecules was assumed to be impossible because of the complex structure of molecular levels and the absence of closed cooling cycles for transitions between

更新日期：2020-05-27
• Phys.-Usp. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2020-04-26
S S Gavrilov

The review is devoted to exciton polaritons, short-lived Bose particles which are optically excited in semiconductors and form macroscopically coherent states under conditions of coherent and resonant external driving. The interaction of polaritons results in multistability, spontaneous breaking of spin and spatial symmetries, self-pulsations, and pattern formation. As a result of symmetry breaking

更新日期：2020-04-26
• Phys.-Usp. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2020-04-26
S A Aseyev, A S Akhmanov, G V Girichev, A A Ischenko, I V Kochikov, V Ya Panchenko and E A Ryabov

Advances in the development of pulsed lasers provided a further breakthrough in the study of the structural dynamics of nuclei and electrons. As a result of this progress, the use of powerful femtosecond laser pulses, both for exciting a sample and for generating ultrashort (down to femto- and even subfemtosecond) photoelectron bunches synchronized with optical pulses for sensing matter, made it possible

更新日期：2020-04-26
• Phys.-Usp. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2020-04-26
G I Strelkova and V S Anishchenko

We review numerical results of studies of the complex dynamics of one- and double-dimensional networks (ensembles) of nonlocally coupled identical chaotic oscillators in the form of discrete- and continuous-time systems, as well as lattices of coupled ensembles. We show that these complex networks can demonstrate specific types of spatio-temporal patterns in the form of chimera states, known as the

更新日期：2020-04-26
• Phys.-Usp. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2020-04-26
V S Pronskikh

The review discusses the basic concepts of measurement that have existed from the end of the 19th century to the present day, such as representational theory; realistic, operationalist, conventionalist, theoretical-informational, and theoretical-operational model approaches to measurement; and their advantages and weaknesses. Such characteristics of measurement as accuracy, precision, and various aspects

更新日期：2020-04-26
• Phys.-Usp. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2020-04-26
A A Askadskii and T A Matseevich

The latest models and calculation schemes for the quantitative analysis of a number of physical properties of polymers are described. Among the physical properties are the glass transition temperature, flow temperature of polymer nanocomposites, thermal conductivity, boiling point of polymer solutions, water absorption and water permeability of polymers and nanocomposites, strength, viscosity, storage

更新日期：2020-04-26
• Phys.-Usp. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2020-03-27

Description unavailable

更新日期：2020-04-22
• Phys.-Usp. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2020-03-27
G D Shabanov

In his letter [ Phys. Usp. 63 97 (2020); Usp. Fiz. Nauk 190 107 (2020)] Shmatov expresses a high opinion of the experimental part of Shabanov’s paper [ Phys. Usp. 62 92 (2019); Usp. Fiz. Nauk 189 95 (2019)] but presents some critical remarks on the theoretical character. We show in this reply that these remarks are based on a misunderstanding related to an excessively unambiguous treatment of elementary

更新日期：2020-04-22
• Phys.-Usp. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2020-03-27
M L Shmatov

We show that a recent paper by Shabanov [ Phys. Usp. 62 92 (2019); Usp. Fiz. Nauk 189 95 (2019)] contains several important unsubstantiated and erroneous statements. In particular, the estimate of the average ball lightning charge presented in that paper corresponds to an impossible situation with an approximately 100-fold excess of the electric field strength near the outer boundary of the ball lightning

更新日期：2020-04-22
• Phys.-Usp. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2020-03-27
V N Polkovnikov, N N Salashchenko, M V Svechnikov and N I Chkhalo

The article provides a review of the current state of affairs in the field of physics and technology of multilayer beryllium-containing mirrors intended for projection lithography and solar corona studies in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) region. The methods of synthesizing and studying beryllium-containing multilayer mirrors are described. The results of recent studies on the internal structure and

更新日期：2020-04-22
• Phys.-Usp. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2020-03-27
N I Chkhalo, I V Malyshev, A E Pestov, V N Polkovnikov, N N Salashchenko and M N Toropov

Progress in the fabrication technology of normal incidence multilayer interference mirrors permits the traditional optical methods of microscopy, astronomy, and lithography to be transferred to the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV, wavelength: 10–200 nm) and the long-wavelength part of the soft X-ray (SXR, wavelength: 2–10 nm) ranges. Due to the short wavelength and properties of interaction with the substance

更新日期：2020-04-22
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