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  • Lithium Molybdate (Li2MoO3)−Sulfur Battery
    Batteries Supercaps Pub Date : 2020-01-16
    Ruchira R. Dharmasena; Alejandro Martinez‐Garcia; Veerendra Atla; Muhammad Z. Akram; Gamini U. Sumanasekera; Mahendra K. Sunkara
  • MXene‐Based Anodes for Metal‐Ion Batteries
    Batteries Supercaps Pub Date : 2020-01-16
    Michael Greaves; Suelen Barg; Mark A. Bissett
  • Autonomous discovery of materials for intercalation electrodes
    Batteries Supercaps Pub Date : 2020-01-16
    Felix Tim Bolle; Nicolai Rask Mathiesen; Alexander Juul Nielsen; Tejs Vegge; Juan Maria Garcia Lastra; Ivano Eligio Castelli

    The development of automated computational tools is required to accelerate the discovery of novel battery materials. In this work, we design and implement a workflow, in the framework of Density Functional Theory, which autonomously identifies materials to be used as intercalation electrodes in batteries, based on descriptors like adsorption energies and diffusion barriers. A substantial acceleration for the calculations of the kinetic properties is obtained due to a recent implementation of the Nudged Elastic Bands (NEB) method, which takes into consideration the symmetries of the system to reduce the number of images to calculate. We have applied this workflow to discover new cathode materials for Mg batteries, where two of these materials display a threefold increase in the potential of the Chevrel phase, the state‐of‐the‐art cathode in commercial prototype Mg batteries.

  • Elevation of the renal threshold for glucose is associated with insulin resistance and higher glycated hemoglobin levels
    J. Diabetes Investig. (IF 3.902) Pub Date : 2020-01-15
    Kunio Hieshima; Seigo Sugiyama; Akira Yoshida; Noboru Kurinami; Tomoko Suzuki; Hiroko Ijima; Fumio Miyamoto; Keizo Kajiwara; Katsunori Jinnouchi; Tomio Jinnouchi; Hideaki Jinnouchi
  • 更新日期:2020-01-16
  • Who benefits from the intervention? Correlates of successful BMI reduction in the Texas Childhood Obesity Demonstration Project (TX‐CORD)
    Pediatr. Obes. (IF 3.713) Pub Date : 2020-01-15
    Sarah E. Barlow; Casey Durand; Meliha Salahuddin; Stephen J. Pont; Nancy F. Butte; Deanna M. Hoelscher

    Many childhood obesity intervention studies report mean outcomes but do not explore the variation in responses and the characteristics of those who respond well.

  • Microaerophilic Fe‐oxidizing micro‐organisms in Middle Jurassic ferruginous stromatolites and the paleoenvironmental context of their formation (Southern Carpathians, Romania)
    Geobiology (IF 4.100) Pub Date : 2020-01-15
    Mihaela Grădinaru; Iuliana Lazăr; Mihai N. Ducea; Lucian Petrescu

    Ferruginous stromatolites occur associated with Middle Jurassic condensed deposits in several Tethyan and peri‐Tethyan areas. The studied ferruginous stromatolites occurring in the Middle Jurassic condensed deposits of Southern Carpathians (Romania) preserve morphological, geochemical, and mineralogical data that suggest microbial iron oxidation. Based on their macrofabrics and accretion patterns, we classified stromatolites: (1) Ferruginous microstromatolites associated with hardground surfaces and forming the cortex of the macro‐oncoids and (2) Domical ferruginous stromatolites developed within the Ammonitico Rosso‐type succession disposed above the ferruginous microstromatolites (type 1). Petrographic and scanning electron microscope (SEM) examinations reveal that different types of filamentous micro‐organisms were the significant framework builders of the ferruginous stromatolitic laminae. The studied stromatolites yield a large range of δ56Fe values, from −0.75‰ to +0.66‰ with predominantly positive values indicating the prevalence of partial ferrous iron oxidation. The lowest negative δ56Fe values (up to −0.75‰) are present only in domical ferruginous stromatolites samples and point to initial iron mobilization where the Fe(II) was produced by dissimilatory Fe(III) reduction of ferric oxides by Fe(III)‐reducing bacteria. Rare‐earth elements and yttrium (REE + Y) are used to decipher the nature of the seawater during the formation of the ferruginous stromatolites. Cerium anomalies display moderate to small negative values for the ferruginous microstromatolites, indicating weakly oxygenated conditions compatible with slowly reducing environments, in contrast to the domical ferruginous stromatolites that show moderate positive Ce anomalies suggesting that they formed in deeper, anoxic–suboxic waters. The positive Eu anomalies from the studied samples suggest a diffuse hydrothermal input on the seawater during the Middle Jurassic on the sites of ferruginous stromatolite accretion. This study presents the first interpretation of REE + Y in the Middle Jurassic ferruginous stromatolites of Southern Carpathians, Romania.

  • Synthesis and identification of deschloroketamine metabolites in rats' urine and a quantification method for deschloroketamine and metabolites in rats' serum and brain tissue using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry
    Drug Test. Anal. (IF 2.799) Pub Date : 2020-01-15
    Kateřina Hájková; Bronislav Jurásek; Jan Čejka; Kristýna Štefková; Tomáš Páleníček; David Sýkora; Martin Kuchař
  • Annual banned‐substance review – Analytical approaches in human sports drug testing
    Drug Test. Anal. (IF 2.799) Pub Date : 2020-01-15
    Mario Thevis; Tiia Kuuranne; Hans Geyer
  • Extraordinary long detection window of a synthetic cannabinoid metabolite in human urine – potential impact on therapeutic decisions
    Drug Test. Anal. (IF 2.799) Pub Date : 2020-01-16
    Florian Franz; Belal Haschimi; Leslie A. King; Volker Auwärter

    Synthetic cannabinoids (SCs) have become established drugs of abuse. They play an increasing role in drug therapy, where abstinence control testing is required. Differentiation between recent drug uptake and uptake in the distant past is important for drug therapy. This study aimed at evaluating the detection window of a metabolite commonly used as a consumption marker for AB‐FUBINACA and AMB‐FUBINACA (synonym: FUB‐AMB) in urine analysis.

  • Processing of Real‐World, Dynamic Natural Stimuli in Autism is Linked to Corticobasal Function
    Autism Res. (IF 3.697) Pub Date : 2020-01-16
    Paula J. Webster; Chris Frum; Amy Kurowski‐Burt; Christopher E. Bauer; Sijin Wen; Jad H. Ramadan; Kathryn A. Baker; James W. Lewis

    Many individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have been shown to perceive everyday sensory information differently compared to peers without autism. Research examining these sensory differences has primarily utilized nonnatural stimuli or natural stimuli using static photos with few having utilized dynamic, real‐world nonverbal stimuli. Therefore, in this study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to characterize brain activation of individuals with high‐functioning autism when viewing and listening to a video of a real‐world scene (a person bouncing a ball) and anticipating the bounce. We investigated both multisensory and unisensory processing and hypothesized that individuals with ASD would show differential activation in (a) primary auditory and visual sensory cortical and association areas, and in (b) cortical and subcortical regions where auditory and visual information is integrated (e.g. temporal‐parietal junction, pulvinar, superior colliculus). Contrary to our hypotheses, the whole‐brain analysis revealed similar activation between the groups in these brain regions. However, compared to controls the ASD group showed significant hypoactivation in the left intraparietal sulcus and left putamen/globus pallidus. We theorize that this hypoactivation reflected underconnectivity for mediating spatiotemporal processing of the visual biological motion stimuli with the task demands of anticipating the timing of the bounce event. The paradigm thus may have tapped into a specific left‐lateralized aberrant corticobasal circuit or loop involved in initiating or inhibiting motor responses. This was consistent with a dual “when versus where” psychophysical model of corticobasal function, which may reflect core differences in sensory processing of real‐world, nonverbal natural stimuli in ASD. Autism Res 2020. © 2020 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  • Treatment of Adults with Autism and Major Depressive Disorder Using Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation: An Open Label Pilot Study
    Autism Res. (IF 3.697) Pub Date : 2020-01-15
    McLeod Frampton Gwynette; Danielle W. Lowe; Erin A. Henneberry; Gregory L. Sahlem; Melanie Gail Wiley; Hussam Alsarraf; Sarah Brice Russo; Jane E. Joseph; Philipp M. Summers; Laura Lohnes; Mark S. George

    Patients with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are at high risk for comorbid major depressive disorder (MDD), which can severely impair functioning and quality of life. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a noninvasive brain stimulation technique, which is Food and Drug Administration (FDA) cleared for the treatment of MDD in adults. Despite demonstrated efficacy in the treatment of depression, there are limited data on the use of rTMS in patients with ASD and comorbid MDD. We hypothesized that a standard rTMS protocol for MDD would reduce depressive symptoms for adults with ASD and MDD. Secondarily, we investigated whether this treatment would also reduce core ASD symptoms. Participants of 18–65 years old with ASD and MDD without any medication changes in the last month were eligible for this open‐label trial. Participants underwent 25 sessions of rTMS (figure‐of‐eight coil, 100–120% resting motor threshold, 10 Hz, 3,000 pulses per session) applied to the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Thirteen participants enrolled in the study, with two withdrawing due to tolerability, and one excluded from analysis. Overall, side effects were mild and rTMS was well tolerated. The Hamilton rating scale for depression (HAM‐D17) improved 13.5 points (IQR 5–15), and 40% of participants achieved remission (HAM‐D17 ≤ 7) after rTMS treatment. Informant clinical scales of core symptoms of autism also suggested improvement with rTMS, though no change was observed by the participants themselves. Thus, this open‐label trial suggests that high‐frequency rTMS is well tolerated by adults with autism and MDD, with improvement in depressive symptoms and possible effects on core autism symptoms. Autism Res 2020. © 2020 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  • Physical Activity and Adiposity in a Racially Diverse Cohort of US Infants
    Obesity (IF 3.969) Pub Date : 2020-01-16
    Sara E. Benjamin‐Neelon; Jiawei Bai; Truls Østbye; Brian Neelon; Russell R. Pate; Ciprian Crainiceanu

    Early life physical activity may help prevent obesity, but objective quantification in infants is challenging.

  • The role of microbiota in tissue repair and regeneration
    J. Tissue Eng. Regen. Med. (IF 3.319) Pub Date : 2020-01-15
    Amin Shavandi; Pouya Saeedi; Philippe Gérard; Esmat Jalalvandi; David Cannella; Alaa El‐Din Bekhit

    A comprehensive understanding of the human body endogenous microbiota is essential for acquiring an insight into the involvement of microbiota in tissue healing and regeneration process in order to enable development of biomaterials with a better integration with human body environment. Biomaterials used for biomedical applications are normally germ‐free, and the human body as the host of the biomaterials is not germ‐free. The complexity and role of the body microbiota in tissue healing/regeneration have been underestimated historically. Traditionally, studies aiming at the development of novel biomaterials had focused on the effects of environment within the target tissue, neglecting the signals generated from the microbiota and their impact on tissue regeneration. The significance of the human body microbiota in relation to metabolism, immune system, and consequently tissue regeneration has been recently realised and is a growing research field. This review summarises recent findings on the role of microbiota and mechanisms involved in tissue healing and regeneration, in particular skin, liver, bone, and nervous system regrowth and regeneration highlighting the potential new roles of microbiota for development of a new generation of biomaterials.

  • N‐doped Carbon Nanotubes Encapsulating Ni/MoN Heterostructures Grown on Carbon Cloth for Overall Water Splitting
    ChemElectroChem (IF 3.975) Pub Date : 2020-01-16
    Pan Wang; Ji Qi; Chuang Li; Xiao Chen; Tonghua Wang; Changhai Liang

    Herein, we reported a new strategy to grow N‐doped carbon nanotubes encapsulating Ni/MoN heterostructures on carbon cloth (Ni/MoN@NCNT/CC). The high intrinsic activity in the interface engineering of the Ni/MoN heterostructures, the high conductivity and protection of NCNT, and the three‐dimensional structure of the Ni/MoN@NCNT/CC contribute to its outstanding activity and stability for HER (overpotential of 207 mV at 10 mA cm ‐2 ) and OER (overpotential of 252 mV at 10 mA cm ‐2 ). Particularly, for HER, it can maintain a consistent potential at 100 mA cm ‐2 for 100 h. Besides, for OER the generated surface roughness and larger surface area can enhance OER activity of the catalyst. When used as a bifunctional electrocatalyst for overall water splitting, it can achieve a current density of 10 mA cm ‐2 at a cell voltage of 1.699 V with excellent durability. This work provides a new strategy to fabricate three‐dimensional heterostructured water‐splitting electrocatalysts with large surface area.

  • Highly‐Healable Microsupercapacitors with Size‐Dependent 2D MXene
    ChemElectroChem (IF 3.975) Pub Date : 2020-01-16
    Xingxing Li; Yanan Ma; Peizhi Shen; Chuankun Zhang; Jinfeng Yan; Yingbo Xia; Shijun Luo; Yihua Gao

    Very recently, 2D MXene has attracted a lot of attention in energy storage, due to its large specific surface area, good hydrophilicity, well conductivity and adjustable composition. Herein, we reported a kind of highly‐healable microsupercapacitors (MSCs) based on size‐dependent Ti3C2Tx MXene. Due to the rich physicochemical properties of Ti3C2Tx, the MSCs were fabricated by firstly spraying different lateral size MXene nanosheets onto the cellulose paper, and then selectively engraving interdigital electrodes by laser engraving machine. The flexible MXene‐based MSCs were assembled by sulfuric acid‐polyvinyl alcohol electrolyte. It is observed the electrochemical performance of MXene‐based MSCs is significantly affected by the nanosheet size. And the capacitance of MSCs fabricated by smaller lateral nanosheet reached up to 73.6 mF/cm2, which is higher than that of the larger lateral nanosheet and mixture one that contains smaller and larger nanosheets (1:1 mass ratio). Moreover, the self‐healable MXene‐based MSCs fabricated with polyurethane containing large number of hydrogen bonds as the wrapped material, present an excellent self‐healable ability with capacitance retention of 90% over 2000 charge/discharge cycles after 5th cutting/healing. And MXene‐based MSCs display great potential in the field of energy storage, which not only turn on the LED light but also drive the electronic clock.

  • Race‐specific differences in the phase coherence between blood flow and oxygenation: A simultaneous NIRS, white light spectroscopy and LDF study
    J. Biophotonics (IF 3.763) Pub Date : 2020-01-16
    Yunus A. Abdulhameed; Peter V. E. McClintock; Aneta Stefanovska

    Race‐specific differences in the level of glycated haemoglobin are well known. However, these differences were detected by invasive measurement of mean oxygenation, and their understanding remains far from complete. Given that oxygen is delivered to the cells by haemoglobin through the cardiovascular system, a possible approach is to investigate the phase coherence between blood flow and oxygen transportation. Here we introduce a non‐invasive optical method based on simultaneous recordings using NIRS, white light spectroscopy and LDF, combined with wavelet‐based phase coherence analysis. Signals were recorded simultaneously for individuals in two groups of healthy subjects, 16 from Sub‐Saharan Africa (BA group) and 16 Europeans (CA group). It was found that the power of myogenic oscillations in oxygenated and de‐oxygenated haemoglobin is higher in the BA group, but that the phase coherence between blood flow and oxygen saturation, or blood flow and haemoglobin concentrations is higher in the CA group.

  • Genetic and pharmacological inactivation of astroglial connexin 43 differentially influences the acute response of antidepressant and anxiolytic drugs
    Acta Physiol. (IF 5.868) Pub Date : 2020-01-16
    Benjamin Portal; Sarah Delcourte; Renaud Rovera; Camille Lejards; Sebastien Bullich; Cécile E. Malnou; Nasser Haddjeri; Nicole Déglon; Bruno P. Guiard

    Astroglial connexins (Cxs) 30 and 43 are engaged in gap junction and hemichannel activities. Evidence suggests that these functional entities contribute to regulating neurotransmission, thereby influencing brain functions. In particular, preclinical and clinical findings highlight a role of Cx43 in animal models of depression. However, the role of these proteins in response to currently available psychotropic drugs is still unknown.

  • Nitric oxide: to be or not to be an endocrine hormone?
    Acta Physiol. (IF 5.868) Pub Date : 2020-01-16
    Zahra Bahadoran; Mattias Carlström; Parvin Mirmiran; Asghar Ghasemi

    Nitric oxide (NO), a highly‐reactive gasotransmitter, is critical for a number of cellular processes and has multiple biological functions. Due to its limited lifetime and diffusion distance, NO has been mainly believed to act in autocrine/paracrine fashion. The increasingly recognized effects of pharmacologically delivered and endogenous NO at a distant site, have changed the conventional wisdom and introduced NO as an endocrine signaling molecule. The notion is greatly supported by the detection of a number of NO adducts and their circulatory cycles, which in turn contribute to the transport and delivery of NO bioactivity, remote from the sites of its synthesis. The existence of endocrine sites of synthesis, negative feedback regulation of biosynthesis, integrated storage and transport systems, having an exclusive receptor, i.e. soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC), and organized circadian rhythmicity, make NO something beyond a simple autocrine/paracrine signaling molecule that could qualify for being an endocrine signaling molecule. Here, we discuss hormonal features of NO from the classical endocrine point of view and review available knowledge supporting NO as a true endocrine hormone. This new insight can provide a new framework within which to reinterpret NO biology and its clinical applications.

  • Distinct genomic traits of acral and mucosal melanomas revealed by targeted mutational profiling
    Pigment Cell Melanoma Res. (IF 4.172) Pub Date : 2020-01-16
    Zhengyun Zou; Qiuxiang Ou; Yu Ren; Qing Lv; Lanqun Qin; Lianjun Zhao; Shu Su; Xue Wu; Hua Bao; Ao Wang; Dongqin Zhu; Xiaonan Wang; Yang W. Shao; Baorui Liu

    The incidence of melanoma is rising globally including China. Comparing to Caucasians, the incidence of non‐cutaneous melanomas is significantly higher in Chinese. Herein, we performed genomic profiling of 89 Chinese surgically resected primary melanomas, including acral (n = 54), cutaneous (n = 22), and mucosal (n = 13), by hybrid capture‐based next generation sequencing. We show that mucosal melanomas tended to harbor more pathogenic mutations than other types of melanoma, though the biological significance of this finding remains uncertain. Chromosomal arm‐level alterations including 6q, 9p, and 10p/q loss were highly recurrent in all subtypes, but mucosal melanoma was significantly associated with increased genomic instability. Importantly, 7p gain significantly correlated with unfavorable clinical outcomes in non‐cutaneous melanomas, representing an intriguing prognostic biomarker of those subtypes. Furthermore, focal amplification of 4q12 (KIT, KDR, and PDGFRα) and RAD51 deletion were more abundant in mucosal melanoma, while NOTCH2 amplification was enriched in acral melanoma. Additionally, cutaneous melanomas had higher mutation load than acral melanomas, while mucosal melanomas did not differ from other subtypes in mutation burden. Together, our data revealed important features of acral and mucosal melanomas in Chinese including distinctive driver mutation pattern and increased genomic instability. These findings highlight the possibilities of combination therapies in the clinical management of melanoma.

  • cDC2 and plasmacytoid dendritic cells diminish from tissues of patients with non‐Hodgkin orbital lymphoma and idiopathic orbital inflammation
    Eur. J. Immunol. (IF 4.695) Pub Date : 2020-01-16
    Kamil G. Laban; Rianne Rijken; Sanne Hiddingh; Jorre S. Mertens; Rob L. P. van der Veen; Christine A.E. Eenhorst; Aridaman Pandit; Timothy R.D.J. Radstake; Joke H. de Boer; Rachel Kalmann; Jonas J. W. Kuiper
  • Overexpression of GILZ in macrophages limits systemic inflammation while increasing bacterial clearance in sepsis in mice
    Eur. J. Immunol. (IF 4.695) Pub Date : 2020-01-16
    Mehdi Ellouze; Lola Vigouroux; Colas Tcherakian; Paul‐Louis Woerther; Aurélie Guguin; Olivier Robert; Mathieu Surenaud; Thi Tran; Joseph Calmette; Thomas Barbin; Gabriel Perlemuter; Anne‐Marie Cassard; Pierre Launay; Virginie Maxime; Djillali Annane; Yves Levy; Véronique Godot
  • Neutrophils suppress mucosal‐associated invariant T cells in humans
    Eur. J. Immunol. (IF 4.695) Pub Date : 2020-01-16
    Marion Schneider; Rachel F. Hannaway; Rajesh Lamichhane; Sara M. de la Harpe; Joel DA Tyndall; Andrea J. Vernall; A Tony; James Edgeworth Ussher

    Mucosal‐associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are innate‐like T lymphocytes that are abundant in mucosal tissues and the liver where they can respond rapidly to a broad range of riboflavin producing bacterial and fungal pathogens. Neutrophils, which are recruited early to sites of infection, play a non‐redundant role in pathogen clearance and are crucial for controlling infection. The interaction of these two cell types is poorly studied. Here, we investigated both the effect of neutrophils on MAIT cell activation and the effect of activated MAIT cells on neutrophils. We show that neutrophils suppress the activation of MAIT cells by a cell‐contact and hydrogen peroxide dependent mechanism. Moreover, highly activated MAIT cells were able to produce high levels of TNFα that induced neutrophil death. We therefore provide evidence for a negative regulatory feedback mechanism in which neutrophils prevent over‐activation of MAIT cells and, in turn, MAIT cells limit neutrophil survival.

  • Commentary: Microbial panaceas. Does development have the answer? Reflections on Cowan, Dinan, & Cryan (2019)
    J. Child Psychol. Psyc. (IF 6.129) Pub Date : 2020-01-15
    Bridget Callaghan

    Is the microbiome a promising adjunct, a potential panacea, or a distraction from feasible treatments for neurodevelopmental disorders? Taking a developmental approach may get us closer to understanding the data and give us pause in trying to translate this nascent field to the clinic right now.

  • A deep‐learning‐based computer vision solution for construction vehicle detection
    Comput. Aided Civ. Infrastruct. Eng. (IF 6.208) Pub Date : 2020-01-15
    Saeed Arabi; Arya Haghighat; Anuj Sharma

    This paper aims at providing researchers and engineering professionals from the first step of solution development to the last step of solution deployment with a practical and comprehensive deep‐learning‐based solution for detecting construction vehicles. This paper places particular focus on the often‐ignored last step of deployment. Our first phase of solution development involved data preparation, model selection, model training, and model validation. Given the necessarily small‐scale nature of construction vehicle image datasets, we propose as detection model an improved version of the single shot detector MobileNet, which is suitable for embedded devices. Our study's second phase comprised model optimization, application‐specific embedded system selection, economic analysis, and field implementation. Several embedded devices were proposed and compared. Results including a consistent above 90% mean average precision confirm the superior real‐time performance of our proposed solutions. Finally, the practical field implementation of our proposed solutions was investigated. This study validates the practicality of deep‐learning‐based object detection solutions for construction scenarios. Moreover, the detailed information provided by the current study can be employed for several purposes such as safety monitoring, productivity assessments, and managerial decision making.

  • Comparative genomics of six Juglans species reveals disease‐associated gene family contractions
    Plant J. (IF 5.726) Pub Date : 2020-01-16
    Alexander J. Trouern‐Trend; Taylor Falk; Sumaira Zaman; Madison Caballero; David B. Neale; Charles H. Langley; Abhaya M. Dandekar; Kristian A. Stevens; Jill L. Wegrzyn

    Juglans (walnuts), the most speciose genus in the walnut family (Juglandaceae), represents most of the family's commercially valuable fruit and wood‐producing trees. It includes several species used as rootstock for their resistance to various abiotic and biotic stressors. We present the full structural and functional genome annotations of six Juglans species and one outgroup within Juglandaceae (Juglans regia, J. cathayensis, J. hindsii, J. microcarpa, J. nigra, J. sigillata and Pterocarya stenoptera) produced using BRAKER2 semi‐unsupervised gene prediction pipeline and additional tools. For each annotation, gene predictors were trained using 19 tissue‐specific J. regia transcriptomes aligned to the genomes. Additional functional evidence and filters were applied to multi‐exonic and mono‐exonic putative genes to yield between 27 000 and 44 000 high‐confidence gene models per species. Comparison of gene models to the BUSCO embryophyta dataset suggested that, on average, genome annotation completeness was 85.6%. We utilized these high‐quality annotations to assess gene family evolution within Juglans, and among Juglans and selected Eurosid species. We found notable contractions in several gene families in J. hindsii, including disease resistance‐related wall‐associated kinase (WAK), Catharanthus roseus receptor‐like kinase (CrRLK1L) and others involved in abiotic stress response. Finally, we confirmed an ancient whole‐genome duplication that took place in a common ancestor of Juglandaceae using site substitution comparative analysis.

  • Translational regulation contributes to the elevated CO2 response in two Solanum species
    Plant J. (IF 5.726) Pub Date : 2020-01-16
    Sharon B. Gray; Joel Rodriguez‐Medina; Samuel Rusoff; Ted W. Toal; Kaisa Kajala; Daniel E. Runcie; Siobhan M. Brady

    Understanding the impact of elevated CO2 (eCO2) in global agriculture is important given climate change projections. Breeding climate‐resilient crops depends on genetic variation within naturally varying populations. The effect of genetic variation in response to eCO2 is poorly understood, especially in crop species. We describe the different ways in which Solanum lycopersicum and its wild relative S. pennellii respond to eCO2, from cell anatomy, to the transcriptome, and metabolome. We further validate the importance of translational regulation as a potential mechanism for plants to adaptively respond to rising levels of atmospheric CO2.

  • ATP binding cassette transporters ABCG1 and ABCG16 affect reproductive development via auxin signaling in Arabidopsis
    Plant J. (IF 5.726) Pub Date : 2020-01-15
    Liping Liu; Lihua Zhao; Piaojuan Chen; Hanyang Cai; Zhimin Hou; Xingyue Jin; Mohammad Aslam; Mengnan Chai; Linyi Lai; Qing He; Yanhui Liu; Xiaoyi Huang; Huihuang Chen; Yingzhi Chen; Yuan Qin

    Angiosperm reproductive development is a complex event that includes floral organ development, male and female gametophyte formation and interaction between the male and female reproductive organs for successful fertilization. Previous studies revealed the redundant function of ATP binding cassette subfamily G (ABCG) transporters ABCG1 and ABCG16 in pollen development, but whether they are involved in other reproductive processes is unknown. Here we showed that ABCG1 and ABCG16 were not only expressed in anthers and stamen filaments but also enriched in pistil tissues, including the stigma, style, transmitting tract and ovule. We further demonstrated that pistil‐expressed ABCG1 and ABCG16 promoted rapid pollen tube growth through their effects on auxin distribution and auxin flow in the pistil. Moreover, disrupted auxin homeostasis in stamen filaments was associated with defective filament elongation. Our work reveals the key functions of ABCG1 and ABCG16 in reproductive development and provides clues for identifying ABCG1 and ABCG16 substrates in Arabidopsis.

  • Estimating photosynthetic traits from reflectance spectra: A synthesis of spectral indices, numerical inversion, and partial least square regression
    Plant Cell Environ. (IF 5.624) Pub Date : 2020-01-10
    Peng Fu; Katherine Meacham‐Hensold; Kaiyu Guan; Jin Wu; Carl Bernacchi

    The lack of efficient means to accurately infer photosynthetic traits constrains understanding global land carbon fluxes and improving photosynthetic pathways to increase crop yield. Here we investigated whether a hyperspectral imaging camera mounted on a mobile platform could provide the capability to help resolve these challenges, focusing on three main approaches, i.e., reflectance spectra‐, spectral indices‐, and numerical model inversions‐based partial least square regression (PLSR) to estimate photosynthetic traits from canopy hyperspectral reflectance for eleven tobacco cultivars. Results showed that PLSR with inputs of reflectance spectra or spectral indices yielded a R2 of ~0.8 for predicting Vcmax and Jmax, higher than a R2 of ~0.6 provided by PLSR of numerical inversions. Compared to PLSR of reflectance spectra, PLSR with spectral indices exhibited a better performance for predicting Vcmax (R2 = 0.84 ± 0.02, RMSE = 33.8 ± 2.2 𝜇𝑚𝑜𝑙 𝑚−2 𝑠−1) while a similar performance for Jmax (R2 = 0.80 ± 0.03, RMSE = 22.6 ± 1.6 𝜇𝑚𝑜𝑙 𝑚−2 𝑠−1). Further analysis on spectral resampling revealed that Vcmax and Jmax could be predicted with ~10 spectral bands at spectral resolution less than 14.7 nm. These results have important implications for improving photosynthetic pathways and mapping of photosynthesis across scales.

  • Effects of processing and storage conditions on the stability of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) leaf flavonoids
    Int. J. Food Sci. Tech. (IF 2.281) Pub Date : 2020-01-15
    Jiang Liu; Taihua Mu; Hongnan Sun; Marie Laure Fauconnier
  • Evaluation of selective outcome reporting and trial registration practices among addiction clinical trials
    Addiction (IF 6.851) Pub Date : 2020-01-16
    Matt Vassar; William Roberts; Craig M. Cooper; Cole Wayant; Michael Bibens

    Selective outcome reporting occurs when trialists pre‐specify primary and secondary outcomes during trial planning but alter the definitions in the published report. Here, we investigate selective outcome reporting in published addiction randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and evaluate whether particular funding sources are associated with an increased likelihood of selective outcome reporting.

  • Vitamin E acetate is not present in licit e‐cigarette products available on the UK market
    Addiction (IF 6.851) Pub Date : 2020-01-16
    Blessing Nyakutsikwa; John Britton; Ilze Bogdanovica; Tessa Langley

    To determine whether nicotine‐containing vaping products submitted to the Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA) under the Tobacco and Related Products Regulations 2016 contain tetrahydrocannabinol or vitamin E acetate.

  • Effect of alcohol use disorders and alcohol intake on the risk of subsequent depressive symptoms: a systematic review and meta‐analysis of cohort studies
    Addiction (IF 6.851) Pub Date : 2020-01-16
    Jiande Li; Hongxuan Wang; Mei Li; Qingyu Shen; Xiangpen Li; Yuanpei Zhang; Jialing Peng; Xiaoming Rong; Ying Peng

    Alcohol use disorders (AUD) are often comorbid with depressive symptoms. Cohort studies on the association between AUD and subsequent depressive symptoms have produced inconsistent results. Moreover, regarding alcohol intake, the risk of developing depressive symptoms might vary with alcohol intake level. We aimed to investigate the association between AUD, alcohol intake and subsequent depressive symptoms.

  • Green synthetic investigation and spectral characterization of some spiro pyrazolidine‐based heterocycles with potential biological activity
    J. Heterocycl. Chem. (IF 1.241) Pub Date : 2020-01-16
    Yasser A. El‐Ossaily; Saoud A. Metwally; Nayef S. Al‐Muailkel; Ahmed Fawzy; Hazim M. Ali; Yousra A. Naffea
  • RvE1 treatment prevents memory loss and neuroinflammation in the Ts65Dn mouse model of Down syndrome
    Glia (IF 5.829) Pub Date : 2020-01-16
    Eric D. Hamlett; Erik Hjorth; Aurélie Ledreux; Anah Gilmore; Marianne Schultzberg; Ann Charlotte Granholm
  • Non‐negligible contribution of subordinates in community‐level litter decomposition: Deciduous trees in an evergreen world
    J. Ecol. (IF 5.687) Pub Date : 2020-01-16
    Chao Guo; Johannes H. C. Cornelissen; Bin Tuo; Hang Ci; En‐Rong Yan
  • Atmospheric and soil drought risks combined shape community assembly of trees in a Tropical Dry Forest
    J. Ecol. (IF 5.687) Pub Date : 2020-01-16
    Moisés Méndez‐Toribio; Guillermo Ibarra‐Manríquez; Horacio Paz; Edwin Lebrija‐Trejos

    1.Predicting plant community assembly is challenging in part because the influence of environmental conditions via plant functional strategies and the relevance of mechanisms of community assembly change across habitats and these changes remain poorly studied.

  • Determination of 14 heterocyclic aromatic amines in meat products using solid‐phase extraction and supercritical fluid chromatography coupled to triple quadrupole mass spectrometry
    J. Sep. Sci. (IF 2.516) Pub Date : 2020-01-16
    Yuan Zhang; Wen‐jie Wu; Wei‐e Zhou; Zhi‐qin Ren; Xue‐song Feng; Feng Zhang

    A novel, simple and sensitive method has been developed for simultaneous determination of 14 heterocyclic aromatic amines in meat product using solid phase extraction combined with ultra‐high performance supercritical fluid chromatography coupled to tandem quadrupole mass spectrometry. The analytes could be separated within 7 min and be identified using their retention times and mass. The developed method was validated based on the linearity, limits of quantification, precision and accuracy. The recovery ranged from 52.3‐97.5 % with an acceptable standard deviation, which is not higher than 6%. The limits of quantitation ranged from 0.03‐0.17 μg/kg. The selectivity and sensitivity were satisfactory in multiple reaction monitoring mode. The method was applied to commercial meat products, and the results demonstrated the novel method is potential for the analysis of the targets in food matrices. This is the first work reporting the simultaneous quantification of 14 heterocyclic aromatic amines by means of ultrahigh performance supercritical fluid chromatography coupled to tandem quadrupole mass spectrometry.

  • Resorcinol‐formaldehyde aerogel coating for in‐tube solid‐phase microextraction of estrogens
    J. Sep. Sci. (IF 2.516) Pub Date : 2020-01-15
    Qiong Jiang; Peng Xu; Min Sun

    Resorcinol‐formaldehyde aerogel coating was in situ prepared on the surface of basalt fibers. The aerogel coating is uniformly modified onto basalt fibers, and it is very porous according to the characterization of scanning electron microscope. An extraction tube was prepared for in‐tube solid‐phase microextraction via placing the aerogel‐coated basalt fibers into a polyetheretherketone tube. To evaluate the extraction performance towards five estrogenic compounds, the tube was connected with high performance liquid chromatography, the important extraction and desorption conditions were investigated. An online analytical method for detection of estrogens was developed and presented low limits of detection (0.005‐0.030 μg/L), wide linear ranges (0.017‐20 μg/L, 0.033‐20 μg/L and 0.099‐20 μg/L), good linearity (r > 0.9990) and satisfactory repeatability (relative standard deviation < 2.7%). The method was successfully applied to detect trace estrogens in real water samples (bottled pure water and bottled mineral water), satisfactory recoveries were ranged from 80% to 125% with two spiking levels of 2 μg/L and 6 μg/L.

  • Key Factors for Template‐Oriented Porous Titania Synthesis: Solvents and Catalysts
    Small Methods Pub Date : 2020-01-15
    Shanshan Yin; Lin Song; Senlin Xia; Yajun Cheng; Nuri Hohn; Wei Chen; Kun Wang; Wei Cao; Shujin Hou; Peter Müller‐Buschbaum
  • Higher versus standard starting dose of insulin glargine 100 U/mL in overweight or obese Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes: results of a multicentre, open‐label, randomised controlled trial (BEYOND VII)
    Diabetes Obes. Metab. (IF 6.133) Pub Date : 2020-01-15
    Linong Ji; Hailong Wan; Binhong Wen; Xueying Wang; Junfen Wang; Rongwen Bian; Wuyan Pang; Jian Tian; Yan Wang; Fang Bian; Zhengnan Gao; Alex Condoleon; Wei Feng; Xia Zhang; Nan Cui

    To determine the safety of a higher starting dose of basal insulin in overweight/obese patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D).

  • Durability of glycaemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes after metformin failure: prognostic model derivation and validation using the DISCOVER study
    Diabetes Obes. Metab. (IF 6.133) Pub Date : 2020-01-15
    Suping Ling; Ping Sun; Francesco Zaccardi; Sajan Khosla; Andrew Cooper; Peter Fenici; Kamlesh Khunti

    Evidence on long‐term glucose reductions achieved by second‐line glucose‐lowering therapy is scarce.

  • Silicon heterojunction solar cells toward higher fill factor
    Prog. Photovoltaics (IF 7.776) Pub Date : 2020-01-16
    Luca Martini; Luca Serenelli; Francesca Menchini; Massimo Izzi; Mario Tucci
  • Predictors of sudden cardiac death in high‐risk patients following a myocardial infarction
    Eur. J. Heart Fail. (IF 13.965) Pub Date : 2020-01-16
    Kieran F. Docherty; João Pedro Ferreira; Abhinav Sharma; Nicolas Girerd; John Gregson; Kevin Duarte; Mark C. Petrie; Pardeep S. Jhund; Kenneth Dickstein; Marc A. Pfeffer; Bertram Pitt; Patrick Rossignol; Faiez Zannad; John J.V. McMurray

    To develop a risk model for sudden cardiac death (SCD) in high‐risk acute myocardial infarction (AMI) survivors.

  • Brainstem ventilatory dysfunction: A plausible mechanism for dyspnea in Parkinson's Disease?
    Mov. Disord. (IF 8.061) Pub Date : 2020-01-15
    Srimathy Vijayan; Bhajan Singh; Soumya Ghosh; Rick Stell; Frank L Mastaglia

    Dyspnea is an under‐recognized and debilitating symptom that is reported in up to 40% of patients with Parkinson's disease and may have multiple origins. Despite its frequency, it is poorly researched, and there is a general lack of understanding of the pathophysiology of dyspnea and respiratory dysfunction in PD. Consequently, a number of PD patients are labelled as having “unexplained dyspnea.” Studies to date have focused mainly on evaluating ventilatory capacity and lung volumes, and little is known about the effects of the disease on the medullary and pontine ventilatory control centers within the brainstem. This is of particular relevance in view of neuropathological studies demonstrating early involvement of the dorsal medulla and other brainstem structures by the disease process. The possibility that impaired brainstem ventilatory control is a contributory mechanism for dyspnea and could be a premotor manifestation in some PD patients therefore warrants further attention. This review focuses on clinical, pathological, and experimental evidence for the involvement of brainstem respiratory centers in PD. We highlight the need for further research, particularly in PD patients with unexplained dyspnea. © 2019 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society

  • Long‐read sequencing and de novo assembly of the Luffa cylindrica (L.) Roem. genome
    Mol. Ecol. Resour. (IF 7.049) Pub Date : 2020-01-16
    Tao Zhang; Xuyan Ren; Zhao Zhang; Yao Ming; Zhe Yang; Jianbin Hu; Shengli Li; Yong Wang; Shouru Sun; Kaile Sun; Fengzhi Piao; Zhiqiang Sun

    Sponge gourd (Luffa cylindrica (L.) Roem.) or luffa is a diploid herbaceous plant with 26 chromosomes (2n = 26) and belongs to the family Cucurbitaceae. To address the limited knowledge of the genome of Luffa species, the chromosome‐level genome of L. cylindrica was assembled and analysed using PacBio long reads and Hi‐C data. We combined Hi‐C data with a draft genome assembly to generate chromosome‐length scaffolds. Thirteen scaffolds corresponding to the 13 chromosomes were assembled from 1,156 contigs to a final size of 669 Mb with a contig N50 size of 5 Mb and a scaffold N50 size of 53 Mb. After removing redundant sequences, 416.31 Mb (62.18% of the genome) of repeat sequences was detected. Subsequently, 31,661 protein‐coding genes with an average of 5.69 exons per gene were identified in the L. cylindrica genome using de novo methods, transcriptome data and homologue‐based approaches. In addition, 27,552 protein‐coding genes (87.02%) were annotated in five databases. According to the phylogenetic analysis, L. cylindrica is closely related to Cucurbita and Cucumis species and diverged from their common ancestor ~28.6–67.1 million years ago. Genome collinearity analysis was performed in Cucurbita moschata, Cucumis sativus and L. cylindrica, and it demonstrated a high degree of conserved gene order in these three species. The completeness of the genome will provide high‐quality genomic knowledge on breeding and reveal genetic variation in L. cylindrica.

  • Laboratory‐based interventions targeting food craving: A systematic review and meta‐analysis
    Obes. Rev. (IF 8.192) Pub Date : 2020-01-16
    Ines Wolz; Julia Nannt; Jennifer Svaldi

    This systematic review and meta‐analysis aimed to quantify the effects of laboratory‐based interventions targeting specific mechanisms of food craving, to identify moderators of effects, and to qualitatively summarize findings. The study was conducted and reported according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta‐Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Sixty‐nine studies were included in the quantitative synthesis, and separate meta‐analyses were conducted for the outcomes self‐reported craving and objective food intake. Results show small to medium positive effects across specific craving interventions on both outcomes. Effect sizes were partly moderated by intervention type. The most effective intervention regarding food intake was in sensu cue exposure. For subjective craving, the most robust evidence was found for beneficial effects of cognitive regulation strategies (ie, reappraisal, suppression, and distraction). Results further indicate that training inhibitory control through behavioral inhibition might be more effective than approach‐avoidance training when considering its effect on subjective craving and food intake. People with external eating habits, overeating, or loss‐of‐control eating might benefit from these types of specific craving interventions. Future research should focus on long‐term effects, transferability, and effectiveness in clinical samples.

  • Differentiated Hepatic Response to Fructose Intake during Adolescence Reveals the Increased Susceptibility to Non‐Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease of Maternal High‐Fat Diet Male Rat Offspring
    Mol. Nutr. Food Res. (IF 4.653) Pub Date : 2020-01-16
    Lorraine S. Oliveira; Bruna Caetano; Rosiane A. Miranda; Aline F. P. Souza; Aline Cordeiro; Juliana Woyames; Cherley B. V. Andrade; Georgia C. Atella; Christina M. Takiya; Rodrigo S. Fortunato; Isis H. Trevenzoli; Luana L. Souza; Carmen C. Pazos‐Moura
  • Flavonoid‐Derived Human Phenyl‐γ‐Valerolactone Metabolites Selectively Detoxify Amyloid‐β Oligomers and Prevent Memory Impairment in a Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease
    Mol. Nutr. Food Res. (IF 4.653) Pub Date : 2020-01-16
    Roberta Ruotolo; Ilaria Minato; Pietro La Vitola; Luisa Artioli; Claudio Curti; Valentina Franceschi; Nicoletta Brindani; Davide Amidani; Laura Colombo; Mario Salmona; Gianluigi Forloni; Gaetano Donofrio; Claudia Balducci; Daniele Del Rio; Simone Ottonello
  • Visible‐Light‐Induced Difunctionalization of Styrenes: An Efficient and Green Protocol for the Synthesis of β‐Acyloxyselenides
    Asian J. Org. Chem. (IF 2.496) Pub Date : 2020-01-16
    Jinyang Chen; Rui Chen; Lan Mei; Shanshu Yan; Yan Wu; Qiang Li; Binfang Yuan
  • Preparation of Enantiomerically Pure β,β‐Diaryl β‐Hydroxy‐α‐Amino Acids and Evaluation of Their Potential as Organocatalysts
    Asian J. Org. Chem. (IF 2.496) Pub Date : 2020-01-16
    Satoru Arimitsu; Koki Oshiro; Katsuki Endo; Emi Gima; Samira Poorsadeghi
  • Modulating Iron Spin States with Radical Ligands: A Density Functional Theoretical Study
    Asian J. Org. Chem. (IF 2.496) Pub Date : 2020-01-16
    Ludovica Credendino; Stephen Sproules
  • Regioselective carboiodination of styrenes: N‐iodosuccinimide affords complete reaction regioselectivity
    Asian J. Org. Chem. (IF 2.496) Pub Date : 2020-01-16
    Mayuki Goto; Saki Maejima; Eiji Yamaguchi; Akichika Itoh

    In organic synthesis, regioselective bifunctionalization of olefins remains an unmet challenge. In this study, the cationic, iodine‐mediated, complete β‐selective carboiodoination of styrene and styrene‐like compounds with Meldrum’s acid was achieved. The reaction, thus developed, proceeded with the formation of a C–C bond at the olefin’s β‐position and a C–I bond at its β‐position, via a single‐step reaction between Meldrum’s acid and an iodonium intermediate. The developed strategy suppresses formation of undesired side‐reactions, resulting from α‐selective carboiodoination. To demonstrate the developed methodology’s potential, synthetic transformations were also performed, starting from the generated carboiodinated products.

  • Effects of elevated CO2 and temperature on survival and wing dimorphism of two species of rice planthoppers (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) under interaction
    Pest Manag. Sci. (IF 3.255) Pub Date : 2020-01-16
    Caiyun Wang; Minghui Fei; Ling Meng; Jeffrey A. Harvey; Baoping Li

    Anthropogenic climate change (ACC) may have significant impacts on insect herbivore communities including pests. Two of the most important climate‐change related factors are increased atmospheric concentrations of CO2, and increasing mean global temperature. Although increasing attention is being paid to the biological and ecological effects of ACC, important processes such as interspecific interaction between insect herbivores have been little explored. Here, in a field experiment using the FACE (free‐air CO2 enrichment) system, we investigated the effect of elevated CO2 and temperature on survival and wing dimorphism of two species of rice planthoppers, Laodelphax striatellus and Nilaparvata lugens under interaction.

  • Molecular characterization and functional expression of voltage‐gated sodium channel variants in Apolygus lucorum (Meyer‐Dür)
    Pest Manag. Sci. (IF 3.255) Pub Date : 2020-01-16
    Kun zhang; Mengli Chen; Hao Wang; Wenbo Duan; Qiang Wang; Fen Li; Denghui Deng; Elizabeth Bandason; Shaoying Wu

    Apolygus lucorum (Meyer‐Dür) is a serious worldwide agricultural pest, especially for Bt cotton in China. Pyrethroids, neonicotinoids and organophosphates are the most effective insecticides to control piercing and sucking insects including A.lucorum. The voltage‐gated sodium channel (VGSC) is major target site of pyrethroids. Extensive alternative splicing and RNA editing, two major post‐transcriptional mechanisms, contribute to generate different functional sodium channel variants. In our research, we characterized the sodium channel varients of A. lucorum.

  • A review of cancer immunotherapy toxicity
    CA: Cancer J. Clin. (IF 223.679) Pub Date : 2020-01-16
    Lucy Boyce Kennedy; April K. S. Salama

    Cancer immunotherapies, including checkpoint inhibitors and adoptive cell therapy, manipulate the immune system to recognize and attack cancer cells. These therapies have the potential to induce durable responses in multiple solid and hematologic malignancies and thus have transformed treatment algorithms for numerous tumor types. Cancer immunotherapies lead to unique toxicity profiles distinct from the toxicities of other cancer therapies, depending on their mechanism of action. These toxicities often require specific management, which can include steroids and immune‐modulating therapy and for which consensus guidelines have been published. This review will focus on the toxicities of checkpoint inhibitors and chimeric antigen receptor T cells, including pathophysiology, diagnosis, and management.

  • Enhanced photoluminescence quantum yield of red‐emitting CdTe:Gd3+ QDs for WLEDs applications
    J. Am. Ceram. Soc. (IF 3.094) Pub Date : 2020-01-15
    Zhan‐Chao Wu; Zhen Yang; Xing‐Xing Zhang; Ming‐Xia Jiao; Jie Liu; Li Ma; Xiao‐Jun Wang

    In order to improve the quantum yield of red‐emitting CdTe quantum dots (QDs), CdTe:Gd3+ QDs were synthesized by a facile one‐step aqueous method. The composition, morphology, and photoluminescence property of CdTe:Gd3+ QDs were characterized. The results show that the doping of Gd3+ not only leads to a red‐shift in the emission wavelength but also improves the photoluminescence quantum yield (PL QY) of CdTe QDs up to 85.74%. Doping of Gd element causes the Te dangling bond on the surface of CdTe QDs to be destroyed, thus reducing the nonradiative surface recombination, which is considered to be the reason of the increase in PL QY of CdTe QDs. Finally, high color rendition white light was generated from the CdTe:Gd3+ QDs‐assisted phosphor‐converted white light‐emitting diode (WLED). Under operation of 50 mA forward bias current, the fabricated WLED emitted bright warm white light with a high color rendering index of 86, a low correlated color temperature (CCT) of 4020 K, a suitable Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage color coordinates of (0.3651, 0.3223), and an enhanced luminous efficiency of 68.52 lm/W.

  • BSE‐IA reveals retardation mechanisms of polymer powders on cement hydration
    J. Am. Ceram. Soc. (IF 3.094) Pub Date : 2020-01-15
    Yu Peng; Qiang Zeng; Shilang Xu; Guorong Zhao; Peiming Wang; Xianping Liu

    The retardation effects of two polymer powders, styrene butadiene rubber and ethylene‐vinyl acetate, on cement hydration and the mechanisms in terms of hydration degree and microstructure characteristics were investigated by the combination of backscattered electron image analysis, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectrometer, and X‐ray diffraction. Results show that the cement hydration can be significantly retarded by both polymers with the reductions in cement hydration degrees and hydration products thickness. Polymers retard cement hydration by agglomerating the polymer particles on the surfaces of cement grains, forming films in different thickness and bonding the calcium ions in the pore solutions. Consequentially, the formation of C‐S‐H and CH is depressed and the Ca/Si ratios in the hydration product layer are raised. The retardation is enhanced with the increase in polymer content. This work helps understand the retardation effect of polymers on cement hydration in depth, which enables rational development of polymer‐modified cement‐based materials for further applications.

  • Damage evolution in SiC/SiC unidirectional composites by X‐ray tomography
    J. Am. Ceram. Soc. (IF 3.094) Pub Date : 2020-01-15
    A.M. Hilmas; K.M. Sevener; J.W. Halloran

    Melt infiltrated SiC/SiC CMC unidirectional composite specimens were imaged under load using x‐ray micro tomography techniques in order to visualize the evolution of damage accumulation and to quantify damage mechanisms within the composite such as matrix cracking and fiber breaking. The data obtained from these in situ tensile tests were used in comparison with current models and literature results. 3D tomography images were used to measure the location and spacing of matrix cracking that occurred at increasing stress increments during testing within two unidirectional composite specimens. The number of broken fibers and the location of each fiber break gap that occurred within the volume of both specimens was also quantified. The three‐dimensional locations of fiber breaks were correlated to the location of each matrix crack within the volume of the specimen and it was found that at the stress scanned directly before failure, most of the fiber breaks occur within 100 microns of a matrix crack.

  • Integration of Graphene Electrodes with 3D Skeletal Muscle Tissue Models
    Adv. Healthcare Mater. (IF 6.270) Pub Date : 2020-01-16
    Yongdeok Kim; Gelson Pagan‐Diaz; Lauren Gapinske; Yerim Kim; Judy Suh; Emilia Solomon; Jennifer Foster Harris; SungWoo Nam; Rashid Bashir
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