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  • Implementing Change in Neuroanatomy Education: Organization, Evolution, and Assessment of a Near‐Peer Teaching Program in an Undergraduate Medical School in Greece
    Anat. Sci. Educ. (IF 4.027) Pub Date : 2020-02-13
    Stefanos Karamaroudis; Eleni Poulogiannopoulou; Marinos G. Sotiropoulos; Thomas Kalantzis; Elizabeth O. Johnson

    In light of the current shifts in medical education from traditional lectures to more active teaching modalities, a peer‐teaching program was introduced to a compulsory, second‐year neuroanatomy course. A cross‐sectional survey of 527 medical students in the six‐year medical program of the National and Kapodistrian University of Athens was administered. The primary aim of the survey, which was distributed to second‐ through sixth‐year medical students, who had completed the neuroanatomy course, was to assess student perception of peer teachers (PTs). Across the five years assessed, students increasingly acknowledged the contribution of PTs to their learning (P < 0.001). Attributes of PTs (e.g., contribution to learning, motivation, effective usage of material, and team environment) were significantly related to the student's opinion of the importance of laboratory activities (P < 0.001). Students who received “average” final grades scored the importance of laboratory exercises, and by inference PTs, significantly lower than students who received “excellent” final grades (P < 0.05). The amount of training that PTs had received was also significantly related to student perceptions of a PT's contribution. Better trained PTs were associated with significantly higher scores regarding learning, motivation, and positive environment compared to less trained PTs (P < 0.05). The results of the present study show that peer‐teaching was well received by students attending the neuroanatomy course. While the results express the evolution of the program across the years, the findings also show that learners believed that PTs and the laboratory program contributed significantly to their understanding of neuroanatomy.

    更新日期:2020-02-14
  • Non‐negligible rate of needle tract seeding after endoscopic ultrasound‐guided fine‐needle aspiration for patients undergoing distal pancreatectomy for pancreatic cancer
    Digest. Endosc. (IF 3.640) Pub Date : 2020-02-13
    Kei Yane; Masaki Kuwatani; Makoto Yoshida; Takuma Goto; Ryusuke Matsumoto; Hideyuki Ihara; Toshinori Okuda; Yoko Taya; Nobuyuki Ehira; Taiki Kudo; Takeya Adachi; Kazunori Eto; Manabu Onodera; Itsuki Sano; Masanori Nojima; Akio Katanuma

    Needle tract seeding after preoperative endoscopic ultrasound‐guided fine‐needle aspiration (EUS‐FNA) for pancreatic body and tail cancer has been reported. This study aimed to investigate the long‐term outcomes, including the needle tract seeding ratio, of patients undergoing distal pancreatectomy for pancreatic body and tail cancer diagnosed preoperatively by EUS‐FNA.

    更新日期:2020-02-14
  • Left ventricular ejection fraction decrease related to BRAF and/or MEK inhibitors in metastatic melanoma patients: A retrospective analysis
    Cancer Med. (IF 3.357) Pub Date : 2020-02-14
    Mathilde Berger; Mona Amini‐Adlé; Delphine Maucort‐Boulch; Philip Robinson; Luc Thomas; Stéphane Dalle; Pierre‐Yves Courand
    更新日期:2020-02-14
  • A phase II study evaluating the role of bortezomib in the management of relapsed acute promyelocytic leukemia treated upfront with arsenic trioxide
    Cancer Med. (IF 3.357) Pub Date : 2020-02-14
    Uday Kulkarni; Saravanan Ganesan; Ansu Abu Alex; Hamenth Palani; Sachin David; Nithya Balasundaram; Arvind Venkatraman; Mani Thenmozhi; Lakshmanan Jeyaseelan; Anu Korula; Anup Devasia; Aby Abraham; Nancy Beryl Janet; Poonkuzhali Balasubramanian; Biju George; Vikram Mathews
    更新日期:2020-02-14
  • Clinical significance of PET/CT uptake for peripheral clinical N0 non‐small cell lung cancer
    Cancer Med. (IF 3.357) Pub Date : 2020-02-13
    Shuai Wang; Dong Lin; Xiaodong Yang; Cheng Zhan; Shihai Zhao; Rongkui Luo; Qun Wang; Lijie Tan
    更新日期:2020-02-14
  • Hitting the Jackpot – development of gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) and other rapid screening methods for the analysis of 18 fentanyl‐derived synthetic opioids
    Drug Test. Anal. (IF 2.799) Pub Date : 2020-02-13
    Nicolas Gilbert; Lysbeth H. Antonides; Christopher J. Schofield; Andrew Costello; Brenda Kilkelly; Alan R. Cain; Paula R.V. Dalziel; Karen Horner; Ryan E. Mewis; Oliver B. Sutcliffe
    更新日期:2020-02-14
  • Specific pathogens and microbial abundance within liver and kidney tissues of wild marine fish from the Eastern Mediterranean Sea
    Microb. Biotechnol. (IF 4.857) Pub Date : 2020-02-14
    Dalit Meron; Nadav Davidovich; Maya Ofek‐Lalzar; Ran Berzak; Aviad Scheinin; Yael Regev; Rei Diga; Dan Tchernov; Danny Morick
    更新日期:2020-02-14
  • Foot‐and‐mouth disease outbreaks in captive scimitar‐horned oryx (Oryx dammah)
    Transbound. Emerg. Dis. (IF 3.554) Pub Date : 2020-02-14
    Louis Lignereux; Anne‐Lise Chaber; Claude Saegerman; Livio Heath; Nick J. Knowles; Jemma Wadsworth; Valérie Mioulet; Donald P. King

    This paper describes three episodes of foot‐and‐mouth disease (FMD) that were detected during 2013–2015 in scimitar‐horned oryx (Oryx dammah) (SHO), a large Sahelo‐Saharan antelope extinct in the wild housed in a wild ungulate breeding facility located 50 km east of Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates. While no mortality attributable to FMD was noted in the population of nearly 4,000 SHO during two of the three outbreaks, the morbidity varied according to the circulating strains and seroconversion reached a plateau of 78.0% within two weeks and remained at this level for at least nine months. Partial or complete sequencing of the VP1 encoding region demonstrated that the three outbreaks were caused by three different FMDV lineages (O/ME‐SA/PanAsia‐2, A/ASIA/Iran‐05 and O/ME‐SA/Ind‐2001), consistent with FMD viruses that are circulating elsewhere in the region. These findings demonstrate that SHO are susceptible to FMD and highlight the risks of virus incursion into zoos and captive facilities in the Arabian Peninsula.

    更新日期:2020-02-14
  • Characterizing cognitive deficits and potential predictors in multiple sclerosis: A large nationwide study applying Brief International Cognitive Assessment for Multiple Sclerosis in standard clinical care
    J. Neuropsychol. (IF 2.468) Pub Date : 2020-02-13
    Alina Renner; Sharon J. Baetge; Melanie Filser; Sebastian Ullrich; Christoph Lassek; Iris‐Katharina Penner

    With the proposal of the Brief International Cognitive Assessment for Multiple Sclerosis (BICAMS) battery, the need to screen for cognitive deficits within standard clinical care of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) has been acknowledged. Data regarding how patient characteristics might predict low cognitive performance and therefore require particularly close monitoring is, however, limited so far. We investigated a large, nationwide patient cohort from ambulatory settings, representing the typical distribution of different subtypes, levels of physical disability, and disease durations. Besides cognitive testing with BICAMS, additional sampling of multiple demographics and clinical variables allowed us to characterize general and domain‐specific prevalence patterns of cognitive impairment (CI) as well as to delineate which factors are associated with cognitive performance. In a total of 1,094 patients, CI was present in 28% (using a conservative cut‐off of the 5th percentile below normative values), with information‐processing speed being most frequently affected. Impairment was overall higher in patients with primary progressive (PPMS) and secondary progressive MS than in patients with relapsing–remitting (RR)MS. Regression modelling revealed that disease subtype (i.e., PPMS), long disease duration, high physical disability, unemployment, low educational level, high age, male sex, and the absence of current disease‐modifying treatment were important predictors for worse BICAMS’ test performance. These results emphasize the importance of continuous cognitive assessment during regular neurological follow‐up visits, with a particular focus on patients being identified as high‐risk subjects for CI according to the reported factors.

    更新日期:2020-02-14
  • Sensory Processing Patterns and Fusiform Activity During Face Processing in Autism Spectrum Disorder
    Autism Res. (IF 3.697) Pub Date : 2020-02-14
    Ayaka Kuno‐Fujita; Toshiki Iwabuchi; Keisuke Wakusawa; Hiroyuki Ito; Katsuaki Suzuki; Akira Shigetomi; Kosaka Hirotaka; Masatsugu Tsujii; Kenji J. Tsuchiya

    A growing body of evidence has indicated that individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) exhibit abnormal reactions to sensory stimuli and impaired face processing. Although behavioral studies have reported that individual differences in sensory processing patterns are correlated with performance in face processing tasks, the neural substrates underlying the association between sensory processing patterns and face processing remain unknown. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, the present study examined the relationships between sensory processing patterns assessed with the Adolescent/Adult Sensory Profile (AASP) and brain activity during a one‐back task with two types of stimuli (face or house pictures). We enrolled 18 Japanese adults with ASD and 19 age‐ and IQ‐matched controls. Sensation Avoiding scores, which were assessed using the AASP, were positively correlated with right fusiform activity during the presentation of pictures of faces in the ASD group, but not in the control group. This suggests that abnormal sensory processing patterns in ASD are associated with abnormal face‐related brain activity, possibly resulting in impaired face processing.

    更新日期:2020-02-14
  • Rhythm disturbances as a potential early marker of Parkinson’s disease in idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder
    Ann. Clin. Transl. Neur. (IF 4.656) Pub Date : 2020-02-14
    Valérie Cochen De Cock; Delphine de Verbizier; Marie Christine Picot; Loïc Damm; Beatriz Abril; Florence Galtier; Valérie Driss; Cindy Lebrun; Nicolas Pageot; Aurélie Giordano; Chloé Gonzalvez; Pascale Homeyer; Bertrand Carlander; Giovanni Castelnovo; Christian Geny; Benoit Bardy; Simone Dalla Bella

    We aimed to identify timing distortions in production and perception of rhythmic events in patients with idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder (iRBD) as early markers of Parkinson's disease (PD).

    更新日期:2020-02-14
  • H3K36me2 is highly correlated with m6A modifications in plants
    J. Integr. Plant Biol. (IF 3.824) Pub Date : 2020-02-13
    Sangrea Shim; Hong Gil Lee; Hongwoo Lee; Pil Joon Seo

    Histone H3 trimethylation at lysine 36 (H3K36me3) was recently reported to show a significant overlap with N6‐methyladenosine (m6A) mRNA modification in mammals. However, a similar linkage between histone and mRNA modifications has not yet been investigated in plants. Here, we highlight the highly influential discovery in mammals, and also show that H3K36me2 is a possible determinant of m6A deposition in Arabidopsis thaliana. Based on an extensive bioinformatics analysis of the global distributions of m6A and various histone modifications in Arabidopsis, we identified a significant co‐occurrence of m6A and H3K36me2. Meta‐gene analysis showed that m6A deposition in mRNAs largely depends on the presence of the H3K36me2 histone mark in the genome. Additionally, molecular factors involved in H3K36me2 and m6A metabolism form protein–protein interaction networks. These results provide insights into the conservation of the intimate connections between chromatin and mRNA modifications across the animal and plant systems.

    更新日期:2020-02-14
  • An Electrochemically Synthesized Nanoporous Copper Microsensor for Highly Sensitive and Selective Determination of Glyphosate
    ChemElectroChem (IF 3.975) Pub Date : 2020-02-14
    Matias Regiart; Abhishek Kumar; Josué M. Gonçalves; Gilberto J. Silva Junior; Jorge César Masini; Lúcio Angnes; Mauro Bertotti
    更新日期:2020-02-14
  • Recent Advances in Electrochemical Synthesis of Ammonia through Nitrogen Reduction under Ambient Conditions
    ChemElectroChem (IF 3.975) Pub Date : 2020-02-14
    Jia Wang; Silong Chen; Zijian Li; Guangkai Li; Xien Liu
    更新日期:2020-02-14
  • Effect of aromatic rings and substituent on the performance of lithium batteries with rylene imide cathodes
    ChemElectroChem (IF 3.975) Pub Date : 2020-02-14
    Jagdish Aher; Alexander Graefenstein; Gunvant Deshmukh; Kumar Subramani; Bastian Krueger; Mareike Haensch; Julian Schwenzel; Kothandam Krishnamoorthy; Gunther Wittstock

    Rylene imides (RIs) are attractive organic battery materials because of the inherent modularity of the molecules. While strong aggregation of RIs is disadvantageous for fast lithium‐ion transport in the organic active material, decreasing the solubility of the RIs in battery electrolytes is essential to avoid performance fading. Therefore, the design and synthesis of RIs for lithium batteries is a non‐trivial task that must, among other considerations, balance lithium‐ion transport in the solid material vs. low solubility by controlling aggregation and packing. We have chosen triphenylamine (TPA) as a substituent which disrupts the aggregation but maintains a low solubility due to increased aromaticity of TPA. We have synthesized three RIs with 1, 2 and 4 aromatic units in the core. All of them showed stable specific capacity over 300 charge‐discharge cycles. The batteries also showed specific capacities close to their theoretical capacities with 97‐99% coulombic efficiency. The maximum specific energy and specific power were 197 mWh g ‐1 and 37 mW g ‐1 , respectively.

    更新日期:2020-02-14
  • Nanoconfinement Effects on Redox Probe Transport in Lipid Assemblies on and in Mesoporous Silica Thin Films
    Adv. Mater. Interfaces (IF 4.713) Pub Date : 2020-02-14
    Shanshan Zhou; Emma Guilfoil; Yuxin He; Suraj Nagpure; Syed Z. Islam; M. Arif Khan; Stephen E. Rankin; Barbara L. Knutson
    更新日期:2020-02-14
  • Fabrication of TiO2 Micropatterns on Flexible Substrates by Vacuum‐Ultraviolet Photochemical Treatments
    Adv. Mater. Interfaces (IF 4.713) Pub Date : 2020-02-13
    Cheng‐Tse Wu; Ahmed I. A. Soliman; Yudi Tu; Toru Utsunomiya; Takashi Ichii; Hiroyuki Sugimura
    更新日期:2020-02-14
  • Ultra‐structural analysis of human spermatozoa by aperture scanning near‐field optical microscopy
    J. Biophotonics (IF 3.763) Pub Date : 2020-02-13
    Barbara Troian; Rita Boscolo; Giuseppe Ricci; Marco Lazzarino; Gabriella Zito; Stefano Prato; Laura Andolfi
    更新日期:2020-02-14
  • In‐vivo hemodynamic imaging of acute prenatal ethanol exposure in fetal brain by photoacoustic tomography
    J. Biophotonics (IF 3.763) Pub Date : 2020-02-13
    Tianqi Shan; Yuan Zhao; Shixie Jiang; Huabei Jiang
    更新日期:2020-02-14
  • Organelle specific simultaneous Raman/green fluorescence protein microspectroscopy for living cell physicochemical studies
    J. Biophotonics (IF 3.763) Pub Date : 2020-02-13
    Nungnit Wattanavichean; Ikuhisa Nishida; Masahiro Ando; Makoto Kawamukai; Tatsuyuki Yamamoto; Hiro‐o Hamaguchi
    更新日期:2020-02-14
  • Comparison between high definition FT‐IR, Raman and AFM‐IR for subcellular chemical imaging of cholesteryl esters in prostate cancer cells
    J. Biophotonics (IF 3.763) Pub Date : 2020-02-13
    Maciej Roman; Tomasz P. Wrobel; Czeslawa Paluszkiewicz; Wojciech M. Kwiatek
    更新日期:2020-02-14
  • Multicomposite super‐resolution microscopy: Enhanced Airyscan resolution with radial fluctuation and sample expansions
    J. Biophotonics (IF 3.763) Pub Date : 2020-02-12
    Baoju Wang; Longfang Yao; Yueyue Jing; Yiyan Fei; Qianming Bai; Lan Mi; Jiong Ma
    更新日期:2020-02-14
  • Comparison of the Iowa Reference Algorithm to the Heidelberg Spectralis optical coherence tomography segmentation algorithm
    J. Biophotonics (IF 3.763) Pub Date : 2020-02-14
    Jasmine Q. Sun; Brendan McGeehan; Kim Firn; David Irwin; Murray Grossman; Gui‐Shuang Ying; Benjamin J. Kim

    For spectral‐domain optical coherence tomography (SD‐OCT) studies of neurodegeneration, it is important to understand how segmentation algorithms differ in retinal layer thickness measurements, segmentation error locations, and the impact of manual correction. Using macular SD‐OCT images of frontotemporal degeneration patients and controls, we compare the individual and aggregate retinal layer thickness measurements provided by two commonly used algorithms, the Iowa Reference Algorithm and Heidelberg Spectralis, with manual correction of significant segmentation errors. We demonstrate small differences of most retinal layer thickness measurements between these algorithms. Outer sectors of the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study grid require a greater percent of eyes to be corrected than inner sectors of the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL). Manual corrections affect thickness measurements mildly, resulting in at most a 5% change in RNFL thickness. Our findings can inform researchers how to best use different segmentation algorithms when comparing retinal layer thicknesses.

    更新日期:2020-02-14
  • Handheld volumetric manual compression‐based quantitative micro‐elastography
    J. Biophotonics (IF 3.763) Pub Date : 2020-02-14
    Qi Fang; Luke Frewer; Renate Zilkens; Brooke Krajancich; Andrea Curatolo; Lixin Chin; Ken Y. Foo; Devina D. Lakhiani; Rowan W. Sanderson; Philip Wijesinghe; James D. Anstie; Benjamin F. Dessauvagie; Bruce Latham; Christobel M. Saunders; Brendan F. Kennedy

    Compression optical coherence elastography typically requires a mechanical actuator to impart a controlled uniform strain to the sample. However, for handheld scanning, this adds complexity to the design of the probe and the actuator stroke limits the amount of strain that can be applied. In this work, we present a new volumetric imaging approach that utilises bidirectional manual compression via the natural motion of the user's hand to induce strain to the sample, realising compact, actuator‐free, handheld compression optical coherence elastography. In this way, we are able to demonstrate rapid acquisition of three‐dimensional quantitative micro‐elastography (QME) datasets of a tissue volume (6 × 6 × 1 mm) in 3.4 seconds. We characterise the elasticity sensitivity of this freehand manual compression approach using a homogeneous silicone phantom and demonstrate comparable performance to a bench‐top mounted, actuator‐based approach. In addition, we demonstrate handheld volumetric manual compression‐based QME on a tissue‐mimicking phantom with an embedded stiff inclusion and on freshly excised human breast specimens from both mastectomy and wide local excision surgeries. Tissue results are co‐registered with post‐operative histology, verifying the capability of our approach to measure the elasticity of tissue and to distinguish stiff tumor from surrounding soft benign tissue.

    更新日期:2020-02-14
  • Regulation of integrin α6A by lactogenic hormones in rat pancreatic β‐cells: Implications for the physiological adaptation to pregnancy
    Acta Physiol. (IF 5.868) Pub Date : 2020-02-13
    Annette Møldrup; Martin Nerup Lindberg; Elisabeth D. Galsgaard; Ulrik Henriksen; Louise T. Dalgaard; Jens Høiriis Nielsen

    During pregnancy the maternal β‐cell mass is increased in order to adapt to the physiological changes in insulin demand. Lactogenic hormones stimulate rodent β‐cell attachment and proliferation in vitro. The aim of the study was to identify adhesion molecules involved in expansion of the β‐cell mass during pregnancy in the rat.

    更新日期:2020-02-14
  • Natural and human‐induced environmental changes and their effects on adaptive potential of wild animal populations
    Evol. Appl. (IF 5.038) Pub Date : 2020-02-14
    Dany Garant

    A major challenge of evolutionary ecology over the next decades is to understand and predict the consequences of the current rapid and important environmental changes on wild populations. Extinction risk of species is linked to populations’ evolutionary potential and to their ability to express adaptive phenotypic plasticity. There is thus a vital need to quantify how selective pressures, quantitative genetics parameters, and phenotypic plasticity, for multiple traits in wild animal populations, may vary with changes in the environment. Here I review our previous research that integrated ecological and evolutionary theories with molecular ecology, quantitative genetics, and long‐term monitoring of individually marked wild animals. Our results showed that assessing evolutionary and plastic changes over time and space, using multi‐trait approaches, under a realistic range of environmental conditions are crucial steps toward improving our understanding of the evolution and adaptation of natural populations. Our current and future work focusses on assessing the limits of adaptive potential by determining the factors constraining the evolvability of plasticity, those generating covariation among genetic variance and selection, as well as indirect genetic effects, which can affect population's capacity to adjust to environmental changes. In doing so, we aim to provide an improved assessment of the spatial and temporal scale of evolutionary processes in wild animal populations.

    更新日期:2020-02-14
  • Combining Frailty and Trabecular Bone Score Did Not Improve Predictive Accuracy in Risk of Major Osteoporotic Fractures
    J. Bone Miner. Res. (IF 5.711) Pub Date : 2020-02-14
    Guowei Li; William D Leslie; Christopher S Kovacs; Jerilynn Prior; Robert G Josse; Tanveer Towheed; K Shawn Davison; Lehana Thabane; Alexandra Papaioannou; Mitchell AH Levine; David Goltzman; Jie Zeng; Yong Qi; Junzhan Tian; Jonathan D Adachi;

    It is recognized that the trabecular bone score (TBS) provides skeletal information, and frailty measurement is significantly associated with increased risks of adverse health outcomes. Given the suboptimal predictive power in fracture risk assessment tools, we aimed to evaluate the combination of frailty and TBS regarding predictive accuracy for risk of major osteoporotic fracture (MOF). Data from the prospective longitudinal study of CaMos (Canadian Multicentre Osteoporosis Study) were used for this study. TBS values were estimated using lumbar spine (L1 to L4) dual‐energy X‐ray absorptiometry (DXA) images; frailty was evaluated by a frailty index (FI) of deficit accumulation. Outcome was time to first incident MOF during the follow‐up. We used the Harrell's C‐index to compare the model predictive accuracy. The Akaike information criterion, likelihood ratio test, and net reclassification improvement (NRI) were used to compare model performances between the model combining frailty and TBS (subsequently called “FI + TBS”), FI‐alone, and TBS‐alone models. We included 2730 participants (mean age 69 years; 70% women) for analyses (mean follow‐up 7.5 years). There were 243 (8.90%) MOFs observed during follow‐up. Participants with MOF had significantly higher FI (0.24 versus 0.20) and lower TBS (1.231 versus 1.285) than those without MOF. FI and TBS were significantly related with MOF risk in the model adjusted for FRAX with bone mineral density (BMD) and other covariates: hazard ratio (HR) = 1.26 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.11–1.43) for per‐SD increase in FI; HR = 1.38 (95% CI 1.21–1.59) for per‐SD decrease in TBS; and these associations showed negligible attenuation (HR = 1.24 for per‐SD increase in FI, and 1.35 for per‐SD decrease in TBS) when combined in the same model. Although the model FI + TBS was a better fit to the data than FI‐alone and TBS‐alone, only minimal and nonsignificant enhancement of discrimination and NRI were observed in FI + TBS. To conclude, frailty and TBS are significantly and independently related to MOF risk. Larger studies are warranted to determine whether combining frailty and TBS can yield improved predictive accuracy for MOF risk. © 2020 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

    更新日期:2020-02-14
  • High levels of dd‐cfDNA identifies patients with TCMR 1A and borderline allograft rejection at elevated risk of graft injury
    Am. J. Transplant. (IF 7.163) Pub Date : 2020-02-13
    Erik Stites; Dhiren Kumar; Oyedolamu Olaitan; Sidney John Swanson; Nicolae Leca; Matthew Weir; Jonathan Bromberg; Joseph Melancon; Irfan Agha; Hasan Fattah; Tarek Alhamad; Yasir Qazi; Alexander Wiseman; Gaurav Gupta

    The clinical importance of subclinical, early T‐cell mediated rejection (Banff TCMR 1A and borderline lesions) remains unclear, due, in part to the fact that histologic lesions used to characterize early TCMR can be non‐specific. Donor‐derived cell‐free DNA (dd‐cfDNA) is an important molecular marker of active graft injury. Over a study period from June 2017 to May 2019, we assessed clinical outcomes in 79 patients diagnosed with TCMR 1A/borderline rejection across 11 United States transplant centers with a simultaneous measurement of dd‐cfDNA. 42 patients had elevated dd‐cfDNA (≥0.5%) while 37 patients had low levels (<0.5%). Elevated levels of dd‐cfDNA predicted adverse clinical outcomes: among patients with elevated cfDNA, estimated glomerular filtration rate declined by 8.5% (IQR ‐16.22% to ‐1.39%) (‐3.50 mL/min/1.73m2 IQR ‐8.00 to ‐1.00) vs. 0% (‐4.92%, 4.76%) in low dd‐cfDNA patients (p=0.004), de novo donor‐specific antibody formation was seen in 40% (17/42) vs. 2.7% (p<0.0001), and future or persistent rejection occurred in 9/42 patients (21.4%) vs. 0% (p=0.003). The use of dd‐cfDNA may complement the Banff classification and to risk stratify patients with borderline/TCMR 1A identified on biopsy.

    更新日期:2020-02-14
  • Does long‐term Bt rice planting pose risks to spider communities and their capacity to control planthoppers?
    Plant Biotech. J. (IF 6.840) Pub Date : 2020-02-14
    Zengbin Lu; Cong Dang; Fang Wang; Zhicheng Liu; Jie Chen; Yu Wang; Hongwei Yao; Qi Fang; Yufa Peng; Angharad M.R. Gatehouse; Hongxia Hua; Gongyin Ye

    Genetically modified crops expressing insecticidal Cry proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) have been grown commercially since 1996 and have successfully controlled target pests, reduced insecticide usage and increased yields. A major concern is that Bt crops may trigger outbreaks of non‐target herbivores against which they are not effective, by reducing bio‐control services provided by natural enemies, as seen with broad‐spectrum insecticides.

    更新日期:2020-02-14
  • No evidence for the ‘rate‐of‐living’ theory across the tetrapod tree of life
    Glob. Ecol. Biogeogr. (IF 5.667) Pub Date : 2020-02-14
    Gavin Stark; Daniel Pincheira‐Donoso; Shai Meiri

    The ‘rate‐of‐living’ theory predicts that life expectancy is a negative function of the rates at which organisms metabolize. According to this theory, factors that accelerate metabolic rates, such as high body temperature and active foraging, lead to organismic ‘wear‐out’. This process reduces life span through an accumulation of biochemical errors and the build‐up of toxic metabolic by‐products. Although the rate‐of‐living theory is a keystone underlying our understanding of life‐history trade‐offs, its validity has been recently questioned. The rate‐of‐living theory has never been tested on a global scale in a phylogenetic framework, or across both endotherms and ectotherms. Here, we test several of its fundamental predictions across the tetrapod tree of life.

    更新日期:2020-02-14
  • Human‐associated species dominate passerine communities across the United States
    Glob. Ecol. Biogeogr. (IF 5.667) Pub Date : 2020-02-13
    Helen R. Sofaer; Curtis H. Flather; Catherine S. Jarnevich; Kristin P. Davis; Liba Pejchar

    Human development and agriculture can have transformative and homogenizing effects on natural systems, shifting the composition of ecological communities towards non‐native and native species that tolerate or thrive under human‐dominated conditions. These impacts cannot be fully captured by summarizing species presence, as they include dramatic changes to patterns of species abundance. However, how human land use patterns and species invasions intersect to shape patterns of abundance and dominance within ecological communities is poorly understood even in well‐known taxa.

    更新日期:2020-02-14
  • Traits and depth: What do hydroids tell us about morphology and life‐history strategies in the deep sea?
    Glob. Ecol. Biogeogr. (IF 5.667) Pub Date : 2020-02-13
    Marina Oliveira Fernandez; Allen G. Collins; Arjan Gittenberger; Kaustuv Roy; Antonio Carlos Marques

    Traits affect the survival and reproduction of individuals in different habitat conditions, ultimately altering their distributions. In the oceans, changes in environmental conditions with bathymetry may influence the occurrence of specific traits. Therefore, characterizing trait variation with depth can illuminate drivers related to the distribution of diversity of forms, functions, and life histories. We aimed to investigate patterns of variation in the diversified life histories and morphologies of hydroids with depth, integrating these patterns with the natural history of the group and ecological principles of the deep sea.

    更新日期:2020-02-14
  • An untargeted liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry‐based workflow for the structural characterization of plant polyesters
    Plant J. (IF 5.726) Pub Date : 2020-02-13
    Benjamin Thiombiano; Eric Gontier; Roland Molinié; Paulo Marcelo; François Mesnard; Rebecca Dauwe

    Cell wall localized heterogeneous polyesters are widespread in land plants. The composition of these polyesters, such as cutin, suberin, or more plant‐specific forms such as the flax seed coat lignan macromolecule, can be determined after total hydrolysis of the ester linkages. The main bottleneck in the structural characterization of these macromolecules, however, resides in the determination of the higher order monomer sequences. Partial hydrolysates of the polyesters release a complex mixture of fragments of different lengths, each present in low abundance and therefore are challenging to structurally characterize. Here, a method is presented by which liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC‐MS) profiles of such partial hydrolysates are searched for pairs of related fragments. LC‐MS peaks that show a mass difference corresponding to the addition of one or more macromolecule monomers were connected in a network. Starting from the lowest molecular weight peaks in the network, the annotation of the connections as the addition of one or more polyester monomers allows the prediction of consecutive and increasingly complex adjacent peaks. Multi‐stage MS (MSn) experiments further helped to reject, corroborate, and sometimes refine the structures predicted by the network. As a proof of concept, this procedure was applied to partial hydrolysates of the flax seed coat lignan macromolecule, and allowed to characterize 120 distinct oligo‐esters, consisting of up to six monomers, and containing monomers and linkages for which incorporation in the lignan macromolecule had not been described before. These results showed the capacity of the approach to advance the structural elucidation of complex plant polyesters.

    更新日期:2020-02-14
  • Ectopic expression of a rice plasma membrane intrinsic protein (OsPIP1;3) promotes plant growth and water uptake
    Plant J. (IF 5.726) Pub Date : 2020-02-13
    Siyu Liu; Tatsuya Fukumoto; Patrizia Gena; Peng Feng; Qi Sun; Qiang Li; Tadashi Matsumoto; Toshiyuki Kaneko; Hang Zhang; Yao Zhang; Shihua Zhong; Weizhong Zeng; Maki Katsuhara; Yoshichika Kitagawa; Aoxue Wang; Giuseppe Calamita; Xiaodong Ding

    Plasma membrane intrinsic proteins (PIPs) are known to be major facilitators of the movement of a number of substrates across cell membranes. From a drought‐resistant cultivar of Oryza sativa (rice), we isolated an OsPIP1;3 gene single‐nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) that is mostly expressed in rice roots and is strongly responsive to drought stress. Immunocytochemistry showed that OsPIP1;3 majorly accumulated on the proximal end of the endodermis and the cell surface around the xylem. Expression of GFP‐OsPIP1;3 alone in Xenopus oocytes or rice protoplasts showed OsPIP1;3 mislocalization in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)‐like neighborhood, whereas co‐expression of OsPIP2;2 recruited OsPIP1;3 to the plasma membrane and led to a significant enhancement of water permeability in oocytes. Moreover, reconstitution of 10×His‐OsPIP1;3 in liposomes demonstrated water channel activity, as revealed by stopped‐flow light scattering. Intriguingly, by patch‐clamp technique, we detected significant NO3− conductance of OsPIP1;3 in mammalian cells. To investigate the physiological functions of OsPIP1;3, we ectopically expressed the OsPIP1;3 gene in Nicotiana benthamiana (tobacco). The transgenic tobacco plants exhibited higher photosynthesis rates, root hydraulic conductivity (Lpr) and water‐use efficiency, resulting in a greater biomass and a higher resistance to water deficit than the wild‐type did. Further experiments suggested that heterologous expression of OsPIP1;3 in cyanobacterium altered bacterial growth under different conditions of CO2 gas supply. Overall, besides shedding light on the multiple functions played by OsPIP1;3, this work provides insights into the translational value of plant AQPs.

    更新日期:2020-02-14
  • Plastid‐targeted forms of restriction endonucleases enhance the plastid genome rearrangement rate and trigger the reorganization of its genomic architecture
    Plant J. (IF 5.726) Pub Date : 2020-02-13
    Hiroki Sugimoto; Minoru Hirano; Hidenori Tanaka; Tomoko Tanaka; Ritsuko Kitagawa‐Yogo; Nobuhiko Muramoto; Norihiro Mitsukawa

    Plant cells have acquired chloroplasts (plastids) with a unique genome (ptDNA), which developed during the evolution of endosymbiosis. The gene content and genome structure of ptDNAs in land plants are considerably stable, although those of algal ptDNAs are highly varied. Plant cells seem, therefore, to be intolerant of any structural or organizational changes in the ptDNA. Genome rearrangement functions as a driver of genomic evolutionary divergence. Here, we aimed to create various types of rearrangements in the ptDNA of Arabidopsis genomes using plastid‐targeted forms of restriction endonucleases (pREs). Arabidopsis plants expressing each of the three specific pREs, i.e., pTaqI, pHinP1I, and pMseI, were generated; they showed the leaf variegation phenotypes associated with impaired chloroplast development. We confirmed that these pREs caused double‐stranded breaks (DSB) at their recognition sites in ptDNAs. Genome‐wide analysis of ptDNAs revealed that the transgenic lines exhibited a large number of rearrangements such as inversions and deletions/duplications, which were dominantly repaired by microhomology‐mediated recombination and microhomology‐mediated end‐joining, and less by non‐homologous end‐joining. Notably, pHinP1I, which recognized a small number of sites in ptDNA, induced drastic structural changes, including regional copy number variations throughout ptDNAs. In contrast, the transient expression of either pTaqI or pMseI, whose recognition site numbers were relatively larger, resulted in small‐scale changes at the whole genome level. These results indicated that DSB frequencies and their distribution are major determinants in shaping ptDNAs.

    更新日期:2020-02-14
  • Tissue‐Specific Isolation of Arabidopsis/plant Mitochondria‐ IMTACT (Isolation of Mitochondria TAgged in specific Cell Types)
    Plant J. (IF 5.726) Pub Date : 2020-02-14
    Clément Boussardon; Jonathan Przybyla‐Toscano; Chris Carrie; Olivier Keech

    Plant cells contain numerous sub‐compartments with clearly delineated metabolic functions. Mitochondria represent a very small fraction of the total cell volume and yet are the site of respiration and thus crucial for cells throughout all developmental stages of a plant’s life. As such, their isolation from the rest of the cellular components is a basic requirement for numerous biochemical and physiological experiments. Although procedures exist to isolate plant mitochondria from different organs i.e. leaves, roots, tubers, etc., they are often tedious and do not provide resolution at the tissue level i.e. phloem, mesophyll, or pollen. Here, we present a novel method called IMTACT (Isolation of Mitochondria TAgged in specific Cell Types), developed in Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis), that involves biotinylation of mitochondria in a tissue‐specific manner using transgenic lines expressing a synthetic version of the OM64 (Outer Membrane 64) gene combined with BLRP and the BirA biotin ligase gene. Tissue‐specificity is achieved with cell‐specific promoters (e.g. CAB3 and SUC2). Labelled mitochondria from crude extracts are retained by magnetic beads, allowing the simple and rapid isolation of highly pure and intact organelles from organs or specific tissues. For example, we could show that the mitochondrial population from mesophyll cells was significantly larger in size than the mitochondrial population isolated from leaf companion cells. To facilitate the applicability of this method in both wild‐type and mutant Arabidopsis plants, we generated a set of OM64‐BLRP one‐shot constructs with different selection markers and tissue‐specific promoters.

    更新日期:2020-02-14
  • Divergence of 3' ends as a driver of Short Interspersed Nuclear Element (SINE) evolution in the Salicaceae
    Plant J. (IF 5.726) Pub Date : 2020-02-13
    Anja Kögler; Kathrin M. Seibt; Tony Heitkam; Kristin Morgenstern; Birgit Reiche; Marie Brückner; Heino Wolf; Doris Krabel; Thomas Schmidt

    Short interspersed nuclear elements (SINEs) are small, non‐autonomous, and heterogeneous retrotransposons widespread in plants. To explore the amplification dynamics and evolutionary history of SINE populations in representative deciduous tree species, we analyzed the genomes of the six following Salicaceae species: Populus deltoides, Populus euphratica, Populus tremula, Populus tremuloides, Populus trichocarpa, and Salix purpurea. We identified eleven Salicaceae SINE families (SaliS‐I to SaliS‐XI), comprising 27,077 full‐length copies. Most of these families harbor segmental similarities, providing evidence for SINE emergence by reshuffling or heterodimerization.

    更新日期:2020-02-14
  • Increased stomatal conductance induces rapid changes to photosynthetic rate in response to naturally fluctuating light conditions in rice
    Plant Cell Environ. (IF 5.624) Pub Date : 2020-02-13
    Wataru Yamori; Kensuke Kusumi; Koh Iba; Ichiro Terashima

    A close correlation between stomatal conductance and the steady‐state photosynthetic rate has been observed for diverse plant species under various environmental conditions. However, it remains unclear whether stomatal conductance is a major limiting factor for the photosynthetic rate under naturally fluctuating light conditions. We analysed a SLAC1 knockout rice line to examine the role of stomatal conductance in photosynthetic responses to fluctuating light. SLAC1 encodes a stomatal anion channel that regulates stomatal closure. Long exposures to weak light before treatments with strong light increased the photosynthetic induction time required for plants to reach a steady‐state photosynthetic rate and also induced stomatal limitation of photosynthesis by restricting the diffusion of CO2 into leaves. The slac1 mutant exhibited a significantly higher rate of stomatal opening after an increase in irradiance than wild‐type plants, leading to a higher rate of photosynthetic induction. Under natural conditions, in which irradiance levels are highly variable, the stomata of the slac1 mutant remained open to ensure efficient photosynthetic reaction. These observations reveal that stomatal conductance is important for regulating photosynthesis in rice plants in the natural environment with fluctuating light.

    更新日期:2020-02-14
  • Molecular investigation of organ‐autonomous expression of Arabidopsis circadian oscillators
    Plant Cell Environ. (IF 5.624) Pub Date : 2020-02-13
    Yue Li; Lingbao Wang; Li Yuan; Yang Song; Junqiu Sun; Qian Jia; Qiguang Xie; Xiaodong Xu

    The circadian pacemaker in plants is a hierarchical multioscillator system that directs and maintains a 24‐hr oscillation required for organism homeostasis and environmental fitness. Molecular clockwork within individual tissues and organs acts cell autonomously, showing differences in circadian expression of core oscillators and their target genes; there are functional dominance and coupling in the complex regulatory network. However, molecular characteristics of organ‐specific clocks are still unknown. Here, we showed the detached shoot and root possess dynamic circadian protein–protein interactions between clock core components, periodicity in organs exhibits a difference. The period length difference between shoot and root was not remarkable in prr7‐3 and prr7‐3 prr9‐1 mutants. In addition, the phase transition curve indicated that shoot and root clock respond differently to the resetting cues of ambient temperature. PRR9 and PRR7 compensate circadian period between 22°C and 28°C in shoot, not in root. The circadian rhythms of PRR9 or PRR7 transcript accumulation showed no difference at 22°C and 28°C in shoot, but differences were observed in root. In summary, our results reveal the specificity of dynamic circadian protein–protein interactions in organ‐autonomous clocks and the critical roles of PRR9 and PRR7 in mechanisms regulating temperature compensation in aerial shoot system.

    更新日期:2020-02-14
  • Estimating photosynthetic traits from reflectance spectra: A synthesis of spectral indices, numerical inversion, and partial least square regression
    Plant Cell Environ. (IF 5.624) Pub Date : 2020-01-10
    Peng Fu; Katherine Meacham‐Hensold; Kaiyu Guan; Jin Wu; Carl Bernacchi

    The lack of efficient means to accurately infer photosynthetic traits constrains understanding global land carbon fluxes and improving photosynthetic pathways to increase crop yield. Here we investigated whether a hyperspectral imaging camera mounted on a mobile platform could provide the capability to help resolve these challenges, focusing on three main approaches, i.e., reflectance spectra‐, spectral indices‐, and numerical model inversions‐based partial least square regression (PLSR) to estimate photosynthetic traits from canopy hyperspectral reflectance for eleven tobacco cultivars. Results showed that PLSR with inputs of reflectance spectra or spectral indices yielded a R2 of ~0.8 for predicting Vcmax and Jmax, higher than a R2 of ~0.6 provided by PLSR of numerical inversions. Compared to PLSR of reflectance spectra, PLSR with spectral indices exhibited a better performance for predicting Vcmax (R2 = 0.84 ± 0.02, RMSE = 33.8 ± 2.2 𝜇𝑚𝑜𝑙 𝑚−2 𝑠−1) while a similar performance for Jmax (R2 = 0.80 ± 0.03, RMSE = 22.6 ± 1.6 𝜇𝑚𝑜𝑙 𝑚−2 𝑠−1). Further analysis on spectral resampling revealed that Vcmax and Jmax could be predicted with ~10 spectral bands at spectral resolution less than 14.7 nm. These results have important implications for improving photosynthetic pathways and mapping of photosynthesis across scales.

    更新日期:2020-02-14
  • Evolutionary signal in the gut microbiomes of 74 bird species from Equatorial Guinea
    Mol. Ecol. (IF 5.855) Pub Date : 2020-02-13
    Darien C. Capunitan; Oscar Johnson; Ryan S. Terrill; Sarah M. Hird

    How the microbiome interacts with hosts across evolutionary time is poorly understood. Data sets including many host species are required to conduct comparative analyses. Here, we analyzed 142 intestinal microbiome samples from 92 birds belonging to 74 species from Equatorial Guinea, using the 16S rRNA gene. Using four definitions for microbial taxonomic units (97%OTU, 99%OTU, 99%OTU with singletons removed, ASV), we conducted alpha and beta diversity analyses. We found that raw abundances and diversity varied between the data sets but relative patterns were largely consistent across data sets. Host taxonomy, diet and locality were significantly associated with microbiomes, at generally similar levels using three distance metrics. Phylogenetic comparative methods assessed the evolutionary relationship between the microbiome as a trait of a host species and the underlying bird phylogeny. Using multiple ways of defining “microbiome traits”, we found that a neutral Brownian motion model did not explain variation in microbiomes. Instead, we found a White Noise model (indicating little phylogenetic signal), was most likely. There was some support for the Ornstein‐Uhlenbeck model (that invokes selection), but the level of support was similar to that of a White Noise simulation, further supporting the White Noise model as the best explanation for the evolution of the microbiome as a trait of avian hosts. Our study demonstrated that both environment and evolution play a role in the gut microbiome and the relationship does not follow a neutral model; these biological results are qualitatively robust to analytical choices.

    更新日期:2020-02-14
  • A test of the riverine barrier hypothesis in the largest subtropical river basin in the Neotropics
    Mol. Ecol. (IF 5.855) Pub Date : 2020-02-14
    Cecilia Kopuchian; Leonardo Campagna; Darío A. Lijtmaer; Gustavo S. Cabanne; Natalia C. García; Pablo D. Lavinia; Pablo L. Tubaro; Irby Lovette; Adrián S. Di Giacomo

    The riverine barrier hypothesis proposes that large rivers represent geographic barriers to gene flow for terrestrial organisms, leading to population differentiation and ultimately allopatric speciation. Here we asses for the first time if the subtropical Paraná‐Paraguay River system in the Del Plata basin, second in size among South American drainages, acts as a barrier to gene flow for birds. We analyzed the degree of mitochondrial and nuclear genomic differentiation in seven species with known subspecies divided by the Paraná‐Paraguay River axis. Only one species showed genetic differentiation concordant with the current river channel, but another five species have an East/West genetic split broadly coincident with the Paraná River’s dynamic paleo‐channel, suggesting this fluvial axis has had a past role in shaping present‐day genetic structure. Moreover, dating analyses show that these splits have been asynchronous, with species responding differently to the riverine barrier. Comparisons informed by the geological history of the Paraná River and its influence on the ecological and climatic differences among ecoregions in the study area further bolster the finding that responses to this geographic barrier have been species‐specific.

    更新日期:2020-02-14
  • Prospective, real‐time monitoring of pegylated Escherichia coli and Erwinia asparaginase therapy in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia and non‐Hodgkin lymphoma in Belgium
    Br. J. Haematol. (IF 5.206) Pub Date : 2020-02-14
    Veerle Mondelaers; Alina Ferster; Anne Uyttebroeck; Bénédicte Brichard; Jutte van der Werff ten Bosch; Koenraad Norga; Nadine Francotte; Caroline Piette; Katrien Vandemeulebroecke; Charlotte Verbeke; Susanne Schmidt; Yves Benoit; Tim Lammens; Barbara De Moerloose

    Asparaginase (ASNase) is an important anti‐leukaemic drug in the treatment of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) and non‐Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). A substantial proportion of patients develop hypersensitivity reactions with anti‐ASNase neutralising antibodies, resulting in allergic reactions or silent inactivation (SI), and characterised by inactivation and rapid clearance of ASNase. We report results of a prospective, real‐time therapeutic drug monitoring of pegylated Escherichia coli (PEG‐)ASNase and Erwinia ASNase in children treated for ALL and NHL in Belgium. Erwinia ASNase was given as second‐line after hypersensitivity to PEG‐ASNase. In total, 286 children were enrolled in the PEG‐ASNase cohort. Allergy was seen in 11¸2% and SI in 5·2% of patients. Of the 42 patients treated with Erwinia ASNase, 7·1% experienced allergy and 2·4% SI. The median trough PEG‐ASNase activity was high in all patients without hypersensitivity. After Erwinia administration significantly more day 3 samples had activities <100 IU/l (62·5% vs. 10% at day 2 (D2)). The median D2 activity was significantly higher for intramuscular (IM; 347 IU/l) than for intravenous Erwinia administrations (159 IU/l). This prospective, multicentre study shows that monitoring of ASNase activity during treatment of children with ALL and NHL is feasible and informative. Treatment with Erwinia ASNase warrants close monitoring and optimally adherence to a 2‐day interval of IM administrations.

    更新日期:2020-02-14
  • Interleukin‐1 receptor‐associated kinase 4 inhibitor interrupts toll‐like receptor signalling and sensitizes chronic lymphocytic leukaemia cells to apoptosis
    Br. J. Haematol. (IF 5.206) Pub Date : 2020-02-14
    Vincenza Simona Delvecchio; Ilenia Sana; Maria Elena Mantione; Maria Giovanna Vilia; Pamela Ranghetti; Alessandra Rovida; Piera Angelillo; Lydia Scarfò; Paolo Ghia; Marta Muzio

    Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) cells are strongly influenced by microenvironmental signals through the activation of distinct membrane receptors including the B‐cell receptor and toll‐like receptors (TLR). Recapitulating TLR stimulation in vitro by treating CLL cells with the TLR9 ligand CpG can induce metabolic activation and protection from apoptosis. We hypothesized that interfering with TLR signalling may be beneficial for treating CLL, and we tested in preclinical studies the effect of a specific interleukin‐1 receptor‐associated kinase 4 (IRAK4) inhibitory small molecule on primary leukaemic cells isolated from the peripheral blood of patients. We observed that IRAK4, an upstream kinase of the TLR pathway, is expressed in patients with CLL, and lower IRAK4 mRNA levels associate with a better outcome. The specific IRAK4 inhibitor disrupted TLR signalling as assessed by reduction of the specific biomarkers NFKBIZ and interleukin‐6 mRNAs, and restrained the protective effect of in vitro TLR stimulation on cell viability. To note, IRAK4 inhibitor induced p53 and triggered apoptosis. Co‐treatment of CLL cells with increasing concentrations of IRAK4i and the Bruton tyrosine kinase inhibitor ibrutinib demonstrated a synergistic effect. Our results suggest that targetting IRAK4 may represent a novel approach in CLL and may be combined with other signalling inhibitors.

    更新日期:2020-02-14
  • Prospects for achieving treatment‐free remission in chronic myeloid leukaemia
    Br. J. Haematol. (IF 5.206) Pub Date : 2020-02-14
    Giuseppe Saglio; Robert P. Gale

    In addition to the best possible overall survival, discontinuation of the tyrosine kinase‐inhibitor (TKI) treatment [treatment free remission (TFR)] without observing a recurrence of the disease has become a major goal of the therapy of chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML). Many clinical studies have demonstrated that TFR is possible, although for the moment limited to a fraction of the CML patients able to achieve a stable deep molecular response (DMR). The factors associated to the possibility of remaining in TFR or of losing it, have been investigated by a number of controlled and observation clinical trials and although total TKI treatment duration, DMR duration and stability and, more recently, also the depth of the molecular response obtained at the time of discontinuation have been shown to be significant elements, most of the factors associated with a higher possibility of a successful discontinuation still remain elusive and are here reviewed.

    更新日期:2020-02-14
  • Heroin‐induced respiratory depression and the influence of dose variation: within‐subject between‐session changes following dose reduction
    Addiction (IF 6.851) Pub Date : 2020-02-14
    Basak Tas; Caroline J. Jolley; Nicola J. Kalk; Rob Van der waal; James Bell; John Strang

    Globally, more than 100,000 people die annually from opioid overdose. Opportunities to study physiological events in at‐risk individuals are limited. This study examined variation of opioid dose and impact on respiratory depression in a chronic injecting heroin user at separate time points during his long‐term diamorphine maintenance treatment.

    更新日期:2020-02-14
  • Drinking risk varies within and between Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander samples: A meta‐analysis to identify sources of heterogeneity
    Addiction (IF 6.851) Pub Date : 2020-02-14
    James H. Conigrave; K. S. Kylie Lee; Catherine Zheng; Scott Wilson; Jimmy Perry; Tanya Chikritzhs; Tim Slade; Kirsten Morley; Robin Room; Sarah Callinan; Noel Hayman; Katherine M. Conigrave

    To reduce health and social inequities, it is important to understand how drinking patterns vary within and between Indigenous peoples. We aimed to assess variability in estimates of Indigenous Australian drinking patterns and to identify demographic and methodological factors associated with this.

    更新日期:2020-02-14
  • World Health Organization Risk Drinking Level Reductions Are Associated with Improved Functioning and Are Sustained Among Patients with Mild, Moderate, and Severe Alcohol Dependence in Clinical Trials in the United States and United Kingdom
    Addiction (IF 6.851) Pub Date : 2020-02-13
    Katie Witkiewitz; Nick Heather; Daniel E. Falk; Raye Z. Litten; Deborah S. Hasin; Henry R. Kranzler; Karl F. Mann; Stephanie S. O'Malley; Raymond F. Anton

    To examine whether World Health Organization (WHO) risk level reductions in drinking were achievable, associated with improved functioning, and maintained over time among patients at varying initial alcohol dependence severity levels.

    更新日期:2020-02-14
  • Effects of Winning Cues and Relative Payout on Choice between Simulated Slot Machines
    Addiction (IF 6.851) Pub Date : 2020-02-13
    Marcia L. Spetch; Christopher R. Madan; Yang Liu; Elliot A. Ludvig

    Cues associated with winning may encourage gambling. We assessed the effects on risky choice of slot machine of: 1) neutral sounds paired with winning, 2) casino‐related cues (such as the sound of coins dropping and pictures of dollar signs), and 3) relative payouts.

    更新日期:2020-02-14
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  • Swelling of cell walls in mature sweet cherry fruit: factors and mechanisms
    Planta (IF 3.060) Pub Date : 2020-02-14
    Christine Schumann, Moritz Knoche

    Abstract Main conclusion Swelling of sweet cherry cell walls is a physical process counterbalanced by turgor. Cell turgor prevents swelling in intact cells, whereas loss of turgor allows cell walls to swell. Abstract Swelling of epidermal cell walls precedes skin failure in sweet cherry (Prunus avium) cracking. Swollen cell walls lead to diminished cell:cell adhesions. We identify the mechanism of cell wall swelling. Swelling was quantified microscopically on epidermal sections following freeze/thaw treatment or by determining swelling pressure or swelling capacity of cell wall extracts. Releasing turgor by a freeze/thaw treatment increased cell wall thickness 1.6-fold within 2 h. Pressurizing cell wall extracts at > 12 kPa prevented swelling in water, while releasing the pressure increased swelling. The effect was fully reversible. Across cultivars, cell wall thickness before and after turgor release in two subsequent seasons was significantly correlated (before release of turgor: r = 0.71**, n = 14; after release of turgor: r = 0.73**, n = 14) as was the swelling of cell walls upon turgor release (r = 0.71**, n = 14). Close relationships were also identified for cell wall thickness of fruit of the same cultivars grown in the greenhouse and the field (before release of turgor: r = 0.60, n = 10; after release of turgor: r = 0.78**, n = 10). Release of turgor by heating, plasmolysis, incubation in solvents or surfactants resulted in similar swelling (range 2.0–3.1 µm). Cell wall swelling increased from 1.4 to 3.0 µm as pH increased from pH 2.0 to 5.0 but remained nearly constant between pH 5.0 and 8.0. Increasing ethanol concentration decreased swelling. Swelling of sweet cherry cell walls is a physical process counterbalanced by turgor.

    更新日期:2020-02-14
  • Fluorescence or X‐ray cholangiography in elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy: a randomized clinical trial
    Br. J. Surg. (IF 5.586) Pub Date : 2020-02-14
    L. L. Lehrskov; M. Westen; S. S. Larsen; A. B. Jensen; B. B. Kristensen; T. Bisgaard
    更新日期:2020-02-14
  • Distribution of cell layers in floral organs of chrysanthemum analyzed with periclinal chimeras carrying a transgene encoding fluorescent protein
    Plant Cell Rep. (IF 3.499) Pub Date : 2020-02-14
    Ryutaro Aida, Katsutomo Sasaki, Satoshi Yoshioka, Naonobu Noda

    Abstract Key message A fluorescent protein visualized distributions of cell layers in floral organs of chrysanthemum using transgenic periclinal chimeras carrying a gene encoding a fluorescent compound. Abstract Plant meristems have three cell layers: the outermost layer (L1), the second layer (L2), and the inner layer (L3). The layers are maintained during development but there is limited knowledge of the details of cell layer patterns within floral organs. In this study, we visualized the distributions of cell layers in floral organs of chrysanthemum using periclinal chimeras carrying a gene encoding a fluorescent compound in the L1 or the L2/L3 layers. The L1 layer contributed most of the epidermal cells of organs including the receptacle, petal, anther, filament, style, stigma, and ovule. The transmitting tissue in the pistil and most of the internal area of the ovule were also derived from the L1. In crossing experiments, no progeny of the L1-chimeric plants showed fluorescence, indicating that the germ cells of chrysanthemum are not derived from the L1 layer. Since anthocyanin pigment is present only in the L1-derived epidermal cells of petals, L1-specific gene integration could be used to alter flower color in commercial cultivars, with a reduced risk of transgene flow from the transgenic chrysanthemums to wild relatives.

    更新日期:2020-02-14
  • ABA-dependent bZIP transcription factor, CsbZIP18, from Camellia sinensis negatively regulates freezing tolerance in Arabidopsis
    Plant Cell Rep. (IF 3.499) Pub Date : 2020-02-14
    Lina Yao, Xinyuan Hao, Hongli Cao, Changqing Ding, Yajun Yang, Lu Wang, Xinchao Wang

    Abstract Key message Overexpression of the tea plant gene CsbZIP18 in Arabidopsis impaired freezing tolerance, and CsbZIP18 is a negative regulator of ABA signaling and cold stress. Abstract Basic region/leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factors play important roles in the abscisic acid (ABA) signaling pathway and abiotic stress response in plants. However, few bZIP transcription factors have been functionally characterized in tea plants (Camellia sinensis). In this study, a bZIP transcription factor, CsbZIP18, was found to be strongly induced by natural cold acclimation, and the expression level of CsbZIP18 was lower in cold-resistant cultivars than in cold-susceptible cultivars. Compared with wild-type (WT) plants, Arabidopsis plants constitutively overexpressing CsbZIP18 exhibited decreased sensitivity to ABA, increased levels of relative electrolyte leakage (REL) and reduced values of maximal quantum efficiency of photosystem II (Fv/Fm) under freezing conditions. The expression of ABA homeostasis- and signal transduction-related genes and abiotic stress-inducible genes, such as RD22, RD26 and RAB18, was suppressed in overexpression lines under freezing conditions. However, there was no significant change in the expression of genes involved in the C-repeat binding factor (CBF)-mediated ABA-independent pathway between WT and CsbZIP18 overexpression plants. These results indicate that CsbZIP18 is a negative regulator of freezing tolerance via an ABA-dependent pathway.

    更新日期:2020-02-14
  • Biological subtype, treatment response and outcomes in inflammatory breast cancer using data from the National Cancer Database
    Br. J. Surg. (IF 5.586) Pub Date : 2020-02-14
    A. R. Kupstas; T. L. Hoskin; C. N. Day; J. C. Boughey; E. B. Habermann; T. J. Hieken
    更新日期:2020-02-14
  • Heterotic instantons for monad and extension bundles
    J. High Energy Phys. (IF 5.833) Pub Date : 2020-02-13
    Evgeny I. Buchbinder, Andre Lukas, Burt A. Ovrut, Fabian Ruehle

    Abstract We consider non-perturbative superpotentials from world-sheet instantons wrapped on holomorphic genus zero curves in heterotic string theory. These superpotential contributions feature prominently in moduli stabilization and large field axion inflation, which makes their presence or absence, as well as their functional dependence on moduli, an important issue. We develop geometric methods to compute the instanton superpotentials for heterotic string theory with monad and extension bundles. Using our methods, we find a variety of examples with a non-vanishing superpotential. In view of standard vanishing theorems, we speculate that these results are likely to be attributed to the non-compactness of the instanton moduli space. We test this proposal, for the case of monad bundles, by considering gauged linear sigma models where compactness of the instanton moduli space can be explicitly checked. In all such cases, we find that the geometric results are consistent with the vanishing theorems. Surprisingly, linearly dependent Pfaffians even arise for cases with a non-compact instanton moduli space. This suggests some gauged linear sigma models with a non-compact instanton moduli space may still have a vanishing instanton superpotential.

    更新日期:2020-02-14
  • Hepatocellular carcinoma tumour burden score to stratify prognosis after resection
    Br. J. Surg. (IF 5.586) Pub Date : 2020-02-14
    D. I. Tsilimigras; D. Moris; J. M. Hyer; F. Bagante; K. Sahara; A. Moro; A. Z. Paredes; R. Mehta; F. Ratti; H. P. Marques; S. Silva; O. Soubrane; V. Lam; G. A. Poultsides; I. Popescu; S. Alexandrescu; G. Martel; A. Workneh; A. Guglielmi; T. Hugh; L. Aldrighetti; I. Endo; K. Sasaki; A. Rodarte; F. N. Aucejo; T. M. Pawlik
    更新日期:2020-02-14
  • Large D membrane for higher derivative gravity and black hole second law
    J. High Energy Phys. (IF 5.833) Pub Date : 2020-02-13
    Yogesh Dandekar, Arunabha Saha

    Abstract We derive the effective equations of the membranes dual to black holes in a particular theory of higher derivative gravity namely Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet (EGB) gravity at sub-leading order in 1/D upto linear order in the Gauss-Bonnet (GB) parameter β. We find an expression for an entropy current which satisfies a local version of second law onshell in this regime. We also derive the membrane equations upto leading order in 1/D but non-perturbatively in β for EGB gravity. In this regime we write down an expression for a world-volume stress tensor of the membrane and also work out the effective membrane equation for stationary black holes.

    更新日期:2020-02-14
  • Hepatic artery classification based on three‐dimensional CT
    Br. J. Surg. (IF 5.586) Pub Date : 2020-02-14
    J. Yan; H. Feng; H. Wang; F. Yuan; C. Yang; X. Liang; W. Chen; J. Wang
    更新日期:2020-02-14
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