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  • The BepiColombo–Mio Magnetometer en Route to Mercury
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 6.125) Pub Date : 2020-10-28
    W. Baumjohann, A. Matsuoka, Y. Narita, W. Magnes, D. Heyner, K.-H. Glassmeier, R. Nakamura, D. Fischer, F. Plaschke, M. Volwerk, T. L. Zhang, H.-U. Auster, I. Richter, A. Balogh, C. M. Carr, M. Dougherty, T. S. Horbury, H. Tsunakawa, M. Matsushima, M. Shinohara, H. Shibuya, T. Nakagawa, M. Hoshino, Y. Tanaka, B. J. Anderson, C. T. Russell, U. Motschmann, F. Takahashi, A. Fujimoto

    The fluxgate magnetometer MGF on board the Mio spacecraft of the BepiColombo mission is introduced with its science targets, instrument design, calibration report, and scientific expectations. The MGF instrument consists of two tri-axial fluxgate magnetometers. Both sensors are mounted on a 4.8-m long mast to measure the magnetic field around Mercury at distances from near surface (initial peri-center

  • Nitrogen Atmospheres of the Icy Bodies in the Solar System
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 6.125) Pub Date : 2020-10-27
    M. Scherf, H. Lammer, N. V. Erkaev, K. E. Mandt, S. E. Thaller, B. Marty

    This brief review will discuss the current knowledge on the origin and evolution of the nitrogen atmospheres of the icy bodies in the solar system, particularly of Titan, Triton and Pluto. An important tool to analyse and understand the origin and evolution of these atmospheres can be found in the different isotopic signatures of their atmospheric constituents. The 14N/15N ratio of the N2-dominated

  • Optical-Ultraviolet Tidal Disruption Events
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 6.125) Pub Date : 2020-10-27
    Sjoert van Velzen, Thomas W.-S. Holoien, Francesca Onori, Tiara Hung, Iair Arcavi

    The existence of optical-ultraviolet Tidal Disruption Events (TDEs) could be considered surprising because their electromagnetic output was originally predicted to be dominated by X-ray emission from an accretion disk. Yet over the last decade, the growth of optical transient surveys has led to the identification of a new class of optical transients occurring exclusively in galaxy centers, many of

  • Cassini Exploration of the Planet Saturn: A Comprehensive Review
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 6.125) Pub Date : 2020-10-26
    Andrew P. Ingersoll

    Before Cassini, scientists viewed Saturn’s unique features only from Earth and from three spacecraft flying by. During more than a decade orbiting the gas giant, Cassini studied the planet from its interior to the top of the atmosphere. It observed the changing seasons, provided up-close observations of Saturn’s exotic storms and jet streams, and heard Saturn’s lightning, which cannot be detected from

  • Reference Model Payload for Ice Giant Entry Probe Missions
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 6.125) Pub Date : 2020-10-22
    D. H. Atkinson, O. Mousis, T. R. Spilker, F. Ferri

    Descent probes afford the opportunity to make essential atmospheric measurements that are beyond the reach of remote sensing, including the atmospheric abundances of noble gases and key isotopes, and the structure of the atmosphere beneath the cloud tops. Measurements are defined as Tier 1, representing threshold science required to justify the probe mission, and Tier 2 representing valuable science

  • Future Missions Related to the Determination of the Elemental and Isotopic Composition of Earth, Moon and the Terrestrial Planets
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 6.125) Pub Date : 2020-10-22
    Iannis Dandouras, Michel Blanc, Luca Fossati, Mikhail Gerasimov, Eike W. Guenther, Kristina G. Kislyakova, Helmut Lammer, Yangting Lin, Bernard Marty, Christian Mazelle, Sarah Rugheimer, Manuel Scherf, Christophe Sotin, Laurenz Sproß, Shogo Tachibana, Peter Wurz, Masatoshi Yamauchi

    In this chapter, we review the contribution of space missions to the determination of the elemental and isotopic composition of Earth, Moon and the terrestrial planets, with special emphasis on currently planned and future missions. We show how these missions are going to significantly contribute to, or sometimes revolutionise, our understanding of planetary evolution, from formation to the possible

  • Space Weather Magnetometer Aboard GEO-KOMPSAT-2A
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 6.125) Pub Date : 2020-10-21
    W. Magnes, O. Hillenmaier, H.-U. Auster, P. Brown, S. Kraft, J. Seon, M. Delva, A. Valavanoglou, S. Leitner, D. Fischer, G. Berghofer, Y. Narita, F. Plaschke, M. Volwerk, J. Wilfinger, C. Strauch, J. Ludwig, D. Constantinescu, K.-H. Fornacon, K. Gebauer, D. Hercik, I. Richter, J. P. Eastwood, J. P. Luntama, A. Hilgers, M. Heil, G. W. Na, C. H. Lee

    The South Korean meteorological and environmental satellite GEO-KOMPSAT-2A (GK-2A) was launched into geostationary orbit at \(128.2^{\circ}\) East on 4 December 2018. The space weather observation aboard GK-2A is performed by the Korea Space Environment Monitor. It consists of three particle detectors, a charging monitor and a four-sensor Service Oriented Spacecraft Magnetometer (SOSMAG). The magnetometer

  • The Atmospheric Structure of the Ice Giant Planets from In Situ Measurements by Entry Probes
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 6.125) Pub Date : 2020-10-20
    Francesca Ferri, Giacomo Colombatti, Alessio Aboudan, Carlo Bettanini, Stefano Debei, Ari Matti Harri, Jean Pierre Lebreton, Franck Montmessin, Jean Jacques Berthelier, Alice LeGall, Ronan Modolo, Karen Aplin, Athena Coustenis

    In situ measurements by an atmospheric entry probe allow for sounding and investigating atmospheric composition, structure and dynamics deep into the atmosphere of a Giant planet. In this paper, we describe an Atmospheric Structure Instrument (ASI) for an entry probe at Uranus and/or Neptune. The scientific objectives, the measurements and the expected results are discussed in the framework of a future

  • Observations of the Solar Corona from Space
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 6.125) Pub Date : 2020-10-19
    Ester Antonucci, Louise Harra, Roberto Susino, Daniele Telloni

    Space observations of the atmosphere of the Sun, obtained in half a century of dedicated space missions, provide a well established picture of the medium and large-scale solar corona, which is highly variable with the level of solar activity through a solar cycle and evolves with the long-term evolution of the magnetic cycles. In this review, we summarize the physical properties and dynamics of the

  • Hayabusa2 Landing Site Selection: Surface Topography of Ryugu and Touchdown Safety
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 6.125) Pub Date : 2020-10-15
    Shota Kikuchi, Sei-ichiro Watanabe, Takanao Saiki, Hikaru Yabuta, Seiji Sugita, Tomokatsu Morota, Naru Hirata, Naoyuki Hirata, Tatsuhiro Michikami, Chikatoshi Honda, Yashuhiro Yokota, Rie Honda, Naoya Sakatani, Tatsuaki Okada, Yuri Shimaki, Koji Matsumoto, Rina Noguchi, Yuto Takei, Fuyuto Terui, Naoko Ogawa, Kent Yoshikawa, Go Ono, Yuya Mimasu, Hirotaka Sawada, Hitoshi Ikeda, Chikako Hirose, Tadateru

    One of the primary goals of Hayabusa2 is to land on the asteroid Ryugu to collect its surface materials. The key for a successful touchdown is to find a promising landing site that meets both scientific and engineering requirements. Due to the limited availability of pre-arrival information about Ryugu, the landing site selection (LSS) must be conducted based on proximity observations over a limited

  • GeMini: A High-Resolution, Low-Resource, Gamma-Ray Spectrometer for Planetary Science Applications
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 6.125) Pub Date : 2020-10-15
    Morgan T. Burks, Owen B. Drury, John O. Goldsten, Lisle B. Hagler, Lena E. Heffern, Nathan R. Hines, Geon-Bo Kim, David J. Lawrence, Karl E. Nelson, Patrick N. Peplowski, Zach W. Yokley

    GeMini is a high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometer designed for planetary-science exploration. GeMini serves as the basis for instruments being flown on three upcoming deep-space missions: NASA’s mission to the M-class asteroid (16) Psyche, the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency sample-return mission to the moons of Mars, and NASA’s Dragonfly mission that will land on Saturn’s largest moon, Titan.

  • Radiative Emission Mechanisms
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 6.125) Pub Date : 2020-10-06
    Nathaniel Roth, Elena Maria Rossi, Julian Krolik, Tsvi Piran, Brenna Mockler, Daniel Kasen

    We describe how the various outcomes of stellar tidal disruption give rise to observable radiation. We separately consider the cases where gas circularizes rapidly into an accretion disc, as well as the case when shocked debris streams provide the observable emission without having fully circularized. For the rapid circularization case, we describe how outflows, absorption by reprocessing layers, and

  • The Isotopic Imprint of Life on an Evolving Planet
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 6.125) Pub Date : 2020-10-06
    M. K. Lloyd, H. L. O. McClelland, G. Antler, A. S. Bradley, I. Halevy, C. K. Junium, S. D. Wankel, A. L. Zerkle

    Stable isotope compositions of biologically cycled elements encode information about the interaction between life and environment. On Earth, geochemical biomarkers have been used to probe the extent, nature, and activity of modern and ancient organisms. However, extracting biological information from stable isotopic compositions requires untangling the interconnected nature of the Earth’s biogeochemical

  • Mio—First Comprehensive Exploration of Mercury’s Space Environment: Mission Overview
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 6.125) Pub Date : 2020-10-06
    Go Murakami, Hajime Hayakawa, Hiroyuki Ogawa, Shoya Matsuda, Taeko Seki, Yasumasa Kasaba, Yoshifumi Saito, Ichiro Yoshikawa, Masanori Kobayashi, Wolfgang Baumjohann, Ayako Matsuoka, Hirotsugu Kojima, Satoshi Yagitani, Michel Moncuquet, Jan-Erik Wahlund, Dominique Delcourt, Masafumi Hirahara, Stas Barabash, Oleg Korablev, Masaki Fujimoto

    Mercury has a unique and complex space environment with its weak global magnetic field, intense solar wind, tenuous exosphere, and magnetospheric plasma particles. This complex system makes Mercury an excellent science target to understand effects of the solar wind to planetary environments. In addition, investigating Mercury’s dynamic magnetosphere also plays a key role to understand extreme exoplanetary

  • Measurements of Magnetic Field Fluctuations for Plasma Wave Investigation by the Search Coil Magnetometers (SCM) Onboard Bepicolombo Mio (Mercury Magnetospheric Orbiter)
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 6.125) Pub Date : 2020-10-06
    Satoshi Yagitani, Mitsunori Ozaki, Fouad Sahraoui, Laurent Mirioni, Malik Mansour, Gerard Chanteur, Christophe Coillot, Sebastien Ruocco, Vincent Leray, Mitsuru Hikishima, Dominique Alison, Olivier Le Contel, Hirotsugu Kojima, Yoshiya Kasahara, Yasumasa Kasaba, Takashi Sasaki, Takahiro Yumoto, Yoshinari Takeuchi

    This paper describes the design and performance of the search coil magnetometers (SCM), which are part of the Plasma Wave Investigation (PWI) instrument onboard the BepiColombo/Mio spacecraft (Mercury Magnetospheric Orbiter), which will measure the electric field, plasma waves and radio waves for the first time in Mercury’s plasma environment. The SCM consists of two low-frequency orthogonal search

  • Studying the Composition and Mineralogy of the Hermean Surface with the Mercury Radiometer and Thermal Infrared Spectrometer (MERTIS) for the BepiColombo Mission: An Update
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 6.125) Pub Date : 2020-09-11
    H. Hiesinger, J. Helbert, G. Alemanno, K. E. Bauch, M. D’Amore, A. Maturilli, A. Morlok, M. P. Reitze, C. Stangarone, A. N. Stojic, I. Varatharajan, I. Weber

    Launched onboard the BepiColombo Mercury Planetary Orbiter (MPO) in October 2018, the Mercury Radiometer and Thermal Infrared Spectrometer (MERTIS) is on its way to planet Mercury. MERTIS consists of a push-broom IR-spectrometer (TIS) and a radiometer (TIR), which operate in the wavelength regions of 7-14 μm and 7-40 μm, respectively. This wavelength region is characterized by several diagnostic spectral

  • Geochemical Constraints on the Origin of the Moon and Preservation of Ancient Terrestrial Heterogeneities
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 6.125) Pub Date : 2020-09-10
    Simon J. Lock, Katherine R. Bermingham, Rita Parai, Maud Boyet

    The Moon forming giant impact marks the end of the main stage of Earth’s accretion and sets the stage for the subsequent evolution of our planet. The giant impact theory has been the accepted model of lunar origin for 40 years, but the parameters of the impact and the mechanisms that led to the formation of the Moon are still hotly debated. Here we review the principal geochemical observations that

  • Hayabusa2’s Superior Solar Conjunction Phase
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 6.125) Pub Date : 2020-09-09
    Stefania Soldini, Tomohiro Yamaguchi, Yuichi Tsuda, Saiki Takanao, Satoru Nakazawa

    Hayabusa2 is the ongoing JAXA’s sample and return mission to the asteroid Ryugu. In late 2018, Ryugu was in superior solar conjunction with the Earth. It is the first time that a spacecraft experiences the blackouts in the communication link with the Earth while hovering around a small celestial body. In this article, the design of the nominal conjunction trajectory flown by the Hayabusa2’s spacecraft

  • Correction to: The ELFIN Mission
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 6.125) Pub Date : 2020-08-26
    V. Angelopoulos, E. Tsai, L. Bingley, C. Shaffer, D. L. Turner, A. Runov, W. Li, J. Liu, A. V. Artemyev, X.-J. Zhang, R. J. Strangeway, R. E. Wirz, Y. Y. Shprits, V. A. Sergeev, R. P. Caron, M. Chung, P. Cruce, W. Greer, E. Grimes, K. Hector, M. J. Lawson, D. Leneman, E. V. Masongsong, C. L. Russell, C. Wilkins, D. Hinkley, J. B. Blake, N. Adair, M. Allen, M. Anderson, M. Arreola-Zamora, J. Artinger

    Correction to: Space Sci. Rev. (2020) 216: 103 https://doi.org/10.1007/s11214-020-00721-7 Affiliation 2 in this article is the wrong affiliation that instead should read: “Institute of Geophysics and Planetary Physics, University of California, Los Angeles, CA, USA” which should be regarded as the final version by the reader.

  • Observational Constraints on the Formation and Evolution of Neptune-Class Exoplanets
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 6.125) Pub Date : 2020-08-26
    Magali Deleuil, Don Pollacco, Clément Baruteau, Heike Rauer, Michel Blanc

    Among exoplanets, the small-size population constitutes the dominant one, with a diversity of properties and compositions ranging from rocky to gas dominated envelope. While a large fraction of them have masses and radii similar to or smaller than Neptune, yet none share common properties in term of orbital period and insulation with our ice giants. These exoplanets belong to multi-planet systems where

  • The Lunar Lander Neutron and Dosimetry (LND) Experiment on Chang’E 4
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 6.125) Pub Date : 2020-08-18
    Robert F. Wimmer-Schweingruber, Jia Yu, Stephan I. Böttcher, Shenyi Zhang, Sönke Burmeister, Henning Lohf, Jingnan Guo, Zigong Xu, Björn Schuster, Lars Seimetz, Johan L. Freiherr von Forstner, Ali Ravanbakhsh, Violetta Knierim, Stefan Kolbe, Hauke Woyciechowski, Shrinivasrao R. Kulkarni, Bin Yuan, Guohong Shen, Chunqing Wang, Zheng Chang, Thomas Berger, Christine E. Hellweg, Daniel Matthiä, Donghui

    Chang’E 4 is the first mission to the far side of the Moon and consists of a lander, a rover, and a relay spacecraft. Lander and rover were launched at 18:23 UTC on December 7, 2018 and landed in the von Kármán crater at 02:26 UTC on January 3, 2019. Here we describe the Lunar Lander Neutron & Dosimetry experiment (LND) which is part of the Chang’E 4 Lander scientific payload. Its chief scientific

  • The ELFIN Mission.
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 6.125) Pub Date : 2020-07-30
    V Angelopoulos,E Tsai,L Bingley,C Shaffer,D L Turner,A Runov,W Li,J Liu,A V Artemyev,X-J Zhang,R J Strangeway,R E Wirz,Y Y Shprits,V A Sergeev,R P Caron,M Chung,P Cruce,W Greer,E Grimes,K Hector,M J Lawson,D Leneman,E V Masongsong,C L Russell,C Wilkins,D Hinkley,J B Blake,N Adair,M Allen,M Anderson,M Arreola-Zamora,J Artinger,J Asher,D Branchevsky,M R Capitelli,R Castro,G Chao,N Chung,M Cliffe,K Colton

    The Electron Loss and Fields Investigation with a Spatio-Temporal Ambiguity-Resolving option (ELFIN-STAR, or heretoforth simply: ELFIN) mission comprises two identical 3-Unit (3U) CubeSats on a polar (∼93∘ inclination), nearly circular, low-Earth (∼450 km altitude) orbit. Launched on September 15, 2018, ELFIN is expected to have a >2.5 year lifetime. Its primary science objective is to resolve the

  • On the Origin and Evolution of the Material in 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko.
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 6.125) Pub Date : 2020-07-30
    Martin Rubin,Cécile Engrand,Colin Snodgrass,Paul Weissman,Kathrin Altwegg,Henner Busemann,Alessandro Morbidelli,Michael Mumma

    Primitive objects like comets hold important information on the material that formed our solar system. Several comets have been visited by spacecraft and many more have been observed through Earth- and space-based telescopes. Still our understanding remains limited. Molecular abundances in comets have been shown to be similar to interstellar ices and thus indicate that common processes and conditions

  • Possible Atmospheric Diversity of Low Mass Exoplanets – Some Central Aspects
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 6.125) Pub Date : 2020-07-23
    John Lee Grenfell, Jeremy Leconte, François Forget, Mareike Godolt, Óscar Carrión-González, Lena Noack, Feng Tian, Heike Rauer, Fabrice Gaillard, Émeline Bolmont, Benjamin Charnay, Martin Turbet

    Exoplanetary science continues to excite and surprise with its rich diversity. We discuss here some key aspects potentially influencing the range of exoplanetary terrestrial-type atmospheres which could exist in nature. We are motivated by newly emerging observations, refined approaches to address data degeneracies, improved theories for key processes affecting atmospheric evolution and a new generation

  • Tracing the Origins of the Ice Giants Through Noble Gas Isotopic Composition
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 6.125) Pub Date : 2020-07-23
    K. E. Mandt, O. Mousis, J. Lunine, B. Marty, T. Smith, A. Luspay-Kuti, A. Aguichine

    The current composition of giant planet atmospheres provides information on how such planets formed, and on the origin of the solid building blocks that contributed to their formation. Noble gas abundances and their isotope ratios are among the most valuable pieces of evidence for tracing the origin of the materials from which the giant planets formed. In this review we first outline the current state

  • A Review of Possible Planetary Atmospheres in the TRAPPIST-1 System.
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 6.125) Pub Date : 2020-07-23
    Martin Turbet,Emeline Bolmont,Vincent Bourrier,Brice-Olivier Demory,Jérémy Leconte,James Owen,Eric T Wolf

    TRAPPIST-1 is a fantastic nearby (∼39.14 light years) planetary system made of at least seven transiting terrestrial-size, terrestrial-mass planets all receiving a moderate amount of irradiation. To date, this is the most observationally favourable system of potentially habitable planets known to exist. Since the announcement of the discovery of the TRAPPIST-1 planetary system in 2016, a growing number

  • In Situ UV Measurements by MSL/REMS: Dust Deposition and Angular Response Corrections
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 6.125) Pub Date : 2020-07-21
    A. Vicente-Retortillo, G. M. Martínez, N. O. Rennó, M. T. Lemmon, M. de la Torre-Juárez, J. Gómez-Elvira

    Measurements by the REMS/UV sensor onboard the MSL Curiosity rover constitute the first in situ dataset of UV radiation flux at the surface of Mars. Due to its position on the Curiosity deck, the UV sensor has been directly exposed to dust deposition. Inaccuracies in the original angular response calibration functions have led to discrepancies between measured and physically-expected UV fluxes when

  • The Experimental Albertan Satellite #1 (Ex-Alta 1) Cube-Satellite Mission
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 6.125) Pub Date : 2020-07-20
    I. R. Mann, C. D. A. Nokes, C. Cupido, D. M. Miles, B. Bruner, D. G. Elliott, D. Barona, S. Damkjar, C. F. Lange, D. Sameoto, L. Wyard-Scott, M. Fleischauer, C. Robson, C. Lissinna, D. K. Milling, R. E. Ferrari, A. Kale, J. Grey, A. Hamilton, K. Ball, K. Cote, T. Robertson, E. Austen, G. Yi, T. Hrynyk, D. Nault, A. Roy, D. Van Paridon, D. Raboud, R. Fedosejevs, J. P. Carey, A. J. Hansen, T. A. Bekkeng

    The Experimental Albertan satellite #1 (Ex-Alta 1) was a three-unit cube satellite (CubeSat) developed at the University of Alberta (UAlberta). As the first ‘made in Alberta’ spacecraft, the Ex-Alta 1 CubeSat was the Canadian contribution to the international QB50 CubeSat constellation mission (www.qb50.eu). Ex-Alta 1’s mission incorporated four science objectives, two technical objectives, and one

  • On the Habitability and Future Exploration of Ocean Worlds
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 6.125) Pub Date : 2020-07-20
    K. P. Hand, C. Sotin, A. Hayes, A. Coustenis

    Liquid water oceans are now predicted to exist beneath the icy shells of numerous worlds in the outer solar system. These ocean worlds are prime targets in our search for evidence of life beyond Earth, and specifically extant life. Here we review the conditions that may lead to several of these worlds being habitable, and provide a framework for the future exploration of these astrobiologically compelling

  • Solar Intensity X-Ray and Particle Spectrometer SIXS: Instrument Design and First Results
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 6.125) Pub Date : 2020-07-14
    J. Huovelin, R. Vainio, E. Kilpua, A. Lehtolainen, S. Korpela, E. Esko, K. Muinonen, E. Bunce, A. Martindale, M. Grande, H. Andersson, S. Nenonen, J. Lehti, W. Schmidt, M. Genzer, T. Vihavainen, J. Saari, J. Peltonen, E. Valtonen, M. Talvioja, P. Portin, S. Narendranath, R. Jarvinen, T. Okada, A. Milillo, M. Laurenza, E. Heino, P. Oleynik

    The Solar Intensity X-ray and particle Spectrometer (SIXS) on the BepiColombo Mercury Planetary Orbiter (“Bepi”) measures the direct solar X-rays, energetic protons, and electrons that bombard, and interact with, the Hermean surface. The interactions result in X-ray fluorescence and scattering, and particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE), i.e. “glow” of the surface in X-rays. Simultaneous monitoring

  • Investigating Mercury’s Environment with the Two-Spacecraft BepiColombo Mission
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 6.125) Pub Date : 2020-07-14
    A. Milillo, M. Fujimoto, G. Murakami, J. Benkhoff, J. Zender, S. Aizawa, M. Dósa, L. Griton, D. Heyner, G. Ho, S. M. Imber, X. Jia, T. Karlsson, R. M. Killen, M. Laurenza, S. T. Lindsay, S. McKenna-Lawlor, A. Mura, J. M. Raines, D. A. Rothery, N. André, W. Baumjohann, A. Berezhnoy, P. A. Bourdin, E. J. Bunce, F. Califano, J. Deca, S. de la Fuente, C. Dong, C. Grava, S. Fatemi, P. Henri, S. L. Ivanovski

    The ESA-JAXA BepiColombo mission will provide simultaneous measurements from two spacecraft, offering an unprecedented opportunity to investigate magnetospheric and exospheric dynamics at Mercury as well as their interactions with the solar wind, radiation, and interplanetary dust. Many scientific instruments onboard the two spacecraft will be completely, or partially devoted to study the near-space

  • Quiet, Discrete Auroral Arcs: Acceleration Mechanisms
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 6.125) Pub Date : 2020-07-09
    R. Lysak, M. Echim, T. Karlsson, O. Marghitu, R. Rankin, Y. Song, T.-H. Watanabe

    The theory of the acceleration of auroral particles is reviewed, focusing on developments in the last 15 years. We discuss elementary plasma physics processes leading to acceleration of electrons to energies compatible with emission observed for quiet, discrete auroral arcs, defined as arcs that have time scales of minutes or more and spatial scales ranging from less than 1 km to tens of kilometers

  • Future Missions to the Giant Planets that Can Advance Atmospheric Science Objectives
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 6.125) Pub Date : 2020-07-08
    Mark D. Hofstadter, Leigh N. Fletcher, Amy A. Simon, Adam Masters, Diego Turrini, Christopher S. Arridge

    Other papers in this special issue have discussed the diversity of planetary atmospheres and some of the key science questions for giant planet atmospheres to be addressed in the future. There are crucial measurements that can only be made by orbiters of giant planets and probes dropped into their atmospheres. To help the community be more effective developers of missions and users of data products

  • Is the Faint Young Sun Problem for Earth Solved?
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 6.125) Pub Date : 2020-07-06
    Benjamin Charnay, Eric T. Wolf, Bernard Marty, François Forget

    Stellar evolution models predict that the solar luminosity was lower in the past, typically 20-25% lower during the Archean (3.8-2.5 Ga). Despite the fainter Sun, there is strong evidence for the presence of liquid water on Earth’s surface at that time. This “faint young Sun problem” is a fundamental question in paleoclimatology, with important implications for the habitability of the early Earth,

  • Lunar Seismology: A Data and Instrumentation Review
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 6.125) Pub Date : 2020-07-03
    Ceri Nunn, Raphael F. Garcia, Yosio Nakamura, Angela G. Marusiak, Taichi Kawamura, Daoyuan Sun, Ludovic Margerin, Renee Weber, Mélanie Drilleau, Mark A. Wieczorek, Amir Khan, Attilio Rivoldini, Philippe Lognonné, Peimin Zhu

    Several seismic experiments were deployed on the Moon by the astronauts during the Apollo missions. The experiments began in 1969 with Apollo 11, and continued with Apollo 12, 14, 15, 16 and 17. Instruments at Apollo 12, 14, 15, 16 and 17 remained operational until the final transmission in 1977. These remarkable experiments provide a valuable resource. Now is a good time to review this resource, since

  • Future Simulations of Tidal Disruption Events
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 6.125) Pub Date : 2020-07-02
    Julian H. Krolik, Philip J. Armitage, Yanfei Jiang, Giuseppe Lodato

    Tidal disruption events involve numerous physical processes (fluid dynamics, magnetohydrodynamics, radiation transport, self-gravity, general relativistic dynamics) in highly nonlinear ways, and, because TDEs are transients by definition, frequently in non-equilibrium states. For these reasons, numerical solution of the relevant equations can be an essential tool for studying these events. In this

  • Setting the Stage: Planet Formation and Volatile Delivery
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 6.125) Pub Date : 2020-07-01
    Julia Venturini, Maria Paula Ronco, Octavio Miguel Guilera

    The diversity in mass and composition of planetary atmospheres stems from the different building blocks present in protoplanetary discs and from the different physical and chemical processes that these experience during the planetary assembly and evolution. This review aims to summarise, in a nutshell, the key concepts and processes operating during planet formation, with a focus on the delivery of

  • X-Ray Properties of TDEs
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 6.125) Pub Date : 2020-07-01
    R. Saxton, S. Komossa, K. Auchettl, P. G. Jonker

    Observational astronomy of tidal disruption events (TDEs) began with the detection of X-ray flares from quiescent galaxies during the ROSAT all-sky survey of 1990–1991. The flares complied with theoretical expectations, having high peak luminosities (\(L_{\mathrm{x}}\) up to \(\ge 4\times 10^{44}~\text{erg/s}\)), a thermal spectrum with \(kT\sim \text{few} \times 10^{5}~\text{K}\), and a decline on

  • Superrotation in Planetary Atmospheres
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 6.125) Pub Date : 2020-07-01
    Takeshi Imamura, Jonathan Mitchell, Sebastien Lebonnois, Yohai Kaspi, Adam P. Showman, Oleg Korablev

    Superrotation is a dynamical regime where the atmosphere circulates around the planet in the direction of planetary rotation with excess angular momentum in the equatorial region. Superrotation is known to exist in the atmospheres of Venus, Titan, Jupiter, and Saturn in the solar system. Some of the exoplanets also exhibit superrotation. Our understanding of superrotation in a framework of circulation

  • Comparison of the Deep Atmospheric Dynamics of Jupiter and Saturn in Light of the Juno and Cassini Gravity Measurements
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 6.125) Pub Date : 2020-06-30
    Yohai Kaspi, Eli Galanti, Adam P. Showman, David J. Stevenson, Tristan Guillot, Luciano Iess, Scott J. Bolton

    The nature and structure of the observed east-west flows on Jupiter and Saturn have been a long-standing mystery in planetary science. This mystery has been recently unraveled by the accurate gravity measurements provided by the Juno mission to Jupiter and the Grand Finale of the Cassini mission to Saturn. These two experiments, which coincidentally happened around the same time, allowed the determination

  • Correction to: The MAVEN Radio Occultation Science Experiment (ROSE)
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 6.125) Pub Date : 2020-06-29
    Paul Withers, M. Felici, M. Mendillo, L. Moore, C. Narvaez, M. F. Vogt, K. Oudrhiri, D. Kahan, B. M. Jakosky

    Correction to: Space Sci. Rev. (2020) 216: 61 https://doi.org/10.1007/s11214-020-00687-6 This article unfortunately was published without the Electronic Supplementary Material mentioned in the article text. With the publication of this correction the ESM “radio_occ_mvn_ssrlikev32.pro” is now available online.

  • Radio Properties of Tidal Disruption Events
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 6.125) Pub Date : 2020-06-29
    Kate D. Alexander, Sjoert van Velzen, Assaf Horesh, B. Ashley Zauderer

    Radio observations of tidal disruption events (TDEs) probe material ejected by the disruption of stars by supermassive black holes (SMBHs), uniquely tracing the formation and evolution of jets and outflows, revealing details of the disruption hydrodynamics, and illuminating the environments around previously-dormant SMBHs. To date, observations reveal a surprisingly diverse population. A small fraction

  • Key Technologies and Instrumentation for Subsurface Exploration of Ocean Worlds
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 6.125) Pub Date : 2020-06-29
    Bernd Dachwald, Stephan Ulamec, Frank Postberg, Frank Sohl, Jean-Pierre de Vera, Christoph Waldmann, Ralph D. Lorenz, Kris A. Zacny, Hugo Hellard, Jens Biele, Petra Rettberg

    In this chapter, the key technologies and the instrumentation required for the subsurface exploration of ocean worlds are discussed. The focus is laid on Jupiter’s moon Europa and Saturn’s moon Enceladus because they have the highest potential for such missions in the near future. The exploration of their oceans requires landing on the surface, penetrating the thick ice shell with an ice-penetrating

  • Outstanding Challenges of Exoplanet Atmospheric Retrievals
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 6.125) Pub Date : 2020-06-29
    Joanna K. Barstow, Kevin Heng

    Spectral retrieval has long been a powerful tool for interpreting planetary remote sensing observations. Flexible, parameterised, agnostic models are coupled with inversion algorithms in order to infer atmospheric properties directly from observations, with minimal reliance on physical assumptions. This approach, originally developed for application to Earth satellite data and subsequently observations

  • Ice-Ocean Exchange Processes in the Jovian and Saturnian Satellites
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 6.125) Pub Date : 2020-06-29
    Krista M. Soderlund, Klára Kalousová, Jacob J. Buffo, Christopher R. Glein, Jason C. Goodman, Giuseppe Mitri, G. Wesley Patterson, Frank Postberg, Marc Rovira-Navarro, Tina Rückriemen, Joachim Saur, Britney E. Schmidt, Christophe Sotin, Tilman Spohn, Gabriel Tobie, Tim Van Hoolst, Steven D. Vance, Bert Vermeersen

    A growing number of satellites in the outer solar system likely have global oceans beneath their outer icy shells. While the presence of liquid water makes these ocean worlds compelling astrobiological targets, the exchange of heat and materials between the deep interior and the surface also plays a critical role in promoting habitable environments. In this article, we combine geophysical, geochemical

  • Magnetospheric Studies: A Requirement for Addressing Interdisciplinary Mysteries in the Ice Giant Systems
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 6.125) Pub Date : 2020-06-26
    P. Kollmann, I. Cohen, R. C. Allen, G. Clark, E. Roussos, S. Vines, W. Dietrich, J. Wicht, I. de Pater, K. D. Runyon, R. Cartwright, A. Masters, D. Brain, K. Hibbits, B. Mauk, M. Gkioulidou, A. Rymer, R. McNutt, V. Hue, S. Stanley, P. Brandt

    Uranus and Neptune are the least-explored planets in our Solar System. This paper summarizes mysteries about these incredibly intriguing planets and their environments spurred by our limited observations from Voyager 2 and Earth-based systems. Several of these observations are either inconsistent with our current understanding built from exploring other planetary systems, or indicate such unique characteristics

  • Key Atmospheric Signatures for Identifying the Source Reservoirs of Volatiles in Uranus and Neptune
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 6.125) Pub Date : 2020-06-18
    O. Mousis, A. Aguichine, D. H. Atkinson, S. K. Atreya, T. Cavalié, J. I. Lunine, K. E. Mandt, T. Ronnet

    We investigate the enrichment patterns of several delivery scenarios of the volatiles to the atmospheres of ice giants, having in mind that the only well constrained determination made remotely, namely the carbon abundance measurement, suggests that their envelopes possess highly supersolar metallicities, i.e., close to two orders of magnitude above that of the protosolar nebula. In the framework of

  • SIMBIO-SYS: Scientific Cameras and Spectrometer for the BepiColombo Mission
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 6.125) Pub Date : 2020-06-17
    G. Cremonese, F. Capaccioni, M. T. Capria, A. Doressoundiram, P. Palumbo, M. Vincendon, M. Massironi, S. Debei, M. Zusi, F. Altieri, M. Amoroso, G. Aroldi, M. Baroni, A. Barucci, G. Bellucci, J. Benkhoff, S. Besse, C. Bettanini, M. Blecka, D. Borrelli, J. R. Brucato, C. Carli, V. Carlier, P. Cerroni, A. Cicchetti, L. Colangeli, M. Dami, V. Da Deppo, V. Della Corte, M. C. De Sanctis, S. Erard, F. Esposito

    The SIMBIO-SYS (Spectrometer and Imaging for MPO BepiColombo Integrated Observatory SYStem) is a complex instrument suite part of the scientific payload of the Mercury Planetary Orbiter for the BepiColombo mission, the last of the cornerstone missions of the European Space Agency (ESA) Horizon + science program. The SIMBIO-SYS instrument will provide all the science imaging capability of the BepiColombo

  • From Diffuse Gas to Dense Molecular Cloud Cores
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 6.125) Pub Date : 2020-06-17
    Javier Ballesteros-Paredes, Philippe André, Patrick Hennebelle, Ralf S. Klessen, J. M. Diederik Kruijssen, Mélanie Chevance, Fumitaka Nakamura, Angela Adamo, Enrique Vázquez-Semadeni

    Molecular clouds are a fundamental ingredient of galaxies: they are the channels that transform the diffuse gas into stars. The detailed process of how they do it is not completely understood. We review the current knowledge of molecular clouds and their substructure from scales \(\sim1~\mbox{kpc}\) down to the filament and core scale. We first review the mechanisms of cloud formation from the warm

  • Loss and Fractionation of Noble Gas Isotopes and Moderately Volatile Elements from Planetary Embryos and Early Venus, Earth and Mars
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 6.125) Pub Date : 2020-06-16
    Helmut Lammer, Manuel Scherf, Hiroyuki Kurokawa, Yuichiro Ueno, Christoph Burger, Thomas Maindl, Colin P. Johnstone, Martin Leizinger, Markus Benedikt, Luca Fossati, Kristina G. Kislyakova, Bernard Marty, Guillaume Avice, Bruce Fegley, Petra Odert

    Here we discuss the current state of knowledge on how atmospheric escape processes can fractionate noble gas isotopes and moderately volatile rock-forming elements that populate primordial atmospheres, magma ocean related environments, and catastrophically outgassed steam atmospheres. Variations of isotopes and volatile elements in different planetary reservoirs keep information about atmospheric escape

  • Small Next-Generation Atmospheric Probe (SNAP) Concept to Enable Future Multi-Probe Missions: A Case Study for Uranus
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 6.125) Pub Date : 2020-06-10
    K. M. Sayanagi, R. A. Dillman, D. H. Atkinson, J. Li, S. Saikia, A. A. Simon, T. R. Spilker, M. H. Wong, W. C. Edwards, D. Hope, A. Arora, S. C. Bowen, A. Bowes, J. S. Brady, T. O. Clark, R. E. Fairbairn, D. G. Goggin, T. A. Grondin, S. J. Horan, S. I. Infeld, J. P. Leckey, J. M. Longuski, T. E. Marvel, R. M. McCabe, A. M. Parikh, D. J. Peterson, S. J. Primeaux, A. D. Scammell, K. M. Somervill, L.

    We present the outcome of a mission concept study that designed a small atmospheric entry probe and examined the feasibility and benefit of a future multi-probe mission to Uranus. We call our design the Small Next-generation Atmospheric Probe (SNAP). The primary scientific objective of a multi-probe mission is to reveal spatial variability of atmospheric conditions. This article first highlights that

  • The Advanced Small Analyzer for Neutrals (ASAN) on the Chang’E-4 Rover Yutu-2
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 6.125) Pub Date : 2020-06-10
    M. Wieser, S. Barabash, X.-D. Wang, A. Grigoriev, A. Zhang, C. Wang, W. Wang

    The Advanced Small Analyzer for Neutrals (ASAN) is a compact mass resolving energetic neutral atom analyzer flown on the Yutu-2 rover of the Chinese Chang’E-4 mission to the Moon. ASAN measures energetic neutral atoms in the energy range from 10 eV to 10 keV with typically 30% energy resolution. The field-of-view is a single angular pixel of 37° × 30° pointing at lunar surface. Energetic neutral atoms

  • In-Flight Calibration and Performance of the OSIRIS-REx Touch And Go Camera System (TAGCAMS)
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 6.125) Pub Date : 2020-06-10
    B. J. Bos, D. S. Nelson, J. Y. Pelgrift, A. J. Liounis, D. Doelling, C. D. Norman, R. D. Olds, C. W. May, R. Witherspoon, E. Church, D. Huish, C. D. Adam, E. Sahr, J. Kidd, K. Drozd, W. M. Owen, M. C. Moreau, L. T. Seals, J. Butt, D. LeDuc, K. Alkiek, L. R. Chevres-Fernandez, K. E. Gordon, K. Khlopenkov, C. Haney, R. Bhatt, J. Hikes, A. Wolfram, M. Caplinger, M. A. Ravine, K. Getzandanner, A. Bartels

    The Touch And Go Camera System (TAGCAMS) is a three-camera-head instrument onboard NASA’s OSIRIS-REx asteroid sample return mission spacecraft. The purpose of TAGCAMS is to facilitate navigation to the target asteroid, (101955) Bennu; confirm acquisition of the asteroid sample; document asteroid sample stowage; and provide supplementary imaging for OSIRIS-REx science investigations. During the almost

  • The Origin of the Stellar Mass Distribution and Multiplicity
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 6.125) Pub Date : 2020-06-09
    Yueh-Ning Lee, Stella S. R. Offner, Patrick Hennebelle, Philippe André, Hans Zinnecker, Javier Ballesteros-Paredes, Shu-ichiro Inutsuka, J. M. Diederik Kruijssen

    In this chapter, we review some historical understanding and recent advances on the Initial Mass Function (IMF) and the Core Mass Function (CMF), both in terms of observations and theories. We focus mostly on star formation in clustered environment since this is suggested by observations to be the dominant mode of star formation. The statistical properties and the fragmentation behaviour of turbulent

  • Star Clusters Near and Far
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 6.125) Pub Date : 2020-06-08
    Angela Adamo, Peter Zeidler, J. M. Diederik Kruijssen, Mélanie Chevance, Mark Gieles, Daniela Calzetti, Corinne Charbonnel, Hans Zinnecker, Martin G. H. Krause

    Star clusters are fundamental units of stellar feedback and unique tracers of their host galactic properties. In this review, we will first focus on their constituents, i.e. detailed insight into their stellar populations and their surrounding ionised, warm, neutral, and molecular gas. We, then, move beyond the Local Group to review star cluster populations at various evolutionary stages, and in diverse

  • Plasma Wave Investigation (PWI) Aboard BepiColombo Mio on the Trip to the First Measurement of Electric Fields, Electromagnetic Waves, and Radio Waves Around Mercury
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 6.125) Pub Date : 2020-06-02
    Yasumasa Kasaba, Hirotsugu Kojima, Michel Moncuquet, Jan-Erik Wahlund, Satoshi Yagitani, Fouad Sahraoui, Pierre Henri, Tomas Karlsson, Yoshiya Kasahara, Atsushi Kumamoto, Keigo Ishisaka, Karine Issautier, Gaëtan Wattieaux, Tomohiko Imachi, Shoya Matsuda, Janos Lichtenberger, Hideyuki Usui

    The Plasma Wave Investigation (PWI) aboard the BepiColombo Mio (Mercury Magnetospheric Orbiter, MMO) will enable the first observations of electric fields, plasma waves, and radio waves in and around the Hermean magnetosphere and exosphere. The PWI has two sets of receivers (EWO with AM2P, SORBET) connected to two electric field sensors (MEFISTO and WPT) and two magnetic field sensors (SCM: LF-SC and

  • PHEBUS on Bepi-Colombo: Post-launch Update and Instrument Performance
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 6.125) Pub Date : 2020-06-02
    Eric Quémerais, Jean-Yves Chaufray, Dimitra Koutroumpa, Francois Leblanc, Aurélie Reberac, Benjamin Lustrement, Christophe Montaron, Jean-Francois Mariscal, Nicolas Rouanet, Ichiro Yoshikawa, Go Murakami, Kazuo Yoshioka, Oleg Korablev, Denis Belyaev, Maria G. Pelizzo, Alan Corso, Paola Zuppella

    The Bepi-Colombo mission was launched in October 2018, headed for Mercury. This mission is a collaboration between Europe and Japan. It is dedicated to the study of Mercury and its environment. It will be inserted into Mercury orbit in December 2025 after a 7-year long cruise. Probing of Hermean Exosphere By Ultraviolet Spectroscopy (PHEBUS) is an ultraviolet Spectrograph and is one of the 11 instruments

  • Physical Processes in Star Formation
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 6.125) Pub Date : 2020-06-02
    Philipp Girichidis, Stella S. R. Offner, Alexei G. Kritsuk, Ralf S. Klessen, Patrick Hennebelle, J. M. Diederik Kruijssen, Martin G. H. Krause, Simon C. O. Glover, Marco Padovani

    Star formation is a complex multi-scale phenomenon that is of significant importance for astrophysics in general. Stars and star formation are key pillars in observational astronomy from local star forming regions in the Milky Way up to high-redshift galaxies. From a theoretical perspective, star formation and feedback processes (radiation, winds, and supernovae) play a pivotal role in advancing our

  • The Physics of Star Cluster Formation and Evolution
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 6.125) Pub Date : 2020-06-02
    Martin G. H. Krause, Stella S. R. Offner, Corinne Charbonnel, Mark Gieles, Ralf S. Klessen, Enrique Vázquez-Semadeni, Javier Ballesteros-Paredes, Philipp Girichidis, J. M. Diederik Kruijssen, Jacob L. Ward, Hans Zinnecker

    Star clusters form in dense, hierarchically collapsing gas clouds. Bulk kinetic energy is transformed to turbulence with stars forming from cores fed by filaments. In the most compact regions, stellar feedback is least effective in removing the gas and stars may form very efficiently. These are also the regions where, in high-mass clusters, ejecta from some kind of high-mass stars are effectively captured

  • Rationale for BepiColombo Studies of Mercury’s Surface and Composition
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 6.125) Pub Date : 2020-06-02
    David A. Rothery, Matteo Massironi, Giulia Alemanno, Océane Barraud, Sebastien Besse, Nicolas Bott, Rosario Brunetto, Emma Bunce, Paul Byrne, Fabrizio Capaccioni, Maria Teresa Capria, Cristian Carli, Bernard Charlier, Thomas Cornet, Gabriele Cremonese, Mario D’Amore, M. Cristina De Sanctis, Alain Doressoundiram, Luigi Ferranti, Gianrico Filacchione, Valentina Galluzzi, Lorenza Giacomini, Manuel Grande

    BepiColombo has a larger and in many ways more capable suite of instruments relevant for determination of the topographic, physical, chemical and mineralogical properties of Mercury’s surface than the suite carried by NASA’s MESSENGER spacecraft. Moreover, BepiColombo’s data rate is substantially higher. This equips it to confirm, elaborate upon, and go beyond many of MESSENGER’s remarkable achievements

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