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  • The ELFIN Mission
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 6.125) Pub Date : 2020-07-30
    V. Angelopoulos, E. Tsai, L. Bingley, C. Shaffer, D. L. Turner, A. Runov, W. Li, J. Liu, A. V. Artemyev, X.-J. Zhang, R. J. Strangeway, R. E. Wirz, Y. Y. Shprits, V. A. Sergeev, R. P. Caron, M. Chung, P. Cruce, W. Greer, E. Grimes, K. Hector, M. J. Lawson, D. Leneman, E. V. Masongsong, C. L. Russell, C. Wilkins, D. Hinkley, J. B. Blake, N. Adair, M. Allen, M. Anderson, M. Arreola-Zamora, J. Artinger

    The Electron Loss and Fields Investigation with a Spatio-Temporal Ambiguity-Resolving option (ELFIN-STAR, or heretoforth simply: ELFIN) mission comprises two identical 3-Unit (3U) CubeSats on a polar (∼93∘ inclination), nearly circular, low-Earth (∼450 km altitude) orbit. Launched on September 15, 2018, ELFIN is expected to have a >2.5 year lifetime. Its primary science objective is to resolve the

  • On the Origin and Evolution of the Material in 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 6.125) Pub Date : 2020-07-30
    Martin Rubin, Cécile Engrand, Colin Snodgrass, Paul Weissman, Kathrin Altwegg, Henner Busemann, Alessandro Morbidelli, Michael Mumma

    Primitive objects like comets hold important information on the material that formed our solar system. Several comets have been visited by spacecraft and many more have been observed through Earth- and space-based telescopes. Still our understanding remains limited. Molecular abundances in comets have been shown to be similar to interstellar ices and thus indicate that common processes and conditions

  • Possible Atmospheric Diversity of Low Mass Exoplanets – Some Central Aspects
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 6.125) Pub Date : 2020-07-23
    John Lee Grenfell, Jeremy Leconte, François Forget, Mareike Godolt, Óscar Carrión-González, Lena Noack, Feng Tian, Heike Rauer, Fabrice Gaillard, Émeline Bolmont, Benjamin Charnay, Martin Turbet

    Exoplanetary science continues to excite and surprise with its rich diversity. We discuss here some key aspects potentially influencing the range of exoplanetary terrestrial-type atmospheres which could exist in nature. We are motivated by newly emerging observations, refined approaches to address data degeneracies, improved theories for key processes affecting atmospheric evolution and a new generation

  • Tracing the Origins of the Ice Giants Through Noble Gas Isotopic Composition
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 6.125) Pub Date : 2020-07-23
    K. E. Mandt, O. Mousis, J. Lunine, B. Marty, T. Smith, A. Luspay-Kuti, A. Aguichine

    The current composition of giant planet atmospheres provides information on how such planets formed, and on the origin of the solid building blocks that contributed to their formation. Noble gas abundances and their isotope ratios are among the most valuable pieces of evidence for tracing the origin of the materials from which the giant planets formed. In this review we first outline the current state

  • A Review of Possible Planetary Atmospheres in the TRAPPIST-1 System
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 6.125) Pub Date : 2020-07-23
    Martin Turbet, Emeline Bolmont, Vincent Bourrier, Brice-Olivier Demory, Jérémy Leconte, James Owen, Eric T. Wolf

    TRAPPIST-1 is a fantastic nearby (∼39.14 light years) planetary system made of at least seven transiting terrestrial-size, terrestrial-mass planets all receiving a moderate amount of irradiation. To date, this is the most observationally favourable system of potentially habitable planets known to exist. Since the announcement of the discovery of the TRAPPIST-1 planetary system in 2016, a growing number

  • In Situ UV Measurements by MSL/REMS: Dust Deposition and Angular Response Corrections
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 6.125) Pub Date : 2020-07-21
    A. Vicente-Retortillo, G. M. Martínez, N. O. Rennó, M. T. Lemmon, M. de la Torre-Juárez, J. Gómez-Elvira

    Measurements by the REMS/UV sensor onboard the MSL Curiosity rover constitute the first in situ dataset of UV radiation flux at the surface of Mars. Due to its position on the Curiosity deck, the UV sensor has been directly exposed to dust deposition. Inaccuracies in the original angular response calibration functions have led to discrepancies between measured and physically-expected UV fluxes when

  • The Experimental Albertan Satellite #1 (Ex-Alta 1) Cube-Satellite Mission
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 6.125) Pub Date : 2020-07-20
    I. R. Mann, C. D. A. Nokes, C. Cupido, D. M. Miles, B. Bruner, D. G. Elliott, D. Barona, S. Damkjar, C. F. Lange, D. Sameoto, L. Wyard-Scott, M. Fleischauer, C. Robson, C. Lissinna, D. K. Milling, R. E. Ferrari, A. Kale, J. Grey, A. Hamilton, K. Ball, K. Cote, T. Robertson, E. Austen, G. Yi, T. Hrynyk, D. Nault, A. Roy, D. Van Paridon, D. Raboud, R. Fedosejevs, J. P. Carey, A. J. Hansen, T. A. Bekkeng

    The Experimental Albertan satellite #1 (Ex-Alta 1) was a three-unit cube satellite (CubeSat) developed at the University of Alberta (UAlberta). As the first ‘made in Alberta’ spacecraft, the Ex-Alta 1 CubeSat was the Canadian contribution to the international QB50 CubeSat constellation mission (www.qb50.eu). Ex-Alta 1’s mission incorporated four science objectives, two technical objectives, and one

  • On the Habitability and Future Exploration of Ocean Worlds
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 6.125) Pub Date : 2020-07-20
    K. P. Hand, C. Sotin, A. Hayes, A. Coustenis

    Liquid water oceans are now predicted to exist beneath the icy shells of numerous worlds in the outer solar system. These ocean worlds are prime targets in our search for evidence of life beyond Earth, and specifically extant life. Here we review the conditions that may lead to several of these worlds being habitable, and provide a framework for the future exploration of these astrobiologically compelling

  • Solar Intensity X-Ray and Particle Spectrometer SIXS: Instrument Design and First Results
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 6.125) Pub Date : 2020-07-14
    J. Huovelin, R. Vainio, E. Kilpua, A. Lehtolainen, S. Korpela, E. Esko, K. Muinonen, E. Bunce, A. Martindale, M. Grande, H. Andersson, S. Nenonen, J. Lehti, W. Schmidt, M. Genzer, T. Vihavainen, J. Saari, J. Peltonen, E. Valtonen, M. Talvioja, P. Portin, S. Narendranath, R. Jarvinen, T. Okada, A. Milillo, M. Laurenza, E. Heino, P. Oleynik

    The Solar Intensity X-ray and particle Spectrometer (SIXS) on the BepiColombo Mercury Planetary Orbiter (“Bepi”) measures the direct solar X-rays, energetic protons, and electrons that bombard, and interact with, the Hermean surface. The interactions result in X-ray fluorescence and scattering, and particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE), i.e. “glow” of the surface in X-rays. Simultaneous monitoring

  • Investigating Mercury’s Environment with the Two-Spacecraft BepiColombo Mission
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 6.125) Pub Date : 2020-07-14
    A. Milillo, M. Fujimoto, G. Murakami, J. Benkhoff, J. Zender, S. Aizawa, M. Dósa, L. Griton, D. Heyner, G. Ho, S. M. Imber, X. Jia, T. Karlsson, R. M. Killen, M. Laurenza, S. T. Lindsay, S. McKenna-Lawlor, A. Mura, J. M. Raines, D. A. Rothery, N. André, W. Baumjohann, A. Berezhnoy, P. A. Bourdin, E. J. Bunce, F. Califano, J. Deca, S. de la Fuente, C. Dong, C. Grava, S. Fatemi, P. Henri, S. L. Ivanovski

    The ESA-JAXA BepiColombo mission will provide simultaneous measurements from two spacecraft, offering an unprecedented opportunity to investigate magnetospheric and exospheric dynamics at Mercury as well as their interactions with the solar wind, radiation, and interplanetary dust. Many scientific instruments onboard the two spacecraft will be completely, or partially devoted to study the near-space

  • Quiet, Discrete Auroral Arcs: Acceleration Mechanisms
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 6.125) Pub Date : 2020-07-09
    R. Lysak, M. Echim, T. Karlsson, O. Marghitu, R. Rankin, Y. Song, T.-H. Watanabe

    The theory of the acceleration of auroral particles is reviewed, focusing on developments in the last 15 years. We discuss elementary plasma physics processes leading to acceleration of electrons to energies compatible with emission observed for quiet, discrete auroral arcs, defined as arcs that have time scales of minutes or more and spatial scales ranging from less than 1 km to tens of kilometers

  • Future Missions to the Giant Planets that Can Advance Atmospheric Science Objectives
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 6.125) Pub Date : 2020-07-08
    Mark D. Hofstadter, Leigh N. Fletcher, Amy A. Simon, Adam Masters, Diego Turrini, Christopher S. Arridge

    Other papers in this special issue have discussed the diversity of planetary atmospheres and some of the key science questions for giant planet atmospheres to be addressed in the future. There are crucial measurements that can only be made by orbiters of giant planets and probes dropped into their atmospheres. To help the community be more effective developers of missions and users of data products

  • Is the Faint Young Sun Problem for Earth Solved?
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 6.125) Pub Date : 2020-07-06
    Benjamin Charnay, Eric T. Wolf, Bernard Marty, François Forget

    Stellar evolution models predict that the solar luminosity was lower in the past, typically 20-25% lower during the Archean (3.8-2.5 Ga). Despite the fainter Sun, there is strong evidence for the presence of liquid water on Earth’s surface at that time. This “faint young Sun problem” is a fundamental question in paleoclimatology, with important implications for the habitability of the early Earth,

  • Lunar Seismology: A Data and Instrumentation Review
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 6.125) Pub Date : 2020-07-03
    Ceri Nunn, Raphael F. Garcia, Yosio Nakamura, Angela G. Marusiak, Taichi Kawamura, Daoyuan Sun, Ludovic Margerin, Renee Weber, Mélanie Drilleau, Mark A. Wieczorek, Amir Khan, Attilio Rivoldini, Philippe Lognonné, Peimin Zhu

    Several seismic experiments were deployed on the Moon by the astronauts during the Apollo missions. The experiments began in 1969 with Apollo 11, and continued with Apollo 12, 14, 15, 16 and 17. Instruments at Apollo 12, 14, 15, 16 and 17 remained operational until the final transmission in 1977. These remarkable experiments provide a valuable resource. Now is a good time to review this resource, since

  • Future Simulations of Tidal Disruption Events
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 6.125) Pub Date : 2020-07-02
    Julian H. Krolik, Philip J. Armitage, Yanfei Jiang, Giuseppe Lodato

    Tidal disruption events involve numerous physical processes (fluid dynamics, magnetohydrodynamics, radiation transport, self-gravity, general relativistic dynamics) in highly nonlinear ways, and, because TDEs are transients by definition, frequently in non-equilibrium states. For these reasons, numerical solution of the relevant equations can be an essential tool for studying these events. In this

  • Setting the Stage: Planet Formation and Volatile Delivery
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 6.125) Pub Date : 2020-07-01
    Julia Venturini, Maria Paula Ronco, Octavio Miguel Guilera

    The diversity in mass and composition of planetary atmospheres stems from the different building blocks present in protoplanetary discs and from the different physical and chemical processes that these experience during the planetary assembly and evolution. This review aims to summarise, in a nutshell, the key concepts and processes operating during planet formation, with a focus on the delivery of

  • X-Ray Properties of TDEs
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 6.125) Pub Date : 2020-07-01
    R. Saxton, S. Komossa, K. Auchettl, P. G. Jonker

    Observational astronomy of tidal disruption events (TDEs) began with the detection of X-ray flares from quiescent galaxies during the ROSAT all-sky survey of 1990–1991. The flares complied with theoretical expectations, having high peak luminosities (\(L_{\mathrm{x}}\) up to \(\ge 4\times 10^{44}~\text{erg/s}\)), a thermal spectrum with \(kT\sim \text{few} \times 10^{5}~\text{K}\), and a decline on

  • Superrotation in Planetary Atmospheres
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 6.125) Pub Date : 2020-07-01
    Takeshi Imamura, Jonathan Mitchell, Sebastien Lebonnois, Yohai Kaspi, Adam P. Showman, Oleg Korablev

    Superrotation is a dynamical regime where the atmosphere circulates around the planet in the direction of planetary rotation with excess angular momentum in the equatorial region. Superrotation is known to exist in the atmospheres of Venus, Titan, Jupiter, and Saturn in the solar system. Some of the exoplanets also exhibit superrotation. Our understanding of superrotation in a framework of circulation

  • Comparison of the Deep Atmospheric Dynamics of Jupiter and Saturn in Light of the Juno and Cassini Gravity Measurements
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 6.125) Pub Date : 2020-06-30
    Yohai Kaspi, Eli Galanti, Adam P. Showman, David J. Stevenson, Tristan Guillot, Luciano Iess, Scott J. Bolton

    The nature and structure of the observed east-west flows on Jupiter and Saturn have been a long-standing mystery in planetary science. This mystery has been recently unraveled by the accurate gravity measurements provided by the Juno mission to Jupiter and the Grand Finale of the Cassini mission to Saturn. These two experiments, which coincidentally happened around the same time, allowed the determination

  • Correction to: The MAVEN Radio Occultation Science Experiment (ROSE)
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 6.125) Pub Date : 2020-06-29
    Paul Withers, M. Felici, M. Mendillo, L. Moore, C. Narvaez, M. F. Vogt, K. Oudrhiri, D. Kahan, B. M. Jakosky

    Correction to: Space Sci. Rev. (2020) 216: 61 https://doi.org/10.1007/s11214-020-00687-6 This article unfortunately was published without the Electronic Supplementary Material mentioned in the article text. With the publication of this correction the ESM “radio_occ_mvn_ssrlikev32.pro” is now available online.

  • Radio Properties of Tidal Disruption Events
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 6.125) Pub Date : 2020-06-29
    Kate D. Alexander, Sjoert van Velzen, Assaf Horesh, B. Ashley Zauderer

    Radio observations of tidal disruption events (TDEs) probe material ejected by the disruption of stars by supermassive black holes (SMBHs), uniquely tracing the formation and evolution of jets and outflows, revealing details of the disruption hydrodynamics, and illuminating the environments around previously-dormant SMBHs. To date, observations reveal a surprisingly diverse population. A small fraction

  • Key Technologies and Instrumentation for Subsurface Exploration of Ocean Worlds
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 6.125) Pub Date : 2020-06-29
    Bernd Dachwald, Stephan Ulamec, Frank Postberg, Frank Sohl, Jean-Pierre de Vera, Christoph Waldmann, Ralph D. Lorenz, Kris A. Zacny, Hugo Hellard, Jens Biele, Petra Rettberg

    In this chapter, the key technologies and the instrumentation required for the subsurface exploration of ocean worlds are discussed. The focus is laid on Jupiter’s moon Europa and Saturn’s moon Enceladus because they have the highest potential for such missions in the near future. The exploration of their oceans requires landing on the surface, penetrating the thick ice shell with an ice-penetrating

  • Outstanding Challenges of Exoplanet Atmospheric Retrievals
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 6.125) Pub Date : 2020-06-29
    Joanna K. Barstow, Kevin Heng

    Spectral retrieval has long been a powerful tool for interpreting planetary remote sensing observations. Flexible, parameterised, agnostic models are coupled with inversion algorithms in order to infer atmospheric properties directly from observations, with minimal reliance on physical assumptions. This approach, originally developed for application to Earth satellite data and subsequently observations

  • Ice-Ocean Exchange Processes in the Jovian and Saturnian Satellites
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 6.125) Pub Date : 2020-06-29
    Krista M. Soderlund, Klára Kalousová, Jacob J. Buffo, Christopher R. Glein, Jason C. Goodman, Giuseppe Mitri, G. Wesley Patterson, Frank Postberg, Marc Rovira-Navarro, Tina Rückriemen, Joachim Saur, Britney E. Schmidt, Christophe Sotin, Tilman Spohn, Gabriel Tobie, Tim Van Hoolst, Steven D. Vance, Bert Vermeersen

    A growing number of satellites in the outer solar system likely have global oceans beneath their outer icy shells. While the presence of liquid water makes these ocean worlds compelling astrobiological targets, the exchange of heat and materials between the deep interior and the surface also plays a critical role in promoting habitable environments. In this article, we combine geophysical, geochemical

  • Magnetospheric Studies: A Requirement for Addressing Interdisciplinary Mysteries in the Ice Giant Systems
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 6.125) Pub Date : 2020-06-26
    P. Kollmann, I. Cohen, R. C. Allen, G. Clark, E. Roussos, S. Vines, W. Dietrich, J. Wicht, I. de Pater, K. D. Runyon, R. Cartwright, A. Masters, D. Brain, K. Hibbits, B. Mauk, M. Gkioulidou, A. Rymer, R. McNutt, V. Hue, S. Stanley, P. Brandt

    Uranus and Neptune are the least-explored planets in our Solar System. This paper summarizes mysteries about these incredibly intriguing planets and their environments spurred by our limited observations from Voyager 2 and Earth-based systems. Several of these observations are either inconsistent with our current understanding built from exploring other planetary systems, or indicate such unique characteristics

  • Key Atmospheric Signatures for Identifying the Source Reservoirs of Volatiles in Uranus and Neptune
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 6.125) Pub Date : 2020-06-18
    O. Mousis, A. Aguichine, D. H. Atkinson, S. K. Atreya, T. Cavalié, J. I. Lunine, K. E. Mandt, T. Ronnet

    We investigate the enrichment patterns of several delivery scenarios of the volatiles to the atmospheres of ice giants, having in mind that the only well constrained determination made remotely, namely the carbon abundance measurement, suggests that their envelopes possess highly supersolar metallicities, i.e., close to two orders of magnitude above that of the protosolar nebula. In the framework of

  • SIMBIO-SYS: Scientific Cameras and Spectrometer for the BepiColombo Mission
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 6.125) Pub Date : 2020-06-17
    G. Cremonese, F. Capaccioni, M. T. Capria, A. Doressoundiram, P. Palumbo, M. Vincendon, M. Massironi, S. Debei, M. Zusi, F. Altieri, M. Amoroso, G. Aroldi, M. Baroni, A. Barucci, G. Bellucci, J. Benkhoff, S. Besse, C. Bettanini, M. Blecka, D. Borrelli, J. R. Brucato, C. Carli, V. Carlier, P. Cerroni, A. Cicchetti, L. Colangeli, M. Dami, V. Da Deppo, V. Della Corte, M. C. De Sanctis, S. Erard, F. Esposito

    The SIMBIO-SYS (Spectrometer and Imaging for MPO BepiColombo Integrated Observatory SYStem) is a complex instrument suite part of the scientific payload of the Mercury Planetary Orbiter for the BepiColombo mission, the last of the cornerstone missions of the European Space Agency (ESA) Horizon + science program. The SIMBIO-SYS instrument will provide all the science imaging capability of the BepiColombo

  • From Diffuse Gas to Dense Molecular Cloud Cores
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 6.125) Pub Date : 2020-06-17
    Javier Ballesteros-Paredes, Philippe André, Patrick Hennebelle, Ralf S. Klessen, J. M. Diederik Kruijssen, Mélanie Chevance, Fumitaka Nakamura, Angela Adamo, Enrique Vázquez-Semadeni

    Molecular clouds are a fundamental ingredient of galaxies: they are the channels that transform the diffuse gas into stars. The detailed process of how they do it is not completely understood. We review the current knowledge of molecular clouds and their substructure from scales \(\sim1~\mbox{kpc}\) down to the filament and core scale. We first review the mechanisms of cloud formation from the warm

  • Loss and Fractionation of Noble Gas Isotopes and Moderately Volatile Elements from Planetary Embryos and Early Venus, Earth and Mars
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 6.125) Pub Date : 2020-06-16
    Helmut Lammer, Manuel Scherf, Hiroyuki Kurokawa, Yuichiro Ueno, Christoph Burger, Thomas Maindl, Colin P. Johnstone, Martin Leizinger, Markus Benedikt, Luca Fossati, Kristina G. Kislyakova, Bernard Marty, Guillaume Avice, Bruce Fegley, Petra Odert

    Here we discuss the current state of knowledge on how atmospheric escape processes can fractionate noble gas isotopes and moderately volatile rock-forming elements that populate primordial atmospheres, magma ocean related environments, and catastrophically outgassed steam atmospheres. Variations of isotopes and volatile elements in different planetary reservoirs keep information about atmospheric escape

  • Small Next-Generation Atmospheric Probe (SNAP) Concept to Enable Future Multi-Probe Missions: A Case Study for Uranus
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 6.125) Pub Date : 2020-06-10
    K. M. Sayanagi, R. A. Dillman, D. H. Atkinson, J. Li, S. Saikia, A. A. Simon, T. R. Spilker, M. H. Wong, W. C. Edwards, D. Hope, A. Arora, S. C. Bowen, A. Bowes, J. S. Brady, T. O. Clark, R. E. Fairbairn, D. G. Goggin, T. A. Grondin, S. J. Horan, S. I. Infeld, J. P. Leckey, J. M. Longuski, T. E. Marvel, R. M. McCabe, A. M. Parikh, D. J. Peterson, S. J. Primeaux, A. D. Scammell, K. M. Somervill, L.

    We present the outcome of a mission concept study that designed a small atmospheric entry probe and examined the feasibility and benefit of a future multi-probe mission to Uranus. We call our design the Small Next-generation Atmospheric Probe (SNAP). The primary scientific objective of a multi-probe mission is to reveal spatial variability of atmospheric conditions. This article first highlights that

  • The Advanced Small Analyzer for Neutrals (ASAN) on the Chang’E-4 Rover Yutu-2
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 6.125) Pub Date : 2020-06-10
    M. Wieser, S. Barabash, X.-D. Wang, A. Grigoriev, A. Zhang, C. Wang, W. Wang

    The Advanced Small Analyzer for Neutrals (ASAN) is a compact mass resolving energetic neutral atom analyzer flown on the Yutu-2 rover of the Chinese Chang’E-4 mission to the Moon. ASAN measures energetic neutral atoms in the energy range from 10 eV to 10 keV with typically 30% energy resolution. The field-of-view is a single angular pixel of 37° × 30° pointing at lunar surface. Energetic neutral atoms

  • In-Flight Calibration and Performance of the OSIRIS-REx Touch And Go Camera System (TAGCAMS)
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 6.125) Pub Date : 2020-06-10
    B. J. Bos, D. S. Nelson, J. Y. Pelgrift, A. J. Liounis, D. Doelling, C. D. Norman, R. D. Olds, C. W. May, R. Witherspoon, E. Church, D. Huish, C. D. Adam, E. Sahr, J. Kidd, K. Drozd, W. M. Owen, M. C. Moreau, L. T. Seals, J. Butt, D. LeDuc, K. Alkiek, L. R. Chevres-Fernandez, K. E. Gordon, K. Khlopenkov, C. Haney, R. Bhatt, J. Hikes, A. Wolfram, M. Caplinger, M. A. Ravine, K. Getzandanner, A. Bartels

    The Touch And Go Camera System (TAGCAMS) is a three-camera-head instrument onboard NASA’s OSIRIS-REx asteroid sample return mission spacecraft. The purpose of TAGCAMS is to facilitate navigation to the target asteroid, (101955) Bennu; confirm acquisition of the asteroid sample; document asteroid sample stowage; and provide supplementary imaging for OSIRIS-REx science investigations. During the almost

  • The Origin of the Stellar Mass Distribution and Multiplicity
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 6.125) Pub Date : 2020-06-09
    Yueh-Ning Lee, Stella S. R. Offner, Patrick Hennebelle, Philippe André, Hans Zinnecker, Javier Ballesteros-Paredes, Shu-ichiro Inutsuka, J. M. Diederik Kruijssen

    In this chapter, we review some historical understanding and recent advances on the Initial Mass Function (IMF) and the Core Mass Function (CMF), both in terms of observations and theories. We focus mostly on star formation in clustered environment since this is suggested by observations to be the dominant mode of star formation. The statistical properties and the fragmentation behaviour of turbulent

  • Star Clusters Near and Far
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 6.125) Pub Date : 2020-06-08
    Angela Adamo, Peter Zeidler, J. M. Diederik Kruijssen, Mélanie Chevance, Mark Gieles, Daniela Calzetti, Corinne Charbonnel, Hans Zinnecker, Martin G. H. Krause

    Star clusters are fundamental units of stellar feedback and unique tracers of their host galactic properties. In this review, we will first focus on their constituents, i.e. detailed insight into their stellar populations and their surrounding ionised, warm, neutral, and molecular gas. We, then, move beyond the Local Group to review star cluster populations at various evolutionary stages, and in diverse

  • Plasma Wave Investigation (PWI) Aboard BepiColombo Mio on the Trip to the First Measurement of Electric Fields, Electromagnetic Waves, and Radio Waves Around Mercury
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 6.125) Pub Date : 2020-06-02
    Yasumasa Kasaba, Hirotsugu Kojima, Michel Moncuquet, Jan-Erik Wahlund, Satoshi Yagitani, Fouad Sahraoui, Pierre Henri, Tomas Karlsson, Yoshiya Kasahara, Atsushi Kumamoto, Keigo Ishisaka, Karine Issautier, Gaëtan Wattieaux, Tomohiko Imachi, Shoya Matsuda, Janos Lichtenberger, Hideyuki Usui

    The Plasma Wave Investigation (PWI) aboard the BepiColombo Mio (Mercury Magnetospheric Orbiter, MMO) will enable the first observations of electric fields, plasma waves, and radio waves in and around the Hermean magnetosphere and exosphere. The PWI has two sets of receivers (EWO with AM2P, SORBET) connected to two electric field sensors (MEFISTO and WPT) and two magnetic field sensors (SCM: LF-SC and

  • PHEBUS on Bepi-Colombo: Post-launch Update and Instrument Performance
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 6.125) Pub Date : 2020-06-02
    Eric Quémerais, Jean-Yves Chaufray, Dimitra Koutroumpa, Francois Leblanc, Aurélie Reberac, Benjamin Lustrement, Christophe Montaron, Jean-Francois Mariscal, Nicolas Rouanet, Ichiro Yoshikawa, Go Murakami, Kazuo Yoshioka, Oleg Korablev, Denis Belyaev, Maria G. Pelizzo, Alan Corso, Paola Zuppella

    The Bepi-Colombo mission was launched in October 2018, headed for Mercury. This mission is a collaboration between Europe and Japan. It is dedicated to the study of Mercury and its environment. It will be inserted into Mercury orbit in December 2025 after a 7-year long cruise. Probing of Hermean Exosphere By Ultraviolet Spectroscopy (PHEBUS) is an ultraviolet Spectrograph and is one of the 11 instruments

  • Physical Processes in Star Formation
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 6.125) Pub Date : 2020-06-02
    Philipp Girichidis, Stella S. R. Offner, Alexei G. Kritsuk, Ralf S. Klessen, Patrick Hennebelle, J. M. Diederik Kruijssen, Martin G. H. Krause, Simon C. O. Glover, Marco Padovani

    Star formation is a complex multi-scale phenomenon that is of significant importance for astrophysics in general. Stars and star formation are key pillars in observational astronomy from local star forming regions in the Milky Way up to high-redshift galaxies. From a theoretical perspective, star formation and feedback processes (radiation, winds, and supernovae) play a pivotal role in advancing our

  • The Physics of Star Cluster Formation and Evolution
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 6.125) Pub Date : 2020-06-02
    Martin G. H. Krause, Stella S. R. Offner, Corinne Charbonnel, Mark Gieles, Ralf S. Klessen, Enrique Vázquez-Semadeni, Javier Ballesteros-Paredes, Philipp Girichidis, J. M. Diederik Kruijssen, Jacob L. Ward, Hans Zinnecker

    Star clusters form in dense, hierarchically collapsing gas clouds. Bulk kinetic energy is transformed to turbulence with stars forming from cores fed by filaments. In the most compact regions, stellar feedback is least effective in removing the gas and stars may form very efficiently. These are also the regions where, in high-mass clusters, ejecta from some kind of high-mass stars are effectively captured

  • Rationale for BepiColombo Studies of Mercury’s Surface and Composition
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 6.125) Pub Date : 2020-06-02
    David A. Rothery, Matteo Massironi, Giulia Alemanno, Océane Barraud, Sebastien Besse, Nicolas Bott, Rosario Brunetto, Emma Bunce, Paul Byrne, Fabrizio Capaccioni, Maria Teresa Capria, Cristian Carli, Bernard Charlier, Thomas Cornet, Gabriele Cremonese, Mario D’Amore, M. Cristina De Sanctis, Alain Doressoundiram, Luigi Ferranti, Gianrico Filacchione, Valentina Galluzzi, Lorenza Giacomini, Manuel Grande

    BepiColombo has a larger and in many ways more capable suite of instruments relevant for determination of the topographic, physical, chemical and mineralogical properties of Mercury’s surface than the suite carried by NASA’s MESSENGER spacecraft. Moreover, BepiColombo’s data rate is substantially higher. This equips it to confirm, elaborate upon, and go beyond many of MESSENGER’s remarkable achievements

  • Simulations of Tidal Disruption Events
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 6.125) Pub Date : 2020-06-02
    Giuseppe Lodato, Roseanne M. Cheng, Clément Bonnerot, Jane Lixin Dai

    Numerical simulations have historically played a major role in understanding the hydrodynamics of the tidal disruption process. Given the complexity of the geometry of the system, the challenges posed by the problem have indeed stimulated much work on the numerical side. Smoothed Particles Hydrodynamics methods, for example, have seen their very first applications in the context of tidal disruption

  • Zooming in on Individual Star Formation: Low- and High-Mass Stars
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 6.125) Pub Date : 2020-05-20
    Anna L. Rosen, Stella S. R. Offner, Sarah I. Sadavoy, Asmita Bhandare, Enrique Vázquez-Semadeni, Adam Ginsburg

    Star formation is a multi-scale, multi-physics problem ranging from the size scale of molecular clouds (\({\sim} 10\)s pc) down to the size scales of dense prestellar cores (\({\sim} 0.1\) pc) that are the birth sites of stars. Several physical processes like turbulence, magnetic fields and stellar feedback, such as radiation pressure and outflows, are more or less important for different stellar masses

  • The MAVEN Radio Occultation Science Experiment (ROSE)
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 6.125) Pub Date : 2020-05-20
    Paul Withers, M. Felici, M. Mendillo, L. Moore, C. Narvaez, M. F. Vogt, K. Oudrhiri, D. Kahan, B. M. Jakosky

    The Radio Occultation Science Experiment (ROSE) is part of the scientific payload of the Mars Atmosphere Volatile EvolutioN (MAVEN) spacecraft. Here we motivate the science objectives of the MAVEN ROSE investigation, which are (1) to determine the vertical structure of plasma in the ionosphere and (2) to identify the density, altitude, and width of the ionospheric density peak. MAVEN ROSE achieves

  • Relict Ocean Worlds: Ceres
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 6.125) Pub Date : 2020-05-19
    Maria Cristina De Sanctis, Giuseppe Mitri, Julie Castillo-Rogez, Christopher H. House, Simome Marchi, Carol A. Raymond, Yasuhito Sekine

    The aim of this chapter is to describe available evidence for the existence of relict ocean worlds. The focus is on Ceres as a clear example of such a world as indicated by the results from the Dawn mission. The sections of this chapter will also reflect the differences and commonalities with other recognized ocean worlds. We focus on Ceres as an example of relict ocean world and the implications it

  • Exploring the Bimodal Solar System via Sample Return from the Main Asteroid Belt: The Case for Revisiting Ceres.
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 6.125) Pub Date : 2020-05-18
    Thomas H Burbine,Richard C Greenwood

    Sample return from a main-belt asteroid has not yet been attempted, but appears technologically feasible. While the cost implications are significant, the scientific case for such a mission appears overwhelming. As suggested by the “Grand Tack” model, the structure of the main belt was likely forged during the earliest stages of Solar System evolution in response to migration of the giant planets.

  • The Deep Composition of Uranus and Neptune from In Situ Exploration and Thermochemical Modeling
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 6.125) Pub Date : 2020-05-18
    Thibault Cavalié, Olivia Venot, Yamila Miguel, Leigh N. Fletcher, Peter Wurz, Olivier Mousis, Roda Bounaceur, Vincent Hue, Jérémy Leconte, Michel Dobrijevic

    The distant ice giants of the Solar System, Uranus and Neptune, have only been visited by one space mission, Voyager 2. The current knowledge on their composition remains very limited despite some recent advances. A better characterization of their composition is however essential to constrain their formation and evolution, as a significant fraction of their mass is made of heavy elements, contrary

  • Chemical and Isotopic Composition Measurements on Atmospheric Probes Exploring Uranus and Neptune
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 6.125) Pub Date : 2020-05-13
    Audrey Vorburger, Peter Wurz, Hunter Waite

    So far no designated mission to either of the two ice giants, Uranus and Neptune, exists. Almost all of our gathered information on these planets comes from remote sensing. In recent years, NASA and ESA have started planning for future mission to Uranus and Neptune, with both agencies focusing their attention on orbiters and atmospheric probes. Whereas information provided by remote sensing is undoubtedly

  • Organic Matter in the Solar System—Implications for Future on-Site and Sample Return Missions
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 6.125) Pub Date : 2020-05-12
    Zita Martins, Queenie Hoi Shan Chan, Lydie Bonal, Ashley King, Hikaru Yabuta

    Solar system bodies like comets, asteroids, meteorites and dust particles contain organic matter with different abundances, structures and chemical composition. This chapter compares the similarities and differences of the organic composition in these planetary bodies. Furthermore, these links are explored in the context of detecting the most pristine organic material, either by on-site analysis or

  • The Non-carbonaceous–Carbonaceous Meteorite Dichotomy
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 6.125) Pub Date : 2020-05-12
    T. Kleine, G. Budde, C. Burkhardt, T. S. Kruijer, E. A. Worsham, A. Morbidelli, F. Nimmo

    The isotopic dichotomy between non-carbonaceous (NC) and carbonaceous (CC) meteorites indicates that meteorite parent bodies derive from two genetically distinct reservoirs, which presumably were located inside (NC) and outside (CC) the orbit of Jupiter and remained isolated from each other for the first few million years of the solar system. Here we review the discovery of the NC–CC dichotomy and

  • Concerns of Organic Contamination for Sample Return Space Missions.
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 6.125) Pub Date : 2020-05-12
    Queenie Hoi Shan Chan,Rhonda Stroud,Zita Martins,Hikaru Yabuta

    Analysis of organic matter has been one of the major motivations behind solar system exploration missions. It addresses questions related to the organic inventory of our solar system and its implication for the origin of life on Earth. Sample return missions aim at returning scientifically valuable samples from target celestial bodies to Earth. By analysing the samples with the use of state-of-the-art

  • What is the Oxygen Isotope Composition of Venus? The Scientific Case for Sample Return from Earth’s “Sister” Planet
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 6.125) Pub Date : 2020-05-11
    Richard C. Greenwood, Mahesh Anand

    Venus is Earth’s closest planetary neighbour and both bodies are of similar size and mass. As a consequence, Venus is often described as Earth’s sister planet. But the two worlds have followed very different evolutionary paths, with Earth having benign surface conditions, whereas Venus has a surface temperature of 464 °C and a surface pressure of 92 bar. These inhospitable surface conditions may partially

  • Exploring Mars with Returned Samples
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 6.125) Pub Date : 2020-05-06
    Monica M. Grady

    The international Mars Exploration community has been planning to return samples from Mars for many years; the next decade should see the plans becoming a reality. Mars Sample Return (MSR) requires a series of missions, first to collect the samples, then to return them to Earth, whilst preventing the contamination of both Earth and Mars. The first mission in the campaign, Mars 2020, will land at Jezero

  • The Molecular Cloud Lifecycle.
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 6.125) Pub Date : 2020-04-28
    Mélanie Chevance,J M Diederik Kruijssen,Enrique Vazquez-Semadeni,Fumitaka Nakamura,Ralf Klessen,Javier Ballesteros-Paredes,Shu-Ichiro Inutsuka,Angela Adamo,Patrick Hennebelle

    Giant molecular clouds (GMCs) and their stellar offspring are the building blocks of galaxies. The physical characteristics of GMCs and their evolution are tightly connected to galaxy evolution. The macroscopic properties of the interstellar medium propagate into the properties of GMCs condensing out of it, with correlations between e.g. the galactic and GMC scale gas pressures, surface densities and

  • The Importance of Phobos Sample Return for Understanding the Mars-Moon System
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 6.125) Pub Date : 2020-04-28
    Tomohiro Usui, Ken-ichi Bajo, Wataru Fujiya, Yoshihiro Furukawa, Mizuho Koike, Yayoi N. Miura, Haruna Sugahara, Shogo Tachibana, Yoshinori Takano, Kiyoshi Kuramoto

    Phobos and Deimos occupy unique positions both scientifically and programmatically on the road to the exploration of the solar system. Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) plans a Phobos sample return mission (MMX: Martian Moons eXploration). The MMX spacecraft is scheduled to be launched in 2024, orbit both Phobos and Deimos (multiple flybys), and retrieve and return >10 g of Phobos regolith

  • Formation of the First Stars and Black Holes
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 6.125) Pub Date : 2020-04-21
    L. Haemmerlé, L. Mayer, R. S. Klessen, T. Hosokawa, P. Madau, V. Bromm

    We review the current status of knowledge concerning the early phases of star formation during cosmic dawn. This includes the first generations of stars forming in the lowest mass dark matter halos in which cooling and condensation of gas with primordial composition is possible at very high redshift (\(z > 20\)), namely metal-free Population III stars, and the first generation of massive black holes

  • Physical Processes of Meso-Scale, Dynamic Auroral Forms
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 6.125) Pub Date : 2020-04-20
    C. Forsyth, V. A. Sergeev, M. G. Henderson, Y. Nishimura, B. Gallardo-Lacourt

    Meso-scale auroral forms, such as poleward boundary intensifications, streamers, omega bands, beads and giant undulations, are manifestations of dynamic processes in the magnetosphere driven, to a large part, by plasma instabilities in the magnetotail. New observations from ground- and space-based instrumentation and theoretical treatments are giving us a clearer view of some of the physical processes

  • Concepts of the Small Body Sample Return Missions - the 1 st 10 Million Year Evolution of the Solar System
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 6.125) Pub Date : 2020-04-20
    Yangting Lin, Yonghe Zhang, Sen Hu, Yuchen Xu, Weijia Zhou, Shijie Li, Wei Yang, Yang Gao, Mingtao Li, Qingzhu Yin, Douglas Lin, Wing Ip

    Each type of asteroids and comets are important, serving as the unique puzzle pieces of the solar system. The countless number of small bodies spread vastly from the near-Earth orbits to the main belt and beyond Jupiter. Thus, in order to complete the whole puzzle, and hence requires a well-designed roadmap of sample return (SR) missions and international coordination. The main consideration is the

  • Dust-to-Gas and Refractory-to-Ice Mass Ratios of Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko from Rosetta Observations
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 6.125) Pub Date : 2020-04-08
    Mathieu Choukroun, Kathrin Altwegg, Ekkehard Kührt, Nicolas Biver, Dominique Bockelée-Morvan, Joanna Drążkowska, Alain Hérique, Martin Hilchenbach, Raphael Marschall, Martin Pätzold, Matthew G. G. T. Taylor, Nicolas Thomas

    This chapter reviews the estimates of the dust-to-gas and refractory-to-ice mass ratios derived from Rosetta measurements in the lost materials and the nucleus of 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, respectively. First, the measurements by Rosetta instruments are described, as well as relevant characteristics of 67P. The complex picture of the activity of 67P, with its extreme North-South seasonal asymmetry

  • Correction to: Mission to Planet Earth: The First Two Billion Years
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 6.125) Pub Date : 2020-04-06
    E. E. Stüeken, S. M. Som, M. Claire, S. Rugheimer, M. Scherf, L. Sproß, N. Tosi, Y. Ueno, H. Lammer

    Due to an unfortunate turn of events the wrong affiliation number was given for Dr. H. Lammer. Please find on this page the correct affiliation number behind his name.

  • Formation and Evolution of Disks Around Young Stellar Objects.
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 6.125) Pub Date : 2020-04-06
    Bo Zhao,Kengo Tomida,Patrick Hennebelle,John J Tobin,Anaëlle Maury,Tomoya Hirota,Álvaro Sánchez-Monge,Rolf Kuiper,Anna Rosen,Asmita Bhandare,Marco Padovani,Yueh-Ning Lee

    Recent observations have suggested that circumstellar disks may commonly form around young stellar objects. Although the formation of circumstellar disks can be a natural result of the conservation of angular momentum in the parent cloud, theoretical studies instead show disk formation to be difficult from dense molecular cores magnetized to a realistic level, owing to efficient magnetic braking that

  • High-Energy Particles and Radiation in Star-Forming Regions
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 6.125) Pub Date : 2020-04-06
    Andrei M. Bykov, Alexandre Marcowith, Elena Amato, Maria E. Kalyashova, J. M. Diederik Kruijssen, Eli Waxman

    Non-thermal particles and high-energy radiation can play a role in the dynamical processes in star-forming regions and provide an important piece of the multiwavelength observational picture of their structure and components. Powerful stellar winds and supernovae in compact clusters of massive stars and OB associations are known to be favourable sites of high-energy particle acceleration and sources

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