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  • Zooming in on Individual Star Formation: Low- and High-Mass Stars
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 8.142) Pub Date : 2020-05-20
    Anna L. Rosen, Stella S. R. Offner, Sarah I. Sadavoy, Asmita Bhandare, Enrique Vázquez-Semadeni, Adam Ginsburg

    Star formation is a multi-scale, multi-physics problem ranging from the size scale of molecular clouds (\({\sim} 10\)s pc) down to the size scales of dense prestellar cores (\({\sim} 0.1\) pc) that are the birth sites of stars. Several physical processes like turbulence, magnetic fields and stellar feedback, such as radiation pressure and outflows, are more or less important for different stellar masses

    更新日期:2020-05-20
  • The MAVEN Radio Occultation Science Experiment (ROSE)
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 8.142) Pub Date : 2020-05-20
    Paul Withers, M. Felici, M. Mendillo, L. Moore, C. Narvaez, M. F. Vogt, K. Oudrhiri, D. Kahan, B. M. Jakosky

    The Radio Occultation Science Experiment (ROSE) is part of the scientific payload of the Mars Atmosphere Volatile EvolutioN (MAVEN) spacecraft. Here we motivate the science objectives of the MAVEN ROSE investigation, which are (1) to determine the vertical structure of plasma in the ionosphere and (2) to identify the density, altitude, and width of the ionospheric density peak. MAVEN ROSE achieves

    更新日期:2020-05-20
  • Relict Ocean Worlds: Ceres
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 8.142) Pub Date : 2020-05-19
    Maria Cristina De Sanctis, Giuseppe Mitri, Julie Castillo-Rogez, Christopher H. House, Simome Marchi, Carol A. Raymond, Yasuhito Sekine

    The aim of this chapter is to describe available evidence for the existence of relict ocean worlds. The focus is on Ceres as a clear example of such a world as indicated by the results from the Dawn mission. The sections of this chapter will also reflect the differences and commonalities with other recognized ocean worlds. We focus on Ceres as an example of relict ocean world and the implications it

    更新日期:2020-05-19
  • Exploring the Bimodal Solar System via Sample Return from the Main Asteroid Belt: The Case for Revisiting Ceres
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 8.142) Pub Date : 2020-05-18
    Thomas H. Burbine, Richard C. Greenwood

    Sample return from a main-belt asteroid has not yet been attempted, but appears technologically feasible. While the cost implications are significant, the scientific case for such a mission appears overwhelming. As suggested by the “Grand Tack” model, the structure of the main belt was likely forged during the earliest stages of Solar System evolution in response to migration of the giant planets.

    更新日期:2020-05-18
  • The Deep Composition of Uranus and Neptune from In Situ Exploration and Thermochemical Modeling
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 8.142) Pub Date : 2020-05-18
    Thibault Cavalié, Olivia Venot, Yamila Miguel, Leigh N. Fletcher, Peter Wurz, Olivier Mousis, Roda Bounaceur, Vincent Hue, Jérémy Leconte, Michel Dobrijevic

    The distant ice giants of the Solar System, Uranus and Neptune, have only been visited by one space mission, Voyager 2. The current knowledge on their composition remains very limited despite some recent advances. A better characterization of their composition is however essential to constrain their formation and evolution, as a significant fraction of their mass is made of heavy elements, contrary

    更新日期:2020-05-18
  • Chemical and Isotopic Composition Measurements on Atmospheric Probes Exploring Uranus and Neptune
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 8.142) Pub Date : 2020-05-13
    Audrey Vorburger, Peter Wurz, Hunter Waite

    So far no designated mission to either of the two ice giants, Uranus and Neptune, exists. Almost all of our gathered information on these planets comes from remote sensing. In recent years, NASA and ESA have started planning for future mission to Uranus and Neptune, with both agencies focusing their attention on orbiters and atmospheric probes. Whereas information provided by remote sensing is undoubtedly

    更新日期:2020-05-13
  • Organic Matter in the Solar System—Implications for Future on-Site and Sample Return Missions
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 8.142) Pub Date : 2020-05-12
    Zita Martins, Queenie Hoi Shan Chan, Lydie Bonal, Ashley King, Hikaru Yabuta

    Solar system bodies like comets, asteroids, meteorites and dust particles contain organic matter with different abundances, structures and chemical composition. This chapter compares the similarities and differences of the organic composition in these planetary bodies. Furthermore, these links are explored in the context of detecting the most pristine organic material, either by on-site analysis or

    更新日期:2020-05-12
  • The Non-carbonaceous–Carbonaceous Meteorite Dichotomy
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 8.142) Pub Date : 2020-05-12
    T. Kleine, G. Budde, C. Burkhardt, T. S. Kruijer, E. A. Worsham, A. Morbidelli, F. Nimmo

    The isotopic dichotomy between non-carbonaceous (NC) and carbonaceous (CC) meteorites indicates that meteorite parent bodies derive from two genetically distinct reservoirs, which presumably were located inside (NC) and outside (CC) the orbit of Jupiter and remained isolated from each other for the first few million years of the solar system. Here we review the discovery of the NC–CC dichotomy and

    更新日期:2020-05-12
  • Concerns of Organic Contamination for Sample Return Space Missions
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 8.142) Pub Date : 2020-05-12
    Queenie Hoi Shan Chan, Rhonda Stroud, Zita Martins, Hikaru Yabuta

    Analysis of organic matter has been one of the major motivations behind solar system exploration missions. It addresses questions related to the organic inventory of our solar system and its implication for the origin of life on Earth. Sample return missions aim at returning scientifically valuable samples from target celestial bodies to Earth. By analysing the samples with the use of state-of-the-art

    更新日期:2020-05-12
  • What is the Oxygen Isotope Composition of Venus? The Scientific Case for Sample Return from Earth’s “Sister” Planet
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 8.142) Pub Date : 2020-05-11
    Richard C. Greenwood, Mahesh Anand

    Venus is Earth’s closest planetary neighbour and both bodies are of similar size and mass. As a consequence, Venus is often described as Earth’s sister planet. But the two worlds have followed very different evolutionary paths, with Earth having benign surface conditions, whereas Venus has a surface temperature of 464 °C and a surface pressure of 92 bar. These inhospitable surface conditions may partially

    更新日期:2020-05-11
  • Exploring Mars with Returned Samples
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 8.142) Pub Date : 2020-05-06
    Monica M. Grady

    The international Mars Exploration community has been planning to return samples from Mars for many years; the next decade should see the plans becoming a reality. Mars Sample Return (MSR) requires a series of missions, first to collect the samples, then to return them to Earth, whilst preventing the contamination of both Earth and Mars. The first mission in the campaign, Mars 2020, will land at Jezero

    更新日期:2020-05-06
  • The Molecular Cloud Lifecycle.
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 8.142) Pub Date : 2020-04-28
    Mélanie Chevance,J M Diederik Kruijssen,Enrique Vazquez-Semadeni,Fumitaka Nakamura,Ralf Klessen,Javier Ballesteros-Paredes,Shu-Ichiro Inutsuka,Angela Adamo,Patrick Hennebelle

    Giant molecular clouds (GMCs) and their stellar offspring are the building blocks of galaxies. The physical characteristics of GMCs and their evolution are tightly connected to galaxy evolution. The macroscopic properties of the interstellar medium propagate into the properties of GMCs condensing out of it, with correlations between e.g. the galactic and GMC scale gas pressures, surface densities and

    更新日期:2020-04-28
  • The Importance of Phobos Sample Return for Understanding the Mars-Moon System
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 8.142) Pub Date : 2020-04-28
    Tomohiro Usui, Ken-ichi Bajo, Wataru Fujiya, Yoshihiro Furukawa, Mizuho Koike, Yayoi N. Miura, Haruna Sugahara, Shogo Tachibana, Yoshinori Takano, Kiyoshi Kuramoto

    Phobos and Deimos occupy unique positions both scientifically and programmatically on the road to the exploration of the solar system. Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) plans a Phobos sample return mission (MMX: Martian Moons eXploration). The MMX spacecraft is scheduled to be launched in 2024, orbit both Phobos and Deimos (multiple flybys), and retrieve and return >10 g of Phobos regolith

    更新日期:2020-04-28
  • Formation of the First Stars and Black Holes
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 8.142) Pub Date : 2020-04-21
    L. Haemmerlé, L. Mayer, R. S. Klessen, T. Hosokawa, P. Madau, V. Bromm

    We review the current status of knowledge concerning the early phases of star formation during cosmic dawn. This includes the first generations of stars forming in the lowest mass dark matter halos in which cooling and condensation of gas with primordial composition is possible at very high redshift (\(z > 20\)), namely metal-free Population III stars, and the first generation of massive black holes

    更新日期:2020-04-22
  • Physical Processes of Meso-Scale, Dynamic Auroral Forms
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 8.142) Pub Date : 2020-04-20
    C. Forsyth, V. A. Sergeev, M. G. Henderson, Y. Nishimura, B. Gallardo-Lacourt

    Meso-scale auroral forms, such as poleward boundary intensifications, streamers, omega bands, beads and giant undulations, are manifestations of dynamic processes in the magnetosphere driven, to a large part, by plasma instabilities in the magnetotail. New observations from ground- and space-based instrumentation and theoretical treatments are giving us a clearer view of some of the physical processes

    更新日期:2020-04-22
  • Concepts of the Small Body Sample Return Missions - the 1 st 10 Million Year Evolution of the Solar System
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 8.142) Pub Date : 2020-04-20
    Yangting Lin, Yonghe Zhang, Sen Hu, Yuchen Xu, Weijia Zhou, Shijie Li, Wei Yang, Yang Gao, Mingtao Li, Qingzhu Yin, Douglas Lin, Wing Ip

    Each type of asteroids and comets are important, serving as the unique puzzle pieces of the solar system. The countless number of small bodies spread vastly from the near-Earth orbits to the main belt and beyond Jupiter. Thus, in order to complete the whole puzzle, and hence requires a well-designed roadmap of sample return (SR) missions and international coordination. The main consideration is the

    更新日期:2020-04-22
  • Dust-to-Gas and Refractory-to-Ice Mass Ratios of Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko from Rosetta Observations
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 8.142) Pub Date : 2020-04-08
    Mathieu Choukroun, Kathrin Altwegg, Ekkehard Kührt, Nicolas Biver, Dominique Bockelée-Morvan, Joanna Drążkowska, Alain Hérique, Martin Hilchenbach, Raphael Marschall, Martin Pätzold, Matthew G. G. T. Taylor, Nicolas Thomas

    This chapter reviews the estimates of the dust-to-gas and refractory-to-ice mass ratios derived from Rosetta measurements in the lost materials and the nucleus of 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, respectively. First, the measurements by Rosetta instruments are described, as well as relevant characteristics of 67P. The complex picture of the activity of 67P, with its extreme North-South seasonal asymmetry

    更新日期:2020-04-22
  • Correction to: Mission to Planet Earth: The First Two Billion Years
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 8.142) Pub Date : 2020-04-06
    E. E. Stüeken, S. M. Som, M. Claire, S. Rugheimer, M. Scherf, L. Sproß, N. Tosi, Y. Ueno, H. Lammer

    Due to an unfortunate turn of events the wrong affiliation number was given for Dr. H. Lammer. Please find on this page the correct affiliation number behind his name.

    更新日期:2020-04-22
  • Formation and Evolution of Disks Around Young Stellar Objects.
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 8.142) Pub Date : 2020-04-06
    Bo Zhao,Kengo Tomida,Patrick Hennebelle,John J Tobin,Anaëlle Maury,Tomoya Hirota,Álvaro Sánchez-Monge,Rolf Kuiper,Anna Rosen,Asmita Bhandare,Marco Padovani,Yueh-Ning Lee

    Recent observations have suggested that circumstellar disks may commonly form around young stellar objects. Although the formation of circumstellar disks can be a natural result of the conservation of angular momentum in the parent cloud, theoretical studies instead show disk formation to be difficult from dense molecular cores magnetized to a realistic level, owing to efficient magnetic braking that

    更新日期:2020-04-22
  • High-Energy Particles and Radiation in Star-Forming Regions
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 8.142) Pub Date : 2020-04-06
    Andrei M. Bykov, Alexandre Marcowith, Elena Amato, Maria E. Kalyashova, J. M. Diederik Kruijssen, Eli Waxman

    Non-thermal particles and high-energy radiation can play a role in the dynamical processes in star-forming regions and provide an important piece of the multiwavelength observational picture of their structure and components. Powerful stellar winds and supernovae in compact clusters of massive stars and OB associations are known to be favourable sites of high-energy particle acceleration and sources

    更新日期:2020-04-22
  • The INSPIRE-2 CubeSat for the QB50 Project
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 8.142) Pub Date : 2020-03-26
    Iver H. Cairns, Christine Charles, Andrew G. Dempster, Jiro Funamoto, Joon Wayn Cheong, Wayne Peacock, John Lam, Barnaby Osborne, Will Andrew, Tom Croston, Ben Southwell, R. W. Boswell, A. G. Monger, Christopher H. Betters, Sergio G. Leon-Saval, Joss Bland-Hawthorn, J. Khachan, X. Wu, S. Manidis, D. Tsifakis, R. Maj

    The 2-unit CubeSat INSPIRE-2/AU03 was designed, built, tested, delivered, and accepted by the European Union’s QB50 project in less than 10 months and for less than US$120,000 in non-salary outlays including launch, despite being a first satellite. It carried 5 instruments (a multi-Needle Langmuir Probe, a diffraction-limited spectrograph, an advanced GPS receiver, and 2 radiation detectors) and the

    更新日期:2020-04-22
  • Uranus and Neptune: Origin, Evolution and Internal Structure
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 8.142) Pub Date : 2020-03-25
    Ravit Helled, Nadine Nettelmann, Tristan Guillot

    There are still many open questions regarding the nature of Uranus and Neptune, the outermost planets in the Solar System. In this review we summarize the current-knowledge about Uranus and Neptune with a focus on their composition and internal structure, formation including potential subsequent giant impacts, and thermal evolution. We present key open questions and discuss the uncertainty in the internal

    更新日期:2020-04-22
  • Tidal Disruptions of White Dwarfs: Theoretical Models and Observational Prospects
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 8.142) Pub Date : 2020-03-25
    Kate Maguire, Michael Eracleous, Peter G. Jonker, Morgan MacLeod, Stephan Rosswog

    White dwarf stars that enter the tidal radius of black holes with masses \(\lesssim 10^{5}~\text{M}_{\odot }\) are doomed to be ripped apart by tidal forces. Black holes in this mass range between stellar black holes and supermassive black holes have not been conclusively identified so the detection of a tidal disruption of a white dwarf would provide clear evidence for the existence of intermediate-mass

    更新日期:2020-04-22
  • Perspectives on Atmospheric Evolution from Noble Gas and Nitrogen Isotopes on Earth, Mars & Venus
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 8.142) Pub Date : 2020-03-23
    Guillaume Avice, Bernard Marty

    The composition of an atmosphere has integrated the geological history of the entire planetary body. However, the long-term evolutions of the atmospheres of the terrestrial planets are not well documented. For Earth, there were until recently only few direct records of atmosphere’s composition in the distant past, and insights came mainly from geochemical or physical proxies and/or from atmospheric

    更新日期:2020-04-22
  • On the Distribution and Variation of Radioactive Heat Producing Elements Within Meteorites, the Earth, and Planets
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 8.142) Pub Date : 2020-03-23
    C. O’Neill, H. S. C. O’Neill, A. M. Jellinek

    The heat production budget of a planet exerts a first order control on its thermal evolution, tectonics, and likelihood for habitability. However, our knowledge of heat producing element concentrations for silicate-metal bodies in the solar system—including Earth—is limited. Here we review the chronicle of heat producing elements (HPEs) in the solar system, from the interstellar medium, to their incorporation

    更新日期:2020-04-22
  • IDA4D: Ionospheric Data Assimilation for the ICON Mission
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 8.142) Pub Date : 2020-03-19
    G. S. Bust, T. J. Immel

    The Ionospheric Connection Explorer (ICON) mission makes measurements in near-Earth space that provide knowledge of the state of the ionosphere. From the vantage of 575 km altitude in a circular, 27° inclination orbit, it retrieves altitude profiles of the ionospheric density peak in both day and night, characterizing the abundance of oxygen ions in the main ionospheric F-layer. Further, it continuously

    更新日期:2020-04-22
  • Mission Data Processor Aboard the BepiColombo Mio Spacecraft: Design and Scientific Operation Concept
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 8.142) Pub Date : 2020-03-19
    Yasumasa Kasaba, Takeshi Takashima, Shoya Matsuda, Sadatoshi Eguchi, Manabu Endo, Takeshi Miyabara, Masahiro Taeda, Yoshikatsu Kuroda, Yoshiya Kasahara, Tomohiko Imachi, Hirotsugu Kojima, Satoshi Yagitani, Michel Moncuquet, Jan-Erik Wahlund, Atsushi Kumamoto, Ayako Matsuoka, Wolfgang Baumjohann, Shoichiro Yokota, Kazushi Asamura, Yoshifumi Saito, Dominique Delcourt, Masafumi Hirahara, Stas Barabash

    BepiColombo Mio, also known as the Mercury Magnetospheric Orbiter (MMO), is intended to conduct the first detailed study of the magnetic field and environment of the innermost planet, Mercury, alongside the Mercury Planetary Orbiter (MPO). This orbiter has five payload groups; the MaGnetic Field Investigation (MGF), the Mercury Plasma Particle Experiment (MPPE), the Plasma Wave Investigation (PWI)

    更新日期:2020-04-22
  • Rates of Stellar Tidal Disruption
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 8.142) Pub Date : 2020-03-19
    N. C. Stone, E. Vasiliev, M. Kesden, E. M. Rossi, H. B. Perets, P. Amaro-Seoane

    Tidal disruption events occur rarely in any individual galaxy. Over the last decade, however, time-domain surveys have begun to accumulate statistical samples of these flares. What dynamical processes are responsible for feeding stars to supermassive black holes? At what rate are stars tidally disrupted in realistic galactic nuclei? What may we learn about supermassive black holes and broader astrophysical

    更新日期:2020-04-22
  • The Host Galaxies of Tidal Disruption Events
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 8.142) Pub Date : 2020-03-18
    K. Decker French, Thomas Wevers, Jamie Law-Smith, Or Graur, Ann I. Zabludoff

    Recent studies of Tidal Disruption Events (TDEs) have revealed unexpected correlations between the TDE rate and the large-scale properties of the host galaxies. In this review, we present the host galaxy properties of all TDE candidates known to date and quantify their distributions. We consider throughout the differences between observationally-identified types of TDEs and differences from spectroscopic

    更新日期:2020-04-22
  • Mission to Planet Earth: The First Two Billion Years
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 8.142) Pub Date : 2020-03-16
    E. E. Stüeken, S. M. Som, M. Claire, S. Rugheimer, M. Scherf, L. Sproß, N. Tosi, Y. Ueno, H. Lammer

    Solar radiation and geological processes over the first few million years of Earth’s history, followed soon thereafter by the origin of life, steered our planet towards an evolutionary trajectory of long-lived habitability that ultimately enabled the emergence of complex life. We review the most important conditions and feedbacks over the first 2 billion years of this trajectory, which perhaps represent

    更新日期:2020-04-22
  • How Well Do We Understand the Belt/Zone Circulation of Giant Planet Atmospheres?
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 8.142) Pub Date : 2020-03-12
    Leigh N Fletcher,Yohai Kaspi,Tristan Guillot,Adam P Showman

    The atmospheres of the four giant planets of our Solar System share a common and well-observed characteristic: they each display patterns of planetary banding, with regions of different temperatures, composition, aerosol properties and dynamics separated by strong meridional and vertical gradients in the zonal (i.e., east-west) winds. Remote sensing observations, from both visiting spacecraft and Earth-based

    更新日期:2020-04-22
  • Impact of Low-Energy Cosmic Rays on Star Formation
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 8.142) Pub Date : 2020-03-10
    Marco Padovani, Alexei V. Ivlev, Daniele Galli, Stella S. R. Offner, Nick Indriolo, Donna Rodgers-Lee, Alexandre Marcowith, Philipp Girichidis, Andrei M. Bykov, J. M. Diederik Kruijssen

    In recent years, exciting developments have taken place in the identification of the role of cosmic rays in star-forming environments. Observations from radio to infrared wavelengths and theoretical modelling have shown that low-energy cosmic rays (\(< 1\text{ TeV}\)) play a fundamental role in shaping the chemical richness of the interstellar medium, determining the dynamical evolution of molecular

    更新日期:2020-04-22
  • Counting and Phase Function Measurements with the LONSCAPE Instrument to Determine Physical Properties of Aerosols in Ice Giant Planet Atmospheres
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 8.142) Pub Date : 2020-03-09
    Jean-Baptiste Renard, Olivier Mousis, Pascal Rannou, Anny-Chantal Levasseur-Regourd, Gwenaël Berthet, Jean-Michel Geffrin, Edith Hadamcik, Nicolas Verdier, Aude-Lyse Millet, Daniel Daugeron

    Abstract Measurements of light scattered by particles give insight into their physical properties (solid or liquid, size, shape, complex refractive index). We propose a novel instrument that provides in situ optical light-scattering measurements of aerosols in giant planet atmospheres, particularly in the ice giants Uranus and Neptune. Known as LONSCAPE (Light Optical Nephelometer Sizer and Counter

    更新日期:2020-03-09
  • Accretion of the Earth—Missing Components?
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 8.142) Pub Date : 2020-03-04
    K. Mezger, M. Schönbächler, A. Bouvier

    Abstract Primitive meteorites preserve the chemical and isotopic composition of the first aggregates that formed from dust and gas in the solar nebula during the earliest stages of solar system evolution. Gradual increase in the size of solid bodies from dust to aggregates and then to planetesimals finally led to the formation of planets within a few to tens of million years after the start of condensation

    更新日期:2020-03-04
  • Oxygen Isotopes and Sampling of the Solar System
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 8.142) Pub Date : 2020-03-03
    Trevor R. Ireland, Janaina Avila, Richard C. Greenwood, Leon J. Hicks, John C. Bridges

    Abstract Oxygen is the dominant element in our planetary system. It is therefore remarkable that it shows substantial isotopic diversity both in mass-dependent fractionation, because it is a light element, and in mass-independent fractionation, primarily associated with variation in abundance of 16O. On Earth, the primary variation in isotopic composition is related to temperature-dependent kinetic

    更新日期:2020-03-03
  • Atmospheric Electricity at the Ice Giants
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 8.142) Pub Date : 2020-03-03
    K. L. Aplin, G. Fischer, T. A. Nordheim, A. Konovalenko, V. Zakharenko, P. Zarka

    Abstract Lightning was detected by Voyager 2 at Uranus and Neptune, and weaker electrical processes also occur throughout planetary atmospheres from galactic cosmic ray (GCR) ionisation. Lightning is an indicator of convection, whereas electrical processes away from storms modulate cloud formation and chemistry, particularly if there is little insolation to drive other mechanisms. The ice giants appear

    更新日期:2020-03-03
  • 3 He-Rich Solar Energetic Particles: Solar Sources
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 8.142) Pub Date : 2020-03-02
    Radoslav Bučík

    Abstract 3He-rich solar energetic particles (SEPs), showing up to a 10,000-fold abundance enhancement of rare elements like 3He or ultra-heavy nuclei, have been a puzzle for more than 50 years. One reason for the current lack of understanding of 3He-rich SEPs is the difficulty resolving the source regions of these commonly occurring events. Since their discovery, there has been strong evidence that

    更新日期:2020-03-02
  • Perpendicular Transport of Energetic Particles in Magnetic Turbulence
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 8.142) Pub Date : 2020-02-25
    Andreas Shalchi

    Abstract Scientists have explored how energetic particles such as solar energetic particles and cosmic rays move through a magnetized plasma such as the interplanetary and interstellar medium since more than five decades. From a theoretical point of view, this topic is difficult because the particles experience complicated interactions with turbulent magnetic fields. Besides turbulent fields, there

    更新日期:2020-02-25
  • Entry System Technology Readiness for Ice-Giant Probe Missions
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 8.142) Pub Date : 2020-02-25
    Ethiraj Venkatapathy, Donald Ellerby, Peter Gage, Dinesh Prabhu, Matthew Gasch, Cole Kazemba, Charles Kellerman, Sarah Langston, Benjamin Libben, Milad Mahzari, Frank Milos, Alexander Murphy, Owen Nishioka, Keith Peterson, Carl Poteet, Scott Splinter, Margaret Stackpoole, Joseph Williams, Zion Young

    Abstract NASA has successfully developed a new and innovative Heatshield for Extreme Entry Environments Technology, or HEEET, which, at a Technology Readiness Level (TRL) of 6, is ready for use in Ice Giant missions. HEEET is not just a replacement for the legacy full-density carbon-phenolic (FDCP) material, which was used in NASA’s Pioneer-Venus and Galileo missions; it is also a more mass efficient

    更新日期:2020-02-25
  • Ice Giant Circulation Patterns: Implications for Atmospheric Probes.
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 8.142) Pub Date : 2020-02-24
    Leigh N Fletcher,Imke de Pater,Glenn S Orton,Mark D Hofstadter,Patrick G J Irwin,Michael T Roman,Daniel Toledo

    Atmospheric circulation patterns derived from multi-spectral remote sensing can serve as a guide for choosing a suitable entry location for a future in situ probe mission to the Ice Giants. Since the Voyager-2 flybys in the 1980s, three decades of observations from ground- and space-based observatories have generated a picture of Ice Giant circulation that is complex, perplexing, and altogether unlike

    更新日期:2020-02-24
  • Four Distinct Pathways to the Element Abundances in Solar Energetic Particles
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 8.142) Pub Date : 2020-02-19
    Donald V. Reames

    Abstract Based upon recent evidence from abundance patterns of chemical elements in solar energetic particles (SEPs), and, ironically, the belated inclusion of H and He, we can distinguish four basic SEP populations: (1) SEP1—pure “impulsive” SEPs are produced by magnetic reconnection in solar jets showing steep power-law enhancements of \(1\leq Z \leq 56\) ions versus charge-to-mass ratio \(A/Q\)

    更新日期:2020-02-19
  • Radiation Belt Radial Diffusion at Earth and Beyond
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 8.142) Pub Date : 2020-02-14
    Solène Lejosne, Peter Kollmann

    Abstract The year 2019 marks the 60th anniversary of the concept of radial diffusion in magnetospheric research. This makes it one of the oldest research topics in radiation belt science. While first introduced to account for the existence of the Earth’s outer belt, radial diffusion is now applied to the radiation belts of all strongly magnetized planets. But for all its study and application, radial

    更新日期:2020-02-14
  • Deep Atmosphere Composition, Structure, Origin, and Exploration, with Particular Focus on Critical in situ Science at the Icy Giants
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 8.142) Pub Date : 2020-02-12
    Sushil K. Atreya, Mark H. Hofstadter, Joong Hyun In, Olivier Mousis, Kim Reh, Michael H. Wong

    Abstract Core accretion is the conventional model for the formation of the gas giant planets. The model may also apply to the icy giant planets, Uranus and Neptune, except that it may take upward of 50 Myr for them to form at their present orbital distances, which is beyond the maximum 5 Myr lifetime of the solar nebula. A plausible alternative is formation in the region of the gas giants, followed

    更新日期:2020-02-12
  • Quiet, Discrete Auroral Arcs—Observations
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 8.142) Pub Date : 2020-02-05
    T. Karlsson, L. Andersson, D. M. Gillies, K. Lynch, O. Marghitu, N. Partamies, N. Sivadas, J. Wu

    Abstract Quiet, discrete auroral arcs are an important and fundamental consequence of solar wind-magnetosphere interaction. We summarize the current standing of observations of such auroral arcs. We review the basic characteristics of the arcs, including occurrence in time and space, lifetimes, width and length, as well as brightness, and the energy of the magnetospheric electrons responsible for the

    更新日期:2020-02-06
  • Aurora in the Polar Cap: A Review
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 8.142) Pub Date : 2020-02-05
    Keisuke Hosokawa, Anita Kullen, Steve Milan, Jade Reidy, Ying Zou, Harald U. Frey, Romain Maggiolo, Robert Fear

    Abstract This paper reviews our current understanding of auroral features that appear poleward of the main auroral oval within the polar cap, especially those that are known as Sun-aligned arcs, transpolar arcs, or theta auroras. They tend to appear predominantly during periods of quiet geomagnetic activity or northwards directed interplanetary magnetic field (IMF). We also introduce polar rain aurora

    更新日期:2020-02-06
  • A Review of the in Situ Probe Designs from Recent Ice Giant Mission Concept Studies
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 8.142) Pub Date : 2020-02-05
    A. A. Simon, L. N. Fletcher, C. Arridge, D. Atkinson, A. Coustenis, F. Ferri, M. Hofstadter, A. Masters, O. Mousis, K. Reh, D. Turrini, O. Witasse

    Abstract For the Ice Giants, atmospheric entry probes provide critical measurements not attainable via remote observations. Including the 2013–2022 NASA Planetary Decadal Survey, there have been at least five comprehensive atmospheric probe engineering design studies performed in recent years by NASA and ESA. International science definition teams have assessed the science requirements, and each recommended

    更新日期:2020-02-06
  • Cometary Nuclei—From Giotto to Rosetta
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 8.142) Pub Date : 2020-01-29
    Horst Uwe Keller, Ekkehard Kührt

    Abstract We will briefly recapitulate the beginning of modern cometary physic. Then we will assess the results of the cometary flyby missions previous to ESA’s Rosetta rendezvous with comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko. Emphasis is given to the physical properties of cometary nuclei. We will relate the results of the Rosetta mission to those of the flybys. A major conclusion is that the visited cometary

    更新日期:2020-01-30
  • Particle Detector (PD) Experiment of the Korea Space Environment Monitor (KSEM) Aboard Geostationary Satellite GK2A
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 8.142) Pub Date : 2020-01-27
    J. Seon, K.-S. Chae, G. W. Na, H.-K. Seo, Y.-C. Shin, J. Woo, C.-H. Lee, W.-H. Seol, C.-A. Lee, S. Pak, H. Lee, S.-H. Shin, D. E. Larson, K. Hatch, G. K. Parks, J. Sample, M. McCarthy, C. Tindall, Y.-J. Jeon, J.-K. Choi, J.-Y. Park

    Abstract The Particle Detector (PD) experiment aboard the geostationary satellite GEO-KOMPSAT-2A (GK2A) measures populations of electrons and positive ions in the Earth’s geostationary orbit at a geographic longitude of \(128.2^{\circ }\mbox{E}\), inclination of \(0^{\circ }\) and a mean orbital radius of 6.6 Earth radii (\(R_{E}\)). The PD experiment consists of three sensors with different viewing

    更新日期:2020-01-27
  • Ground and In-Flight Calibration of the OSIRIS-REx Camera Suite.
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 8.142) Pub Date : 2020-01-23
    D R Golish,C Drouet d'Aubigny,B Rizk,D N DellaGiustina,P H Smith,K Becker,N Shultz,T Stone,M K Barker,E Mazarico,E Tatsumi,R W Gaskell,L Harrison,C Merrill,C Fellows,B Williams,S O'Dougherty,M Whiteley,J Hancock,B E Clark,C W Hergenrother,D S Lauretta

    The OSIRIS-REx Camera Suite (OCAMS) onboard the OSIRIS-REx spacecraft is used to study the shape and surface of the mission's target, asteroid (101955) Bennu, in support of the selection of a sampling site. We present calibration methods and results for the three OCAMS cameras-MapCam, PolyCam, and SamCam-using data from pre-flight and in-flight calibration campaigns. Pre-flight calibrations established

    更新日期:2020-01-23
  • Microbial Diversity and Biosignatures: An Icy Moons Perspective
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 8.142) Pub Date : 2020-01-23
    Mohamed Jebbar, Keyron Hickman-Lewis, Barbara Cavalazzi, Ruth-Sophie Taubner, Simon K.-M. R. Rittmann, Andre Antunes

    Abstract The icy moons of the outer Solar System harbor potentially habitable environments for life, however, compared to the terrestrial biosphere, these environments are characterized by extremes in temperature, pressure, pH, and other physico-chemical conditions. Therefore, the search for life on these icy worlds is anchored on the study of terrestrial extreme environments (termed “analogue sites”)

    更新日期:2020-01-23
  • Advanced Net Flux Radiometer for the Ice Giants
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 8.142) Pub Date : 2020-01-23
    S. Aslam, R. K. Achterberg, S. B. Calcutt, V. Cottini, N. J. Gorius, T. Hewagama, P. G. Irwin, C. A. Nixon, G. Quilligan, M. Roos-Serote, A. A. Simon, D. Tran, G. Villanueva

    Abstract The design of an advanced Net Flux Radiometer (NFR), for inclusion as a payload on a future Ice Giants probe mission, is given. The Ice Giants NFR (IG-NFR) will measure the upward and downward radiation flux (hence net radiation flux), in seven spectral bands, spanning the range from solar to far infra-red wavelengths, each with a \(5^{\circ}\) Field-Of-View (FOV) and in five sequential view

    更新日期:2020-01-23
  • A Robust Framework for Low-Cost Cubesat Scientific Missions
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 8.142) Pub Date : 2020-01-20
    Joon Wayn Cheong, Benjamin J. Southwell, William Andrew, Elias Aboutanios, Chung Lam, Tom Croston, Luyang Li, Shannon Green, Alexander Kroh, Eamonn P. Glennon, James Bultitude, Tim Broadbent, Timothy B. Q. Guo, Joerick G. Aligno, Andrew G. Dempster, Barnaby Osborne

    Abstract Cubesats have been effective at lowering the barriers for entry to space for educational institutions and small private players resulting in new and innovative missions and concepts. Novel, potentially powerful, space science projects such as QB50 can now be undertaken with limited budgets and resources. However, the failure rate of Cubesats has been quite high with many failing to establish

    更新日期:2020-01-21
  • Experimental and Simulation Efforts in the Astrobiological Exploration of Exooceans.
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 8.142) Pub Date : 2020-01-20
    Ruth-Sophie Taubner,Karen Olsson-Francis,Steven D Vance,Nisha K Ramkissoon,Frank Postberg,Jean-Pierre de Vera,André Antunes,Eloi Camprubi Casas,Yasuhito Sekine,Lena Noack,Laura Barge,Jason Goodman,Mohamed Jebbar,Baptiste Journaux,Özgür Karatekin,Fabian Klenner,Elke Rabbow,Petra Rettberg,Tina Rückriemen-Bez,Joachim Saur,Takazo Shibuya,Krista M Soderlund

    The icy satellites of Jupiter and Saturn are perhaps the most promising places in the Solar System regarding habitability. However, the potential habitable environments are hidden underneath km-thick ice shells. The discovery of Enceladus' plume by the Cassini mission has provided vital clues in our understanding of the processes occurring within the interior of exooceans. To interpret these data and

    更新日期:2020-01-21
  • Large Ocean Worlds with High-Pressure Ices
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 8.142) Pub Date : 2020-01-20
    Baptiste Journaux, Klára Kalousová, Christophe Sotin, Gabriel Tobie, Steve Vance, Joachim Saur, Olivier Bollengier, Lena Noack, Tina Rückriemen-Bez, Tim Van Hoolst, Krista M. Soderlund, J. Michael Brown

    Abstract Pressures in the hydrospheres of large ocean worlds extend to ranges exceeding those in Earth deepest oceans. In this regime, dense water ices and other high-pressure phases become thermodynamically stable and can influence planetary processes at a global scale. The presence of high-pressure ices sets large icy worlds apart from other smaller water-rich worlds and complicates their study.

    更新日期:2020-01-21
  • Origin and Evolution of Cometary Nuclei
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 8.142) Pub Date : 2020-01-14
    Paul Weissman, Alessandro Morbidelli, Björn Davidsson, Jürgen Blum

    Abstract One of the key goals of the Rosetta mission was to understand how, where and when comets formed in our solar system. There are two major hypotheses for the origin of comets, both pre-Rosetta: (1) hierarchical accretion of dust and ice grains in the Solar Nebula and (2) the growth of pebbles, which are then brought together by streaming instabilities in the Solar Nebula to form larger bodies

    更新日期:2020-01-15
  • Correction of Galileo Energetic Particle Detector, Composition Measurement System High Rate Data: Semiconductor Dead Layer Correction
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 8.142) Pub Date : 2020-01-08
    Z. Lee-Payne, P. Kollmann, M. Grande, T. Knight

    Abstract The Energetic particle detector (EPD) on-board the Galileo orbiter measured ions in the keV to MeV energy range in Jupiter’s equatorial plane, generating a unique data set. However, as a result of its time in the highly hostile Jovian radiation environment the EPD and its composition measurement system (CMS), suffered damage to its silicon semiconductor detectors. This resulted in misidentification

    更新日期:2020-01-08
  • Diffuse and Pulsating Aurora
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 8.142) Pub Date : 2020-01-08
    Yukitoshi Nishimura, Marc R. Lessard, Yuto Katoh, Yoshizumi Miyoshi, Eric Grono, Noora Partamies, Nithin Sivadas, Keisuke Hosokawa, Mizuki Fukizawa, Marilia Samara, Robert G. Michell, Ryuho Kataoka, Takeshi Sakanoi, Daniel K. Whiter, Shin-ichiro Oyama, Yasunobu Ogawa, Satoshi Kurita

    This chapter reviews fundamental properties and recent advances of diffuse and pulsating aurora. Diffuse and pulsating aurora often occurs on closed field lines and involves energetic electron precipitation by wave-particle interaction. After summarizing the definition, large-scale morphology, types of pulsation, and driving processes, we review observation techniques, occurrence, duration, altitude

    更新日期:2020-01-08
  • On the Maximization of the Science Output of Space Missions
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 8.142) Pub Date : 2020-01-06
    Ji Wu, Alvaro Giménez

    Managing science-driven projects involve important differences with respect to other types of space missions. The main one is the character of science, exploring the unknown, that establishes how the final output is evaluated and thus the tools used to maximize it. For space missions supporting market-driven applications, the assessment of performance is clearly defined by the quality of the service

    更新日期:2020-01-06
  • Nongravitational Effects of Cometary Activity
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 8.142) Pub Date : 2020-01-06
    Stefano Mottola, Nicholas Attree, Laurent Jorda, Horst Uwe Keller, Rosita Kokotanekova, David Marshall, Yuri Skorov

    Nongravitational forces induced by sublimation of volatiles affect the rotational and orbital dynamics of comets. In addition to contributing to the improvement of ephemerides and of rotational models, nongravitational effects can help constrain the regional distribution and temporal evolution of cometary activity, which in turn provides input for the development of thermophysical and dust transport

    更新日期:2020-01-06
  • Quiescent Discrete Auroral Arcs: A Review of Magnetospheric Generator Mechanisms
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 8.142) Pub Date : 2019-12-16
    Joseph E. Borovsky, Joachim Birn, Marius M. Echim, Shigeru Fujita, Robert L. Lysak, David J. Knudsen, Octav Marghitu, Antonius Otto, Tomo-Hiko Watanabe, Takashi Tanaka

    One of the longstanding questions of space science is: How does the Earth’s magnetosphere generate auroral arcs? A related question is: What form of energy is extracted from the magnetosphere to drive auroral arcs? Not knowing the answers to these questions hinders our ability to determine the impact of auroral arcs on the magnetospheric system. Magnetospheric mechanisms for driving quiescent auroral

    更新日期:2019-12-17
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