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  • Shock Induced Strong Substorms and Super Substorms: Preconditions and Associated Oxygen Ion Dynamics
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 6.125) Pub Date : 2021-03-05
    Q.-G. Zong; C. Yue; S.-Y. Fu

    It is well known that the interaction between interplanetary (IP) shocks and the Earth’s magnetosphere would generate/excite various types of geomagnetic phenomena. Progresses have been made on the Earth’s magnetospheric response to solar wind forcing in recent years in the aspects associated with magnetospheric substorms. Strong substorms and super substorms could be triggered externally by sudden

  • BepiColombo Ground Segment and Mission Operations
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 6.125) Pub Date : 2021-03-01
    E. Montagnon; F. Budnik; M. Casale; S. de la Fuente; S. Martinez; G. Murakami; M. Ogawa; T. Seki; C. Steiger; M. Yamashita

    The ESA/JAXA BepiColombo mission to Mercury was launched in October 2018. It includes two scientific Mercury orbiters, flying as a single stack during the seven years interplanetary transfer, and as individual spacecraft operated by their respective space Agencies ESA and JAXA once deployed in their respective scientific orbit around Mercury. Three ground segments are closely collaborating on this

  • Geodesy, Geophysics and Fundamental Physics Investigations of the BepiColombo Mission
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 6.125) Pub Date : 2021-02-26
    Antonio Genova, Hauke Hussmann, Tim Van Hoolst, Daniel Heyner, Luciano Iess, Francesco Santoli, Nicolas Thomas, Paolo Cappuccio, Ivan di Stefano, Patrick Kolhey, Benoit Langlais, Johannes Z. D. Mieth, Joana S. Oliveira, Alexander Stark, Gregor Steinbrügge, Nicola Tosi, Johannes Wicht, Johannes Benkhoff

    In preparation for the ESA/JAXA BepiColombo mission to Mercury, thematic working groups had been established for coordinating the activities within the BepiColombo Science Working Team in specific fields. Here we describe the scientific goals of the Geodesy and Geophysics Working Group (GGWG) that aims at addressing fundamental questions regarding Mercury’s internal structure and evolution. This multidisciplinary

  • Correction to: SERENA: Particle Instrument Suite for Determining the Sun-Mercury Interaction from BepiColombo
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 6.125) Pub Date : 2021-02-23
    S. Orsini, S. A. Livi, H. Lichtenegger, S. Barabash, A. Milillo, E. De Angelis, M. Phillips, G. Laky, M. Wieser, A. Olivieri, C. Plainaki, G. Ho, R. M. Killen, J. A. Slavin, P. Wurz, J.-J. Berthelier, I. Dandouras, E. Kallio, S. McKenna-Lawlor, S. Szalai, K. Torkar, O. Vaisberg, F. Allegrini, I. A. Daglis, C. Dong, C. P. Escoubet, S. Fatemi, M. Fränz, S. Ivanovski, N. Krupp, H. Lammer, François Leblanc

    A Correction to this paper has been published: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11214-021-00809-8

  • Pre-Flight Calibration of the Mars 2020 Rover Mastcam Zoom (Mastcam-Z) Multispectral, Stereoscopic Imager
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 6.125) Pub Date : 2021-02-18
    Alexander G. Hayes, P. Corlies, C. Tate, M. Barrington, J. F. Bell, J. N. Maki, M. Caplinger, M. Ravine, K. M. Kinch, K. Herkenhoff, B. Horgan, J. Johnson, M. Lemmon, G. Paar, M. S. Rice, E. Jensen, T. M. Kubacki, E. Cloutis, R. Deen, B. L. Ehlmann, E. Lakdawalla, R. Sullivan, A. Winhold, A. Parkinson, Z. Bailey, J. van Beek, P. Caballo-Perucha, E. Cisneros, D. Dixon, C. Donaldson, O. B. Jensen, J

    The NASA Perseverance rover Mast Camera Zoom (Mastcam-Z) system is a pair of zoomable, focusable, multi-spectral, and color charge-coupled device (CCD) cameras mounted on top of a 1.7 m Remote Sensing Mast, along with associated electronics and two calibration targets. The cameras contain identical optical assemblies that can range in focal length from 26 mm (\(25.5^{\circ }\, \times 19.1^{\circ }\

  • Correction to: PIXL: Planetary Instrument for X-Ray Lithochemistry
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 6.125) Pub Date : 2021-02-17
    Abigail C. Allwood, Lawrence A. Wade, Marc C. Foote, William Timothy Elam, Joel A. Hurowitz, Steven Battel, Douglas E. Dawson, Robert W. Denise, Eric M. Ek, Martin S. Gilbert, Matthew E. King, Carl Christian Liebe, Todd Parker, David A. K. Pedersen, David P. Randall, Robert F. Sharrow, Michael E. Sondheim, George Allen, Kenneth Arnett, Mitchell H. Au, Christophe Basset, Mathias Benn, John C. Bousman

    A Correction to this paper has been published: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11214-021-00801-2

  • Mars Mineralogical Spectrometer (MMS) on the Tianwen-1 Mission
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 6.125) Pub Date : 2021-02-17
    Zhiping He, Rui Xu, Chunlai Li, Liyin Yuan, Chengyu Liu, Gang Lv, Jian Jin, Jianan Xie, Chuifeng Kong, Feifei Li, Xiaowen Chen, Rong Wang, Sheng Xu, Wei Pan, Jincai Wu, Changkun Li, Tianhong Wang, Haijun Jin, Hourui Chen, Jun Qiu, Jianyu Wang

    The Mars Mineralogical Spectrometer (MMS) is a hyperspectral imager onboard the Mars orbiter of Tianwen-1, China’s first Mars exploration mission. MMS consists of 4 subassemblies: an Optical Sensor Unit (OSU), an Electronics Unit (EU), a Calibration Unit (CU), and a Thermal Control Accessories (TCA). With a 0.5 mrad IFOV and a 416-sample cell array for nadir observation, MMS can map the spectral and

  • Design and Realization of China Tianwen-1 Energetic Particle Analyzer
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 6.125) Pub Date : 2021-02-16
    Cunhui Li, Shuwen Tang, Xiangyu Hu, Yi Qian, Yi Wang, Hongyong Zhao, Qiang Fu, Zhiyu Sun, Hongqing He, Yuhong Yu, Haiyan Zhang, Fang Fang, Haijun Yu, Haibo Yang, Zhendong Zhao, Yongjie Zhang, Jing Lin, ZhiPeng Sun, Wenze Tao, Jie Kong, Ying Zhou, Hong Su, Xiaolin Yang, Juncheng Mao, Junlin Chen, Chunfang Zhao, Yali Ma

    The Mars radiation environment, both in past and at present, plays a vital role in the evolution of Martian atmosphere, so it is necessary to detect the background radiation environment both in the Martian atmosphere and the transfer orbit from Earth to Mars. The Tianwen-1 Energetic Particle Analyzer (EPA) is designed to measure and analyze the energetic charged particles emitted to the Martian atmosphere

  • The BepiColombo Laser Altimeter
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 6.125) Pub Date : 2021-02-15
    N. Thomas, H. Hussmann, T. Spohn, L. M. Lara, U. Christensen, M. Affolter, T. Bandy, T. Beck, S. Chakraborty, U. Geissbuehler, M. Gerber, K. Ghose, J. Gouman, S. HosseiniArani, K. Kuske, A. Peteut, D. Piazza, M. Rieder, A. Servonet, C. Althaus, T. Behnke, K. Gwinner, C. Hüttig, R. Kallenbach, A. Lichopoj, K. Lingenauber, H.-G. Lötzke, F. Lüdicke, H. Michaelis, J. Oberst, R. Schrödter, A. Stark, G.

    The BepiColombo Laser Altimeter (BELA) is the first European laser altimeter constructed for interplanetary flight. BELA uses a 50 mJ pulsed Nd:YAG laser operating at 10 Hz with a 20 cm aperture receiver to perform the ranging. The instrument also uses a digital approach for range detection and pulse analysis. The ranging accuracy is expected to be better than 2 metres and ∼20 cm in optimum conditions

  • The Mars 2020 Perseverance Rover Mast Camera Zoom (Mastcam-Z) Multispectral, Stereoscopic Imaging Investigation
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 6.125) Pub Date : 2021-02-15
    J. F. Bell, J. N. Maki, G. L. Mehall, M. A. Ravine, M. A. Caplinger, Z. J. Bailey, S. Brylow, J. A. Schaffner, K. M. Kinch, M. B. Madsen, A. Winhold, A. G. Hayes, P. Corlies, C. Tate, M. Barrington, E. Cisneros, E. Jensen, K. Paris, K. Crawford, C. Rojas, L. Mehall, J. Joseph, J. B. Proton, N. Cluff, R. G. Deen, B. Betts, E. Cloutis, A. J. Coates, A. Colaprete, K. S. Edgett, B. L. Ehlmann, S. Fagents

    Mastcam-Z is a multispectral, stereoscopic imaging investigation on the Mars 2020 mission’s Perseverance rover. Mastcam-Z consists of a pair of focusable, 4:1 zoomable cameras that provide broadband red/green/blue and narrowband 400-1000 nm color imaging with fields of view from 25.6° × 19.2° (26 mm focal length at 283 μrad/pixel) to 6.2° × 4.6° (110 mm focal length at 67.4 μrad/pixel). The cameras

  • BepiColombo Science Investigations During Cruise and Flybys at the Earth, Venus and Mercury
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 6.125) Pub Date : 2021-02-11
    Valeria Mangano, Melinda Dósa, Markus Fränz, Anna Milillo, Joana S. Oliveira, Yeon Joo Lee, Susan McKenna-Lawlor, Davide Grassi, Daniel Heyner, Alexander S. Kozyrev, Roberto Peron, Jörn Helbert, Sebastien Besse, Sara de la Fuente, Elsa Montagnon, Joe Zender, Martin Volwerk, Jean-Yves Chaufray, James A. Slavin, Harald Krüger, Alessandro Maturilli, Thomas Cornet, Kazumasa Iwai, Yoshizumi Miyoshi, Marco

    The dual spacecraft mission BepiColombo is the first joint mission between the European Space Agency (ESA) and the Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) to explore the planet Mercury. BepiColombo was launched from Kourou (French Guiana) on October 20th, 2018, in its packed configuration including two spacecraft, a transfer module, and a sunshield. BepiColombo cruise trajectory is a long journey

  • The Diverse Planetary Ingassing/Outgassing Paths Produced over Billions of Years of Magmatic Activity
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 6.125) Pub Date : 2021-02-11
    F. Gaillard, M. A. Bouhifd, E. Füri, V. Malavergne, Y. Marrocchi, L. Noack, G. Ortenzi, M. Roskosz, S. Vulpius

    The C-H-O-N-S elements that constitute the outgassed atmosphere and exosphere have likely been delivered by chondritic materials to the Earth during planetary accretion and subsequently processed over billions of years of planetary differentiation. Although these elements are generally considered to be volatile, a large part of the accreted C-H-O-N-S on Earth must have been sequestered in the core

  • Multi-model Meteorological and Aeolian Predictions for Mars 2020 and the Jezero Crater Region
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 6.125) Pub Date : 2021-02-08
    C. E. Newman, M. de la Torre Juárez, J. Pla-García, R. J. Wilson, S. R. Lewis, L. Neary, M. A. Kahre, F. Forget, A. Spiga, M. I. Richardson, F. Daerden, T. Bertrand, D. Viúdez-Moreiras, R. Sullivan, A. Sánchez-Lavega, B. Chide, J. A. Rodriguez-Manfredi

    Nine simulations are used to predict the meteorology and aeolian activity of the Mars 2020 landing site region. Predicted seasonal variations of pressure and surface and atmospheric temperature generally agree. Minimum and maximum pressure is predicted at \(\text{Ls}\sim 145^{\circ}\) and \(250^{\circ}\), respectively. Maximum and minimum surface and atmospheric temperature are predicted at \(\text{Ls}\sim

  • Gravity, Geodesy and Fundamental Physics with BepiColombo’s MORE Investigation
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 6.125) Pub Date : 2021-02-08
    L. Iess, S. W. Asmar, P. Cappuccio, G. Cascioli, F. De Marchi, I. di Stefano, A. Genova, N. Ashby, J. P. Barriot, P. Bender, C. Benedetto, J. S. Border, F. Budnik, S. Ciarcia, T. Damour, V. Dehant, G. Di Achille, A. Di Ruscio, A. Fienga, R. Formaro, S. Klioner, A. Konopliv, A. Lemaître, F. Longo, M. Mercolino, G. Mitri, V. Notaro, A. Olivieri, M. Paik, A. Palli, G. Schettino, D. Serra, L. Simone, G

    The Mercury Orbiter Radio Science Experiment (MORE) of the ESA mission BepiColombo will provide an accurate estimation of Mercury’s gravity field and rotational state, improved tests of general relativity, and a novel deep space navigation system. The key experimental setup entails a highly stable, multi-frequency radio link in X and Ka band, enabling two-way range rate measurements of 3 micron/s at

  • Correction to: X-Ray Properties of TDEs
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 6.125) Pub Date : 2021-02-02
    R. Saxton, S. Komossa, K. Auchettl, P. G. Jonker

    A Correction to this paper has been published: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11214-020-00759-7

  • Small-Scale Dynamic Aurora
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 6.125) Pub Date : 2021-02-01
    Ryuho Kataoka, Chris Chaston, David Knudsen, Kristina A. Lynch, Robert L. Lysak, Yan Song, Robert Rankin, Kiyoka Murase, Takeshi Sakanoi, Joshua Semeter, Tomo-Hiko Watanabe, Daniel Whiter

    Small-scale dynamic auroras have spatial scales of a few km or less, and temporal scales of a few seconds or less, which visualize the complex interplay among charged particles, Alfvén waves, and plasma instabilities working in the magnetosphere-ionosphere coupled regions. We summarize the observed properties of flickering auroras, vortex motions, and filamentary structures. We also summarize the development

  • Formation of an Accretion Flow
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 6.125) Pub Date : 2021-01-25
    C. Bonnerot, N. C. Stone

    After a star has been tidally disrupted by a black hole, the debris forms an elongated stream. We start by studying the evolution of this gas before its bound part returns to the original stellar pericenter. While the axial motion is entirely ballistic, the transverse directions of the stream are usually thinner due to the confining effects of self-gravity. This basic picture may also be influenced

  • Rossby Waves in Astrophysics
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 6.125) Pub Date : 2021-01-19
    T. V. Zaqarashvili, M. Albekioni, J. L. Ballester, Y. Bekki, L. Biancofiore, A. C. Birch, M. Dikpati, L. Gizon, E. Gurgenashvili, E. Heifetz, A. F. Lanza, S. W. McIntosh, L. Ofman, R. Oliver, B. Proxauf, O. M. Umurhan, R. Yellin-Bergovoy

    Rossby waves are a pervasive feature of the large-scale motions of the Earth’s atmosphere and oceans. These waves (also known as planetary waves and r-modes) also play an important role in the large-scale dynamics of different astrophysical objects such as the solar atmosphere and interior, astrophysical discs, rapidly rotating stars, planetary and exoplanetary atmospheres. This paper provides a review

  • Sulfur Ice Astrochemistry: A Review of Laboratory Studies
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 6.125) Pub Date : 2021-01-18
    Duncan V. Mifsud, Zuzana Kaňuchová, Péter Herczku, Sergio Ioppolo, Zoltán Juhász, Sándor T. S. Kovács, Nigel J. Mason, Robert W. McCullough, Béla Sulik

    Sulfur is the tenth most abundant element in the universe and is known to play a significant role in biological systems. Accordingly, in recent years there has been increased interest in the role of sulfur in astrochemical reactions and planetary geology and geochemistry. Among the many avenues of research currently being explored is the laboratory processing of astrophysical ice analogues. Such research

  • Quadrupole Ion Trap Mass Spectrometer for Ice Giant Atmospheres Exploration
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 6.125) Pub Date : 2021-01-18
    J. Simcic, D. Nikolić, A. Belousov, D. Atkinson, C. Lee, S. Madzunkov, D. Almodiel

    To date, a variety of different types of mass spectrometers have been utilized on missions to study the composition of atmospheres of solar system bodies, including Venus, Mars, Jupiter, Titan, the moon, and several comets. With the increasing interest in future small probe missions, mass spectrometers need to become even more versatile, lightweight, compact, and sensitive. For in situ exploration

  • SERENA: Particle Instrument Suite for Determining the Sun-Mercury Interaction from BepiColombo
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 6.125) Pub Date : 2021-01-12
    S. Orsini, S. A. Livi, H. Lichtenegger, S. Barabash, A. Milillo, E. De Angelis, M. Phillips, G. Laky, M. Wieser, A. Olivieri, C. Plainaki, G. Ho, R. M. Killen, J. A. Slavin, P. Wurz, J.-J. Berthelier, I. Dandouras, E. Kallio, S. McKenna-Lawlor, S. Szalai, K. Torkar, O. Vaisberg, F. Allegrini, I. A. Daglis, C. Dong, C. P. Escoubet, S. Fatemi, M. Fränz, S. Ivanovski, N. Krupp, H. Lammer, François Leblanc

    The ESA-JAXA BepiColombo mission to Mercury will provide simultaneous measurements from two spacecraft, offering an unprecedented opportunity to investigate magnetospheric and exospheric particle dynamics at Mercury as well as their interactions with solar wind, solar radiation, and interplanetary dust. The particle instrument suite SERENA (Search for Exospheric Refilling and Emitted Natural Abundances)

  • The Physics of Accretion Discs, Winds and Jets in Tidal Disruption Events
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 6.125) Pub Date : 2021-01-12
    Jane Lixin Dai, Giuseppe Lodato, Roseanne Cheng

    Accretion onto black holes is an efficient mechanism in converting the gas mass-energy into energetic outputs as radiation, wind and jet. Tidal disruption events, in which stars are tidally torn apart and then accreted onto supermassive black holes, offer unique opportunities of studying the accretion physics as well as the wind and jet launching physics across different accretion regimes. In this

  • Mars Oxygen ISRU Experiment (MOXIE)
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 6.125) Pub Date : 2021-01-06
    M. Hecht, J. Hoffman, D. Rapp, J. McClean, J. SooHoo, R. Schaefer, A. Aboobaker, J. Mellstrom, J. Hartvigsen, F. Meyen, E. Hinterman, G. Voecks, A. Liu, M. Nasr, J. Lewis, J. Johnson, C. Guernsey, J. Swoboda, C. Eckert, C. Alcalde, M. Poirier, P. Khopkar, S. Elangovan, M. Madsen, P. Smith, C. Graves, G. Sanders, K. Araghi, M. de la Torre Juarez, D. Larsen, J. Agui, A. Burns, K. Lackner, R. Nielsen

    MOXIE is a technology demonstration that addresses the Mars 2020 (Perseverance) objective of preparing for future human exploration by demonstrating In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) in the form of dissociating atmospheric CO2 into O2. The primary goals of the MOXIE project are to verify and validate the technology of Mars ISRU as a springboard for the future, and to establish achievable performance

  • Proton Aurora and Optical Emissions in the Subauroral Region
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 6.125) Pub Date : 2021-01-06
    B. Gallardo-Lacourt, H. U. Frey, C. Martinis

    Optical structures located equatorward of the main auroral oval often exhibit different morphologies and dynamics than structures at higher latitudes. In some cases, questions arise regarding the formation mechanisms of these photon-emitting phenomena. New developments in space and ground-based instruments have enabled us to acquire a clearer view of the processes playing a role in the formation of

  • The Mars Orbiter Subsurface Investigation Radar (MOSIR) on China’s Tianwen-1 Mission
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 6.125) Pub Date : 2021-01-06
    Mingyi Fan, Peng Lyu, Yan Su, Kui Du, Qichun Zhang, Zhen Zhang, Shun Dai, Tiansheng Hong

    China launched Tianwen-1 spacecraft successfully on July 23rd, 2020. The Mars Orbiter Subsurface Investigation Radar (MOSIR) is a subsurface radar sounder as a scientific instrument onboard Tianwen-1 orbiter. It is designed to study the compositions of Martian surface material, subsurface structure, and the ionosphere’s total electron content. It can also perform passive observations in a transfer

  • Formation of Venus, Earth and Mars: Constrained by Isotopes
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 6.125) Pub Date : 2020-12-22
    Helmut Lammer, Ramon Brasser, Anders Johansen, Manuel Scherf, Martin Leitzinger

    Here we discuss the current state of knowledge of terrestrial planet formation from the aspects of different planet formation models and isotopic data from 182Hf-182W, U-Pb, lithophile-siderophile elements, 48Ca/44Ca isotope samples from planetary building blocks, recent reproduction attempts from 36Ar/38Ar, 20Ne/22Ne, 36Ar/22Ne isotope ratios in Venus’ and Earth’s atmospheres, the expected solar 3He

  • Landing Site Selection and Overview of China’s Lunar Landing Missions
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 6.125) Pub Date : 2020-12-22
    Jianjun Liu, Xingguo Zeng, Chunlai Li, Xin Ren, Wei Yan, Xu Tan, Xiaoxia Zhang, Wangli Chen, Wei Zuo, Yuxuan Liu, Bin Liu, Dawei Liu, Qin Zhou, Ziyuan Ouyang

    Landing site selection is of fundamental importance for lunar landing mission and it is closely related to the scientific goals of the mission. According to the widely concerned lunar science goals and the landing site selection of the ongoing lunar missions; China has carried out the selection of landing site for a series of Chang’ E (CE) missions. Under this background, this paper firstly introduced

  • Science Goals and Mission Objectives for the Future Exploration of Ice Giants Systems: A Horizon 2061 Perspective
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 6.125) Pub Date : 2020-12-21
    Michel Blanc, Kathleen Mandt, Olivier Mousis, Nicolas André, Alexis Bouquet, Sébastien Charnoz, Kathleen L. Craft, Magali Deleuil, Léa Griton, Ravit Helled, Ricardo Hueso, Laurent Lamy, Corentin Louis, Jonathan Lunine, Thomas Ronnet, Juergen Schmidt, Krista Soderlund, Diego Turrini, Elizabeth Turtle, Pierre Vernazza, Olivier Witasse

    The comparative study of planetary systems is a unique source of new scientific insight: following the six “key science questions” of the “Planetary Exploration, Horizon 2061” long-term foresight exercise, it can reveal to us the diversity of their objects (Question 1) and of their architectures (Question 2), help us better understand their origins (Question 3) and how they work (Question 4), find

  • The Sampling and Caching Subsystem (SCS) for the Scientific Exploration of Jezero Crater by the Mars 2020 Perseverance Rover
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 6.125) Pub Date : 2020-12-21
    Robert C. Moeller, Louise Jandura, Keith Rosette, Matt Robinson, Jessica Samuels, Milo Silverman, Kyle Brown, Elizabeth Duffy, Aaron Yazzie, Elizabeth Jens, Iona Brockie, Lauren White, Yulia Goreva, Torsten Zorn, Avi Okon, Justin Lin, Matthew Frost, Curtis Collins, Jeffrey B. Williams, Adam Steltzner, Fei Chen, Jeff Biesiadecki

    The Mars 2020 mission seeks to conduct a new scientific exploration on the surface of Mars. The Perseverance Rover will be sent to the surface of the Jezero Crater region to study its habitability, search for biosignatures of past life, acquire and cache samples for potential return, and prepare for possible human missions. To enable these objectives, an innovative Sampling and Caching Subsystem (SCS)

  • Did Mars Possess a Dense Atmosphere During the First ∼ 400 $\sim400$ Million Years?
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 6.125) Pub Date : 2020-12-21
    M. Scherf, H. Lammer

    It is not yet entirely clear whether Mars began as a warm and wet planet that evolved towards the present-day cold and dry body or if it always was cold and dry with just some sporadic episodes of liquid water on its surface. An important clue into this question can be gained by studying the earliest evolution of the Martian atmosphere and whether it was dense and stable to maintain a warm and wet

  • The SuperCam Instrument Suite on the NASA Mars 2020 Rover: Body Unit and Combined System Tests
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 6.125) Pub Date : 2020-12-21
    Roger C. Wiens, Sylvestre Maurice, Scott H. Robinson, Anthony E. Nelson, Philippe Cais, Pernelle Bernardi, Raymond T. Newell, Sam Clegg, Shiv K. Sharma, Steven Storms, Jonathan Deming, Darrel Beckman, Ann M. Ollila, Olivier Gasnault, Ryan B. Anderson, Yves André, S. Michael Angel, Gorka Arana, Elizabeth Auden, Pierre Beck, Joseph Becker, Karim Benzerara, Sylvain Bernard, Olivier Beyssac, Louis Borges

    The SuperCam instrument suite provides the Mars 2020 rover, Perseverance, with a number of versatile remote-sensing techniques that can be used at long distance as well as within the robotic-arm workspace. These include laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), remote time-resolved Raman and luminescence spectroscopies, and visible and infrared (VISIR; separately referred to as VIS and IR) reflectance

  • Correction to: Studying the Composition and Mineralogy of the Hermean Surface with the Mercury Radiometer and Thermal Infrared Spectrometer (MERTIS) for the BepiColombo Mission: An Update
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 6.125) Pub Date : 2020-12-14
    H. Hiesinger, J. Helbert, G. Alemanno, K. E. Bauch, M. D’Amore, A. Maturilli, A. Morlok, M. P. Reitze, C. Stangarone, A. N. Stojic, I. Varatharajan, I. Weber

    A Correction to this paper has been published: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11214-020-00780-w

  • Meteorological Predictions for Mars 2020 Perseverance Rover Landing Site at Jezero Crater
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 6.125) Pub Date : 2020-12-14
    Jorge Pla-García, S. C. R. Rafkin, G. M. Martinez, Á. Vicente-Retortillo, C. E. Newman, H. Savijärvi, M. de la Torre, J. A. Rodriguez-Manfredi, F. Gómez, A. Molina, D. Viúdez-Moreiras, Ari-Matti Harri

    The Mars Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (MRAMS) and a nested simulation of the Mars Weather Research and Forecasting model (MarsWRF) are used to predict the local meteorological conditions at the Mars 2020 Perseverance rover landing site inside Jezero crater (Mars). These predictions are complemented with the COmplutense and MIchigan MArs Radiative Transfer model (COMIMART) and with the local

  • A Primer on Focused Solar Energetic Particle Transport
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 6.125) Pub Date : 2020-12-10
    Jabus van den Berg, Du Toit Strauss, Frederic Effenberger

    The basics of focused transport as applied to solar energetic particles are reviewed, paying special attention to areas of common misconception. The micro-physics of charged particles interacting with slab turbulence are investigated to illustrate the concept of pitch-angle scattering, where after the distribution function and focused transport equation are introduced as theoretical tools to describe

  • ISA, a High Sensitivity Accelerometer in the Interplanetary Space
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 6.125) Pub Date : 2020-12-08
    Francesco Santoli, Emiliano Fiorenza, Carlo Lefevre, David Massimo Lucchesi, Marco Lucente, Carmelo Magnafico, Alfredo Morbidini, Roberto Peron, Valerio Iafolla

    ISA (Italian Spring Accelerometer) is a high sensitivity accelerometer flying, as scientific payload, on-board one of the two spacecraft (the Mercury Planetary Orbiter) of BepiColombo, the first ESA mission to Mercury. The first commissioning phase (performed in the period November 2018 - August 2019) allowed to verify the functionality of the instrument itself as well as of the related data handling

  • Mercury Dust Monitor (MDM) Onboard the Mio Orbiter of the BepiColombo Mission
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 6.125) Pub Date : 2020-12-08
    Masanori Kobayashi, Hiromi Shibata, Ken’ichi Nogami, Masayuki Fujii, Sunao Hasegawa, Masatoshi Hirabayashi, Takayuki Hirai, Takeo Iwai, Hiroshi Kimura, Takashi Miyachi, Maki Nakamura, Hideo Ohashi, Sho Sasaki, Seiji Takechi, Hajime Yano, Harald Krüger, Ann-Kathrin Lohse, Ralf Srama, Peter Strub, Eberhard Grün

    An in-situ cosmic-dust instrument called the Mercury Dust Monitor (MDM) had been developed as a part of the science payload for the Mio (Mercury Magnetospheric Orbiter, MMO) stage of the joint European Space Agency (ESA)–JAXA Mercury-exploration mission. The BepiColombo spacecraft was successfully launched by an Ariane 5 rocket on October 20, 2018, and commissioning tests of the science payload were

  • The Sun Through Time
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 6.125) Pub Date : 2020-12-08
    Manuel Güdel

    Magnetic activity of stars like the Sun evolves in time because of spin-down owing to angular momentum removal by a magnetized stellar wind. These magnetic fields are generated by an internal dynamo driven by convection and differential rotation. Spin-down therefore converges at an age of about 700 Myr for solar-mass stars to values uniquely determined by the stellar mass and age. Before that time

  • Mars 2020 Mission Overview
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 6.125) Pub Date : 2020-12-03
    Kenneth A. Farley, Kenneth H. Williford, Kathryn M. Stack, Rohit Bhartia, Al Chen, Manuel de la Torre, Kevin Hand, Yulia Goreva, Christopher D. K. Herd, Ricardo Hueso, Yang Liu, Justin N. Maki, German Martinez, Robert C. Moeller, Adam Nelessen, Claire E. Newman, Daniel Nunes, Adrian Ponce, Nicole Spanovich, Peter A. Willis, Luther W. Beegle, James F. Bell, Adrian J. Brown, Svein-Erik Hamran, Joel A

    The Mars 2020 mission will seek the signs of ancient life on Mars and will identify, prepare, document, and cache a set of samples for possible return to Earth by a follow-on mission. Mars 2020 and its Perseverance rover thus link and further two long-held goals in planetary science: a deep search for evidence of life in a habitable extraterrestrial environment, and the return of martian samples to

  • Radiometric Calibration Targets for the Mastcam-Z Camera on the Mars 2020 Rover Mission
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 6.125) Pub Date : 2020-12-03
    K. M. Kinch, M. B. Madsen, J. F. Bell, J. N. Maki, Z. J. Bailey, A. G. Hayes, O. B. Jensen, M. Merusi, M. H. Bernt, A. N. Sørensen, M. Hilverda, E. Cloutis, D. Applin, E. Mateo-Marti, J. A. Manrique, G. Lopez-Reyes, A. Bello-Arufe, B. L. Ehlmann, J. Buz, A. Pommerol, N. Thomas, L. Affolter, K. E. Herkenhoff, J. R. Johnson, M. Rice, P. Corlies, C. Tate, M. A. Caplinger, E. Jensen, T. Kubacki, E. Cisneros

    The Mastcam-Z Camera is a stereoscopic, multispectral camera with zoom capability on NASA’s Mars-2020 Perseverance rover. The Mastcam-Z relies on a set of two deck-mounted radiometric calibration targets to validate camera performance and to provide an instantaneous estimate of local irradiance and allow conversion of image data to units of reflectance (R∗ or I/F) on a tactical timescale. Here, we

  • Coronal Heating by MHD Waves
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 6.125) Pub Date : 2020-12-02
    Tom Van Doorsselaere, Abhishek K. Srivastava, Patrick Antolin, Norbert Magyar, Soheil Vasheghani Farahani, Hui Tian, Dmitrii Kolotkov, Leon Ofman, Mingzhe Guo, Iñigo Arregui, Ineke De Moortel, David Pascoe

    The heating of the solar chromosphere and corona to the observed high temperatures, imply the presence of ongoing heating that balances the strong radiative and thermal conduction losses expected in the solar atmosphere. It has been theorized for decades that the required heating mechanisms of the chromospheric and coronal parts of the active regions, quiet-Sun, and coronal holes are associated with

  • Atmospheric Dynamics of Hot Giant Planets and Brown Dwarfs
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 6.125) Pub Date : 2020-12-01
    Adam P. Showman, Xianyu Tan, Vivien Parmentier

    Groundbased and spacecraft telescopic observations, combined with an intensive modeling effort, have greatly enhanced our understanding of hot giant planets and brown dwarfs over the past ten years. Although these objects are all fluid, hydrogen worlds with stratified atmospheres overlying convective interiors, they exhibit an impressive diversity of atmospheric behavior. Hot Jupiters are strongly

  • SuperCam Calibration Targets: Design and Development
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 6.125) Pub Date : 2020-11-26
    J. A. Manrique, G. Lopez-Reyes, A. Cousin, F. Rull, S. Maurice, R. C. Wiens, M. B. Madsen, J. M. Madariaga, O. Gasnault, J. Aramendia, G. Arana, P. Beck, S. Bernard, P. Bernardi, M. H. Bernt, A. Berrocal, O. Beyssac, P. Caïs, C. Castro, K. Castro, S. M. Clegg, E. Cloutis, G. Dromart, C. Drouet, B. Dubois, D. Escribano, C. Fabre, A. Fernandez, O. Forni, V. Garcia-Baonza, I. Gontijo, J. Johnson, J. Laserna

    SuperCam is a highly integrated remote-sensing instrumental suite for NASA’s Mars 2020 mission. It consists of a co-aligned combination of Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS), Time-Resolved Raman and Luminescence (TRR/L), Visible and Infrared Spectroscopy (VISIR), together with sound recording (MIC) and high-magnification imaging techniques (RMI). They provide information on the mineralogy

  • The Mars 2020 Engineering Cameras and Microphone on the Perseverance Rover: A Next-Generation Imaging System for Mars Exploration
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 6.125) Pub Date : 2020-11-24
    J. N. Maki, D. Gruel, C. McKinney, M. A. Ravine, M. Morales, D. Lee, R. Willson, D. Copley-Woods, M. Valvo, T. Goodsall, J. McGuire, R. G. Sellar, J. A. Schaffner, M. A. Caplinger, J. M. Shamah, A. E. Johnson, H. Ansari, K. Singh, T. Litwin, R. Deen, A. Culver, N. Ruoff, D. Petrizzo, D. Kessler, C. Basset, T. Estlin, F. Alibay, A. Nelessen, S. Algermissen

    The Mars 2020 Perseverance rover is equipped with a next-generation engineering camera imaging system that represents an upgrade over previous Mars rover missions. These upgrades will improve the operational capabilities of the rover with an emphasis on drive planning, robotic arm operation, instrument operations, sample caching activities, and documentation of key events during entry, descent, and

  • Magnetohydrodynamic Fast Sausage Waves in the Solar Corona
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 6.125) Pub Date : 2020-11-21
    B. Li, P. Antolin, M.-Z. Guo, A. A. Kuznetsov, D. J. Pascoe, T. Van Doorsselaere, S. Vasheghani Farahani

    Characterized by cyclic axisymmetric perturbations to both the magnetic and fluid parameters, magnetohydrodynamic fast sausage modes (FSMs) have proven useful for solar coronal seismology given their strong dispersion. This review starts by summarizing the dispersive properties of the FSMs in the canonical configuration where the equilibrium quantities are transversely structured in a step fashion

  • The Chinese Mars ROVER Fluxgate Magnetometers
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 6.125) Pub Date : 2020-11-20
    A. M. Du, Y. Zhang, H. Y. Li, D. H. Qiao, Z. Yi, T. L. Zhang, L. F. Meng, Y. S. Ge, H. Luo, L. Zhao, S. Q. Sun, J. M. Ou, Z. Li, X. Feng, J. L. Dai

    The Mars Rover Magnetometers (RoMAG) will implement the first mobile magnetic field measurements on the surface of Mars. Two identical tri-axial fluxgate magnetometer sensors are mounted at the top and bottom of the mast of rover, respectively. The technology of Helmholtz compensation coil probe and digital closed-loop feedback circuit is utilized to realize high precision measurement. Each magnetometer

  • PIXL: Planetary Instrument for X-Ray Lithochemistry
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 6.125) Pub Date : 2020-11-19
    Abigail C. Allwood, Lawrence A. Wade, Marc C. Foote, William Timothy Elam, Joel A. Hurowitz, Steven Battel, Douglas E. Dawson, Robert W. Denise, Eric M. Ek, Martin S. Gilbert, Matthew E. King, Carl Christian Liebe, Todd Parker, David A. K. Pedersen, David P. Randall, Robert F. Sharrow, Michael E. Sondheim, George Allen, Kenneth Arnett, Mitchell H. Au, Christophe Basset, Mathias Benn, John C. Bousman

    Planetary Instrument for X-ray Lithochemistry (PIXL) is a micro-focus X-ray fluorescence spectrometer mounted on the robotic arm of NASA’s Perseverance rover. PIXL will acquire high spatial resolution observations of rock and soil chemistry, rapidly analyzing the elemental chemistry of a target surface. In 10 seconds, PIXL can use its powerful 120 μm-diameter X-ray beam to analyze a single, sand-sized

  • The NC-CC Isotope Dichotomy: Implications for the Chemical and Isotopic Evolution of the Early Solar System
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 6.125) Pub Date : 2020-11-17
    Katherine R. Bermingham, Evelyn Füri, Katharina Lodders, Bernard Marty

    Understanding the formation of our planetary system requires identification of the materials from which it originated and the accretion processes that produced the planets. The compositional evolution of the solar system can be constrained by synthesizing astronomical datasets and numerical models with elemental and isotopic compositions from objects that directly sampled the disk: meteorites and their

  • The MEFISTO and WPT Electric Field Sensors of the Plasma Wave Investigation on the BepiColombo Mio Spacecraft
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 6.125) Pub Date : 2020-11-12
    T. Karlsson, Y. Kasaba, J.-E. Wahlund, P. Henri, L. Bylander, W. Puccio, S.-E. Jansson, L. Åhlen, E. Kallio, H. Kojima, A. Kumamoto, K. Lappalainen, B. Lybekk, K. Ishisaka, A. Eriksson, M. Morooka

    This paper describes the design of MEFISTO (Mercury Electric Field In-Situ Tool) and WPT (Wire Probe Antenna) electric field sensors for Plasma Wave Investigation (PWI) on the BepiColombo Mio spacecraft (Mercury Magnetospheric Orbiter, MMO). The two sensors will enable the first observations of electric fields, plasma waves and radio waves in and around the Hermean magnetosphere and exosphere. MEFISTO

  • Decoding the Pre-Eruptive Magnetic Field Configurations of Coronal Mass Ejections
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 6.125) Pub Date : 2020-11-06
    S. Patsourakos, A. Vourlidas, T. Török, B. Kliem, S. K. Antiochos, V. Archontis, G. Aulanier, X. Cheng, G. Chintzoglou, M. K. Georgoulis, L. M. Green, J. E. Leake, R. Moore, A. Nindos, P. Syntelis, S. L. Yardley, V. Yurchyshyn, J. Zhang

    A clear understanding of the nature of the pre-eruptive magnetic field configurations of Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) is required for understanding and eventually predicting solar eruptions. Only two, but seemingly disparate, magnetic configurations are considered viable; namely, sheared magnetic arcades (SMA) and magnetic flux ropes (MFR). They can form via three physical mechanisms (flux emergence

  • Cometary Comae-Surface Links
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 6.125) Pub Date : 2020-11-06
    Raphael Marschall, Yuri Skorov, Vladimir Zakharov, Ladislav Rezac, Selina-Barbara Gerig, Chariton Christou, S. Kokou Dadzie, Alessandra Migliorini, Giovanna Rinaldi, Jessica Agarwal, Jean-Baptiste Vincent, David Kappel

    A comet is a highly dynamic object, undergoing a permanent state of change. These changes have to be carefully classified and considered according to their intrinsic temporal and spatial scales. The Rosetta mission has, through its contiguous in-situ and remote sensing coverage of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko (hereafter 67P) over the time span of August 2014 to September 2016, monitored the emergence

  • Hydrogen Dominated Atmospheres on Terrestrial Mass Planets: Evidence, Origin and Evolution
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 6.125) Pub Date : 2020-11-04
    J. E. Owen, I. F. Shaikhislamov, H. Lammer, L. Fossati, M. L. Khodachenko

    The discovery of thousands of highly irradiated, low-mass, exoplanets has led to the idea that atmospheric escape is an important process that can drive their evolution. Of particular interest is the inference from recent exoplanet detections that there is a large population of low mass planets possessing significant, hydrogen dominated atmospheres, even at masses as low as \(\sim 2~\mbox{M}_{\oplus

  • Radar Imager for Mars’ Subsurface Experiment—RIMFAX
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 6.125) Pub Date : 2020-11-03
    Svein-Erik Hamran, David A. Paige, Hans E. F. Amundsen, Tor Berger, Sverre Brovoll, Lynn Carter, Leif Damsgård, Henning Dypvik, Jo Eide, Sigurd Eide, Rebecca Ghent, Øystein Helleren, Jack Kohler, Mike Mellon, Daniel C. Nunes, Dirk Plettemeier, Kathryn Rowe, Patrick Russell, Mats Jørgen Øyan

    The Radar Imager for Mars’ Subsurface Experiment (RIMFAX) is a Ground Penetrating Radar on the Mars 2020 mission’s Perseverance rover, which is planned to land near a deltaic landform in Jezero crater. RIMFAX will add a new dimension to rover investigations of Mars by providing the capability to image the shallow subsurface beneath the rover. The principal goals of the RIMFAX investigation are to image

  • The BepiColombo Mercury Imaging X-Ray Spectrometer: Science Goals, Instrument Performance and Operations
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 6.125) Pub Date : 2020-11-03
    Emma J. Bunce, Adrian Martindale, Simon Lindsay, Karri Muinonen, David A. Rothery, Jim Pearson, Ivor McDonnell, Chris Thomas, Julian Thornhill, Tuomo Tikkanen, Charly Feldman, Juhani Huovelin, Seppo Korpela, Eero Esko, Arto Lehtolainen, Johannes Treis, Petra Majewski, Martin Hilchenbach, Timo Väisänen, Arto Luttinen, Tomas Kohout, Antti Penttilä, John Bridges, Katherine H. Joy, Maria Angeles Alcacera-Gil

    The Mercury Imaging X-ray Spectrometer is a highly novel instrument that is designed to map Mercury’s elemental composition from orbit at two angular resolutions. By observing the fluorescence X-rays generated when solar-coronal X-rays and charged particles interact with the surface regolith, MIXS will be able to measure the atomic composition of the upper ∼10-20 μm of Mercury’s surface on the day-side

  • Photogeologic Map of the Perseverance Rover Field Site in Jezero Crater Constructed by the Mars 2020 Science Team
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 6.125) Pub Date : 2020-11-03
    Kathryn M. Stack, Nathan R. Williams, Fred Calef, Vivian Z. Sun, Kenneth H. Williford, Kenneth A. Farley, Sigurd Eide, David Flannery, Cory Hughes, Samantha R. Jacob, Linda C. Kah, Forrest Meyen, Antonio Molina, Cathy Quantin Nataf, Melissa Rice, Patrick Russell, Eva Scheller, Christina H. Seeger, William J. Abbey, Jacob B. Adler, Hans Amundsen, Ryan B. Anderson, Stanley M. Angel, Gorka Arana, James

    The Mars 2020 Perseverance rover landing site is located within Jezero crater, a \(\sim50~\mbox{km}\) diameter impact crater interpreted to be a Noachian-aged lake basin inside the western edge of the Isidis impact structure. Jezero hosts remnants of a fluvial delta, inlet and outlet valleys, and infill deposits containing diverse carbonate, mafic, and hydrated minerals. Prior to the launch of the

  • The BepiColombo–Mio Magnetometer en Route to Mercury
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 6.125) Pub Date : 2020-10-28
    W. Baumjohann, A. Matsuoka, Y. Narita, W. Magnes, D. Heyner, K.-H. Glassmeier, R. Nakamura, D. Fischer, F. Plaschke, M. Volwerk, T. L. Zhang, H.-U. Auster, I. Richter, A. Balogh, C. M. Carr, M. Dougherty, T. S. Horbury, H. Tsunakawa, M. Matsushima, M. Shinohara, H. Shibuya, T. Nakagawa, M. Hoshino, Y. Tanaka, B. J. Anderson, C. T. Russell, U. Motschmann, F. Takahashi, A. Fujimoto

    The fluxgate magnetometer MGF on board the Mio spacecraft of the BepiColombo mission is introduced with its science targets, instrument design, calibration report, and scientific expectations. The MGF instrument consists of two tri-axial fluxgate magnetometers. Both sensors are mounted on a 4.8-m long mast to measure the magnetic field around Mercury at distances from near surface (initial peri-center

  • Nitrogen Atmospheres of the Icy Bodies in the Solar System
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 6.125) Pub Date : 2020-10-27
    M. Scherf, H. Lammer, N. V. Erkaev, K. E. Mandt, S. E. Thaller, B. Marty

    This brief review will discuss the current knowledge on the origin and evolution of the nitrogen atmospheres of the icy bodies in the solar system, particularly of Titan, Triton and Pluto. An important tool to analyse and understand the origin and evolution of these atmospheres can be found in the different isotopic signatures of their atmospheric constituents. The 14N/15N ratio of the N2-dominated

  • Optical-Ultraviolet Tidal Disruption Events
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 6.125) Pub Date : 2020-10-27
    Sjoert van Velzen, Thomas W.-S. Holoien, Francesca Onori, Tiara Hung, Iair Arcavi

    The existence of optical-ultraviolet Tidal Disruption Events (TDEs) could be considered surprising because their electromagnetic output was originally predicted to be dominated by X-ray emission from an accretion disk. Yet over the last decade, the growth of optical transient surveys has led to the identification of a new class of optical transients occurring exclusively in galaxy centers, many of

  • Cassini Exploration of the Planet Saturn: A Comprehensive Review
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 6.125) Pub Date : 2020-10-26
    Andrew P. Ingersoll

    Before Cassini, scientists viewed Saturn’s unique features only from Earth and from three spacecraft flying by. During more than a decade orbiting the gas giant, Cassini studied the planet from its interior to the top of the atmosphere. It observed the changing seasons, provided up-close observations of Saturn’s exotic storms and jet streams, and heard Saturn’s lightning, which cannot be detected from

  • Reference Model Payload for Ice Giant Entry Probe Missions
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 6.125) Pub Date : 2020-10-22
    D. H. Atkinson, O. Mousis, T. R. Spilker, F. Ferri

    Descent probes afford the opportunity to make essential atmospheric measurements that are beyond the reach of remote sensing, including the atmospheric abundances of noble gases and key isotopes, and the structure of the atmosphere beneath the cloud tops. Measurements are defined as Tier 1, representing threshold science required to justify the probe mission, and Tier 2 representing valuable science

  • Future Missions Related to the Determination of the Elemental and Isotopic Composition of Earth, Moon and the Terrestrial Planets
    Space Sci. Rev. (IF 6.125) Pub Date : 2020-10-22
    Iannis Dandouras, Michel Blanc, Luca Fossati, Mikhail Gerasimov, Eike W. Guenther, Kristina G. Kislyakova, Helmut Lammer, Yangting Lin, Bernard Marty, Christian Mazelle, Sarah Rugheimer, Manuel Scherf, Christophe Sotin, Laurenz Sproß, Shogo Tachibana, Peter Wurz, Masatoshi Yamauchi

    In this chapter, we review the contribution of space missions to the determination of the elemental and isotopic composition of Earth, Moon and the terrestrial planets, with special emphasis on currently planned and future missions. We show how these missions are going to significantly contribute to, or sometimes revolutionise, our understanding of planetary evolution, from formation to the possible

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