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  • The Stellar Merger Scenario for Black Holes in the Pair-instability Gap
    Astrophys. J. Lett. (IF 8.198) Pub Date : 2020-11-23
    M. Renzo, M. Cantiello, B. D. Metzger, and Y.-F. Jiang

    The recent detection of GW190521 stimulated ideas on how to populate the predicted black hole (BH) pair-instability (PI) mass gap. One proposal is the dynamical merger of two stars below the PI regime forming a star with a small core and an oversized envelope. We outline the main challenges this scenario faces to form one BH in the gap. In particular, the core needs to avoid growing during the merger

    更新日期:2020-11-23
  • Three-dimensional Geometry of the Electron-scale Magnetic Hole in the Solar Wind
    Astrophys. J. Lett. (IF 8.198) Pub Date : 2020-11-20
    G. Q. Wang, M. Volwerk, S. D. Xiao, M. Y. Wu, Y. F. Hao, L. J. Liu, G. Wang, Y. Q. Chen, and T. L. Zhang

    Electron-scale magnetic holes filled with high-energy electrons can provide a seed population of electrons in the magnetosphere and might play an important role in the interaction between the magnetosphere and solar wind. Theoretical studies have investigated their generation mechanisms based on the 1D or 2D geometry of the structure. However, the generation mechanism is still unclear. Here we report

    更新日期:2020-11-23
  • Detection of Dynamical Instability in Titan’s Thermospheric Jet
    Astrophys. J. Lett. (IF 8.198) Pub Date : 2020-11-20
    M. A. Cordiner, E. Garcia-Berrios, R. G. Cosentino, N. A. Teanby, C. E. Newman, C. A. Nixon, A. E. Thelen, and S. B. Charnley

    Similar to Earth, Saturn’s largest moon, Titan, possesses a system of high-altitude zonal winds (or jets) that encircle the globe. Using the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) in 2016 August, Lellouch et al. discovered an equatorial jet at much higher altitudes than previously known, with a surprisingly fast speed of up to ∼340 m s −1 ; however, the origin of such high velocities is

    更新日期:2020-11-23
  • The Kinematic Evolution of Erupting Structures in Confined Solar Flares
    Astrophys. J. Lett. (IF 8.198) Pub Date : 2020-11-19
    Z. W. Huang, X. Cheng, and M. D. Ding

    In this Letter, we study the kinematic properties of ascending hot blobs associated with confined flares. Taking advantage of high-cadence extreme-ultraviolet images provided by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory, we find that for the 26 events selected here, the hot blobs are first impulsively accelerated outward, but then quickly slow down to motionlessness.

    更新日期:2020-11-23
  • GWSkyNet : A Real-time Classifier for Public Gravitational-wave Candidates
    Astrophys. J. Lett. (IF 8.198) Pub Date : 2020-11-19
    Miriam Cabero, Ashish Mahabal, and Jess McIver

    The rapid release of accurate sky localization for gravitational-wave (GW) candidates is crucial for multi-messenger observations. During the third observing run of Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo, automated GW alerts were publicly released within minutes of detection. Subsequent inspection and analysis resulted in the eventual retraction of a fraction of the candidates. Updates could be delayed by

    更新日期:2020-11-23
  • Energy Supply for Heating the Slow Solar Wind Observed by Parker Solar Probe between 0.17 and 0.7 au
    Astrophys. J. Lett. (IF 8.198) Pub Date : 2020-11-19
    Honghong Wu, Chuanyi Tu, Xin Wang, Jiansen He, and Liping Yang

    Energy supply sources for the heating process in the slow solar wind remain unknown. The Parker Solar Probe (PSP) mission provides a good opportunity to study this issue. Recently, PSP observations have found that the slow solar wind experiences stronger heating inside 0.24 au. Here for the first time we measure in the slow solar wind the radial gradient of the low-frequency breaks on the magnetic

    更新日期:2020-11-23
  • Survivor Bias: Divergent Fates of the Solar System’s Ejected versus Persisting Planetesimals
    Astrophys. J. Lett. (IF 8.198) Pub Date : 2020-11-19
    Sean N. Raymond, Nathan A. Kaib, Philip J. Armitage, and Jonathan J. Fortney

    The orbital architecture of the solar system is thought to have been sculpted by a dynamical instability among the giant planets. During the instability a primordial outer disk of planetesimals was destabilized and ended up on planet-crossing orbits. Most planetesimals were ejected into interstellar space, but a fraction were trapped on stable orbits in the Kuiper Belt and Oort cloud. We use a suite

    更新日期:2020-11-23
  • Kozai Migration Naturally Explains the White Dwarf Planet WD1856 b
    Astrophys. J. Lett. (IF 8.198) Pub Date : 2020-11-19
    Diego J. Muñoz and Cristobal Petrovich

    The Jovian-sized object WD 1856 b transits a white dwarf (WD) in a compact 1.4 day orbit. Unlikely to have endured stellar evolution in its current orbit, WD 1856 b is thought to have migrated from much wider separations. Because the WD is old, and a member of a well-characterized hierarchical multiple, the well-known Kozai mechanism provides an effective migration channel for WD 1856 b. The tidal

    更新日期:2020-11-23
  • Evidence for Late-time Feedback from the Discovery of Multiphase Gas in a Massive Elliptical at z = 0.4
    Astrophys. J. Lett. (IF 8.198) Pub Date : 2020-11-19
    Fakhri S. Zahedy, Hsiao-Wen Chen, Erin Boettcher, Michael Rauch, K. Decker French, and Ann I. Zabludoff

    We report the first detection of multiphase gas within a quiescent galaxy beyond z ≈ 0. The observations use the brighter image of doubly lensed QSO HE 0047−1756 to probe the interstellar medium (ISM) of the massive ( ##IMG## [http://ej.iop.org/images/2041-8205/904/1/L10/apjlabc48dieqn1.gif] {${M}_{\mathrm{star}}\approx {10}^{11}\,{M}_{\odot }$} ) elliptical lens galaxy at ##IMG## [http://ej.iop.o

    更新日期:2020-11-23
  • Heavy-element Abundances in P-rich Stars: A New Site for the s -process?
    Astrophys. J. Lett. (IF 8.198) Pub Date : 2020-11-19
    T. Masseron, D. A. García-Hernández, O. Zamora, and A. Manchado

    The recently discovered phosphorus-rich stars pose a challenge to stellar evolution and nucleosynthesis theory, as none of the existing models can explain their extremely peculiar chemical abundances pattern. Apart from the large phosphorus enhancement, such stars also show enhancement in other light (O, Mg, Si, and Al) and heavy (e.g., Ce) elements. We have obtained high-resolution optical spectra

    更新日期:2020-11-23
  • The Population III Origin of GW190521
    Astrophys. J. Lett. (IF 8.198) Pub Date : 2020-11-11
    Boyuan Liu and Volker Bromm

    We explore the possibility that the recently detected black hole binary (BHB) merger event GW190521 originates from the first generation of massive, metal-free, so-called Population III (Pop III) stars. Based on improved binary statistics derived from N -body simulations of Pop III star clusters, we calculate the merger rate densities of Pop III BHBs similar to GW190521, in two evolution channels:

    更新日期:2020-11-12
  • Discovery of Raman-scattered He ii λ 6545 in the Planetary Nebulae NGC 6886 and NGC 6881
    Astrophys. J. Lett. (IF 8.198) Pub Date : 2020-11-11
    Bo-Eun Choi and Hee-Won Lee

    Young planetary nebulae (PNe) retain a large amount of neutral material that was shed in the previous asymptotic giant branch stage. The thick H i region in young PNe can be effectively probed by illuminating far-UV radiation that may be inelastically scattered to appear in the optical region. Raman-scattered features are unique spectroscopic tracers of neutral regions that can be used to investigate

    更新日期:2020-11-12
  • Fast Radio Burst Trains from Magnetar Oscillations
    Astrophys. J. Lett. (IF 8.198) Pub Date : 2020-11-11
    Zorawar Wadiasingh and Cecilia Chirenti

    Quasi-periodic oscillations inferred during rare magnetar giant flare tails were initially interpreted as torsional oscillations of the neutron star (NS) crust, and have been more recently described as global core+crust perturbations. Similar frequencies are also present in high-signal-to-noise magnetar short bursts. In magnetars, disturbances of the field are strongly coupled to the NS crust regardless

    更新日期:2020-11-12
  • Radiogenic Heating and Its Influence on Rocky Planet Dynamos and Habitability
    Astrophys. J. Lett. (IF 8.198) Pub Date : 2020-11-10
    Francis Nimmo, Joel Primack, S. M. Faber, Enrico Ramirez-Ruiz, and Mohammadtaher Safarzadeh

    The thermal evolution of rocky planets on geological timescales (Gyr) depends on the heat input from the long-lived radiogenic elements potassium, thorium, and uranium. Concentrations of the latter two in rocky planet mantles are likely to vary by up to an order of magnitude between different planetary systems because Th and U, like other heavy r -process elements, are produced by rare stellar processes

    更新日期:2020-11-12
  • Direct Radio Discovery of a Cold Brown Dwarf
    Astrophys. J. Lett. (IF 8.198) Pub Date : 2020-11-09
    H. K. Vedantham, J. R. Callingham, T. W. Shimwell, T. Dupuy, William M. J. Best, Michael C. Liu, Zhoujian Zhang, K. De, L. Lamy, P. Zarka, H. J. A. Röttgering, and A. Shulevski

    Magnetospheric processes seen in gas giants such as aurorae and circularly polarized cyclotron maser radio emission have been detected from some brown dwarfs. However, previous radio observations targeted known brown dwarfs discovered via their infrared emission. Here we report the discovery of BDR J1750+3809, a circularly polarized radio source detected around 144 MHz with the Low-Frequency Array

    更新日期:2020-11-09
  • Methanimine as a Key Precursor of Imines in the Interstellar Medium: The Case of Propargylimine
    Astrophys. J. Lett. (IF 8.198) Pub Date : 2020-11-09
    Jacopo Lupi, Cristina Puzzarini, and Vincenzo Barone

    A gas-phase formation route is proposed for the recently detected propargylimine molecule. In analogy to other imines, such as cyanomethanimine, the addition of a reactive radical (C 2 H in the present case) to methanimine (CH 2 NH) leads to reaction channels open also in the harsh conditions of the interstellar medium. Three possible isomers can be formed in the CH 2 NH + C 2 H reaction: Z- and E-propargylimine

    更新日期:2020-11-09
  • A Precursor Balloon Mission for Venusian Astrobiology
    Astrophys. J. Lett. (IF 8.198) Pub Date : 2020-11-09
    Andreas M. Hein, Manasvi Lingam, T. Marshall Eubanks, Adam Hibberd, Dan Fries, and William Paul Blase

    The potential detection of phosphine in the atmosphere of Venus has reignited interest in the possibility of life aloft in this environment. If the cloud decks of Venus are indeed an abode of life, it should reside in the “habitable zone” between ∼50–60 km altitude, roughly coincident with the middle cloud deck, where the temperature and pressure (but not the atmospheric composition) are similar to

    更新日期:2020-11-09
  • A Framework for Multiphase Galactic Wind Launching Using TIGRESS
    Astrophys. J. Lett. (IF 8.198) Pub Date : 2020-11-09
    Chang-Goo Kim, Eve C. Ostriker, Drummond B. Fielding, Matthew C. Smith, Greg L. Bryan, Rachel S. Somerville, John C. Forbes, Shy Genel, and Lars Hernquist

    Galactic outflows have density, temperature, and velocity variations at least as large as those of the multiphase, turbulent interstellar medium (ISM) from which they originate. We have conducted a suite of parsec-resolution numerical simulations using the TIGRESS framework, in which outflows emerge as a consequence of interaction between supernovae (SNe) and the star-forming ISM. The outflowing gas

    更新日期:2020-11-09
  • On the Presence of a Universal Acceleration Scale in Elliptical Galaxies
    Astrophys. J. Lett. (IF 8.198) Pub Date : 2020-11-06
    Kyu-Hyun Chae, Mariangela Bernardi, Helena Domínguez Sánchez, and Ravi K. Sheth

    Dark matter phenomena in rotationally supported galaxies exhibit a characteristic acceleration scale of g † ≈ 1.2 × 10 −10 m s −2 . Whether this acceleration is a manifestation of a universal scale, or merely an emergent property with an intrinsic scatter, has been debated in the literature. Here we investigate whether a universal acceleration scale exists in dispersion-supported galaxies using two

    更新日期:2020-11-06
  • Magnetar Giant Flare Origin for GRB 200415A Inferred from a New Scaling Relation
    Astrophys. J. Lett. (IF 8.198) Pub Date : 2020-11-06
    Hai-Ming Zhang, Ruo-Yu Liu, Shu-Qing Zhong, and Xiang-Yu Wang

    Soft gamma-ray repeaters (SGRs) are a mainly Galactic population and originate from neutron stars with intense ( B ≃ 10 15 G) magnetic fields (magnetars). Occasionally, a giant flare occurs with enormous intensity, displaying a short, hard spike followed by a weaker, oscillatory phase that exhibits the rotational period of the neutron star. If the magnetar giant flares occur in nearby galaxies, they

    更新日期:2020-11-06
  • Tightly Coupled Morpho-kinematic Evolution for Massive Star-forming and Quiescent Galaxies across 7 Gyr of Cosmic Time
    Astrophys. J. Lett. (IF 8.198) Pub Date : 2020-11-06
    Anna de Graaff, Rachel Bezanson, Marijn Franx, Arjen van der Wel, Eric F. Bell, Francesco D’Eugenio, Bradford Holden, Michael V. Maseda, Adam Muzzin, Camilla Pacifici, Jesse van de Sande, David Sobral, Caroline M. S. Straatman, and Po-Feng Wu

    We use the Fundamental Plane (FP) to measure the redshift evolution of the dynamical mass-to-light ratio ( M dyn / L ) and the dynamical-to-stellar mass ratio ( M dyn / M * ). Although conventionally used to study the properties of early-type galaxies, we here obtain stellar kinematic measurements from the Large Early Galaxy Astrophysics Census (LEGA-C) Survey for a sample of ∼1400 massive ( ##IMG##

    更新日期:2020-11-06
  • Dependence of the IRX- β Dust Attenuation Relation on Metallicity and Environment
    Astrophys. J. Lett. (IF 8.198) Pub Date : 2020-11-05
    Irene Shivaei, Behnam Darvish, Zahra Sattari, Nima Chartab, Bahram Mobasher, Nick Scoville, and George Rieke

    We use a sample of star-forming field and protocluster galaxies at z = 2.0–2.5 with Keck/MOSFIRE K -band spectra, a wealth of rest-frame ultraviolet (UV) photometry, and Spitzer/MIPS and Herschel/PACS observations, to dissect the relation between the ratio of infrared (IR) to UV luminosity (IRX) versus UV slope ( β ) as a function of gas-phase metallicity ( ##IMG## [http://ej.iop.org/images/2041-8

    更新日期:2020-11-06
  • Solar-cycle–related Changes in the Helium Ionization Zones of the Sun
    Astrophys. J. Lett. (IF 8.198) Pub Date : 2020-11-05
    Courtney B. Watson and Sarbani Basu

    Helioseismic data for solar cycles 23 and 24 have shown unequivocally that solar dynamics changes with solar activity. Changes in solar structure have been more difficult to detect. Basu & Mandel had claimed that the then-available data revealed changes in the He ii ionization zone of the Sun. The amount of change, however, indicated the need for larger than expected changes in the magnetic fields

    更新日期:2020-11-06
  • Orbital Foregrounds for Ultra-short Duration Transients
    Astrophys. J. Lett. (IF 8.198) Pub Date : 2020-11-05
    Hank Corbett, Nicholas M. Law, Alan Vasquez Soto, Ward S. Howard, Amy Glazier, Ramses Gonzalez, Jeffrey K. Ratzloff, Nathan Galliher, Octavi Fors, and Robert Quimby

    Reflections from objects in Earth orbit can produce subsecond, star-like optical flashes similar to astrophysical transients. Reflections have historically caused false alarms for transient surveys, but the population has not been systematically studied. We report event rates for these orbital flashes using the Evryscope Fast Transient Engine, a low-latency transient detection pipeline for the Evryscopes

    更新日期:2020-11-06
  • Do Afterglow Synchrotron Radiations Follow the L p,iso – E p,z –Γ 0 Relation of Gamma-Ray Bursts? The Cases of GRBs 190114C, 130427A, and 180720B
    Astrophys. J. Lett. (IF 8.198) Pub Date : 2020-11-04
    Xiao-Li Huang, En-Wei Liang, Ruo-Yu Liu, Ji-Gui Cheng, and Xiang-Yu Wang

    Bimodal spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of gamma-ray burst (GRB) afterglow of GRBs 190114C, 130427A, and 180720B confirm that they are originated from the synchrotron emission (Syn) and synchrotron self-Compton scattering (SSC) process of electrons accelerated in the jets. The radiation mechanism and the physics of the observed spectrum-luminosity/energy relations of GRBs remain as open questions

    更新日期:2020-11-04
  • A Unified Accreting Magnetar Model for Long-duration Gamma-Ray Bursts and Some Stripped-envelope Supernovae
    Astrophys. J. Lett. (IF 8.198) Pub Date : 2020-11-04
    W. L. Lin, X. F. Wang, L. J. Wang, and Z. G. Dai

    Both the long-duration gamma-ray bursts (LGRBs) and the Type I superluminous supernovae (SLSNe I) have been proposed to be primarily powered by central magnetars. A correlation, proposed between the initial spin period ( P 0 ) and the surface magnetic field ( B ) of the magnetars powering the X-ray plateaus in LGRB afterglows, indicates a possibility that the magnetars have reached an equilibrium spin

    更新日期:2020-11-04
  • Solar Coronal Magnetic Field Extrapolation from Synchronic Data with AI-generated Farside
    Astrophys. J. Lett. (IF 8.198) Pub Date : 2020-11-04
    Hyun-Jin Jeong, Yong-Jae Moon, Eunsu Park, and Harim Lee

    Solar magnetic fields play a key role in understanding the nature of the coronal phenomena. Global coronal magnetic fields are usually extrapolated from photospheric fields, for which farside data is taken when it was at the frontside, about two weeks earlier. For the first time we have constructed the extrapolations of global magnetic fields using frontside and artificial intelligence (AI)-generated

    更新日期:2020-11-04
  • Particle-in-cell Simulation of Whistler Heat-flux Instabilities in the Solar Wind: Heat-flux Regulation and Electron Halo Formation
    Astrophys. J. Lett. (IF 8.198) Pub Date : 2020-11-02
    A. Micera, A. N. Zhukov, R. A. López, M. E. Innocenti, M. Lazar, E. Boella, and G. Lapenta

    We present results of a two-dimensional fully kinetic particle-in-cell simulation in order to shed light on the role of whistler waves in the scattering of strahl electrons and in the heat-flux regulation in the solar wind. We model the electron velocity distribution function as initially composed of core and strahl populations as typically encountered in the near-Sun solar wind as observed by Parker

    更新日期:2020-11-02
  • Formation of GW190521 via Gas Accretion onto Population III Stellar Black Hole Remnants Born in High-redshift Minihalos
    Astrophys. J. Lett. (IF 8.198) Pub Date : 2020-11-02
    Mohammadtaher Safarzadeh and Zoltán Haiman

    The recent gravitational-wave merger event, GW190521, has challenged our understanding of stellar-mass black hole (BH) formation. The primary and secondary BHs are both inferred to fall inside the pair-instability (PI) mass gap. Here we propose that the formation of such binaries is possible through gas accretion onto the BH remnants of Population III stars born in high-redshift ( z > 10) minihalos

    更新日期:2020-11-02
  • Detection of CH 3 C 3 N in Titan’s Atmosphere
    Astrophys. J. Lett. (IF 8.198) Pub Date : 2020-11-02
    Alexander E. Thelen, Martin A. Cordiner, Conor A. Nixon, Véronique Vuitton, Zbigniew Kisiel, Steven B. Charnley, Maureen Y. Palmer, Nicholas A. Teanby, and Patrick G. J. Irwin

    Titan harbors a dense, organic-rich atmosphere primarily composed of N 2 and CH 4 , with lesser amounts of hydrocarbons and nitrogen-bearing species. As a result of high-sensitivity observations by the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) in Band 6 (∼230–272 GHz), we obtained the first spectroscopic detection of CH 3 C 3 N (methylcyanoacetylene or cyanopropyne) in Titan’s atmosphere

    更新日期:2020-11-02
  • Mirror Mode Waves Immersed in Magnetic Reconnection
    Astrophys. J. Lett. (IF 8.198) Pub Date : 2020-10-29
    L.-N. Hau, G.-W. Chen, and C.-K. Chang

    Mirror mode waves with anticorrelated density and magnetic field are widely observed in the heliosphere. This paper presents the first evidence of mirror mode waves occurring in the vicinity of a magnetic reconnection site (X-line) at the interface between the solar wind and Earth’s magnetosphere based on the analyses of two Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) crossing events along with the Grad–Shafranov

    更新日期:2020-10-30
  • The First Robust Constraints on the Relationship between Dust-to-gas Ratio and Metallicity in Luminous Star-forming Galaxies at High Redshift
    Astrophys. J. Lett. (IF 8.198) Pub Date : 2020-10-29
    Alice E. Shapley, Fergus Cullen, James S. Dunlop, Ross J. McLure, Mariska Kriek, Naveen A. Reddy, and Ryan L. Sanders

    We present rest-optical spectroscopic properties of a sample of four galaxies in the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array Hubble Ultra Deep Field (ALMA HUDF). These galaxies span the redshift range ##IMG## [http://ej.iop.org/images/2041-8205/903/1/L16/apjlabc006ieqn1.gif] {$1.41\leqslant z\leqslant 2.54$} and the stellar mass range ##IMG## [http://ej.iop.org/images/2041-8205/903/1/L16/apjlabc006ieqn2

    更新日期:2020-10-30
  • HAWC and Fermi-LAT Detection of Extended Emission from the Unidentified Source 2HWC J2006+341
    Astrophys. J. Lett. (IF 8.198) Pub Date : 2020-10-29
    A. Albert, R. Alfaro, C. Alvarez, J. R. Angeles Camacho, M. Araya, J. C. Arteaga-Velázquez, K. P. Arunbabu, D. Avila Rojas, H. A. Ayala Solares, V. Baghmanyan, E. Belmont-Moreno, C. Brisbois, K. S. Caballero-Mora, A. Carramiñana, S. Casanova, U. Cotti, E. De la Fuente, C. de León, R. Diaz Hernandez, B. L. Dingus, M. A. DuVernois, M. Durocher, J. C. Díaz-Vélez, C. Espinoza, H. Fleischhack, N. Fraija

    The discovery of the TeV point source 2HWC J2006+341 was reported in the second HAWC gamma-ray catalog. We present a follow-up study of this source here. The TeV emission is best described by an extended source with a soft spectrum. At GeV energies, an extended source is significantly detected in Fermi-LAT data. The matching locations, sizes, and spectra suggest that both gamma-ray detections correspond

    更新日期:2020-10-30
  • Discovery of a Large Population of Nitrogen-enhanced Stars in the Magellanic Clouds
    Astrophys. J. Lett. (IF 8.198) Pub Date : 2020-10-29
    José G. Fernández-Trincado, Timothy C. Beers, Dante Minniti, Leticia Carigi, Beatriz Barbuy, Vinicius M. Placco, Christian Moni Bidin, Sandro Villanova, Alexandre Roman-Lopes, and Christian Nitschelm

    We report the APOGEE-2S+ discovery of a unique collection of nitrogen-enhanced mildly metal-poor giant stars, peaking at [Fe/H] ∼ −0.89 with no carbon enrichment, toward the Small and Large Magellanic Clouds (SMC and LMC), with abundances of light- (C, N), odd-Z (Al, K), and α -elements (O, Mg, Si) that are typically found in Galactic globular clusters (GCs). Here we present 44 stars in the SMC and

    更新日期:2020-10-30
  • Tearing Modes in Partially Ionized Astrophysical Plasma
    Astrophys. J. Lett. (IF 8.198) Pub Date : 2020-10-29
    Fulvia Pucci, K. Alkendra P. Singh, Anna Tenerani, and Marco Velli

    In many astrophysical environments the plasma is only partially ionized, and therefore the interaction of charged and neutral particles may alter both the triggering of reconnection and its subsequent dynamical evolution. We derive the tearing mode maximum growth rate for partially ionized plasmas in the cases of weak and strong coupling between the plasma and the neutrals. In addition, critical scalings

    更新日期:2020-10-30
  • The Atacama Cosmology Telescope: Weighing Distant Clusters with the Most Ancient Light
    Astrophys. J. Lett. (IF 8.198) Pub Date : 2020-10-29
    Mathew S. Madhavacheril, Cristóbal Sifón, Nicholas Battaglia, Simone Aiola, Stefania Amodeo, Jason E. Austermann, James A. Beall, Daniel T. Becker, J. Richard Bond, Erminia Calabrese, Steve K. Choi, Edward V. Denison, Mark J. Devlin, Simon R. Dicker, Shannon M. Duff, Adriaan J. Duivenvoorden, Jo Dunkley, Rolando Dünner, Simone Ferraro, Patricio A. Gallardo, Yilun Guan, Dongwon Han, J. Colin Hill, Gene

    We use gravitational lensing of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) to measure the mass of the most distant blindly selected sample of galaxy clusters on which a lensing measurement has been performed to date. In CMB data from the the Atacama Cosmology Telescope and the Planck satellite, we detect the stacked lensing effect from 677 near-infrared-selected galaxy clusters from the Massive and Distant

    更新日期:2020-10-30
  • Observable Signatures of the Ejection Speed of Interstellar Objects from Their Birth Systems
    Astrophys. J. Lett. (IF 8.198) Pub Date : 2020-10-29
    Amir Siraj and Abraham Loeb

    ‘Oumuamua and Borisov were the first two interstellar objects confirmed in the solar system. The upcoming commencement of the Vera C. Rubin Observatory’s Legacy Survey of Space of Time (LSST) will enhance greatly the discovery rate of interstellar objects. This raises the question, what can be learned from large-number statistics of interstellar objects? Here, we show that discovery statistics provided

    更新日期:2020-10-30
  • Effects of Spin on Constraining the Seeds and Growth of ≳10 9 M ⊙ Supermassive Black Holes in z > 6.5 Quasars
    Astrophys. J. Lett. (IF 8.198) Pub Date : 2020-10-29
    Xiaoxia Zhang, Youjun Lu, and Taotao Fang

    The existence of ≳10 9 M ⊙ supermassive black holes (SMBHs) at redshift z > 6 raises the problem of how such SMBHs can grow up within the cosmic time (<1 Gyr) from small seed BHs. In this Letter, we use the observations of 14 quasars at z > 6.5 with mass estimates to constrain their seeds and early growth, by self-consistently considering the spin evolution and the possibility of super-Eddington accretion

    更新日期:2020-10-30
  • A Terrestrial-mass Rogue Planet Candidate Detected in the Shortest-timescale Microlensing Event
    Astrophys. J. Lett. (IF 8.198) Pub Date : 2020-10-29
    Przemek Mróz, Radosław Poleski, Andrew Gould, Andrzej Udalski, Takahiro Sumi, and, Michał K. Szymański, Igor Soszyński, Paweł Pietrukowicz, Szymon Kozłowski, Jan Skowron, Krzysztof Ulaczyk (OGLE Collaboration), Michael D. Albrow, Sun-Ju Chung, Cheongho Han, Kyu-Ha Hwang, Youn Kil Jung, Hyoun-Woo Kim, Yoon-Hyun Ryu, In-Gu Shin, Yossi Shvartzvald, Jennifer C. Yee, Weicheng Zang, Sang-Mok Cha, Dong-Jin

    Some low-mass planets are expected to be ejected from their parent planetary systems during early stages of planetary system formation. According to planet formation theories, such as the core accretion theory, typical masses of ejected planets should be between 0.3 and 1.0 M ⊕ . Although in practice such objects do not emit any light, they may be detected using gravitational microlensing via their

    更新日期:2020-10-30
  • A Magnetized, Moon-forming Giant Impact
    Astrophys. J. Lett. (IF 8.198) Pub Date : 2020-10-29
    P. D. Mullen and C. F. Gammie

    The Moon is believed to have formed in the aftermath of a giant impact between a planetary-mass body and the proto-Earth. In a typical giant impact scenario, a disk of vapor, liquid, and solid debris forms around the proto-Earth and—after possibly decades of evolution—condenses to form the Moon. Using state-of-the-art numerical simulations, we investigate the dynamical effects of magnetic fields on

    更新日期:2020-10-30
  • Formation of Population II Star Clusters in the Aftermath of a Pair Instability Supernova
    Astrophys. J. Lett. (IF 8.198) Pub Date : 2020-10-18
    Muhammad A. Latif and Dominik Schleicher

    Population II (Pop II) stars formed a few hundred million years after the Big Bang were key drivers of cosmic reionization and building blocks of high-redshift galaxies. How and when these stars formed is a subject of ongoing research. We conduct cosmological radiation hydrodynamical simulations to investigate the formation of Pop II star clusters in dark matter halos forming at z = 10–25 in the aftermath

    更新日期:2020-10-19
  • On the Rate of Crustal Failures in Young Magnetars
    Astrophys. J. Lett. (IF 8.198) Pub Date : 2020-10-18
    C. Dehman, D. Viganò, N. Rea, J. A. Pons, R. Perna, and A. Garcia-Garcia

    The activity of magnetars is powered by their intense and dynamic magnetic fields and has been proposed as the trigger to extragalactic fast radio bursts. Here we estimate the frequency of crustal failures in young magnetars, by computing the magnetic stresses in detailed magnetothermal simulations including Hall drift and ohmic dissipation. The initial internal topology at birth is poorly known but

    更新日期:2020-10-19
  • Constraints from Gravitational-wave Detections of Binary Black Hole Mergers on the 12 C(α, γ) 16 O Rate
    Astrophys. J. Lett. (IF 8.198) Pub Date : 2020-10-18
    R. Farmer, M. Renzo, S. E. de Mink, M. Fishbach, and S. Justham

    Gravitational-wave detections are starting to allow us to probe the physical processes in the evolution of very massive stars through the imprints they leave on their final remnants. Stellar evolution theory predicts the existence of a gap in the black hole mass distribution at high mass due to the effects of pair instability. Previously, we showed that the location of the gap is robust against model

    更新日期:2020-10-19
  • Neutron Star Mergers as the Main Source of r -process: Natal Kicks and Inside-out Evolution to the Rescue
    Astrophys. J. Lett. (IF 8.198) Pub Date : 2020-10-18
    Projjwal Banerjee, Meng-Ru Wu, and Zhen Yuan

    Binary neutron star mergers (BNSMs) are currently the most promising source of r -process thanks to the detection of GW170817. The estimated occurring frequency and the amount of mass ejected per merger indicate that BNSMs by themselves can account for all the r -process enrichment in the Galaxy. However, the decreasing trend of [Eu/Fe] versus [Fe/H] of disk stars for [Fe/H] ≳ −1 in the solar neighborhood

    更新日期:2020-10-19
  • On Making Magnetic-flux-rope Ω Loops for Solar Bipolar Magnetic Regions of All Sizes by Convection Cells
    Astrophys. J. Lett. (IF 8.198) Pub Date : 2020-10-18
    Ronald L. Moore, Sanjiv K. Tiwari, Navdeep K. Panesar, and Alphonse C. Sterling

    We propose that the flux-rope Ω loop that emerges to become any bipolar magnetic region (BMR) is made by a convection cell of the Ω-loop’s size from initially horizontal magnetic field ingested through the cell’s bottom. This idea is based on (1) observed characteristics of BMRs of all spans (∼1000 to ∼200,000 km), (2) a well-known simulation of the production of a BMR by a supergranule-sized convection

    更新日期:2020-10-19
  • A Tale of Two Transition Disks: ALMA Long-baseline Observations of ISO-Oph 2 Reveal Two Closely Packed Nonaxisymmetric Rings and a ∼2 au Cavity
    Astrophys. J. Lett. (IF 8.198) Pub Date : 2020-10-18
    Camilo González-Ruilova, Lucas A. Cieza, Antonio S. Hales, Sebastián Pérez, Alice Zurlo, Carla Arce-Tord, Simón Casassus, Hector Cánovas, Mario Flock, Gregory J. Herczeg, Paola Pinilla, Daniel J. Price, David A. Principe, Dary Ruíz-Rodríguez, and Jonathan P. Williams

    ISO-Oph 2 is a wide-separation (240 au) binary system where the primary star harbors a massive ( M dust ∼ 40 M ⊕ ) ring-like disk with a dust cavity ∼50 au in radius and the secondary hosts a much lighter ( M dust ∼ 0.8 M ⊕ ) disk. As part of the high-resolution follow-up of the “Ophiuchus Disk Survey Employing ALMA” (ODISEA) project, we present 1.3 mm continuum and 12 CO molecular line observations

    更新日期:2020-10-19
  • Gravitational-wave Merger Forecasting: Scenarios for the Early Detection and Localization of Compact-binary Mergers with Ground-based Observatories
    Astrophys. J. Lett. (IF 8.198) Pub Date : 2020-10-15
    Alexander H. Nitz, Marlin Schäfer, and Tito Dal Canton

    We present the prospects for the early (pre-merger) detection and localization of compact-binary coalescences using gravitational waves over the next 10 yr. Early warning can enable the direct observation of the prompt and early electromagnetic emission of a neutron star merger. We examine the capabilities of the ground-based detectors at their “Design” sensitivity (2021–2022), the planned “A+” upgrade

    更新日期:2020-10-19
  • First Solar Energetic Particles Measured on the Lunar Far-side
    Astrophys. J. Lett. (IF 8.198) Pub Date : 2020-10-15
    Zigong Xu, Jingnan Guo, Robert F. Wimmer-Schweingruber, Johan L. Freiherr von Forstner, Yuming Wang, Nina Dresing, Henning Lohf, Shenyi Zhang, Bernd Heber, and Mei Yang

    On 2019 May 6 the Lunar Lander Neutron & Dosimetry (LND) Experiment on board the Chang’E-4 lander on the far-side of the Moon detected its first solar energetic particle (SEP) event with proton energies up to 21 MeV. Combined proton energy spectra are studied based on the LND, SOHO/EPHIN, and ACE/EPAM measurements, which show that LND could provide a complementary data set from a special location on

    更新日期:2020-10-19
  • Monte-Carlo Neutrino Transport in Neutron Star Merger Simulations
    Astrophys. J. Lett. (IF 8.198) Pub Date : 2020-10-12
    Francois Foucart, Matthew D. Duez, Francois Hebert, Lawrence E. Kidder, Harald P. Pfeiffer, and Mark A. Scheel

    Gravitational waves and electromagnetic signals from merging neutron star binaries provide valuable information about the the properties of dense matter, the formation of heavy elements, and high-energy astrophysics. To fully leverage observations of these systems, we need numerical simulations that provide reliable predictions for the properties of the matter unbound in these mergers. An important

    更新日期:2020-10-13
  • On the Origin of GW190521-like Events from Repeated Black Hole Mergers in Star Clusters
    Astrophys. J. Lett. (IF 8.198) Pub Date : 2020-10-12
    Giacomo Fragione, Abraham Loeb, and Frederic A. Rasio

    LIGO and Virgo have reported the detection of GW190521, from the merger of a binary black hole (BBH) with a total mass around 150 M ⊙ . While current stellar models limit the mass of any black hole (BH) remnant to about 40–50 M ⊙ , more massive BHs can be produced dynamically through repeated mergers in the core of a dense star cluster. The process is limited by the recoil kick (due to anisotropic

    更新日期:2020-10-13
  • Toward a Direct Measure of the Galactic Acceleration
    Astrophys. J. Lett. (IF 8.198) Pub Date : 2020-10-12
    Sukanya Chakrabarti, Jason Wright, Philip Chang, Alice Quillen, Peter Craig, Joey Territo, Elena D’Onghia, Kathryn V. Johnston, Robert J. De Rosa, Daniel Huber, Katherine L. Rhode, and Eric Nielsen

    High-precision spectrographs can enable not only the discovery of exoplanets, but can also provide a fundamental measurement in Galactic dynamics. Over about 10 year baselines, the expected change in the line-of-sight velocity due to the Galaxy’s gravitational field for stars at ∼kiloparsec scale distances above the Galactic midplane is ∼few tens of cm s −1 , and may be detectable by the current generation

    更新日期:2020-10-13
  • Exclusion of Cosmic Rays from Molecular Clouds by Self-generated Electric Fields
    Astrophys. J. Lett. (IF 8.198) Pub Date : 2020-10-12
    Kedron Silsbee and Alexei V. Ivlev

    It was recently discovered that in some regions of the Galaxy, the cosmic-ray (CR) abundance is several orders of magnitude higher than previously thought. Additionally, there is evidence that in molecular cloud envelopes, the CR ionization may be dominated by electrons. We show that for regions with high, electron-dominated ionization, the penetration of CR electrons into molecular clouds is modulated

    更新日期:2020-10-13
  • Gravitational-wave Constraints on the Equatorial Ellipticity of Millisecond Pulsars
    Astrophys. J. Lett. (IF 8.198) Pub Date : 2020-10-11
    R. Abbott, T. D. Abbott, S. Abraham, F. Acernese, K. Ackley, A. Adams, C. Adams, R. X. Adhikari, V. B. Adya, C. Affeldt, M. Agathos, K. Agatsuma, N. Aggarwal, O. D. Aguiar, L. Aiello, A. Ain, P. Ajith, G. Allen, A. Allocca, P. A. Altin, A. Amato, S. Anand, A. Ananyeva, S. B. Anderson, W. G. Anderson, S. V. Angelova, S. Ansoldi, J. M. Antelis, S. Antier, S. Appert, K. Arai, M. C. Araya, J. S. Areeda

    We present a search for continuous gravitational waves from five radio pulsars, comprising three recycled pulsars (PSR J0437−4715, PSR J0711−6830, and PSR J0737−3039A) and two young pulsars: the Crab pulsar (J0534+2200) and the Vela pulsar (J0835−4510). We use data from the third observing run of Advanced LIGO and Virgo combined with data from their first and second observing runs. For the first time

    更新日期:2020-10-12
  • FIRST J1419+3940 as the First Observed Radio Flare from a Neutron Star Merger
    Astrophys. J. Lett. (IF 8.198) Pub Date : 2020-10-11
    K. H. Lee, I. Bartos, G. C. Privon, J. C. Rose, and P. Torrey

    During their violent merger, two neutron stars can shed a few percent of their mass. As this ejecta expands, it collides with the surrounding interstellar gas, producing a slowly fading radio flare that lasts for years. Radio flares uniquely probe the neutron star merger populations as many events from past decades could still be detectable. Nonetheless, no radio flare observation has been reported

    更新日期:2020-10-12
  • Neutrino Counterparts of Fast Radio Bursts
    Astrophys. J. Lett. (IF 8.198) Pub Date : 2020-10-11
    Brian D. Metzger, Ke Fang, and Ben Margalit

    The discovery of a luminous radio burst, FRB 200428, with properties similar to those of fast radio bursts (FRBs), in coincidence with an X-ray flare from the Galactic magnetar SGR 1935+2154, supports magnetar models for cosmological FRBs. The burst’s X-ray to radio fluence ratio, as well as the X-ray spectral shape and peak energy, are consistent with FRB 200428 being the result of an ultra-relativistic

    更新日期:2020-10-12
  • Application of Orbital Stability and Tidal Migration Constraints for Exomoon Candidates
    Astrophys. J. Lett. (IF 8.198) Pub Date : 2020-10-11
    Billy Quarles, Gongjie Li, and Marialis Rosario-Franco

    Satellites of extrasolar planets, or exomoons, are on the frontier of detectability using current technologies and theoretical constraints should be considered in their search. In this Letter, we apply theoretical constraints of orbital stability and tidal migration to the six candidate Kepler Object of Interest (KOI) systems proposed by Fox & Wiegert to identify whether these systems can potentially

    更新日期:2020-10-12
  • Detection of Pb II in the Ultraviolet Spectra of Three Metal-poor Stars
    Astrophys. J. Lett. (IF 8.198) Pub Date : 2020-10-11
    Ian U. Roederer, James E. Lawler, Erika M. Holmbeck, Timothy C. Beers, Rana Ezzeddine, Anna Frebel, Terese T. Hansen, Inese I. Ivans, Amanda I. Karakas, Vinicius M. Placco, and Charli M. Sakari

    We report the first detection of the Pb ii line at 2203.534 Å in three metal-poor stars, using ultraviolet spectra obtained with the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph on board the Hubble Space Telescope. We perform a standard abundance analysis assuming local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) to derive lead (Pb, Z = 82) abundances. The Pb ii line yields a higher abundance than Pb i lines by +0.36 ± 0

    更新日期:2020-10-12
  • The MOSDEF Survey: Neon as a Probe of ISM Physical Conditions at High Redshift
    Astrophys. J. Lett. (IF 8.198) Pub Date : 2020-10-07
    Moon-Seong Jeong, Alice E. Shapley, Ryan L. Sanders, Jordan N. Runco, Michael W. Topping, Naveen A. Reddy, Mariska Kriek, Alison L. Coil, Bahram Mobasher, Brian Siana, Irene Shivaei, William R. Freeman, Mojegan Azadi, Sedona H. Price, Gene C. K. Leung, Tara Fetherolf, Laura de Groot, Tom Zick, Francesca M. Fornasini, and Guillermo Barro

    We present results on the properties of neon emission in z ∼ 2 star-forming galaxies drawn from the MOSFIRE Deep Evolution Field (MOSDEF) survey. Doubly ionized neon ([Ne iii ] λ 3869) is detected at ≥3 σ in 61 galaxies, representing ∼25% of the MOSDEF sample with H α , H β , and [O iii ] λ 5007 detections at similar redshifts. We consider the neon emission-line properties of both individual galaxies

    更新日期:2020-10-08
  • Crepuscular Rays from the Highly Inclined Active Galactic Nucleus in IC 5063
    Astrophys. J. Lett. (IF 8.198) Pub Date : 2020-10-07
    W. Peter Maksym, Judy Schmidt, William C. Keel, Giuseppina Fabbiano, Travis C. Fischer, Joss Bland-Hawthorn, Aaron J. Barth, Martin Elvis, Tom Oosterloo, Luis C. Ho, Minjin Kim, Hyunmo Hwang, and Evan Mayer

    On Earth near sunset, the Sun may cast “crepuscular rays” such that clouds near the horizon obscure the origin of light scattered in bright rays. In principle, active galactic nuclei (AGN) should be able to produce similar effects. Using new Hubble Space Telescope (HST) near-infrared and optical observations, we show that the active galaxy IC 5063 contains broad radial rays extending to ≳11 kpc from

    更新日期:2020-10-08
  • Long-term Evolution of the Sun’s Magnetic Field during Cycles 15–19 Based on Their Proxies from Kodaikanal Solar Observatory
    Astrophys. J. Lett. (IF 8.198) Pub Date : 2020-10-07
    Alexander V. Mordvinov, Bidya Binay Karak, Dipankar Banerjee, Subhamoy Chatterjee, Elena M. Golubeva, and Anna I. Khlystova

    The regular observation of the solar magnetic field is available only for about the last five cycles. Thus, to understand the origin of the variation of the solar magnetic field, it is essential to reconstruct the magnetic field for the past cycles, utilizing other data sets. Long-term uniform observations for the past 100 yr as recorded at the Kodaikanal Solar Observatory (KoSO) provide such an opportunity

    更新日期:2020-10-08
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