• Astrophys. J. Lett. (IF 8.198) Pub Date : 2020-11-23
M. Renzo, M. Cantiello, B. D. Metzger, and Y.-F. Jiang

The recent detection of GW190521 stimulated ideas on how to populate the predicted black hole (BH) pair-instability (PI) mass gap. One proposal is the dynamical merger of two stars below the PI regime forming a star with a small core and an oversized envelope. We outline the main challenges this scenario faces to form one BH in the gap. In particular, the core needs to avoid growing during the merger

更新日期：2020-11-23
• Astrophys. J. Lett. (IF 8.198) Pub Date : 2020-11-20
G. Q. Wang, M. Volwerk, S. D. Xiao, M. Y. Wu, Y. F. Hao, L. J. Liu, G. Wang, Y. Q. Chen, and T. L. Zhang

Electron-scale magnetic holes filled with high-energy electrons can provide a seed population of electrons in the magnetosphere and might play an important role in the interaction between the magnetosphere and solar wind. Theoretical studies have investigated their generation mechanisms based on the 1D or 2D geometry of the structure. However, the generation mechanism is still unclear. Here we report

更新日期：2020-11-23
• Astrophys. J. Lett. (IF 8.198) Pub Date : 2020-11-20
M. A. Cordiner, E. Garcia-Berrios, R. G. Cosentino, N. A. Teanby, C. E. Newman, C. A. Nixon, A. E. Thelen, and S. B. Charnley

Similar to Earth, Saturn’s largest moon, Titan, possesses a system of high-altitude zonal winds (or jets) that encircle the globe. Using the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) in 2016 August, Lellouch et al. discovered an equatorial jet at much higher altitudes than previously known, with a surprisingly fast speed of up to ∼340 m s −1 ; however, the origin of such high velocities is

更新日期：2020-11-23
• Astrophys. J. Lett. (IF 8.198) Pub Date : 2020-11-19
Z. W. Huang, X. Cheng, and M. D. Ding

In this Letter, we study the kinematic properties of ascending hot blobs associated with confined flares. Taking advantage of high-cadence extreme-ultraviolet images provided by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory, we find that for the 26 events selected here, the hot blobs are first impulsively accelerated outward, but then quickly slow down to motionlessness.

更新日期：2020-11-23
• Astrophys. J. Lett. (IF 8.198) Pub Date : 2020-11-19
Miriam Cabero, Ashish Mahabal, and Jess McIver

The rapid release of accurate sky localization for gravitational-wave (GW) candidates is crucial for multi-messenger observations. During the third observing run of Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo, automated GW alerts were publicly released within minutes of detection. Subsequent inspection and analysis resulted in the eventual retraction of a fraction of the candidates. Updates could be delayed by

更新日期：2020-11-23
• Astrophys. J. Lett. (IF 8.198) Pub Date : 2020-11-19
Honghong Wu, Chuanyi Tu, Xin Wang, Jiansen He, and Liping Yang

Energy supply sources for the heating process in the slow solar wind remain unknown. The Parker Solar Probe (PSP) mission provides a good opportunity to study this issue. Recently, PSP observations have found that the slow solar wind experiences stronger heating inside 0.24 au. Here for the first time we measure in the slow solar wind the radial gradient of the low-frequency breaks on the magnetic

更新日期：2020-11-23
• Astrophys. J. Lett. (IF 8.198) Pub Date : 2020-11-19
Sean N. Raymond, Nathan A. Kaib, Philip J. Armitage, and Jonathan J. Fortney

The orbital architecture of the solar system is thought to have been sculpted by a dynamical instability among the giant planets. During the instability a primordial outer disk of planetesimals was destabilized and ended up on planet-crossing orbits. Most planetesimals were ejected into interstellar space, but a fraction were trapped on stable orbits in the Kuiper Belt and Oort cloud. We use a suite

更新日期：2020-11-23
• Astrophys. J. Lett. (IF 8.198) Pub Date : 2020-11-19
Diego J. Muñoz and Cristobal Petrovich

The Jovian-sized object WD 1856 b transits a white dwarf (WD) in a compact 1.4 day orbit. Unlikely to have endured stellar evolution in its current orbit, WD 1856 b is thought to have migrated from much wider separations. Because the WD is old, and a member of a well-characterized hierarchical multiple, the well-known Kozai mechanism provides an effective migration channel for WD 1856 b. The tidal

更新日期：2020-11-23
• Astrophys. J. Lett. (IF 8.198) Pub Date : 2020-11-19
Fakhri S. Zahedy, Hsiao-Wen Chen, Erin Boettcher, Michael Rauch, K. Decker French, and Ann I. Zabludoff

We report the first detection of multiphase gas within a quiescent galaxy beyond z ≈ 0. The observations use the brighter image of doubly lensed QSO HE 0047−1756 to probe the interstellar medium (ISM) of the massive ( ##IMG## [http://ej.iop.org/images/2041-8205/904/1/L10/apjlabc48dieqn1.gif] {${M}_{\mathrm{star}}\approx {10}^{11}\,{M}_{\odot }$} ) elliptical lens galaxy at ##IMG## [http://ej.iop.o

更新日期：2020-11-23
• Astrophys. J. Lett. (IF 8.198) Pub Date : 2020-11-19
T. Masseron, D. A. García-Hernández, O. Zamora, and A. Manchado

The recently discovered phosphorus-rich stars pose a challenge to stellar evolution and nucleosynthesis theory, as none of the existing models can explain their extremely peculiar chemical abundances pattern. Apart from the large phosphorus enhancement, such stars also show enhancement in other light (O, Mg, Si, and Al) and heavy (e.g., Ce) elements. We have obtained high-resolution optical spectra

更新日期：2020-11-23
• Astrophys. J. Lett. (IF 8.198) Pub Date : 2020-11-11
Boyuan Liu and Volker Bromm

We explore the possibility that the recently detected black hole binary (BHB) merger event GW190521 originates from the first generation of massive, metal-free, so-called Population III (Pop III) stars. Based on improved binary statistics derived from N -body simulations of Pop III star clusters, we calculate the merger rate densities of Pop III BHBs similar to GW190521, in two evolution channels:

更新日期：2020-11-12
• Astrophys. J. Lett. (IF 8.198) Pub Date : 2020-11-11
Bo-Eun Choi and Hee-Won Lee

Young planetary nebulae (PNe) retain a large amount of neutral material that was shed in the previous asymptotic giant branch stage. The thick H i region in young PNe can be effectively probed by illuminating far-UV radiation that may be inelastically scattered to appear in the optical region. Raman-scattered features are unique spectroscopic tracers of neutral regions that can be used to investigate

更新日期：2020-11-12
• Astrophys. J. Lett. (IF 8.198) Pub Date : 2020-11-11

Quasi-periodic oscillations inferred during rare magnetar giant flare tails were initially interpreted as torsional oscillations of the neutron star (NS) crust, and have been more recently described as global core+crust perturbations. Similar frequencies are also present in high-signal-to-noise magnetar short bursts. In magnetars, disturbances of the field are strongly coupled to the NS crust regardless

更新日期：2020-11-12
• Astrophys. J. Lett. (IF 8.198) Pub Date : 2020-11-10
Francis Nimmo, Joel Primack, S. M. Faber, Enrico Ramirez-Ruiz, and Mohammadtaher Safarzadeh

The thermal evolution of rocky planets on geological timescales (Gyr) depends on the heat input from the long-lived radiogenic elements potassium, thorium, and uranium. Concentrations of the latter two in rocky planet mantles are likely to vary by up to an order of magnitude between different planetary systems because Th and U, like other heavy r -process elements, are produced by rare stellar processes

更新日期：2020-11-12
• Astrophys. J. Lett. (IF 8.198) Pub Date : 2020-11-09
H. K. Vedantham, J. R. Callingham, T. W. Shimwell, T. Dupuy, William M. J. Best, Michael C. Liu, Zhoujian Zhang, K. De, L. Lamy, P. Zarka, H. J. A. Röttgering, and A. Shulevski

Magnetospheric processes seen in gas giants such as aurorae and circularly polarized cyclotron maser radio emission have been detected from some brown dwarfs. However, previous radio observations targeted known brown dwarfs discovered via their infrared emission. Here we report the discovery of BDR J1750+3809, a circularly polarized radio source detected around 144 MHz with the Low-Frequency Array

更新日期：2020-11-09
• Astrophys. J. Lett. (IF 8.198) Pub Date : 2020-11-09
Jacopo Lupi, Cristina Puzzarini, and Vincenzo Barone

A gas-phase formation route is proposed for the recently detected propargylimine molecule. In analogy to other imines, such as cyanomethanimine, the addition of a reactive radical (C 2 H in the present case) to methanimine (CH 2 NH) leads to reaction channels open also in the harsh conditions of the interstellar medium. Three possible isomers can be formed in the CH 2 NH + C 2 H reaction: Z- and E-propargylimine

更新日期：2020-11-09
• Astrophys. J. Lett. (IF 8.198) Pub Date : 2020-11-09
Andreas M. Hein, Manasvi Lingam, T. Marshall Eubanks, Adam Hibberd, Dan Fries, and William Paul Blase

The potential detection of phosphine in the atmosphere of Venus has reignited interest in the possibility of life aloft in this environment. If the cloud decks of Venus are indeed an abode of life, it should reside in the “habitable zone” between ∼50–60 km altitude, roughly coincident with the middle cloud deck, where the temperature and pressure (but not the atmospheric composition) are similar to

更新日期：2020-11-09
• Astrophys. J. Lett. (IF 8.198) Pub Date : 2020-11-09
Chang-Goo Kim, Eve C. Ostriker, Drummond B. Fielding, Matthew C. Smith, Greg L. Bryan, Rachel S. Somerville, John C. Forbes, Shy Genel, and Lars Hernquist

Galactic outflows have density, temperature, and velocity variations at least as large as those of the multiphase, turbulent interstellar medium (ISM) from which they originate. We have conducted a suite of parsec-resolution numerical simulations using the TIGRESS framework, in which outflows emerge as a consequence of interaction between supernovae (SNe) and the star-forming ISM. The outflowing gas

更新日期：2020-11-09
• Astrophys. J. Lett. (IF 8.198) Pub Date : 2020-11-06
Kyu-Hyun Chae, Mariangela Bernardi, Helena Domínguez Sánchez, and Ravi K. Sheth

Dark matter phenomena in rotationally supported galaxies exhibit a characteristic acceleration scale of g † ≈ 1.2 × 10 −10 m s −2 . Whether this acceleration is a manifestation of a universal scale, or merely an emergent property with an intrinsic scatter, has been debated in the literature. Here we investigate whether a universal acceleration scale exists in dispersion-supported galaxies using two

更新日期：2020-11-06
• Astrophys. J. Lett. (IF 8.198) Pub Date : 2020-11-06
Hai-Ming Zhang, Ruo-Yu Liu, Shu-Qing Zhong, and Xiang-Yu Wang

Soft gamma-ray repeaters (SGRs) are a mainly Galactic population and originate from neutron stars with intense ( B ≃ 10 15 G) magnetic fields (magnetars). Occasionally, a giant flare occurs with enormous intensity, displaying a short, hard spike followed by a weaker, oscillatory phase that exhibits the rotational period of the neutron star. If the magnetar giant flares occur in nearby galaxies, they

更新日期：2020-11-06
• Astrophys. J. Lett. (IF 8.198) Pub Date : 2020-11-06
Anna de Graaff, Rachel Bezanson, Marijn Franx, Arjen van der Wel, Eric F. Bell, Francesco D’Eugenio, Bradford Holden, Michael V. Maseda, Adam Muzzin, Camilla Pacifici, Jesse van de Sande, David Sobral, Caroline M. S. Straatman, and Po-Feng Wu

We use the Fundamental Plane (FP) to measure the redshift evolution of the dynamical mass-to-light ratio ( M dyn / L ) and the dynamical-to-stellar mass ratio ( M dyn / M * ). Although conventionally used to study the properties of early-type galaxies, we here obtain stellar kinematic measurements from the Large Early Galaxy Astrophysics Census (LEGA-C) Survey for a sample of ∼1400 massive ( ##IMG##

更新日期：2020-11-06
• Astrophys. J. Lett. (IF 8.198) Pub Date : 2020-11-05
Irene Shivaei, Behnam Darvish, Zahra Sattari, Nima Chartab, Bahram Mobasher, Nick Scoville, and George Rieke

We use a sample of star-forming field and protocluster galaxies at z = 2.0–2.5 with Keck/MOSFIRE K -band spectra, a wealth of rest-frame ultraviolet (UV) photometry, and Spitzer/MIPS and Herschel/PACS observations, to dissect the relation between the ratio of infrared (IR) to UV luminosity (IRX) versus UV slope ( β ) as a function of gas-phase metallicity ( ##IMG## [http://ej.iop.org/images/2041-8

更新日期：2020-11-06
• Astrophys. J. Lett. (IF 8.198) Pub Date : 2020-11-05
Courtney B. Watson and Sarbani Basu

Helioseismic data for solar cycles 23 and 24 have shown unequivocally that solar dynamics changes with solar activity. Changes in solar structure have been more difficult to detect. Basu & Mandel had claimed that the then-available data revealed changes in the He ii ionization zone of the Sun. The amount of change, however, indicated the need for larger than expected changes in the magnetic fields

更新日期：2020-11-06
• Astrophys. J. Lett. (IF 8.198) Pub Date : 2020-11-05
Hank Corbett, Nicholas M. Law, Alan Vasquez Soto, Ward S. Howard, Amy Glazier, Ramses Gonzalez, Jeffrey K. Ratzloff, Nathan Galliher, Octavi Fors, and Robert Quimby

Reflections from objects in Earth orbit can produce subsecond, star-like optical flashes similar to astrophysical transients. Reflections have historically caused false alarms for transient surveys, but the population has not been systematically studied. We report event rates for these orbital flashes using the Evryscope Fast Transient Engine, a low-latency transient detection pipeline for the Evryscopes

更新日期：2020-11-06
• Astrophys. J. Lett. (IF 8.198) Pub Date : 2020-11-04
Xiao-Li Huang, En-Wei Liang, Ruo-Yu Liu, Ji-Gui Cheng, and Xiang-Yu Wang

Bimodal spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of gamma-ray burst (GRB) afterglow of GRBs 190114C, 130427A, and 180720B confirm that they are originated from the synchrotron emission (Syn) and synchrotron self-Compton scattering (SSC) process of electrons accelerated in the jets. The radiation mechanism and the physics of the observed spectrum-luminosity/energy relations of GRBs remain as open questions

更新日期：2020-11-04
• Astrophys. J. Lett. (IF 8.198) Pub Date : 2020-11-04
W. L. Lin, X. F. Wang, L. J. Wang, and Z. G. Dai

Both the long-duration gamma-ray bursts (LGRBs) and the Type I superluminous supernovae (SLSNe I) have been proposed to be primarily powered by central magnetars. A correlation, proposed between the initial spin period ( P 0 ) and the surface magnetic field ( B ) of the magnetars powering the X-ray plateaus in LGRB afterglows, indicates a possibility that the magnetars have reached an equilibrium spin

更新日期：2020-11-04
• Astrophys. J. Lett. (IF 8.198) Pub Date : 2020-11-04
Hyun-Jin Jeong, Yong-Jae Moon, Eunsu Park, and Harim Lee

Solar magnetic fields play a key role in understanding the nature of the coronal phenomena. Global coronal magnetic fields are usually extrapolated from photospheric fields, for which farside data is taken when it was at the frontside, about two weeks earlier. For the first time we have constructed the extrapolations of global magnetic fields using frontside and artificial intelligence (AI)-generated

更新日期：2020-11-04
• Astrophys. J. Lett. (IF 8.198) Pub Date : 2020-11-02
A. Micera, A. N. Zhukov, R. A. López, M. E. Innocenti, M. Lazar, E. Boella, and G. Lapenta

We present results of a two-dimensional fully kinetic particle-in-cell simulation in order to shed light on the role of whistler waves in the scattering of strahl electrons and in the heat-flux regulation in the solar wind. We model the electron velocity distribution function as initially composed of core and strahl populations as typically encountered in the near-Sun solar wind as observed by Parker

更新日期：2020-11-02
• Astrophys. J. Lett. (IF 8.198) Pub Date : 2020-11-02

The recent gravitational-wave merger event, GW190521, has challenged our understanding of stellar-mass black hole (BH) formation. The primary and secondary BHs are both inferred to fall inside the pair-instability (PI) mass gap. Here we propose that the formation of such binaries is possible through gas accretion onto the BH remnants of Population III stars born in high-redshift ( z > 10) minihalos

更新日期：2020-11-02
• Astrophys. J. Lett. (IF 8.198) Pub Date : 2020-11-02
Alexander E. Thelen, Martin A. Cordiner, Conor A. Nixon, Véronique Vuitton, Zbigniew Kisiel, Steven B. Charnley, Maureen Y. Palmer, Nicholas A. Teanby, and Patrick G. J. Irwin

Titan harbors a dense, organic-rich atmosphere primarily composed of N 2 and CH 4 , with lesser amounts of hydrocarbons and nitrogen-bearing species. As a result of high-sensitivity observations by the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) in Band 6 (∼230–272 GHz), we obtained the first spectroscopic detection of CH 3 C 3 N (methylcyanoacetylene or cyanopropyne) in Titan’s atmosphere

更新日期：2020-11-02
• Astrophys. J. Lett. (IF 8.198) Pub Date : 2020-10-29
L.-N. Hau, G.-W. Chen, and C.-K. Chang

Mirror mode waves with anticorrelated density and magnetic field are widely observed in the heliosphere. This paper presents the first evidence of mirror mode waves occurring in the vicinity of a magnetic reconnection site (X-line) at the interface between the solar wind and Earth’s magnetosphere based on the analyses of two Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) crossing events along with the Grad–Shafranov

更新日期：2020-10-30
• Astrophys. J. Lett. (IF 8.198) Pub Date : 2020-10-29
Alice E. Shapley, Fergus Cullen, James S. Dunlop, Ross J. McLure, Mariska Kriek, Naveen A. Reddy, and Ryan L. Sanders

We present rest-optical spectroscopic properties of a sample of four galaxies in the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array Hubble Ultra Deep Field (ALMA HUDF). These galaxies span the redshift range ##IMG## [http://ej.iop.org/images/2041-8205/903/1/L16/apjlabc006ieqn1.gif] {$1.41\leqslant z\leqslant 2.54$} and the stellar mass range ##IMG## [http://ej.iop.org/images/2041-8205/903/1/L16/apjlabc006ieqn2

更新日期：2020-10-30
• Astrophys. J. Lett. (IF 8.198) Pub Date : 2020-10-29
A. Albert, R. Alfaro, C. Alvarez, J. R. Angeles Camacho, M. Araya, J. C. Arteaga-Velázquez, K. P. Arunbabu, D. Avila Rojas, H. A. Ayala Solares, V. Baghmanyan, E. Belmont-Moreno, C. Brisbois, K. S. Caballero-Mora, A. Carramiñana, S. Casanova, U. Cotti, E. De la Fuente, C. de León, R. Diaz Hernandez, B. L. Dingus, M. A. DuVernois, M. Durocher, J. C. Díaz-Vélez, C. Espinoza, H. Fleischhack, N. Fraija

The discovery of the TeV point source 2HWC J2006+341 was reported in the second HAWC gamma-ray catalog. We present a follow-up study of this source here. The TeV emission is best described by an extended source with a soft spectrum. At GeV energies, an extended source is significantly detected in Fermi-LAT data. The matching locations, sizes, and spectra suggest that both gamma-ray detections correspond

更新日期：2020-10-30
• Astrophys. J. Lett. (IF 8.198) Pub Date : 2020-10-29
José G. Fernández-Trincado, Timothy C. Beers, Dante Minniti, Leticia Carigi, Beatriz Barbuy, Vinicius M. Placco, Christian Moni Bidin, Sandro Villanova, Alexandre Roman-Lopes, and Christian Nitschelm

We report the APOGEE-2S+ discovery of a unique collection of nitrogen-enhanced mildly metal-poor giant stars, peaking at [Fe/H] ∼ −0.89 with no carbon enrichment, toward the Small and Large Magellanic Clouds (SMC and LMC), with abundances of light- (C, N), odd-Z (Al, K), and α -elements (O, Mg, Si) that are typically found in Galactic globular clusters (GCs). Here we present 44 stars in the SMC and

更新日期：2020-10-30
• Astrophys. J. Lett. (IF 8.198) Pub Date : 2020-10-29
Fulvia Pucci, K. Alkendra P. Singh, Anna Tenerani, and Marco Velli

In many astrophysical environments the plasma is only partially ionized, and therefore the interaction of charged and neutral particles may alter both the triggering of reconnection and its subsequent dynamical evolution. We derive the tearing mode maximum growth rate for partially ionized plasmas in the cases of weak and strong coupling between the plasma and the neutrals. In addition, critical scalings

更新日期：2020-10-30
• Astrophys. J. Lett. (IF 8.198) Pub Date : 2020-10-29
Mathew S. Madhavacheril, Cristóbal Sifón, Nicholas Battaglia, Simone Aiola, Stefania Amodeo, Jason E. Austermann, James A. Beall, Daniel T. Becker, J. Richard Bond, Erminia Calabrese, Steve K. Choi, Edward V. Denison, Mark J. Devlin, Simon R. Dicker, Shannon M. Duff, Adriaan J. Duivenvoorden, Jo Dunkley, Rolando Dünner, Simone Ferraro, Patricio A. Gallardo, Yilun Guan, Dongwon Han, J. Colin Hill, Gene

We use gravitational lensing of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) to measure the mass of the most distant blindly selected sample of galaxy clusters on which a lensing measurement has been performed to date. In CMB data from the the Atacama Cosmology Telescope and the Planck satellite, we detect the stacked lensing effect from 677 near-infrared-selected galaxy clusters from the Massive and Distant

更新日期：2020-10-30
• Astrophys. J. Lett. (IF 8.198) Pub Date : 2020-10-29
Amir Siraj and Abraham Loeb

‘Oumuamua and Borisov were the first two interstellar objects confirmed in the solar system. The upcoming commencement of the Vera C. Rubin Observatory’s Legacy Survey of Space of Time (LSST) will enhance greatly the discovery rate of interstellar objects. This raises the question, what can be learned from large-number statistics of interstellar objects? Here, we show that discovery statistics provided

更新日期：2020-10-30
• Astrophys. J. Lett. (IF 8.198) Pub Date : 2020-10-29
Xiaoxia Zhang, Youjun Lu, and Taotao Fang

The existence of ≳10 9 M ⊙ supermassive black holes (SMBHs) at redshift z > 6 raises the problem of how such SMBHs can grow up within the cosmic time (<1 Gyr) from small seed BHs. In this Letter, we use the observations of 14 quasars at z > 6.5 with mass estimates to constrain their seeds and early growth, by self-consistently considering the spin evolution and the possibility of super-Eddington accretion

更新日期：2020-10-30
• Astrophys. J. Lett. (IF 8.198) Pub Date : 2020-10-29
Przemek Mróz, Radosław Poleski, Andrew Gould, Andrzej Udalski, Takahiro Sumi, and, Michał K. Szymański, Igor Soszyński, Paweł Pietrukowicz, Szymon Kozłowski, Jan Skowron, Krzysztof Ulaczyk (OGLE Collaboration), Michael D. Albrow, Sun-Ju Chung, Cheongho Han, Kyu-Ha Hwang, Youn Kil Jung, Hyoun-Woo Kim, Yoon-Hyun Ryu, In-Gu Shin, Yossi Shvartzvald, Jennifer C. Yee, Weicheng Zang, Sang-Mok Cha, Dong-Jin

Some low-mass planets are expected to be ejected from their parent planetary systems during early stages of planetary system formation. According to planet formation theories, such as the core accretion theory, typical masses of ejected planets should be between 0.3 and 1.0 M ⊕ . Although in practice such objects do not emit any light, they may be detected using gravitational microlensing via their

更新日期：2020-10-30
• Astrophys. J. Lett. (IF 8.198) Pub Date : 2020-10-29
P. D. Mullen and C. F. Gammie

The Moon is believed to have formed in the aftermath of a giant impact between a planetary-mass body and the proto-Earth. In a typical giant impact scenario, a disk of vapor, liquid, and solid debris forms around the proto-Earth and—after possibly decades of evolution—condenses to form the Moon. Using state-of-the-art numerical simulations, we investigate the dynamical effects of magnetic fields on

更新日期：2020-10-30
• Astrophys. J. Lett. (IF 8.198) Pub Date : 2020-10-18
Muhammad A. Latif and Dominik Schleicher

Population II (Pop II) stars formed a few hundred million years after the Big Bang were key drivers of cosmic reionization and building blocks of high-redshift galaxies. How and when these stars formed is a subject of ongoing research. We conduct cosmological radiation hydrodynamical simulations to investigate the formation of Pop II star clusters in dark matter halos forming at z = 10–25 in the aftermath

更新日期：2020-10-19
• Astrophys. J. Lett. (IF 8.198) Pub Date : 2020-10-18
C. Dehman, D. Viganò, N. Rea, J. A. Pons, R. Perna, and A. Garcia-Garcia

The activity of magnetars is powered by their intense and dynamic magnetic fields and has been proposed as the trigger to extragalactic fast radio bursts. Here we estimate the frequency of crustal failures in young magnetars, by computing the magnetic stresses in detailed magnetothermal simulations including Hall drift and ohmic dissipation. The initial internal topology at birth is poorly known but

更新日期：2020-10-19
• Astrophys. J. Lett. (IF 8.198) Pub Date : 2020-10-18
R. Farmer, M. Renzo, S. E. de Mink, M. Fishbach, and S. Justham

Gravitational-wave detections are starting to allow us to probe the physical processes in the evolution of very massive stars through the imprints they leave on their final remnants. Stellar evolution theory predicts the existence of a gap in the black hole mass distribution at high mass due to the effects of pair instability. Previously, we showed that the location of the gap is robust against model

更新日期：2020-10-19
• Astrophys. J. Lett. (IF 8.198) Pub Date : 2020-10-18
Projjwal Banerjee, Meng-Ru Wu, and Zhen Yuan

Binary neutron star mergers (BNSMs) are currently the most promising source of r -process thanks to the detection of GW170817. The estimated occurring frequency and the amount of mass ejected per merger indicate that BNSMs by themselves can account for all the r -process enrichment in the Galaxy. However, the decreasing trend of [Eu/Fe] versus [Fe/H] of disk stars for [Fe/H] ≳ −1 in the solar neighborhood

更新日期：2020-10-19
• Astrophys. J. Lett. (IF 8.198) Pub Date : 2020-10-18
Ronald L. Moore, Sanjiv K. Tiwari, Navdeep K. Panesar, and Alphonse C. Sterling

We propose that the flux-rope Ω loop that emerges to become any bipolar magnetic region (BMR) is made by a convection cell of the Ω-loop’s size from initially horizontal magnetic field ingested through the cell’s bottom. This idea is based on (1) observed characteristics of BMRs of all spans (∼1000 to ∼200,000 km), (2) a well-known simulation of the production of a BMR by a supergranule-sized convection

更新日期：2020-10-19
• Astrophys. J. Lett. (IF 8.198) Pub Date : 2020-10-18
Camilo González-Ruilova, Lucas A. Cieza, Antonio S. Hales, Sebastián Pérez, Alice Zurlo, Carla Arce-Tord, Simón Casassus, Hector Cánovas, Mario Flock, Gregory J. Herczeg, Paola Pinilla, Daniel J. Price, David A. Principe, Dary Ruíz-Rodríguez, and Jonathan P. Williams

ISO-Oph 2 is a wide-separation (240 au) binary system where the primary star harbors a massive ( M dust ∼ 40 M ⊕ ) ring-like disk with a dust cavity ∼50 au in radius and the secondary hosts a much lighter ( M dust ∼ 0.8 M ⊕ ) disk. As part of the high-resolution follow-up of the “Ophiuchus Disk Survey Employing ALMA” (ODISEA) project, we present 1.3 mm continuum and 12 CO molecular line observations

更新日期：2020-10-19
• Astrophys. J. Lett. (IF 8.198) Pub Date : 2020-10-15
Alexander H. Nitz, Marlin Schäfer, and Tito Dal Canton

We present the prospects for the early (pre-merger) detection and localization of compact-binary coalescences using gravitational waves over the next 10 yr. Early warning can enable the direct observation of the prompt and early electromagnetic emission of a neutron star merger. We examine the capabilities of the ground-based detectors at their “Design” sensitivity (2021–2022), the planned “A+” upgrade

更新日期：2020-10-19
• Astrophys. J. Lett. (IF 8.198) Pub Date : 2020-10-15
Zigong Xu, Jingnan Guo, Robert F. Wimmer-Schweingruber, Johan L. Freiherr von Forstner, Yuming Wang, Nina Dresing, Henning Lohf, Shenyi Zhang, Bernd Heber, and Mei Yang

On 2019 May 6 the Lunar Lander Neutron & Dosimetry (LND) Experiment on board the Chang’E-4 lander on the far-side of the Moon detected its first solar energetic particle (SEP) event with proton energies up to 21 MeV. Combined proton energy spectra are studied based on the LND, SOHO/EPHIN, and ACE/EPAM measurements, which show that LND could provide a complementary data set from a special location on

更新日期：2020-10-19
• Astrophys. J. Lett. (IF 8.198) Pub Date : 2020-10-12
Francois Foucart, Matthew D. Duez, Francois Hebert, Lawrence E. Kidder, Harald P. Pfeiffer, and Mark A. Scheel

Gravitational waves and electromagnetic signals from merging neutron star binaries provide valuable information about the the properties of dense matter, the formation of heavy elements, and high-energy astrophysics. To fully leverage observations of these systems, we need numerical simulations that provide reliable predictions for the properties of the matter unbound in these mergers. An important

更新日期：2020-10-13
• Astrophys. J. Lett. (IF 8.198) Pub Date : 2020-10-12
Giacomo Fragione, Abraham Loeb, and Frederic A. Rasio

LIGO and Virgo have reported the detection of GW190521, from the merger of a binary black hole (BBH) with a total mass around 150 M ⊙ . While current stellar models limit the mass of any black hole (BH) remnant to about 40–50 M ⊙ , more massive BHs can be produced dynamically through repeated mergers in the core of a dense star cluster. The process is limited by the recoil kick (due to anisotropic

更新日期：2020-10-13
• Astrophys. J. Lett. (IF 8.198) Pub Date : 2020-10-12
Sukanya Chakrabarti, Jason Wright, Philip Chang, Alice Quillen, Peter Craig, Joey Territo, Elena D’Onghia, Kathryn V. Johnston, Robert J. De Rosa, Daniel Huber, Katherine L. Rhode, and Eric Nielsen

High-precision spectrographs can enable not only the discovery of exoplanets, but can also provide a fundamental measurement in Galactic dynamics. Over about 10 year baselines, the expected change in the line-of-sight velocity due to the Galaxy’s gravitational field for stars at ∼kiloparsec scale distances above the Galactic midplane is ∼few tens of cm s −1 , and may be detectable by the current generation

更新日期：2020-10-13
• Astrophys. J. Lett. (IF 8.198) Pub Date : 2020-10-12
Kedron Silsbee and Alexei V. Ivlev

It was recently discovered that in some regions of the Galaxy, the cosmic-ray (CR) abundance is several orders of magnitude higher than previously thought. Additionally, there is evidence that in molecular cloud envelopes, the CR ionization may be dominated by electrons. We show that for regions with high, electron-dominated ionization, the penetration of CR electrons into molecular clouds is modulated

更新日期：2020-10-13
• Astrophys. J. Lett. (IF 8.198) Pub Date : 2020-10-11
R. Abbott, T. D. Abbott, S. Abraham, F. Acernese, K. Ackley, A. Adams, C. Adams, R. X. Adhikari, V. B. Adya, C. Affeldt, M. Agathos, K. Agatsuma, N. Aggarwal, O. D. Aguiar, L. Aiello, A. Ain, P. Ajith, G. Allen, A. Allocca, P. A. Altin, A. Amato, S. Anand, A. Ananyeva, S. B. Anderson, W. G. Anderson, S. V. Angelova, S. Ansoldi, J. M. Antelis, S. Antier, S. Appert, K. Arai, M. C. Araya, J. S. Areeda

We present a search for continuous gravitational waves from five radio pulsars, comprising three recycled pulsars (PSR J0437−4715, PSR J0711−6830, and PSR J0737−3039A) and two young pulsars: the Crab pulsar (J0534+2200) and the Vela pulsar (J0835−4510). We use data from the third observing run of Advanced LIGO and Virgo combined with data from their first and second observing runs. For the first time

更新日期：2020-10-12
• Astrophys. J. Lett. (IF 8.198) Pub Date : 2020-10-11
K. H. Lee, I. Bartos, G. C. Privon, J. C. Rose, and P. Torrey

During their violent merger, two neutron stars can shed a few percent of their mass. As this ejecta expands, it collides with the surrounding interstellar gas, producing a slowly fading radio flare that lasts for years. Radio flares uniquely probe the neutron star merger populations as many events from past decades could still be detectable. Nonetheless, no radio flare observation has been reported

更新日期：2020-10-12
• Astrophys. J. Lett. (IF 8.198) Pub Date : 2020-10-11
Brian D. Metzger, Ke Fang, and Ben Margalit

The discovery of a luminous radio burst, FRB 200428, with properties similar to those of fast radio bursts (FRBs), in coincidence with an X-ray flare from the Galactic magnetar SGR 1935+2154, supports magnetar models for cosmological FRBs. The burst’s X-ray to radio fluence ratio, as well as the X-ray spectral shape and peak energy, are consistent with FRB 200428 being the result of an ultra-relativistic

更新日期：2020-10-12
• Astrophys. J. Lett. (IF 8.198) Pub Date : 2020-10-11
Billy Quarles, Gongjie Li, and Marialis Rosario-Franco

Satellites of extrasolar planets, or exomoons, are on the frontier of detectability using current technologies and theoretical constraints should be considered in their search. In this Letter, we apply theoretical constraints of orbital stability and tidal migration to the six candidate Kepler Object of Interest (KOI) systems proposed by Fox & Wiegert to identify whether these systems can potentially

更新日期：2020-10-12
• Astrophys. J. Lett. (IF 8.198) Pub Date : 2020-10-11
Ian U. Roederer, James E. Lawler, Erika M. Holmbeck, Timothy C. Beers, Rana Ezzeddine, Anna Frebel, Terese T. Hansen, Inese I. Ivans, Amanda I. Karakas, Vinicius M. Placco, and Charli M. Sakari

We report the first detection of the Pb ii line at 2203.534 Å in three metal-poor stars, using ultraviolet spectra obtained with the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph on board the Hubble Space Telescope. We perform a standard abundance analysis assuming local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) to derive lead (Pb, Z = 82) abundances. The Pb ii line yields a higher abundance than Pb i lines by +0.36 ± 0

更新日期：2020-10-12
• Astrophys. J. Lett. (IF 8.198) Pub Date : 2020-10-07
Moon-Seong Jeong, Alice E. Shapley, Ryan L. Sanders, Jordan N. Runco, Michael W. Topping, Naveen A. Reddy, Mariska Kriek, Alison L. Coil, Bahram Mobasher, Brian Siana, Irene Shivaei, William R. Freeman, Mojegan Azadi, Sedona H. Price, Gene C. K. Leung, Tara Fetherolf, Laura de Groot, Tom Zick, Francesca M. Fornasini, and Guillermo Barro

We present results on the properties of neon emission in z ∼ 2 star-forming galaxies drawn from the MOSFIRE Deep Evolution Field (MOSDEF) survey. Doubly ionized neon ([Ne iii ] λ 3869) is detected at ≥3 σ in 61 galaxies, representing ∼25% of the MOSDEF sample with H α , H β , and [O iii ] λ 5007 detections at similar redshifts. We consider the neon emission-line properties of both individual galaxies

更新日期：2020-10-08
• Astrophys. J. Lett. (IF 8.198) Pub Date : 2020-10-07
W. Peter Maksym, Judy Schmidt, William C. Keel, Giuseppina Fabbiano, Travis C. Fischer, Joss Bland-Hawthorn, Aaron J. Barth, Martin Elvis, Tom Oosterloo, Luis C. Ho, Minjin Kim, Hyunmo Hwang, and Evan Mayer

On Earth near sunset, the Sun may cast “crepuscular rays” such that clouds near the horizon obscure the origin of light scattered in bright rays. In principle, active galactic nuclei (AGN) should be able to produce similar effects. Using new Hubble Space Telescope (HST) near-infrared and optical observations, we show that the active galaxy IC 5063 contains broad radial rays extending to ≳11 kpc from

更新日期：2020-10-08
• Astrophys. J. Lett. (IF 8.198) Pub Date : 2020-10-07
Alexander V. Mordvinov, Bidya Binay Karak, Dipankar Banerjee, Subhamoy Chatterjee, Elena M. Golubeva, and Anna I. Khlystova

The regular observation of the solar magnetic field is available only for about the last five cycles. Thus, to understand the origin of the variation of the solar magnetic field, it is essential to reconstruct the magnetic field for the past cycles, utilizing other data sets. Long-term uniform observations for the past 100 yr as recorded at the Kodaikanal Solar Observatory (KoSO) provide such an opportunity

更新日期：2020-10-08
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