• Astron. Astrophys. Rev. (IF 16.0) Pub Date : 2020-07-07
Santi Cassisi, Maurizio Salaris

The existence of star-to-star light-element abundance variations in massive Galactic and extragalactic star clusters has fairly recently superseded the traditional paradigm of individual clusters hosting stars with the same age, and uniform chemical composition. Several scenarios have been put forward to explain the origin of this multiple stellar population phenomenon, but so far all have failed to

更新日期：2020-07-08
• Astron. Astrophys. Rev. (IF 16.0) Pub Date : 2020-07-06
Nadine Neumayer, Anil Seth, Torsten Böker

We review the current knowledge about nuclear star clusters (NSCs), and the spectacularly dense and massive assemblies of stars found at the centers of most galaxies. Recent observational and theoretical works suggest that many NSC properties, including their masses, densities, and stellar populations, vary with the properties of their host galaxies. Understanding the formation, growth, and ultimate

更新日期：2020-07-06
• Astron. Astrophys. Rev. (IF 16.0) Pub Date : 2020-07-02
Massimo Della Valle, Luca Izzo

The recent GAIA DR2 measurements of distances to galactic novae have allowed to re-analyse some properties of nova populations in the Milky Way and in external galaxies on new and more solid empirical bases. In some cases, we have been able to confirm results previously obtained, such as the concept of nova populations into two classes of objects, that is disk and bulge novae and their link with the

更新日期：2020-07-02
• Astron. Astrophys. Rev. (IF 16.0) Pub Date : 2020-04-03
Sylvain Veilleux, Roberto Maiolino, Alberto D. Bolatto, Susanne Aalto

Neutral-atomic and molecular outflows are a common occurrence in galaxies, near and far. They operate over the full extent of their galaxy hosts, from the innermost regions of galactic nuclei to the outermost reaches of galaxy halos. They carry a substantial amount of material that would otherwise have been used to form new stars. These cool outflows may have a profound impact on the evolution of their

更新日期：2020-04-22
• Astron. Astrophys. Rev. (IF 16.0) Pub Date : 2020-03-31
Chin-Fei Lee

Molecular jets are seen coming from the youngest protostars in the early phase of low-mass star formation. They are detected in CO, SiO, and SO at (sub)millimeter wavelengths down to the innermost regions, where their associated protostars and accretion disks are deeply embedded and where they are launched and collimated. They are not only the fossil records of accretion history of the protostars but

更新日期：2020-04-22
• Astron. Astrophys. Rev. (IF 16.0) Pub Date : 2019-11-04
Raffaele Gratton, Angela Bragaglia, Eugenio Carretta, Valentina D’Orazi, Sara Lucatello, Antonio Sollima

Globular clusters are large and dense agglomerate of stars. At variance with smaller clusters of stars, they exhibit signs of some chemical evolution. At least for this reason, they are intermediate between open clusters and massive objects such as nuclear clusters or compact galaxies. While some facts are well established, the increasing amount of observational data are revealing a complexity that

更新日期：2020-04-22
• Astron. Astrophys. Rev. (IF 16.0) Pub Date : 2019-09-03
Alejandro H. Córsico, Leandro G. Althaus, Marcelo M. Miller Bertolami, S. O. Kepler

Stars are extremely important astronomical objects that constitute the pillars on which the Universe is built, and as such, their study has gained increasing interest over the years. White dwarf stars are not the exception. Indeed, these stars constitute the final evolutionary stage for more than 95% of all stars. The Galactic population of white dwarfs conveys a wealth of information about several

更新日期：2020-04-22
• Astron. Astrophys. Rev. (IF 16.0) Pub Date : 2019-06-25
D. Hestroffer, P. Sánchez, L. Staron, A. Campo Bagatin, S. Eggl, W. Losert, N. Murdoch, E. Opsomer, F. Radjai, D. C. Richardson, M. Salazar, D. J. Scheeres, S. Schwartz, N. Taberlet, H. Yano

Asteroids and other Small Solar System Bodies (SSSBs) are of high general and scientific interest in many aspects. The origin, formation, and evolution of our Solar System (and other planetary systems) can be better understood by analysing the constitution and physical properties of small bodies in the Solar System. Currently, two space missions (Hayabusa2, OSIRIS-REx) have recently arrived at their

更新日期：2020-04-22
• Astron. Astrophys. Rev. (IF 16.0) Pub Date : 2019-06-18
Sarah Burke-Spolaor, Stephen R. Taylor, Maria Charisi, Timothy Dolch, Jeffrey S. Hazboun, A. Miguel Holgado, Luke Zoltan Kelley, T. Joseph W. Lazio, Dustin R. Madison, Natasha McMann, Chiara M. F. Mingarelli, Alexander Rasskazov, Xavier Siemens, Joseph J. Simon, Tristan L. Smith

Pulsar timing array (PTA) collaborations in North America, Australia, and Europe, have been exploiting the exquisite timing precision of millisecond pulsars over decades of observations to search for correlated timing deviations induced by gravitational waves (GWs). PTAs are sensitive to the frequency band ranging just below 1 nanohertz to a few tens of microhertz. The discovery space of this band

更新日期：2020-04-22
• Astron. Astrophys. Rev. (IF 16.0) Pub Date : 2019-05-24
E. Petroff, J. W. T. Hessels, D. R. Lorimer

The discovery of radio pulsars over a half century ago was a seminal moment in astronomy. It demonstrated the existence of neutron stars, gave a powerful observational tool to study them, and has allowed us to probe strong gravity, dense matter, and the interstellar medium. More recently, pulsar surveys have led to the serendipitous discovery of fast radio bursts (FRBs). While FRBs appear similar to

更新日期：2020-04-22
• Astron. Astrophys. Rev. (IF 16.0) Pub Date : 2019-02-04
R. Maiolino, F. Mannucci

The evolution of the content of heavy elements in galaxies, the relative chemical abundances, their spatial distribution, and how these scale with various galactic properties, provide unique information on the galactic evolutionary processes across the cosmic epochs. In recent years major progress has been made in constraining the chemical evolution of galaxies and inferring key information relevant

更新日期：2020-04-22
• Astron. Astrophys. Rev. (IF 16.0) Pub Date : 2019-02-04
Paolo Salucci

The distribution of the non-luminous matter in galaxies of different luminosity and Hubble type is much more than a proof of the existence of dark particles governing the structures of the Universe. Here, we will review the complex but well-ordered scenario of the properties of the dark halos also in relation with those of the baryonic components they host. Moreover, we will present a number of tight

更新日期：2020-04-22
• Astron. Astrophys. Rev. (IF 16.0) Pub Date : 2018-12-04
K. D. Kuntz

Solar wind charge-exchange (SWCX) emission is present in every X-ray observation of an astrophysical object. The emission is problematic when one cannot remove the foreground by the simultaneous measurement of a nearby field. SWCX emission is a serious impediment to the study of the diffuse hot ISM, including the galactic halo, as its contribution to diagnostic emission lines is temporally variable

更新日期：2020-04-22
• Astron. Astrophys. Rev. (IF 16.0) Pub Date : 2018-10-27
Poul Erik Nissen, Bengt Gustafsson

Efficient spectrographs at large telescopes have made it possible to obtain high-resolution spectra of stars with high signal-to-noise ratio and advances in model atmosphere analyses have enabled estimates of high-precision differential abundances of the elements from these spectra, i.e. with errors in the range 0.01–0.03 dex for F, G, and K stars. Methods to determine such high-precision abundances

更新日期：2020-04-22
• Astron. Astrophys. Rev. (IF 16.0) Pub Date : 2018-08-10
Françoise Combes

ALMA is now fully operational, and has been observing in early science mode since 2011. The millimetric (mm) and sub-mm domain is ideal to tackle galaxies at high redshift, since the emission peak of the dust at 100 $$\upmu$$m is shifted in the ALMA bands (0.3–1 mm) for $$z=$$ 2–9, and the CO lines, stronger at the high-J levels of the ladder, are found all over the 0.3–3 mm range. Pointed surveys

更新日期：2020-04-22
• Astron. Astrophys. Rev. (IF 16.0) Pub Date : 2018-07-17
Raffaella Morganti, Tom Oosterloo

This review summarises what we have learnt in the last two decades based on H i 21 cm absorption observations about the cold interstellar medium (ISM) in the central regions of active galaxies and about the interplay between this gas and the active nucleus (AGN). H i absorption is a powerful tracer on all scales, from the parsec-scales close to the central black hole to structures of many tens of kpc

更新日期：2020-04-22
• Astron. Astrophys. Rev. (IF 16.0) Pub Date : 2018-06-26
Guillem Anglada, Luis F. Rodríguez, Carlos Carrasco-González

Jets and outflows are ubiquitous in the process of formation of stars since outflow is intimately associated with accretion. Free–free (thermal) radio continuum emission in the centimeter domain is associated with these jets. The emission is relatively weak and compact, and sensitive radio interferometers of high angular resolution are required to detect and study it. One of the key problems in the

更新日期：2020-04-22
• Astron. Astrophys. Rev. (IF 16.0) Pub Date : 2018-05-10
Helmut Lammer, Aubrey L. Zerkle, Stefanie Gebauer, Nicola Tosi, Lena Noack, Manuel Scherf, Elke Pilat-Lohinger, Manuel Güdel, John Lee Grenfell, Mareike Godolt, Athanasia Nikolaou

We review the origin and evolution of the atmospheres of Earth, Venus and Mars from the time when their accreting bodies were released from the protoplanetary disk a few million years after the origin of the Sun. If the accreting planetary cores reached masses $$\ge 0.5 M_\mathrm{Earth}$$ before the gas in the disk disappeared, primordial atmospheres consisting mainly of H$$_2$$ form around the young

更新日期：2020-04-22
• Astron. Astrophys. Rev. (IF 16.0) Pub Date : 2018-01-09
Susanne Höfner, Hans Olofsson

As low- and intermediate-mass stars reach the asymptotic giant branch (AGB), they have developed into intriguing and complex objects that are major players in the cosmic gas/dust cycle. At this stage, their appearance and evolution are strongly affected by a range of dynamical processes. Large-scale convective flows bring newly-formed chemical elements to the stellar surface and, together with pulsations

更新日期：2020-04-22
• Astron. Astrophys. Rev. (IF 16.0) Pub Date : 2017-11-14
Colin Snodgrass, Jessica Agarwal, Michael Combi, Alan Fitzsimmons, Aurelie Guilbert-Lepoutre, Henry H. Hsieh, Man-To Hui, Emmanuel Jehin, Michael S. P. Kelley, Matthew M. Knight, Cyrielle Opitom, Roberto Orosei, Miguel de Val-Borro, Bin Yang

We review the evidence for buried ice in the asteroid belt; specifically the questions around the so-called Main Belt Comets (MBCs). We summarise the evidence for water throughout the Solar System, and describe the various methods for detecting it, including remote sensing from ultraviolet to radio wavelengths. We review progress in the first decade of study of MBCs, including observations, modelling

更新日期：2020-04-22
• Astron. Astrophys. Rev. (IF 16.0) Pub Date : 2017-11-06
B. Boccardi, T. P. Krichbaum, E. Ros, J. A. Zensus

Over the past few decades, our knowledge of jets produced by active galactic nuclei (AGN) has greatly progressed thanks to the development of very-long-baseline interferometry (VLBI). Nevertheless, the crucial mechanisms involved in the formation of the plasma flow, as well as those driving its exceptional radiative output up to TeV energies, remain to be clarified. Most likely, these physical processes

更新日期：2020-04-22
• Astron. Astrophys. Rev. (IF 16.0) Pub Date : 2017-10-24
M. A. Barucci, M. Fulchignoni

Comets have been studied from a long time and are believed to preserve pristine materials, so they are fundamental to understand the origin of the solar system and life. Starting in the early 1990s, ESA decided to have a more risky and fantastic mission to a comet. As Planetary Cornerstone mission of the ESA Horizon 2000 program, the Rosetta mission was selected with the aim of realizing two asteroid

更新日期：2020-04-22
• Astron. Astrophys. Rev. (IF 16.0) Pub Date : 2017-08-23
P. Padovani, D. M. Alexander, R. J. Assef, B. De Marco, P. Giommi, R. C. Hickox, G. T. Richards, V. Smolčić, E. Hatziminaoglou, V. Mainieri, M. Salvato

Active galactic nuclei (AGN) are energetic astrophysical sources powered by accretion onto supermassive black holes in galaxies, and present unique observational signatures that cover the full electromagnetic spectrum over more than twenty orders of magnitude in frequency. The rich phenomenology of AGN has resulted in a large number of different “flavours” in the literature that now comprise a complex

更新日期：2020-04-22
• Astron. Astrophys. Rev. (IF 16.0) Pub Date : 2017-06-15
S. Hekker, J. Christensen-Dalsgaard

Abstract The internal properties of stars in the red-giant phase undergo significant changes on relatively short timescales. Long near-uninterrupted high-precision photometric timeseries observations from dedicated space missions such as CoRoT and Kepler have provided seismic inferences of the global and internal properties of a large number of evolved stars, including red giants. These inferences

更新日期：2020-03-19
• Astron. Astrophys. Rev. (IF 16.0) Pub Date : 2016-11-16
N. Mangold, D. Baratoux, O. Witasse, T. Encrenaz, C. Sotin

Abstract Mars is characterized by geological landforms familiar to terrestrial geologists. It has a tenuous atmosphere that evolved differently from that of Earth and Venus and a differentiated inner structure. Our knowledge of the structure and evolution of Mars has strongly improved thanks to a huge amount of data of various types (visible and infrared imagery, altimetry, radar, chemistry, etc) acquired

更新日期：2020-03-19
• Astron. Astrophys. Rev. (IF 16.0) Pub Date : 2016-11-11
Roderik A. Overzier

The study of galaxy protoclusters is beginning to fill in unknown details of the important phase of the assembly of clusters and cluster galaxies. This review describes the current status of this field and highlights promising recent findings related to galaxy formation in the densest regions of the early universe. We discuss the main search techniques and the characteristic properties of protoclusters

更新日期：2016-11-11
• Astron. Astrophys. Rev. (IF 16.0) Pub Date : 2016-09-29

Radio astronomy has changed. For years it studied relatively rare sources, which emit mostly non-thermal radiation across the entire electromagnetic spectrum, i.e. radio quasars and radio galaxies. Now, it is reaching such faint flux densities that it detects mainly star-forming galaxies and the more common radio-quiet active galactic nuclei. These sources make up the bulk of the extragalactic sky

更新日期：2016-09-29
• Astron. Astrophys. Rev. (IF 16.0) Pub Date : 2016-07-21
Tommaso Treu; Philip J. Marshall

Gravitational time delays, observed in strong lens systems where the variable background source is multiply imaged by a massive galaxy in the foreground, provide direct measurements of cosmological distance that are very complementary to other cosmographic probes. The success of the technique depends on the availability and size of a suitable sample of lensed quasars or supernovae, precise measurements

更新日期：2016-07-21
• Astron. Astrophys. Rev. (IF 16.0) Pub Date : 2016-06-03

Associated with one of the most important forms of active galactic nucleus (AGN) feedback, and showing a strong preference for giant elliptical host galaxies, radio AGN ($$L_{1.4\,\mathrm{GHz}} > 10^{24}$$ W $$\hbox {Hz}^{-1}$$) are a key sub-class of the overall AGN population. Recently their study has benefitted dramatically from the availability of high-quality data covering the X-ray to far-IR

更新日期：2016-06-03
• Astron. Astrophys. Rev. (IF 16.0) Pub Date : 2016-05-31
Paul S. Barklem

The measurement of stellar properties such as chemical compositions, masses and ages, through stellar spectra, is a fundamental problem in astrophysics. Progress in the understanding, calculation and measurement of atomic properties and processes relevant to the high-accuracy analysis of F-, G-, and K-type stellar spectra is reviewed, with particular emphasis on abundance analysis. This includes fundamental

更新日期：2016-05-31
• Astron. Astrophys. Rev. (IF 16.0) Pub Date : 2016-02-29
Sun Kwok

Recent observational and experimental evidence for the presence of complex organics in space is reviewed. Remote astronomical observations have detected $$\sim$$200 gas-phased molecules through their rotational and vibrational transitions. Many classes of organic molecules are represented in this list, including some precursors to biological molecules. A number of unidentified spectral phenomena observed

更新日期：2016-02-29
• Astron. Astrophys. Rev. (IF 16.0) Pub Date : 2016-01-11
M. T. Beltrán; W. J. de Wit

An observational review is provided of the properties of accretion disks around young stars. It concerns the primordial disks of intermediate- and high-mass young stellar objects in embedded and optically revealed phases. The properties were derived from spatially resolved observations and, therefore, predominantly obtained with interferometric means, either in the radio/(sub)millimeter or in the optical/infrared

更新日期：2016-01-11
• Astron. Astrophys. Rev. (IF 16.0) Pub Date : 2016-01-11
Anne Dutrey; Emmanuel Di Folco; Tracy Beck; Stéphane Guilloteau

In binary stellar systems, exoplanet searches have revealed planetary mass companions orbiting both in circumstellar and in circumbinary orbits. Modelling studies suggest increased dynamical complexity around the young stars that form such systems. Circumstellar and circumbinary disks likely exhibit different physical conditions for planet formation, which also depends on the stellar separation. Although

更新日期：2016-01-11
• Astron. Astrophys. Rev. (IF 16.0) Pub Date : 2015-12-29
Rainer Beck

Radio synchrotron emission, its polarization and Faraday rotation of the polarization angle are powerful tools to study the strength and structure of magnetic fields in galaxies. Unpolarized synchrotron emission traces isotropic turbulent fields which are strongest in spiral arms and bars (20–30 $$\upmu$$G) and in central starburst regions (50–100 $$\upmu$$G). Such fields are dynamically important;

更新日期：2015-12-29
• Astron. Astrophys. Rev. (IF 16.0) Pub Date : 2015-12-21
Anuschka Pauluhn; Martin C. E. Huber; Peter L. Smith; Luis Colina

Radiometry, i.e. measuring the power of electromagnetic radiation—hitherto often referred to as “photometry”—is of fundamental importance in astronomy. We provide an overview of how to achieve a valid laboratory calibration of space telescopes and discuss ways to reliably extend this calibration to the spectroscopic telescope’s performance in space. A lot of effort has been, and still is going into

更新日期：2015-12-21
• Astron. Astrophys. Rev. (IF 16.0) Pub Date : 2015-12-19
Francesco Massaro; David J. Thompson; Elizabeth C. Ferrara

The Universe is largely transparent to $$\gamma$$-rays in the GeV energy range, making these high-energy photons valuable for exploring energetic processes in the cosmos. After 7 years of operation, the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope has produced a wealth of information about the high-energy sky. This review focuses on extragalactic $$\gamma$$-ray sources: what has been learned about the sources

更新日期：2015-12-19
• Astron. Astrophys. Rev. (IF 16.0) Pub Date : 2015-12-09
Riccardo Giovanelli; Martha P. Haynes

We review the results of HI line surveys of extragalactic sources in the local Universe. In the last two decades major efforts have been made in establishing on firm statistical grounds the properties of the HI source population, the two most prominent being the HI Parkes All Sky Survey and the Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA survey. We review the choices of technical parameters in the design and optimization

更新日期：2015-12-09
• Astron. Astrophys. Rev. (IF 16.0) Pub Date : 2015-11-20
Pierre Drossart; Franck Montmessin

The ESA/Venus Express mission spent more than 8 years in orbit around Venus to extensively study its atmosphere, ionosphere and plasma environment and unveil new aspects of its surface. Extensive reviews of the work of Venus Express are underway, to cover in-depth studies of the new face of Venus revealed by Venus Express and ground-based concurrent observations. This paper intends to give a summarized

更新日期：2015-11-20
• Astron. Astrophys. Rev. (IF 16.0) Pub Date : 2015-10-31
R. A. Treumann; W. Baumjohann

The present review concerns the relevance of collisionless reconnection in the astrophysical context. Emphasis is put on recent developments in theory obtained from collisionless numerical simulations in two and three dimensions. It is stressed that magnetic reconnection is a universal process of particular importance under collisionless conditions, when both collisional and anomalous dissipation are

更新日期：2015-10-31
• Astron. Astrophys. Rev. (IF 16.0) Pub Date : 2015-09-16
Gloria Dubner; Elsa Giacani

The explosion of a supernova releases almost instantaneously about 10$$^{51}$$ ergs of mechanic energy, changing irreversibly the physical and chemical properties of large regions in the galaxies. The stellar ejecta, the nebula resulting from the powerful shock waves, and sometimes a compact stellar remnant, constitute a supernova remnant (SNR). They can radiate their energy across the whole electromagnetic

更新日期：2015-09-16
• Astron. Astrophys. Rev. (IF 16.0) Pub Date : 2015-08-05
Roland Walter; Alexander A. Lutovinov; Enrico Bozzo; Sergey S. Tsygankov

High-mass X-ray binaries are fundamental in the study of stellar evolution, nucleosynthesis, structure and evolution of galaxies and accretion processes. Hard X-rays observations by INTEGRAL and Swift have broadened significantly our understanding in particular for the super-giant systems in the Milky Way, whose number has increased by almost a factor of three. INTEGRAL played a crucial role in the

更新日期：2015-08-05
• Astron. Astrophys. Rev. (IF 16.0) Pub Date : 2015-01-30
W. N. Brandt; D. M. Alexander

We review results from cosmic X-ray surveys of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) over the past $$\approx 15$$ years that have dramatically improved our understanding of growing supermassive black holes in the distant universe. First, we discuss the utility of such surveys for AGN investigations and the capabilities of the missions making these surveys, emphasizing Chandra, XMM-Newton, and NuSTAR. Second

更新日期：2015-01-30
• Astron. Astrophys. Rev. (IF 16.0) Pub Date : 2014-11-18
Alessandro Boselli; Giuseppe Gavazzi

With the advent of the new generation wide-field cameras it became possible to survey in an unbiased mode galaxies spanning a variety of local densities, from the core of rich clusters, to compact and loose groups, down to filaments and voids. The sensitivity reached by these instruments allowed to extend the observation to dwarf galaxies, the most “fragile” objects in the universe. At the same time

更新日期：2014-11-18
• Astron. Astrophys. Rev. (IF 16.0) Pub Date : 2014-11-16
Christiane Helling; Sarah Casewell

Brown dwarfs are the coolest class of stellar objects known to date. Our present perception is that brown dwarfs follow the principles of star formation, and that brown dwarfs share many characteristics with planets. Being the darkest and lowest mass stars known makes brown dwarfs also the coolest stars known. This has profound implication for their spectral fingerprints. Brown dwarfs cover a range

更新日期：2014-11-16
• Astron. Astrophys. Rev. (IF 16.0) Pub Date : 2014-11-16
Thomas Wiegelmann; Julia K. Thalmann; Sami K. Solanki

This publication provides an overview of magnetic fields in the solar atmosphere with the focus lying on the corona. The solar magnetic field couples the solar interior with the visible surface of the Sun and with its atmosphere. It is also responsible for all solar activity in its numerous manifestations. Thus, dynamic phenomena such as coronal mass ejections and flares are magnetically driven. In

更新日期：2014-11-16
• Astron. Astrophys. Rev. (IF 16.0) Pub Date : 2014-11-14
Andrei M. Bykov

Starforming factories in galaxies produce compact clusters and loose associations of young massive stars. Fast radiation-driven winds and supernovae input their huge kinetic power into the interstellar medium in the form of highly supersonic and superalfvenic outflows. Apart from gas heating, collisionless relaxation of fast plasma outflows results in fluctuating magnetic fields and energetic particles

更新日期：2014-11-14
• Astron. Astrophys. Rev. (IF 16.0) Pub Date : 2014-11-12
Jean Lilensten; Andrew J. Coates; Véronique Dehant; Thierry Dudok de Wit; Richard B. Horne; François Leblanc; Janet Luhmann; Emma Woodfield; Mathieu Barthélemy

Space weather has become a mature discipline for the Earth space environment. With increasing efforts in space exploration, it is becoming more and more necessary to understand the space environments of bodies other than Earth. This is the background for an emerging aspect of the space weather discipline: planetary space weather. In this article, we explore what characterizes planetary space weather

更新日期：2014-11-12
• Astron. Astrophys. Rev. (IF 16.0) Pub Date : 2014-11-01
Paul Hickson

Atmospheric optics is the study of optical effects induced by the atmosphere on light propagating from distant sources. Of particular concern to astronomers is atmospheric turbulence, which limits the performance of ground-based telescopes. The past two decades have seen remarkable growth in the capabilities and performance of adaptive optics (AO) systems. These opto-mechanical systems actively compensate

更新日期：2014-11-01
• Astron. Astrophys. Rev. (IF 16.0) Pub Date : 2014-09-30
Norbert Krupp

We review the current knowledge about the two biggest magnetospheres in our solar system based on the significant progress made with data from the Cassini spacecraft in orbit around Saturn since 2004, and based on the last mission to Jupiter by the Galileo spacecraft between 1995 and 2003. In addition we take into account new observations of the Hubble Space Telescope and other telescopes as well as

更新日期：2014-09-30
• Astron. Astrophys. Rev. (IF 16.0) Pub Date : 2014-09-27
Renato Falomo; Elena Pian; Aldo Treves

BL Lac objects are active nuclei, hosted in massive elliptical galaxies, the emission of which is dominated by a relativistic jet closely aligned with the line of sight. This implies the existence of a parent population of sources with a misaligned jet that have been identified with low-power radiogalaxies. The spectrum of BL Lacs, dominated by non-thermal emission over the whole electromagnetic range

更新日期：2014-09-27
• Astron. Astrophys. Rev. (IF 16.0) Pub Date : 2014-08-08
P. Uttley; E. M. Cackett; A. C. Fabian; E. Kara; D. R. Wilkins

Luminous accreting stellar mass and supermassive black holes produce power–law continuum X-ray emission from a compact central corona. Reverberation time lags occur due to light travel time delays between changes in the direct coronal emission and corresponding variations in its reflection from the accretion flow. Reverberation is detectable using light curves made in different X-ray energy bands,

更新日期：2014-08-08
• Astron. Astrophys. Rev. (IF 16.0) Pub Date : 2014-07-16
Jorge Sánchez Almeida; Bruce G. Elmegreen; Casiana Muñoz-Tuñón; Debra Meloy Elmegreen

Numerical simulations predict that metal-poor gas accretion from the cosmic web fuels the formation of disk galaxies. This paper discusses how cosmic gas accretion controls star formation, and summarizes the physical properties expected for the cosmic gas accreted by galaxies. The paper also collects observational evidence for gas accretion sustaining star formation. It reviews evidence inferred from

更新日期：2014-07-16
• Astron. Astrophys. Rev. (IF 16.0) Pub Date : 2013-11-12
Johannes Geiss; Angelo Pio Rossi

An origin of the Moon by a Giant Impact is presently the most widely accepted theory of lunar origin. It is consistent with the major lunar observations: its exceptionally large size relative to the host planet, the high angular momentum of the Earth–Moon system, the extreme depletion of volatile elements, and the delayed accretion, quickly followed by the formation of a global crust and mantle. According

更新日期：2013-11-12
• Astron. Astrophys. Rev. (IF 16.0) Pub Date : 2013-11-05
Pasquale Blasi

One century ago Viktor Hess carried out several balloon flights that led him to conclude that the penetrating radiation responsible for the discharge of electroscopes was of extraterrestrial origin. One century from the discovery of this phenomenon seems to be a good time to stop and think about what we have understood about Cosmic Rays. The aim of this review is to illustrate the ideas that have been

更新日期：2013-11-05
• Astron. Astrophys. Rev. (IF 16.0) Pub Date : 2013-10-31
Thomas Rivinius; Alex C. Carciofi; Christophe Martayan

In the past decade, a consensus has emerged regarding the nature of classical Be stars: They are very rapidly rotating main sequence B stars, which, through a still unknown, but increasingly constrained process, form an outwardly diffusing gaseous, dust-free Keplerian disk. In this work, first the definition of Be stars is contrasted to similar classes, and common observables obtained for Be stars

更新日期：2013-10-31
• Astron. Astrophys. Rev. (IF 16.0) Pub Date : 2013-10-30
P. Binétruy

The acceleration of the expansion of the Universe which has been identified in recent years has deep connections with some of the most central issues in fundamental physics. At present, the most plausible explanation is some form of vacuum energy. The puzzle of vacuum energy is a central question which lies at the interface between quantum theory and general relativity. Solving it will presumably require

更新日期：2013-10-30
• Astron. Astrophys. Rev. (IF 16.0) Pub Date : 2013-10-26
Giovanna Tinetti; Thérèse Encrenaz; Athena Coustenis

About 20 years after the discovery of the first extrasolar planet, the number of planets known has grown by three orders of magnitude, and continues to increase at neck breaking pace. For most of these planets we have little information, except for the fact that they exist and possess an address in our Galaxy. For about one third of them, we know how much they weigh, their size and their orbital parameters

更新日期：2013-10-26
• Astron. Astrophys. Rev. (IF 16.0) Pub Date : 2013-09-28
D. Perna; M. A. Barucci; M. Fulchignoni

The near-Earth object (NEO) population includes both asteroids (NEAs) and comet nuclei (NECs) whose orbits have perihelion distances q<1.3 AU and which can approach or cross that of the Earth. A NEA is defined as a “potentially hazardous asteroid” (PHA) for Earth when its minimum orbit intersection distance (MOID) comes inside 0.05 AU and it has an absolute magnitude H<22 mag (i.e. mean diameter > 140 m)

更新日期：2013-09-28
• Astron. Astrophys. Rev. (IF 16.0) Pub Date : 2013-09-21
J. O. Stenflo

Observational astrophysics started when spectroscopy could be applied to astronomy. Similarly, observational work on stellar magnetic fields became possible with the application of spectro-polarimetry. In recent decades there have been dramatic advances in the observational tools for spectro-polarimetry. The four Stokes parameters that provide a complete representation of partially polarized light

更新日期：2013-09-21
• Astron. Astrophys. Rev. (IF 16.0) Pub Date : 2013-08-31
Guillaume Dubus

After initial claims and a long hiatus, it is now established that several binary stars emit high- (0.1–100 GeV) and very high-energy (>100 GeV) gamma rays. A new class has emerged called “gamma-ray binaries”, since most of their radiated power is emitted beyond 1 MeV. Accreting X-ray binaries, novae and a colliding wind binary (η Car) have also been detected—“related systems” that confirm the ubiquity

更新日期：2013-08-31
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