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  • Radio observations of active galactic nuclei with mm-VLBI
    Astron. Astrophys. Rev. (IF 15.143) Pub Date : 2017-11-06
    B. Boccardi, T. P. Krichbaum, E. Ros, J. A. Zensus

    Abstract Over the past few decades, our knowledge of jets produced by active galactic nuclei (AGN) has greatly progressed thanks to the development of very-long-baseline interferometry (VLBI). Nevertheless, the crucial mechanisms involved in the formation of the plasma flow, as well as those driving its exceptional radiative output up to TeV energies, remain to be clarified. Most likely, these physical

  • What is a globular cluster? An observational perspective
    Astron. Astrophys. Rev. (IF 15.143) Pub Date : 2019-11-04
    Raffaele Gratton, Angela Bragaglia, Eugenio Carretta, Valentina D’Orazi, Sara Lucatello, Antonio Sollima

    Abstract Globular clusters are large and dense agglomerate of stars. At variance with smaller clusters of stars, they exhibit signs of some chemical evolution. At least for this reason, they are intermediate between open clusters and massive objects such as nuclear clusters or compact galaxies. While some facts are well established, the increasing amount of observational data are revealing a complexity

  • Pulsating white dwarfs: new insights
    Astron. Astrophys. Rev. (IF 15.143) Pub Date : 2019-09-03
    Alejandro H. Córsico, Leandro G. Althaus, Marcelo M. Miller Bertolami, S. O. Kepler

    Abstract Stars are extremely important astronomical objects that constitute the pillars on which the Universe is built, and as such, their study has gained increasing interest over the years. White dwarf stars are not the exception. Indeed, these stars constitute the final evolutionary stage for more than 95% of all stars. The Galactic population of white dwarfs conveys a wealth of information about

  • Small Solar System Bodies as granular media
    Astron. Astrophys. Rev. (IF 15.143) Pub Date : 2019-06-25
    D. Hestroffer, P. Sánchez, L. Staron, A. Campo Bagatin, S. Eggl, W. Losert, N. Murdoch, E. Opsomer, F. Radjai, D. C. Richardson, M. Salazar, D. J. Scheeres, S. Schwartz, N. Taberlet, H. Yano

    Abstract Asteroids and other Small Solar System Bodies (SSSBs) are of high general and scientific interest in many aspects. The origin, formation, and evolution of our Solar System (and other planetary systems) can be better understood by analysing the constitution and physical properties of small bodies in the Solar System. Currently, two space missions (Hayabusa2, OSIRIS-REx) have recently arrived

  • The astrophysics of nanohertz gravitational waves
    Astron. Astrophys. Rev. (IF 15.143) Pub Date : 2019-06-18
    Sarah Burke-Spolaor, Stephen R. Taylor, Maria Charisi, Timothy Dolch, Jeffrey S. Hazboun, A. Miguel Holgado, Luke Zoltan Kelley, T. Joseph W. Lazio, Dustin R. Madison, Natasha McMann, Chiara M. F. Mingarelli, Alexander Rasskazov, Xavier Siemens, Joseph J. Simon, Tristan L. Smith

    Abstract Pulsar timing array (PTA) collaborations in North America, Australia, and Europe, have been exploiting the exquisite timing precision of millisecond pulsars over decades of observations to search for correlated timing deviations induced by gravitational waves (GWs). PTAs are sensitive to the frequency band ranging just below 1 nanohertz to a few tens of microhertz. The discovery space of this

  • Fast radio bursts
    Astron. Astrophys. Rev. (IF 15.143) Pub Date : 2019-05-24
    E. Petroff, J. W. T. Hessels, D. R. Lorimer

    Abstract The discovery of radio pulsars over a half century ago was a seminal moment in astronomy. It demonstrated the existence of neutron stars, gave a powerful observational tool to study them, and has allowed us to probe strong gravity, dense matter, and the interstellar medium. More recently, pulsar surveys have led to the serendipitous discovery of fast radio bursts (FRBs). While FRBs appear

  • De re metallica: the cosmic chemical evolution of galaxies
    Astron. Astrophys. Rev. (IF 15.143) Pub Date : 2019-02-04
    R. Maiolino, F. Mannucci

    Abstract The evolution of the content of heavy elements in galaxies, the relative chemical abundances, their spatial distribution, and how these scale with various galactic properties, provide unique information on the galactic evolutionary processes across the cosmic epochs. In recent years major progress has been made in constraining the chemical evolution of galaxies and inferring key information

  • The distribution of dark matter in galaxies
    Astron. Astrophys. Rev. (IF 15.143) Pub Date : 2019-02-04
    Paolo Salucci

    Abstract The distribution of the non-luminous matter in galaxies of different luminosity and Hubble type is much more than a proof of the existence of dark particles governing the structures of the Universe. Here, we will review the complex but well-ordered scenario of the properties of the dark halos also in relation with those of the baryonic components they host. Moreover, we will present a number

  • Solar wind charge exchange: an astrophysical nuisance
    Astron. Astrophys. Rev. (IF 15.143) Pub Date : 2018-12-04
    K. D. Kuntz

    Abstract Solar wind charge-exchange (SWCX) emission is present in every X-ray observation of an astrophysical object. The emission is problematic when one cannot remove the foreground by the simultaneous measurement of a nearby field. SWCX emission is a serious impediment to the study of the diffuse hot ISM, including the galactic halo, as its contribution to diagnostic emission lines is temporally

  • High-precision stellar abundances of the elements: methods and applications
    Astron. Astrophys. Rev. (IF 15.143) Pub Date : 2018-10-27
    Poul Erik Nissen, Bengt Gustafsson

    Abstract Efficient spectrographs at large telescopes have made it possible to obtain high-resolution spectra of stars with high signal-to-noise ratio and advances in model atmosphere analyses have enabled estimates of high-precision differential abundances of the elements from these spectra, i.e. with errors in the range 0.01–0.03 dex for F, G, and K stars. Methods to determine such high-precision

  • Molecular gas in distant galaxies from ALMA studies
    Astron. Astrophys. Rev. (IF 15.143) Pub Date : 2018-08-10
    Françoise Combes

    Abstract ALMA is now fully operational, and has been observing in early science mode since 2011. The millimetric (mm) and sub-mm domain is ideal to tackle galaxies at high redshift, since the emission peak of the dust at 100  \(\upmu \) m is shifted in the ALMA bands (0.3–1 mm) for \(z=\)  2–9, and the CO lines, stronger at the high-J levels of the ladder, are found all over the 0.3–3 mm range. Pointed

  • The interstellar and circumnuclear medium of active nuclei traced by H i 21 cm absorption
    Astron. Astrophys. Rev. (IF 15.143) Pub Date : 2018-07-17
    Raffaella Morganti, Tom Oosterloo

    Abstract This review summarises what we have learnt in the last two decades based on H i 21 cm absorption observations about the cold interstellar medium (ISM) in the central regions of active galaxies and about the interplay between this gas and the active nucleus (AGN). H i absorption is a powerful tracer on all scales, from the parsec-scales close to the central black hole to structures of many

  • Radio jets from young stellar objects
    Astron. Astrophys. Rev. (IF 15.143) Pub Date : 2018-06-26
    Guillem Anglada, Luis F. Rodríguez, Carlos Carrasco-González

    Abstract Jets and outflows are ubiquitous in the process of formation of stars since outflow is intimately associated with accretion. Free–free (thermal) radio continuum emission in the centimeter domain is associated with these jets. The emission is relatively weak and compact, and sensitive radio interferometers of high angular resolution are required to detect and study it. One of the key problems

  • Origin and evolution of the atmospheres of early Venus, Earth and Mars
    Astron. Astrophys. Rev. (IF 15.143) Pub Date : 2018-05-10
    Helmut Lammer, Aubrey L. Zerkle, Stefanie Gebauer, Nicola Tosi, Lena Noack, Manuel Scherf, Elke Pilat-Lohinger, Manuel Güdel, John Lee Grenfell, Mareike Godolt, Athanasia Nikolaou

    Abstract We review the origin and evolution of the atmospheres of Earth, Venus and Mars from the time when their accreting bodies were released from the protoplanetary disk a few million years after the origin of the Sun. If the accreting planetary cores reached masses \(\ge 0.5 M_\mathrm{Earth}\) before the gas in the disk disappeared, primordial atmospheres consisting mainly of H \(_2\) form around

  • Mass loss of stars on the asymptotic giant branch
    Astron. Astrophys. Rev. (IF 15.143) Pub Date : 2018-01-09
    Susanne Höfner, Hans Olofsson

    Abstract As low- and intermediate-mass stars reach the asymptotic giant branch (AGB), they have developed into intriguing and complex objects that are major players in the cosmic gas/dust cycle. At this stage, their appearance and evolution are strongly affected by a range of dynamical processes. Large-scale convective flows bring newly-formed chemical elements to the stellar surface and, together

  • The Main Belt Comets and ice in the Solar System
    Astron. Astrophys. Rev. (IF 15.143) Pub Date : 2017-11-14
    Colin Snodgrass, Jessica Agarwal, Michael Combi, Alan Fitzsimmons, Aurelie Guilbert-Lepoutre, Henry H. Hsieh, Man-To Hui, Emmanuel Jehin, Michael S. P. Kelley, Matthew M. Knight, Cyrielle Opitom, Roberto Orosei, Miguel de Val-Borro, Bin Yang

    Abstract We review the evidence for buried ice in the asteroid belt; specifically the questions around the so-called Main Belt Comets (MBCs). We summarise the evidence for water throughout the Solar System, and describe the various methods for detecting it, including remote sensing from ultraviolet to radio wavelengths. We review progress in the first decade of study of MBCs, including observations

  • Major achievements of the Rosetta mission in connection with the origin of the solar system
    Astron. Astrophys. Rev. (IF 15.143) Pub Date : 2017-10-24
    M. A. Barucci, M. Fulchignoni

    Abstract Comets have been studied from a long time and are believed to preserve pristine materials, so they are fundamental to understand the origin of the solar system and life. Starting in the early 1990s, ESA decided to have a more risky and fantastic mission to a comet. As Planetary Cornerstone mission of the ESA Horizon 2000 program, the Rosetta mission was selected with the aim of realizing two

  • Active galactic nuclei: what’s in a name?
    Astron. Astrophys. Rev. (IF 15.143) Pub Date : 2017-08-23
    P. Padovani, D. M. Alexander, R. J. Assef, B. De Marco, P. Giommi, R. C. Hickox, G. T. Richards, V. Smolčić, E. Hatziminaoglou, V. Mainieri, M. Salvato

    Abstract Active galactic nuclei (AGN) are energetic astrophysical sources powered by accretion onto supermassive black holes in galaxies, and present unique observational signatures that cover the full electromagnetic spectrum over more than twenty orders of magnitude in frequency. The rich phenomenology of AGN has resulted in a large number of different “flavours” in the literature that now comprise

  • Giant star seismology
    Astron. Astrophys. Rev. (IF 15.143) Pub Date : 2017-06-15
    S. Hekker, J. Christensen-Dalsgaard

    Abstract The internal properties of stars in the red-giant phase undergo significant changes on relatively short timescales. Long near-uninterrupted high-precision photometric timeseries observations from dedicated space missions such as CoRoT and Kepler have provided seismic inferences of the global and internal properties of a large number of evolved stars, including red giants. These inferences

  • Mars: a small terrestrial planet
    Astron. Astrophys. Rev. (IF 15.143) Pub Date : 2016-11-16
    N. Mangold, D. Baratoux, O. Witasse, T. Encrenaz, C. Sotin

    Abstract Mars is characterized by geological landforms familiar to terrestrial geologists. It has a tenuous atmosphere that evolved differently from that of Earth and Venus and a differentiated inner structure. Our knowledge of the structure and evolution of Mars has strongly improved thanks to a huge amount of data of various types (visible and infrared imagery, altimetry, radar, chemistry, etc) acquired

  • Understanding oblique impacts from experiments, observations, and modeling.
    Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. (IF 9.235) Pub Date : 2001-10-05
    E Pierazzo,H J Melosh

    Natural impacts in which the projectile strikes the target vertically are virtually nonexistent. Nevertheless, our inherent drive to simplify nature often causes us to suppose most impacts are nearly vertical. Recent theoretical, observational, and experimental work is improving this situation, but even with the current wealth of studies on impact cratering, the effect of impact angle on the final

  • Stromatolites in Precambrian carbonates: evolutionary mileposts or environmental dipsticks?
    Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. (IF 9.235) Pub Date : 2001-09-07
    J P Grotzinger,A H Knoll

    Stromatolites are attached, lithified sedimentary growth structures, accretionary away from a point or limited surface of initiation. Though the accretion process is commonly regarded to result from the sediment trapping or precipitation-inducing activities of microbial mats, little evidence of this process is preserved in most Precambrian stromatolites. The successful study and interpretation of stromatolites

  • Sediment bacteria: who's there, what are they doing, and what's new?
    Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. (IF 9.235) Pub Date : 1997-01-01
    K H Nealson

    The prokaryotes (bacteria) comprise the bulk of the biomass and chemical activity in sediments. They are well suited to their role as sediment chemists, as they are the right size and have the required metabolic versatility to oxidize the organic carbon in a variety of different ways. The characteristic vertical nutrient (electron donor and electron acceptor) profiles seen in sediments are produced

  • The origin of life in the solar system: current issues.
    Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. (IF 9.235) Pub Date : 1995-01-01
    C F Chyba,G D McDonald

    The authors review current issues in the study of biogenesis and exobiology research. Topics include definitions of life; exobiological environments in the solar system, including the planets and their satellites, comets, and asteroids; energy sources for prebiotic chemistry, and the concept of the RNA world.

  • The origin and early evolution of life on Earth.
    Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. (IF 9.235) Pub Date : 1990-01-01
    J Oró,S L Miller,A Lazcano

    We do not have a detailed knowledge of the processes that led to the appearance of life on Earth. In this review we bring together some of the most important results that have provided insights into the cosmic and primitive Earth environments, particularly those environments in which life is thought to have originated. To do so, we first discuss the evidence bearing on the antiquity of life on our

  • Big Time
    Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. (IF 9.235) Pub Date : 2019-05-30
    Paul F. Hoffman

    The Proterozoic Eon was once regarded as the neglected middle half of Earth history. The name refers to early animals, but they did not appear until the eon (2.5–0.54 Ga) was nearly over. Eukaryotic cells and sexual reproduction evolved much earlier in the eon, as did chloroplasts. Molecular dioxygen, the presence of which altered the geochemical behavior of nearly every element essential to life,

  • Unanticipated Uses of the Global Positioning System
    Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. (IF 9.235) Pub Date : 2019-05-30
    Kristine M. Larson

    Global Positioning System (GPS) instruments are routinely used today to measure crustal deformation signals from tectonic plate motions, faulting, and glacial isostatic adjustment. In parallel with the expansion of GPS networks around the world, several new and unexpected applications of GPS have been developed. For example, GPS instruments are now being used routinely to measure ground motions during

  • Dynamics in the Uppermost Lower Mantle: Insights into the Deep Mantle Water Cycle Based on the Numerical Modeling of Subducted Slabs and Global-Scale Mantle Dynamics
    Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. (IF 9.235) Pub Date : 2019-05-30
    Takashi Nakagawa, Tomoeki Nakakuki

    In this review, we address the current status of numerical modeling of the mantle transition zone and uppermost lower mantle, focusing on the hydration mechanism in these areas. The main points are as follows: (a) Slab stagnation and penetration may play significant roles in transporting the water in the whole mantle, and (b) a huge amount of water could be absorbed into the deep mantle to preserve

  • Atmospheric Escape and the Evolution of Close-In Exoplanets
    Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. (IF 9.235) Pub Date : 2019-05-30
    James E. Owen

    Exoplanets with substantial hydrogen/helium atmospheres have been discovered in abundance, many residing extremely close to their parent stars. The extreme irradiation levels that these atmospheres experience cause them to undergo hydrodynamic atmospheric escape. Ongoing atmospheric escape has been observed to be occurring in a few nearby exoplanet systems through transit spectroscopy both for hot

  • The Sedimentary Cycle on Early Mars
    Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. (IF 9.235) Pub Date : 2019-05-30
    Scott M. McLennan, John P. Grotzinger, Joel A. Hurowitz, Nicholas J. Tosca

    Two decades of intensive research have demonstrated that early Mars (2 Gyr) had an active sedimentary cycle, including well-preserved stratigraphic records, understandable within a source-to-sink framework with remarkable fidelity. This early cycle exhibits first-order similarities to (e.g., facies relationships, groundwater diagenesis, recycling) and first-order differences from (e.g., greater aeolian

  • New Horizons Observations of the Atmosphere of Pluto
    Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. (IF 9.235) Pub Date : 2019-05-30
    G. Randall Gladstone, Leslie A. Young

    New Horizons data provide a snapshot of the current state of Pluto's atmosphere. Winds are slow and mostly controlled by sublimation of surface ices. Molecular nitrogen is the primary constituent below 1,800 km, while methane and carbon monoxide are important minor species. Photolysis of these gases leads to a thin haze that encompasses Pluto from the surface up to >500-km altitude and is important

  • The Compositional Diversity of Low-Mass Exoplanets
    Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. (IF 9.235) Pub Date : 2019-05-30
    Daniel Jontof-Hutter

    Low-mass planets have an extraordinarily diverse range of bulk compositions, from primarily rocky worlds to those with deep gaseous atmospheres. As techniques for measuring the masses of exoplanets advance the field toward the regime of rocky planets, from ultrashort orbital periods to Venus-like distances, we identify the bounds on planet compositions, where sizes and incident fluxes inform bulk planet

  • Destruction of the North China Craton in the Mesozoic
    Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. (IF 9.235) Pub Date : 2019-05-30
    Fu-Yuan Wu, Jin-Hui Yang, Yi-Gang Xu, Simon A. Wilde, Richard J. Walker

    The North China Craton (NCC) was originally formed by the amalgamation of the eastern and western blocks along an orogenic belt at ∼1.9 Ga. After cratonization, the NCC was essentially stable until the Mesozoic, when intense felsic magmatism and related mineralization, deformation, pull-apart basins, and exhumation of the deep crust widely occurred, indicative of destruction or decratonization. Accompanying

  • Seawater Chemistry Through Phanerozoic Time
    Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. (IF 9.235) Pub Date : 2019-05-30
    Alexandra V. Turchyn, Donald J. DePaolo

    The major ion balance of the ocean, particularly the concentrations of magnesium (Mg), calcium (Ca), and sulfate (SO4), has evolved over the Phanerozoic (last 550 million years) in concert with changes in sea level and the partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2). We review these changes, along with changes in Mg/Ca and strontium/calcium (Sr/Ca) of the ocean; how the changes were reconstructed; and

  • Global Patterns of Carbon Dioxide Variability from Satellite Observations
    Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. (IF 9.235) Pub Date : 2019-05-30
    Xun Jiang, Yuk L. Yung

    Advanced satellite technology has been providing unique observations of global carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations. These observations have revealed important CO2 variability at different timescales and over regional and planetary scales. Satellite CO2 retrievals have revealed that stratospheric sudden warming and the Madden-Julian Oscillation can modulate atmospheric CO2 concentrations in the mid-troposphere

  • Permeability of Clays and Shales
    Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. (IF 9.235) Pub Date : 2019-05-30
    C.E. Neuzil

    The low permeability of clays, shales, and other argillaceous lithologies makes them key controls of transport and deformation processes in the crust but is known for being challenging to characterize. As muds are modified by compaction and diagenesis to low-porosity shales, permeability can decrease by six or more orders of magnitude, but at large scales it is often dramatically and unpredictably

  • Flood Basalts and Mass Extinctions
    Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. (IF 9.235) Pub Date : 2019-05-30
    Matthew E. Clapham, Paul R. Renne

    Flood basalts were Earth's largest volcanic episodes that, along with related intrusions, were often emplaced rapidly and coincided with environmental disruption: oceanic anoxic events, hyperthermals, and mass extinction events. Volatile emissions, both from magmatic degassing and vaporized from surrounding rock, triggered short-term cooling and longer-term warming, ocean acidification, and deoxygenation

  • Repeating Earthquakes
    Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. (IF 9.235) Pub Date : 2019-05-30
    Naoki Uchida, Roland Bürgmann

    Repeating earthquakes, or repeaters, are identical in location and geometry but occur at different times. They appear to represent recurring seismic energy release from distinct structures such as slip on a fault patch. Repeaters are most commonly found on creeping plate boundary faults, where seismic patches are loaded by surrounding slow slip, and they can be used to track fault creep at depth. Their

  • Soil Functions: Connecting Earth's Critical Zone
    Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. (IF 9.235) Pub Date : 2019-05-30
    Steven A. Banwart, Nikolaos P. Nikolaidis, Yong-Guan Zhu, Caroline L. Peacock, Donald L. Sparks

    Soil is the central interface of Earth's critical zone—the planetary surface layer extending from unaltered bedrock to the vegetation canopy—and is under intense pressure from human demand for biomass, water, and food resources. Soil functions are flows and transformations of mass, energy, and genetic information that connect soil to the wider critical zone, transmitting the impacts of human activity

  • Earthquake Early Warning: Advances, Scientific Challenges, and Societal Needs
    Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. (IF 9.235) Pub Date : 2019-05-30
    Richard M. Allen, Diego Melgar

    Earthquake early warning (EEW) is the delivery of ground shaking alerts or warnings. It is distinguished from earthquake prediction in that the earthquake has nucleated to provide detectable ground motion when an EEW is issued. Here we review progress in the field in the last 10 years. We begin with EEW users, synthesizing what we now know about who uses EEW and what information they need and can digest

  • Noble Gases: A Record of Earth's Evolution and Mantle Dynamics
    Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. (IF 9.235) Pub Date : 2019-05-30
    Sujoy Mukhopadhyay, Rita Parai

    Noble gases have played a key role in our understanding of the origin of Earth's volatiles, mantle structure, and long-term degassing of the mantle. Here we synthesize new insights into these topics gained from high-precision noble gas data. Our analysis reveals new constraints on the origin of the terrestrial atmosphere, the presence of nebular neon but chondritic krypton and xenon in the mantle,

  • Supraglacial Streams and Rivers
    Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. (IF 9.235) Pub Date : 2019-05-30
    Lincoln H Pitcher, Laurence C. Smith

    Supraglacial meltwater channels that flow on the surfaces of glaciers, ice sheets, and ice shelves connect ice surface climatology with subglacial processes, ice dynamics, and eustatic sea level changes. Their important role in transferring water and heat across and into ice is currently absent from models of surface mass balance and runoff contributions to global sea level rise. Furthermore, relatively

  • Isotopes in the Water Cycle: Regional- to Global-Scale Patterns and Applications
    Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. (IF 9.235) Pub Date : 2019-05-30
    Gabriel J. Bowen, Zhongyin Cai, Richard P. Fiorella, Annie L. Putman

    Stable isotope ratios of hydrogen and oxygen have been applied to water cycle research for over 60 years. Over the past two decades, however, new data, data compilations, and quantitative methods have supported the application of isotopic data to address large-scale water cycle problems. Recent results have demonstrated the impact of climate variation on atmospheric water cycling, provided constraints

  • Marsh Processes and Their Response to Climate Change and Sea-Level Rise
    Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. (IF 9.235) Pub Date : 2019-05-30
    Duncan M. FitzGerald, Zoe Hughes

    In addition to their being vital components of mid- to high-latitude coastal ecosystems, salt marshes contain 0.1% of global sequestered terrestrial carbon. Their sustainability is now threatened by accelerating sea-level rise (SLR) that has reached a rate that is many times greater than the rate at which they formed and evolved. Modeling studies have been instrumental in predicting how marsh systems

  • The Mesozoic Biogeographic History of Gondwanan Terrestrial Vertebrates: Insights from Madagascar's Fossil Record
    Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. (IF 9.235) Pub Date : 2019-05-30
    David W. Krause, Joseph J.W. Sertich, Patrick M. O'Connor, Kristina Curry Rogers, Raymond R. Rogers

    The Mesozoic plate tectonic and paleogeographic history of Gondwana had a profound effect on the distribution of terrestrial vertebrates. As the supercontinent fragmented into a series of large landmasses (South America, Africa-Arabia, Antarctica, Australia, New Zealand, the Indian subcontinent, and Madagascar), particularly during the Late Jurassic and Cretaceous, its terrestrial vertebrates became

  • Droughts, Wildfires, and Forest Carbon Cycling: A Pantropical Synthesis
    Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. (IF 9.235) Pub Date : 2019-05-30
    Paulo M. Brando, Lucas Paolucci, Caroline C. Ummenhofer, Elsa M. Ordway, Henrik Hartmann, Megan E. Cattau, Ludmila Rattis, Vincent Medjibe, Michael T. Coe, Jennifer Balch

    Tropical woody plants store ∼230 petagrams of carbon (PgC) in their aboveground living biomass. This review suggests that these stocks are currently growing in primary forests at rates that have decreased in recent decades. Droughts are an important mechanism in reducing forest C uptake and stocks by decreasing photosynthesis, elevating tree mortality, increasing autotrophic respiration, and promoting

  • Exoplanet Clouds
    Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. (IF 9.235) Pub Date : 2019-05-30
    Christiane Helling

    Clouds, which are common features in Earth's atmosphere, form in atmospheres of planets that orbit other stars than our Sun, in so-called extrasolar planets or exoplanets. Exoplanet atmospheres can be chemically extremely rich. Exoplanet clouds are therefore composed of a mix of materials that changes throughout the atmosphere. They affect atmospheres through element depletion and through absorption

  • A Geologist Reflects on a Long Career
    Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. (IF 9.235) Pub Date : 2018-05-30
    Dan McKenzie

    Fifty years ago Jason Morgan and I proposed what is now known as the theory of plate tectonics, which brought together the ideas of continental drift and sea floor spreading into what is probably their final form. I was twenty-five and had just finished my PhD. The success of the theory marked the beginning of a change of emphasis in the Earth sciences, which I have spent the rest of my career exploring

  • Low-Temperature Alteration of the Seafloor: Impacts on Ocean Chemistry
    Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. (IF 9.235) Pub Date : 2018-05-30
    Laurence A. Coogan, Kathryn M. Gillis

    Over 50% of Earth is covered by oceanic crust, the uppermost portion of which is a high-permeability layer of basaltic lavas through which seawater continuously circulates. Fluid flow is driven by heat lost from the oceanic lithosphere; the global fluid flux is dependent on plate creation rates and the thickness and distribution of overlying sediment, which acts as a low-permeability layer impeding

  • The Thermal Conductivity of Earth's Core: A Key Geophysical Parameter's Constraints and Uncertainties
    Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. (IF 9.235) Pub Date : 2018-05-30
    Q. Williams

    The thermal conductivity of iron alloys at high pressures and temperatures is a critical parameter in governing (a) the present-day heat flow out of Earth's core, (b) the inferred age of Earth's inner core, and (c) the thermal evolution of Earth's core and lowermost mantle. It is, however, one of the least well-constrained important geophysical parameters, with current estimates for end-member iron

  • Fluids of the Lower Crust: Deep Is Different
    Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. (IF 9.235) Pub Date : 2018-05-30
    Craig E. Manning

    Deep fluids are important for the evolution and properties of the lower continental and arc crust in tectonically active settings. They comprise four components: H2O, nonpolar gases, salts, and rock-derived solutes. Contrasting behavior of H2O-gas and H2O-salt mixtures yields immiscibility and potential separation of phases with different chemical properties. Equilibrium thermodynamic modeling of fluid-rock

  • Commercial Satellite Imagery Analysis for Countering Nuclear Proliferation
    Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. (IF 9.235) Pub Date : 2018-05-30
    David Albright, Sarah Burkhard, Allison Lach

    High-resolution commercial satellite imagery from a growing number of private satellite companies allows nongovernmental analysts to better understand secret or opaque nuclear programs of countries in unstable or tense regions, called proliferant states. They include North Korea, Iran, India, Pakistan, and Israel. By using imagery to make these countries’ aims and capabilities more transparent, nongovernmental

  • Controls on O2 Production in Cyanobacterial Mats and Implications for Earth's Oxygenation
    Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. (IF 9.235) Pub Date : 2018-05-30
    Gregory J. Dick, Sharon L. Grim, Judith M. Klatt

    Cyanobacterial mats are widely assumed to have been globally significant hot spots of biogeochemistry and evolution during the Archean and Proterozoic, but little is known about their quantitative contributions to global primary productivity or Earth's oxygenation. Modern systems show that mat biogeochemistry is the outcome of concerted activities and intimate interactions between various microbial

  • Induced Seismicity
    Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. (IF 9.235) Pub Date : 2018-05-30
    Katie M. Keranen, Matthew Weingarten

    The ability of fluid-generated subsurface stress changes to trigger earthquakes has long been recognized. However, the dramatic rise in the rate of human-induced earthquakes in the past decade has created abundant opportunities to study induced earthquakes and triggering processes. This review briefly summarizes early studies but focuses on results from induced earthquakes during the past 10 years

  • Superrotation on Venus, on Titan, and Elsewhere
    Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. (IF 9.235) Pub Date : 2018-05-30
    Peter L. Read, Sebastien Lebonnois

    The superrotation of the atmospheres of Venus and Titan has puzzled dynamicists for many years and seems to put these planets in a very different dynamical regime from most other planets. In this review, we consider how to define superrotation objectively and explore the constraints that determine its occurrence. Atmospheric superrotation also occurs elsewhere in the Solar System and beyond, and we

  • The Origin and Evolutionary Biology of Pinnipeds: Seals, Sea Lions, and Walruses
    Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. (IF 9.235) Pub Date : 2018-05-30
    Annalisa Berta, Morgan Churchill, Robert W. Boessenecker

    The oldest definitive pinniped fossils date from approximately 30.6–23 million years ago (Ma) in the North Pacific. Pinniped monophyly is consistently supported; the group shares a common ancestry with arctoid carnivorans, either ursids or musteloids. Crown pinnipeds comprise the Otariidae (fur seals and sea lions), Odobenidae (walruses), and Phocidae (seals), with paraphyletic “enaliarctines” falling

  • Paleobiology of Pleistocene Proboscideans
    Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. (IF 9.235) Pub Date : 2018-05-30
    Daniel C. Fisher

    The paleobiology of Pleistocene proboscideans plays a pivotal role in understanding their history and in answering fundamental questions involving their interactions with other taxa, including humans. Much of our view of proboscidean paleobiology is influenced by analogies with extant elephants. However, a wealth of information is available for reconstructing the paleobiology of ancient proboscideans

  • Subduction Orogeny and the Late Cenozoic Evolution of the Mediterranean Arcs
    Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. (IF 9.235) Pub Date : 2018-05-30
    Leigh Royden, Claudio Faccenna

    The Late Cenozoic tectonic evolution of the Mediterranean region, which is sandwiched between the converging African and European continents, is dominated by the process of subduction orogeny. Subduction orogeny occurs where localized subduction, driven by negative slab buoyancy, is more rapid than the convergence rate of the bounding plates; it is commonly developed in zones of early or incomplete

  • The Tasmanides: Phanerozoic Tectonic Evolution of Eastern Australia
    Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. (IF 9.235) Pub Date : 2018-05-30
    Gideon Rosenbaum

    The Tasmanides occupy the eastern third of Australia and provide an extensive record of the evolution of the eastern Gondwanan convergent plate boundary from the Cambrian to the Triassic. This article presents a summary of the primary building blocks (igneous provinces and sedimentary basins) within the Tasmanides, followed by a discussion of the timing and extent of deformation events. Relatively

  • Atlantic-Pacific Asymmetry in Deep Water Formation
    Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. (IF 9.235) Pub Date : 2018-05-30
    David Ferreira, Paola Cessi, Helen K. Coxall, Agatha de Boer, Henk A. Dijkstra, Sybren S. Drijfhout, Tor Eldevik, Nili Harnik, Jerry F. McManus, David P. Marshall, Johan Nilsson, Fabien Roquet, Tapio Schneider, Robert C. Wills

    While the Atlantic Ocean is ventilated by high-latitude deep water formation and exhibits a pole-to-pole overturning circulation, the Pacific Ocean does not. This asymmetric global overturning pattern has persisted for the past 2–3 million years, with evidence for different ventilation modes in the deeper past. In the current climate, the Atlantic-Pacific asymmetry occurs because the Atlantic is more

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全球疫情及响应:BMC Medicine专题征稿