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  • Molecular water detected on the sunlit Moon by SOFIA
    Nat. Astron. (IF 11.518) Pub Date : 2020-10-26
    C. I. Honniball; P. G. Lucey; S. Li; S. Shenoy; T. M. Orlando; C. A. Hibbitts; D. M. Hurley; W. M. Farrell

    Widespread hydration was detected on the lunar surface through observations of a characteristic absorption feature at 3 µm by three independent spacecraft1,2,3. Whether the hydration is molecular water (H2O) or other hydroxyl (OH) compounds is unknown and there are no established methods to distinguish the two using the 3 µm band4. However, a fundamental vibration of molecular water produces a spectral

    更新日期:2020-10-28
  • Highly ordered magnetic fields in the tail of the jellyfish galaxy JO206
    Nat. Astron. (IF 11.518) Pub Date : 2020-10-26
    Ancla Müller; Bianca Maria Poggianti; Christoph Pfrommer; Björn Adebahr; Paolo Serra; Alessandro Ignesti; Martin Sparre; Myriam Gitti; Ralf-Jürgen Dettmar; Benedetta Vulcani; Alessia Moretti

    Jellyfish galaxies have long tails of gas that is stripped from the disk by ram pressure due to the motion of galaxies in the intracluster medium in galaxy clusters. Here, we present the magnetic field strength and orientation within the disk and the (90-kpc-long) Hα-emitting tail of the jellyfish galaxy JO206. The tail has a large-scale magnetic field (>4.1 μG), a steep radio spectral index (α ≈ −2

    更新日期:2020-10-28
  • Micro cold traps on the Moon
    Nat. Astron. (IF 11.518) Pub Date : 2020-10-26
    P. O. Hayne; O. Aharonson; N. Schörghofer

    Water ice is thought to be trapped in large permanently shadowed regions in the Moon’s polar regions, due to their extremely low temperatures. Here, we show that many unmapped cold traps exist on small spatial scales, substantially augmenting the areas where ice may accumulate. Using theoretical models and data from the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, we estimate the contribution of shadows on scales

    更新日期:2020-10-28
  • Author Correction: Expanding astronomy research in Malaysia
    Nat. Astron. (IF 11.518) Pub Date : 2020-10-21
    Zamri Zainal Abidin; Mhd Fairos Asillam; Jun Yi Koay

    An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.

    更新日期:2020-10-28
  • Reconstructing the formation history of top-shaped asteroids from the surface boulder distribution
    Nat. Astron. (IF 11.518) Pub Date : 2020-10-19
    Bin Cheng; Yang Yu; Erik Asphaug; Patrick Michel; Derek C. Richardson; Masatoshi Hirabayashi; Makoto Yoshikawa; Hexi Baoyin

    Finding the basic mechanism governing the surface history of asteroids of various shapes is essential for understanding their origin and evolution. In particular, the asteroids (162173) Ryugu1 and (101955) Bennu2 currently being visited by Hayabusa2 and OSIRIS-REx appear to be top shaped. This distinctive shape, characterized by a raised equatorial bulge, is shared by other similarly sized asteroids

    更新日期:2020-10-19
  • A disk-dominated and clumpy circumgalactic medium of the Milky Way seen in X-ray emission
    Nat. Astron. (IF 11.518) Pub Date : 2020-10-19
    P. Kaaret; D. Koutroumpa; K. D. Kuntz; K. Jahoda; J. Bluem; H. Gulick; E. Hodges-Kluck; D. M. LaRocca; R. Ringuette; A. Zajczyk

    The Milky Way galaxy is surrounded by a circumgalactic medium1 that may play a key role in galaxy evolution as the source of gas for star formation and a repository of metals and energy produced by star formation and nuclear activity2. The circumgalactic medium may also be a repository for baryons seen in the early universe, but undetected locally3. The circumgalactic medium has an ionized component

    更新日期:2020-10-19
  • Expanding astronomy research in Malaysia
    Nat. Astron. (IF 11.518) Pub Date : 2020-10-14
    Zamri Zainal Abidin; Mhd Fairos Asillam; Jun Yi Koay

    Astronomy research in Malaysia has progressed rapidly in the last few decades, with an increasing number of enthusiastic Malaysian astronomers working together to build new research groups and observing facilities, while establishing research networks both locally and globally.

    更新日期:2020-10-15
  • Publisher Correction: Dive into the Universe
    Nat. Astron. (IF 11.518) Pub Date : 2020-10-13
    May Chiao

    An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.

    更新日期:2020-10-13
  • Author Correction: An ultrahot Neptune in the Neptune desert
    Nat. Astron. (IF 11.518) Pub Date : 2020-10-13
    James S. Jenkins; Matías R. Díaz; Nicolás T. Kurtovic; Néstor Espinoza; Jose I. Vines; Pablo A. Peña Rojas; Rafael Brahm; Pascal Torres; Pía Cortés-Zuleta; Maritza G. Soto; Eric D. Lopez; George W. King; Peter J. Wheatley; Joshua N. Winn; David R. Ciardi; George Ricker; Roland Vanderspek; David W. Latham; Sara Seager; Jon M. Jenkins; Charles A. Beichman; Allyson Bieryla; Christopher J. Burke; Jessie

    An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.

    更新日期:2020-10-13
  • The patchy temperature map of magnetars
    Nat. Astron. (IF 11.518) Pub Date : 2020-10-12
    Daniele Viganò

    On a magnetar’s surface, magnetic fields can create permanent sunspot-like structures. Accounting for heat diffusion and magnetic evolution in a magnetar’s crust in the latest simulations improves agreement with observations.

    更新日期:2020-10-12
  • Strong toroidal magnetic fields required by quiescent X-ray emission of magnetars
    Nat. Astron. (IF 11.518) Pub Date : 2020-10-12
    Andrei P. Igoshev; Rainer Hollerbach; Toby Wood; Konstantinos N. Gourgouliatos

    Magnetars are neutron stars (NSs) with extreme magnetic fields1 of strength 5 × 1013−1015 G. These fields are generated by dynamo action during the proto-NS phase, and are expected to have both poloidal and toroidal components2,3,4,5,6, although the energy of the toroidal component could be ten times larger7. Only the poloidal dipolar field can be measured directly, via NS spin-down8. The magnetic

    更新日期:2020-10-12
  • Clearing up the clouds on hot gas giants
    Nat. Astron. (IF 11.518) Pub Date : 2020-10-08
    Nicolas B. Cowan; Emily Rauscher

    Comparing microphysical models of aerosol production to Hubble Space Telescope transit spectra reveals a surprisingly simple transition between atmospheres with hydrocarbon hazes, silicate clouds and clear skies.

    更新日期:2020-10-08
  • Space telescopes through philanthropic support
    Nat. Astron. (IF 11.518) Pub Date : 2020-10-08
    Luca Maresi; Alessandro Zuccaro Marchi

    Philanthropic donations are a significant contribution to the betterment of humankind, with a large percentage dedicated to science and education. Affordable small satellites may offer philanthropists the opportunity to give students and underprivileged communities access to small space telescopes.

    更新日期:2020-10-08
  • The quest to fund small satellites
    Nat. Astron. (IF 11.518) Pub Date : 2020-10-08
    James Endicott

    The Space Academic Network made a case for a small-satellite programme for the United Kingdom to provide access to space, and a route for advancing science and technology; however, funding has not been forthcoming. The search for a killer argument for this widely supported programme continues.

    更新日期:2020-10-08
  • Venus news trap
    Nat. Astron. (IF 11.518) Pub Date : 2020-10-08

    The detection of phosphine in the cloud decks of Venus generated 4,700 news stories around the world. This kind of coordination was only possible because of our embargo policy.

    更新日期:2020-10-08
  • Spitzer’s Solar System studies of comets, centaurs and Kuiper belt objects
    Nat. Astron. (IF 11.518) Pub Date : 2020-10-08
    Carey Lisse; James Bauer; Dale Cruikshank; Josh Emery; Yanga Fernández; Estela Fernández-Valenzuela; Michael Kelley; Adam McKay; William Reach; Yvonne Pendleton; Noemi Pinilla-Alonso; John Stansberry; Mark Sykes; David E. Trilling; Diane Wooden; David Harker; Robert Gehrz; Charles Woodward

    In its 16 years of scientific measurements, the Spitzer Space Telescope performed ground-breaking and key infrared measurements of Solar System objects near and far. Targets ranged from the smallest planetesimals to the giant planets; Spitzer helped us to reshape our understanding of these objects while also laying the groundwork for future infrared space-based observations like those to be undertaken

    更新日期:2020-10-08
  • Spitzer’s Solar System studies of asteroids, planets and the zodiacal cloud
    Nat. Astron. (IF 11.518) Pub Date : 2020-10-08
    David E. Trilling; Carey Lisse; Dale P. Cruikshank; Joshua P. Emery; Yanga Fernández; Leigh N. Fletcher; Douglas P. Hamilton; Heidi B. Hammel; Alan W. Harris; Michael Mueller; Glenn S. Orton; Yvonne J. Pendleton; William T. Reach; Naomi Rowe-Gurney; Michael Skrutskie; Anne Verbiscer

    In its 16 years of scientific measurements, the Spitzer Space Telescope performed a number of groundbreaking and key infrared measurements of Solar System objects near and far. In this second of two Review Articles, we describe results from Spitzer observations of asteroids, dust rings and planets that provide new insight into the formation and evolution of our Solar System. The key Spitzer results

    更新日期:2020-10-08
  • Publisher Correction: Reconnection nanojets in the solar corona
    Nat. Astron. (IF 11.518) Pub Date : 2020-10-06
    Patrick Antolin; Paolo Pagano; Paola Testa; Antonino Petralia; Fabio Reale

    An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.

    更新日期:2020-10-07
  • Sublimation as an effective mechanism for flattened lobes of (486958) Arrokoth
    Nat. Astron. (IF 11.518) Pub Date : 2020-10-05
    Y. Zhao; L. Rezac; Y. Skorov; S. C. Hu; N. H. Samarasinha; J.-Y. Li

    The New Horizons spacecraft’s flyby of Kuiper belt object (486958) Arrokoth revealed a bilobed shape with highly flattened lobes both aligned to its equatorial plane, and a rotational axis almost aligned to the orbital plane (obliquity ~99°)1,2,3,4. Arrokoth belongs to the cold classical Kuiper belt object population that occupies dynamically undisturbed orbits around the Sun, and as such is a primitive

    更新日期:2020-10-06
  • Most lithium-rich low-mass evolved stars revealed as red clump stars by asteroseismology and spectroscopy
    Nat. Astron. (IF 11.518) Pub Date : 2020-10-05
    Hong-Liang Yan; Yu-Tao Zhou; Xianfei Zhang; Yaguang Li; Qi Gao; Jian-Rong Shi; Gang Zhao; Wako Aoki; Tadafumi Matsuno; Yan Li; Xiao-Dong Xu; Haining Li; Ya-Qian Wu; Meng-Qi Jin; Benoit Mosser; Shao-Lan Bi; Jian-Ning Fu; Kaike Pan; Takuma Suda; Yu-Juan Liu; Jing-Kun Zhao; Xi-Long Liang

    Lithium has confused scientists for decades at almost every scale of the universe. Lithium-rich giants are peculiar stars with lithium abundances greater than model prediction. A large fraction of lithium-rich low-mass evolved stars are traditionally supposed to be red giant branch (RGB) stars. Recent studies, however, report that red clump (RC) stars are more frequent than RGB stars. Here, we present

    更新日期:2020-10-06
  • Escaping photons finally arrested
    Nat. Astron. (IF 11.518) Pub Date : 2020-09-30
    Anahita Alavi

    A starburst galaxy from the peak epoch of cosmic star-formation history is found to have a significant ionizing ultraviolet emission. This finding will help better constrain the process of reionization in the early Universe.

    更新日期:2020-09-30
  • Interstellar detection of the highly polar five-membered ring cyanocyclopentadiene
    Nat. Astron. (IF 11.518) Pub Date : 2020-09-28
    Michael C. McCarthy; Kin Long Kelvin Lee; Ryan A. Loomis; Andrew M. Burkhardt; Christopher N. Shingledecker; Steven B. Charnley; Martin A. Cordiner; Eric Herbst; Sergei Kalenskii; Eric R. Willis; Ci Xue; Anthony J. Remijan; Brett A. McGuire

    Much like six-membered rings, five-membered rings are ubiquitous in organic chemistry, frequently serving as the building blocks for larger molecules, including many of biochemical importance. From a combination of laboratory rotational spectroscopy and a sensitive spectral line survey in the radio band toward the starless cloud core TMC-1, we report the astronomical detection of 1-cyano-1,3-cyclopentadiene

    更新日期:2020-09-28
  • Multiple subglacial water bodies below the south pole of Mars unveiled by new MARSIS data
    Nat. Astron. (IF 11.518) Pub Date : 2020-09-28
    Sebastian Emanuel Lauro; Elena Pettinelli; Graziella Caprarelli; Luca Guallini; Angelo Pio Rossi; Elisabetta Mattei; Barbara Cosciotti; Andrea Cicchetti; Francesco Soldovieri; Marco Cartacci; Federico Di Paolo; Raffaella Noschese; Roberto Orosei

    The detection of liquid water by the Mars Advanced Radar for Subsurface and Ionosphere Sounding (MARSIS) at the base of the south polar layered deposits in Ultimi Scopuli has reinvigorated the debate about the origin and stability of liquid water under present-day Martian conditions. To establish the extent of subglacial water in this region, we acquired new data, achieving extended radar coverage

    更新日期:2020-09-28
  • European Astronomical Society prizes 2020
    Nat. Astron. (IF 11.518) Pub Date : 2020-09-23
    Georges Meylan

    The European Astronomical Society awarded its most prestigious prizes during its annual meeting held from 29 June to 3 July 2020. The meeting was entirely virtual and the largest such gathering of astrophysicists so far.

    更新日期:2020-09-23
  • Determining the evolutionary status of supernova remnants
    Nat. Astron. (IF 11.518) Pub Date : 2020-09-23
    Dejan Urošević

    The determination of the evolutionary stage for a supernova remnant is a demanding task. This guide for radio observers presents a relatively straightforward way to establish the evolutionary phase of newly observed supernova remnants.

    更新日期:2020-09-23
  • Asteroid smashing, mixing and forming
    Nat. Astron. (IF 11.518) Pub Date : 2020-09-21
    M. Cristina De Sanctis

    The Hayabusa2 and OSIRIS-REx teams have unexpectedly found bright boulders on their respective dark asteroids, Ryugu and Bennu, which provide solid clues about the composition and origin of impacting bodies in their formation history.

    更新日期:2020-09-21
  • Dust/ice mixing in cold regions and solid-state water in the diffuse interstellar medium
    Nat. Astron. (IF 11.518) Pub Date : 2020-09-21
    Alexey Potapov; Jeroen Bouwman; Cornelia Jäger; Thomas Henning

    Whether ice in cold cosmic environments is physically separated from the silicate dust or mixed with individual silicate moieties is not known. However, different grain models give very different compositions and temperatures of grains. The aim of the present study is to compare the mid-infrared spectra of laboratory silicate grain/water ice mixtures with astronomical observations to evaluate the presence

    更新日期:2020-09-21
  • Exogenic basalt on asteroid (101955) Bennu
    Nat. Astron. (IF 11.518) Pub Date : 2020-09-21
    D. N. DellaGiustina; H. H. Kaplan; A. A. Simon; W. F. Bottke; C. Avdellidou; M. Delbo; R.-L. Ballouz; D. R. Golish; K. J. Walsh; M. Popescu; H. Campins; M. A. Barucci; G. Poggiali; R. T. Daly; L. Le Corre; V. E. Hamilton; N. Porter; E. R. Jawin; T. J. McCoy; H. C. Connolly; J. L. Rizos Garcia; E. Tatsumi; J. de Leon; J. Licandro; S. Fornasier; M. G. Daly; M. M. Al Asad; L. Philpott; J. Seabrook; O

    When rubble-pile asteroid 2008 TC3 impacted Earth on 7 October 2008, the recovered rock fragments indicated that such asteroids can contain exogenic material1,2. However, spacecraft missions to date have only observed exogenous contamination on large, monolithic asteroids that are impervious to collisional disruption3,4. Here, we report the presence of metre-scale exogenic boulders on the surface of

    更新日期:2020-09-21
  • Collisional history of Ryugu’s parent body from bright surface boulders
    Nat. Astron. (IF 11.518) Pub Date : 2020-09-21
    E. Tatsumi; C. Sugimoto; L. Riu; S. Sugita; T. Nakamura; T. Hiroi; T. Morota; M. Popescu; T. Michikami; K. Kitazato; M. Matsuoka; S. Kameda; R. Honda; M. Yamada; N. Sakatani; T. Kouyama; Y. Yokota; C. Honda; H. Suzuki; Y. Cho; K. Ogawa; M. Hayakawa; H. Sawada; K. Yoshioka; C. Pilorget; M. Ishida; D. Domingue; N. Hirata; S. Sasaki; J. de León; M. A. Barucci; P. Michel; M. Suemitsu; T. Saiki; S. Tanaka;

    The asteroid (162173) Ryugu and other rubble-pile asteroids are likely re-accumulated fragments of much larger parent bodies that were disrupted by impacts. However, the collisional and orbital pathways from the original parent bodies to subkilometre rubble-pile asteroids are not yet well understood1,2,3. Here we use Hayabusa2 observations to show that some of the bright boulders on the dark, carbonaceous

    更新日期:2020-09-21
  • Discovery of oscillations above 200 keV in a black hole X-ray binary with Insight-HXMT
    Nat. Astron. (IF 11.518) Pub Date : 2020-09-21
    Xiang Ma; Lian Tao; Shuang-Nan Zhang; Liang Zhang; Qing-Cui Bu; Ming-Yu Ge; Yu-Peng Chen; Jin-Lu Qu; Shu Zhang; Fang-Jun Lu; Li-Ming Song; Yi-Jung Yang; Feng Yuan; Ce Cai; Xue-Lei Cao; Zhi Chang; Gang Chen; Li Chen; Tian-Xiang Chen; Yi-Bao Chen; Yong Chen; Wei Cui; Wei-Wei Cui; Jing-Kang Deng; Yong-Wei Dong; Yuan-Yuan Du; Min-Xue Fu; Guan-Hua Gao; He Gao; Min Gao; Yu-Dong Gu; Ju Guan; Cheng-Cheng Guo;

    Low-frequency quasiperiodic oscillations (LFQPOs) are commonly found in black hole X-ray binaries, and their origin is still under debate. The properties of LFQPOs at high energies (above 30 keV) are closely related to the nature of the accretion flow in the innermost regions, and thus play a crucial role in critically testing various theoretical models. The Hard X-ray Modulation Telescope is capable

    更新日期:2020-09-21
  • Far-ultraviolet aurora identified at comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko
    Nat. Astron. (IF 11.518) Pub Date : 2020-09-21
    M. Galand; P. D. Feldman; D. Bockelée-Morvan; N. Biver; Y.-C. Cheng; G. Rinaldi; M. Rubin; K. Altwegg; J. Deca; A. Beth; P. Stephenson; K. L. Heritier; P. Henri; J. Wm. Parker; C. Carr; A. I. Eriksson; J. Burch

    Having a nucleus darker than charcoal, comets are usually detected from Earth through the emissions from their coma. The coma is an envelope of gas that forms through the sublimation of ices from the nucleus as the comet gets closer to the Sun. In the far-ultraviolet portion of the spectrum, observations of comae have revealed the presence of atomic hydrogen and oxygen emissions. When observed over

    更新日期:2020-09-21
  • An ultrahot Neptune in the Neptune desert
    Nat. Astron. (IF 11.518) Pub Date : 2020-09-21
    James S. Jenkins; Matías R. Díaz; Nicolás T. Kurtovic; Néstor Espinoza; Jose I. Vines; Pablo A. Peña Rojas; Rafael Brahm; Pascal Torres; Pía Cortés-Zuleta; Maritza G. Soto; Eric D. Lopez; George W. King; Peter J. Wheatley; Joshua N. Winn; David R. Ciardi; George Ricker; Roland Vanderspek; David W. Latham; Sara Seager; Jon M. Jenkins; Charles A. Beichman; Allyson Bieryla; Christopher J. Burke; Jessie

    About 1 out of 200 Sun-like stars has a planet with an orbital period shorter than one day: an ultrashort-period planet1,2. All of the previously known ultrashort-period planets are either hot Jupiters, with sizes above 10 Earth radii (R⊕), or apparently rocky planets smaller than 2 R⊕. Such lack of planets of intermediate size (the ‘hot Neptune desert’) has been interpreted as the inability of low-mass

    更新日期:2020-09-21
  • Reconnection nanojets in the solar corona
    Nat. Astron. (IF 11.518) Pub Date : 2020-09-21
    Patrick Antolin; Paolo Pagano; Paola Testa; Antonino Petralia; Fabio Reale

    The solar corona is shaped and mysteriously heated to millions of degrees by the Sun’s magnetic field. It has long been hypothesized that the heating results from a myriad of tiny magnetic energy outbursts called nanoflares, driven by the fundamental process of magnetic reconnection. Misaligned magnetic field lines can break and reconnect, producing nanoflares in avalanche-like processes. However,

    更新日期:2020-09-21
  • Author Correction: The Pacific Ocean Neutrino Experiment
    Nat. Astron. (IF 11.518) Pub Date : 2020-09-17
    Matteo Agostini; Michael Böhmer; Jeff Bosma; Kenneth Clark; Matthias Danninger; Christian Fruck; Roman Gernhäuser; Andreas Gärtner; Darren Grant; Felix Henningsen; Kilian Holzapfel; Matthias Huber; Reyna Jenkyns; Carsten B. Krauss; Kai Krings; Claudio Kopper; Klaus Leismüller; Sally Leys; Paul Macoun; Stephan Meighen-Berger; Jan Michel; Roger Moore; Mike Morley; Paolo Padovani; Laszlo Papp; Benoit

    An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.

    更新日期:2020-09-18
  • Optical follow-up of the neutron star–black hole mergers S200105ae and S200115j
    Nat. Astron. (IF 11.518) Pub Date : 2020-09-14
    Shreya Anand; Michael W. Coughlin; Mansi M. Kasliwal; Mattia Bulla; Tomás Ahumada; Ana Sagués Carracedo; Mouza Almualla; Igor Andreoni; Robert Stein; Francois Foucart; Leo P. Singer; Jesper Sollerman; Eric C. Bellm; Bryce Bolin; M. D. Caballero-García; Alberto J. Castro-Tirado; S. Bradley Cenko; Kishalay De; Richard G. Dekany; Dmitry A. Duev; Michael Feeney; Christoffer Fremling; Daniel A. Goldstein;

    LIGO and Virgo’s third observing run revealed the first neutron star–black hole (NSBH) merger candidates in gravitational waves. These events are predicted to synthesize r-process elements1,2 creating optical/near-infrared ‘kilonova’ emission. The joint gravitational wave and electromagnetic detection of an NSBH merger could be used to constrain the equation of state of dense nuclear matter3, and independently

    更新日期:2020-09-14
  • Phosphine gas in the cloud decks of Venus
    Nat. Astron. (IF 11.518) Pub Date : 2020-09-14
    Jane S. Greaves; Anita M. S. Richards; William Bains; Paul B. Rimmer; Hideo Sagawa; David L. Clements; Sara Seager; Janusz J. Petkowski; Clara Sousa-Silva; Sukrit Ranjan; Emily Drabek-Maunder; Helen J. Fraser; Annabel Cartwright; Ingo Mueller-Wodarg; Zhuchang Zhan; Per Friberg; Iain Coulson; E’lisa Lee; Jim Hoge

    Measurements of trace gases in planetary atmospheres help us explore chemical conditions different to those on Earth. Our nearest neighbour, Venus, has cloud decks that are temperate but hyperacidic. Here we report the apparent presence of phosphine (PH3) gas in Venus’s atmosphere, where any phosphorus should be in oxidized forms. Single-line millimetre-waveband spectral detections (quality up to ~15σ)

    更新日期:2020-09-14
  • The climate issue
    Nat. Astron. (IF 11.518) Pub Date : 2020-09-10

    Quantitative estimates presented in this issue demonstrate that astronomers contribute more to climate change than the average global citizen. Concerted actions are needed to reduce the ecological impacts of our occupation.

    更新日期:2020-09-11
  • Measuring carbon emissions at the Canada–France–Hawaii Telescope
    Nat. Astron. (IF 11.518) Pub Date : 2020-09-10
    Nicolas Flagey; Kahea Thronas; Andreea Petric; Kanoa Withington; M. Johannes Seidel

    Measuring the carbon emissions of the CFHT in 2019 reveals that the per employee emissions are 16.5 tCO2e, six times above the recommendation of the Paris Agreement, with ~63% due to the electricity consumption of the summit facility and ~25% to out-of-state air travel. Concerted efforts are underway to reduce this figure.

    更新日期:2020-09-11
  • Towards a solution to the energy crisis
    Nat. Astron. (IF 11.518) Pub Date : 2020-09-10
    Henrik Melin

    The upper atmospheres of all the giant planets are hotter than models predict. Analysis of Cassini Grand Finale observations of Saturn provide evidence that heat generated by the aurora is responsible.

    更新日期:2020-09-11
  • An astronomical institute’s perspective on meeting the challenges of the climate crisis
    Nat. Astron. (IF 11.518) Pub Date : 2020-09-10
    Knud Jahnke; Christian Fendt; Morgan Fouesneau; Iskren Georgiev; Tom Herbst; Melanie Kaasinen; Diana Kossakowski; Jan Rybizki; Martin Schlecker; Gregor Seidel; Thomas Henning; Laura Kreidberg; Hans-Walter Rix

    Analysing greenhouse gas emissions of an astronomical institute is a first step to reducing its environmental impact. Here, we break down the emissions of the Max Planck Institute for Astronomy in Heidelberg and propose measures for reductions.

    更新日期:2020-09-11
  • The carbon footprint of large astronomy meetings
    Nat. Astron. (IF 11.518) Pub Date : 2020-09-10
    Leonard Burtscher; Didier Barret; Abhijeet P. Borkar; Victoria Grinberg; Knud Jahnke; Sarah Kendrew; Gina Maffey; Mark J. McCaughrean

    The annual meeting of the European Astronomical Society took place in Lyon, France, in 2019, but in 2020 it was held online only due the COVID-19 pandemic. The carbon footprint of the virtual meeting was roughly 3,000 times smaller than the face-to-face one, providing encouragement for more ecologically minded conferencing.

    更新日期:2020-09-11
  • The impact of climate change on astronomical observations
    Nat. Astron. (IF 11.518) Pub Date : 2020-09-10
    Faustine Cantalloube; Julien Milli; Christoph Böhm; Susanne Crewell; Julio Navarrete; Kira Rehfeld; Marc Sarazin; Anna Sommani

    Climate change is affecting and will increasingly affect astronomical observations, particularly in terms of dome seeing, surface layer turbulence, atmospheric water vapour content and the wind-driven halo effect in exoplanet direct imaging.

    更新日期:2020-09-11
  • The ecological impact of high-performance computing in astrophysics
    Nat. Astron. (IF 11.518) Pub Date : 2020-09-10
    Simon Portegies Zwart

    Computer use in astronomy continues to increase, and so also its impact on the environment. To minimize the effects, astronomers should avoid interpreted scripting languages such as Python, and favour the optimal use of energy-efficient workstations.

    更新日期:2020-09-11
  • The imperative to reduce carbon emissions in astronomy
    Nat. Astron. (IF 11.518) Pub Date : 2020-09-10
    Adam R. H. Stevens; Sabine Bellstedt; Pascal J. Elahi; Michael T. Murphy

    For astronomers to make a significant contribution to the reduction of climate change-inducing greenhouse gas emissions, we first must quantify the sources of our emissions and review the most effective approaches for reducing them. Here we estimate that Australian astronomers’ total greenhouse gas emissions from their regular work activities are ≳25 ktCO2e yr–1 (equivalent kilotonnes of carbon dioxide

    更新日期:2020-09-11
  • The Pacific Ocean Neutrino Experiment
    Nat. Astron. (IF 11.518) Pub Date : 2020-09-08
    Matteo Agostini; Michael Böhmer; Jeff Bosma; Kenneth Clark; Matthias Danninger; Christian Fruck; Roman Gernhäuser; Andreas Gärtner; Darren Grant; Felix Henningsen; Kilian Holzapfel; Matthias Huber; Reyna Jenkyns; Carsten B. Krauss; Kai Krings; Claudio Kopper; Klaus Leismüller; Sally Leys; Paul Macoun; Stephan Meighen-Berger; Jan Michel; Roger Moore; Mike Morley; Paolo Padovani; Laszlo Papp; Benoit

    The Pacific Ocean Neutrino Experiment is a new initiative towards constructing a multi-cubic-kilometre neutrino telescope to expand our observable window of the Universe to the highest energies, and will be installed within the deep Pacific Ocean underwater infrastructure of Ocean Networks Canada.

    更新日期:2020-09-08
  • Towards deep space optical communications
    Nat. Astron. (IF 11.518) Pub Date : 2020-09-07
    Leslie J. Deutsch

    Optical communications will provide the next generation of interplanetary missions with high-bit-rate data transmission, requiring modifications on the ground and in space, explains Leslie Deutsch.

    更新日期:2020-09-08
  • Lunar regolith and substructure at Chang’E-4 landing site in South Pole–Aitken basin
    Nat. Astron. (IF 11.518) Pub Date : 2020-09-07
    Jinhai Zhang; Bin Zhou; Yangting Lin; Meng-Hua Zhu; Hanjie Song; Zehua Dong; Yunze Gao; Kaichang Di; Wei Yang; Hongyu Lin; Jianfeng Yang; Enhai Liu; Lei Wang; Yi Lin; Chao Li; Zongyu Yue; Zhenxing Yao; Ziyuan Ouyang

    The South Pole–Aitken (SPA) basin is the oldest and largest impact structure on the Moon, and it gives particular insight on the lunar interior composition1,2,3. However, the surface of the SPA basin has been substantially modified by consequent impacts and basalt flooding. The exploration of the surficial material and the substructure of the SPA basin is one of the main scientific goals of the Chinese

    更新日期:2020-09-08
  • Fast Radio Burst 2020
    Nat. Astron. (IF 11.518) Pub Date : 2020-09-03
    Evan F. Keane

    The annual Fast Radio Burst conference was held as an entirely virtual event on 6–9 July inclusive, with talks spread over three time zones and an online communication channel for discussions.

    更新日期:2020-09-03
  • Gamma-ray echoes from SS 433
    Nat. Astron. (IF 11.518) Pub Date : 2020-08-24
    Pol Bordas

    A periodic gamma-ray signal detected from the micro-quasar SS 433 cannot be associated with its jet. Instead, a new mechanism capable of channelling most of SS 433’s kinetic power to large distances is needed to explain the observations.

    更新日期:2020-08-25
  • AstroSat detection of Lyman continuum emission from a z  = 1.42 galaxy
    Nat. Astron. (IF 11.518) Pub Date : 2020-08-24
    Kanak Saha; Shyam N. Tandon; Charlotte Simmonds; Anne Verhamme; Abhishek Paswan; Daniel Schaerer; Michael Rutkowski; Anshuman Borgohain; Bruce Elmegreen; Akio K. Inoue; Francoise Combes; Debra Elmegreen; Mieke Paalvast

    One of the outstanding problems of current observational cosmology is to understand the nature of sources that produced the bulk of the ionizing radiation after the Cosmic Dark Age. Direct detection of these reionization sources1 is practically infeasible at high redshift (z) due to the steep decline of intergalactic medium transmission2,3. However, a number of low-z analogues emitting Lyman continuum

    更新日期:2020-08-25
  • Fluctuations in Jupiter’s equatorial stratospheric oscillation
    Nat. Astron. (IF 11.518) Pub Date : 2020-08-24
    Arrate Antuñano; Richard G. Cosentino; Leigh N. Fletcher; Amy A. Simon; Thomas K. Greathouse; Glenn S. Orton

    The equatorial stratospheres of Earth, Jupiter and Saturn all exhibit a remarkable periodic oscillation of their temperatures and winds with height. Earth’s quasi-biennial oscillation and Saturn’s quasi-periodic equatorial oscillation have recently been observed to experience disruptions in their vertical structure as a consequence of atmospheric events occurring far from the equator. Here we reveal

    更新日期:2020-08-25
  • Gone with the Galactic wind
    Nat. Astron. (IF 11.518) Pub Date : 2020-08-20
    Mark R. Morris

    A Galactic wind blowing from the Milky Way nucleus has swept up a few hundred clouds of atomic gas. New observations reveal dense molecular cores in two of these clouds, indicating a high loss rate of interstellar gas from the Galactic centre.

    更新日期:2020-08-20
  • Publisher Correction: Formation of secondary atmospheres on terrestrial planets by late disk accretion
    Nat. Astron. (IF 11.518) Pub Date : 2020-08-18
    Quentin Kral; Jeanne Davoult; Benjamin Charnay

    An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.

    更新日期:2020-08-18
  • Magnetic fields going with the flow
    Nat. Astron. (IF 11.518) Pub Date : 2020-08-17
    Gemma Busquet

    Far-infrared polarimetric observations reveal the small-scale magnetic field structure within dense gas filaments. Gravity-induced gas flows in filaments supports a scenario in which gravitational collapse and star cluster formation occur even in the presence of relatively strong magnetic fields.

    更新日期:2020-08-18
  • Magnetized filamentary gas flows feeding the young embedded cluster in Serpens South
    Nat. Astron. (IF 11.518) Pub Date : 2020-08-17
    Thushara G.S. Pillai; Dan P. Clemens; Stefan Reissl; Philip C. Myers; Jens Kauffmann; Enrique Lopez-Rodriguez; F. O. Alves; G. A. P. Franco; Jonathan Henshaw; Karl M. Menten; Fumitaka Nakamura; Daniel Seifried; Koji Sugitani; Helmut Wiesemeyer

    Observations indicate that molecular clouds are strongly magnetized, and that magnetic fields influence the formation of stars. A key observation supporting the conclusion that molecular clouds are significantly magnetized is that the orientation of their internal structure is closely related to that of the magnetic field. At low column densities, the structure aligns parallel with the field, whereas

    更新日期:2020-08-18
  • Gamma-ray heartbeat powered by the microquasar SS 433
    Nat. Astron. (IF 11.518) Pub Date : 2020-08-17
    Jian Li; Diego F. Torres; Ruo-Yu Liu; Matthew Kerr; Emma de Oña Wilhelmi; Yang Su

    Microquasars, the local siblings of extragalactic quasars, are binary systems comprising a compact object and a companion star. By accreting matter from their companions, microquasars launch powerful winds and jets, influencing the interstellar environment around them. Steady gamma-ray emission is expected to rise from their central objects, or from interactions between their outflows and the surrounding

    更新日期:2020-08-18
  • The decline of astronomical research in Venezuela
    Nat. Astron. (IF 11.518) Pub Date : 2020-08-10
    Néstor Sánchez

    During the last 15 years the number of astronomy-related papers published by scientists in Venezuela has been continuously decreasing, mainly due to emigration. If rapid corrective actions are not implemented, professional astronomy in Venezuela could disappear.

    更新日期:2020-08-10
  • Renovation by late nebular accretion
    Nat. Astron. (IF 11.518) Pub Date : 2020-08-10
    Eve J. Lee

    Secondary gas disks around main sequence stars may regenerate planetary atmospheres, potentially transforming desiccated rocky worlds into gas-enveloped sub-Neptunes that feature high metallicities and enhanced atmospheric C/O ratios.

    更新日期:2020-08-10
  • Future exploration of Ceres as an ocean world
    Nat. Astron. (IF 11.518) Pub Date : 2020-08-10
    Julie Castillo-Rogez

    Long believed to be a primitive body, Ceres is now an ocean world with deep brines at a regional and potentially global scale. Further studies at Ceres’s conditions and — above all — a follow-up mission are needed to study its evolution and potential habitability.

    更新日期:2020-08-10
  • A revealing last glance at Ceres
    Nat. Astron. (IF 11.518) Pub Date : 2020-08-10

    Before its demise, the Dawn spacecraft performed a series of low passes over the bright spots of dwarf planet Ceres. These high-resolution data highlight the nature of Ceres as an active ocean world with unique characteristics.

    更新日期:2020-08-10
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