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  • ASMODEUS meteor simulation tool
    Planet. Space Sci. (IF 1.815) Pub Date : 2020-06-04
    Martin Baláž; Juraj Tóth; Peter Vereš; Robert Jedicke

    We describe a universal meteor simulation tool set named Asmodeus and present several of its possible use cases. The toolset consists of a Monte-Carlo simulator of meteoroids entering the Earth's atmosphere, functions for transformation to observer-centred coordinate frames representing virtual views of the sky, application of observational bias effects and a number of statistical tools for analyses

  • A miniaturized XRF instrument for in situ planetary exploration: The Active X-Ray Spectrometer (AXRS)
    Planet. Space Sci. (IF 1.815) Pub Date : 2020-06-04
    A.W. Beck; P.N. Peplowski; Z.W. Yokley

    The Active X-Ray Spectrometer (AXRS) was developed at Johns Hopkins Applied Physics Lab (APL) to be utilized in landed planetary exploration spacecraft seeking to better understand bulk rock geochemistry of lithophile materials. The AXRS sensor head has a mass of 360 g, fit's within an envelope of 11 × 6 × 5 cm3, and consumes <5 W during operation. AXRS has an average relative uncertainty of 9% for

  • The all-sky-6 and the Video Meteor Archive system of the AMS Ltd.
    Planet. Space Sci. (IF 1.815) Pub Date : 2020-06-03
    Mike Hankey; Vincent Perlerin; David Meisel

    Over a period of several years, the American Meteor Society, Ltd. (AMS) has developed a custom hardware and software system for capturing, reducing, solving and permanently storing meteor event data along with all-important corroborating video media from which high accuracy and reliable information can be gleaned. The connected hardware and software developed for trajectory analysis up to this point

  • Planetary-size dependence of zonal jets: Effects of horizontal diffusion in an idealized Earth-like general circulation model
    Planet. Space Sci. (IF 1.815) Pub Date : 2020-06-03
    Liyuan Lu; Masaru Yamamoto

    The planetary-size dependence of atmospheric circulation and the effects of subgrid-scale horizontal diffusion are elucidated in this study using an idealized general circulation model. An equatorial super-rotation is formed when a planetary radius is equal to or smaller than 1/3 that of the Earth (r* ≤ 1/3, where the planetary-size parameter r* is normalized by the Earth's radius). The mid-latitude

  • Evaluation of large data sets for Transverse Aeolian Ridges (TARs) on Earth and Mars
    Planet. Space Sci. (IF 1.815) Pub Date : 2020-05-31
    Marizeth Foroutan; James R. Zimbelman

    Aeolian processes are the dominant geological activity on Mars under current environmental conditions, and decoding the surface features on Mars is important for determining its history. Transverse Aeolian Ridges (TARs) on Mars are mysterious aeolian features originally considered to be unique to Mars. The origin, formation process and sediment sources for TARs remain uncertain, but using high-resolution

  • The HABIT (HabitAbility: Brine Irradiation and Temperature) environmental instrument for the ExoMars 2022 Surface Platform
    Planet. Space Sci. (IF 1.815) Pub Date : 2020-05-31
    Javier Martin-Torres; Maria-Paz Zorzano; Alvaro Soria-Salinas; Miracle Israel Nazarious; Samuel Konatham; Thasshwin Mathanlal; Abhilash Vakkada Ramachandran; Juan-Antonio Ramirez-Luque; Roberto Mantas-Nakhai

    The HABIT (HabitAbility: Brine Irradiation and Temperature) instrument is a European payload of the ExoMars 2022 Surface Platform Kazachok that will characterize the present-day habitability at its landing place in Oxia Planum, Mars. HABIT consists of two modules: (i) EnvPack (Environmental Package) that monitors the thermal environment (air and ground), the incident ultraviolet radiation, the near

  • Interpretations of lava flow properties from radar remote sensing data
    Planet. Space Sci. (IF 1.815) Pub Date : 2020-05-29
    G.D. Tolometti; C.D. Neish; G.R. Osinski; S.S. Hughes; S.E. Kobs Nawotniak

    The surface morphology and roughness of a lava flow provides insight on its lava properties and emplacement processes. This is essential information for understanding the eruption history of lava fields, and magmatic processes beneath the surface of Earth and other planetary bodies such as the Moon. The surface morphology is influenced by lava properties such as viscosity, temperature, composition

  • Planetary Terrestrial Analogues Library project: 1. characterization of samples by near-infrared point spectrometer
    Planet. Space Sci. (IF 1.815) Pub Date : 2020-05-27
    C. Lantz; F. Poulet; D. Loizeau; L. Riu; C. Pilorget; J. Carter; H. Dypvik; F. Rull; S.C. Werner

    The PTAL project aims at building and exploiting a database involving several analytical techniques, the Planetary Terrestrial Analogues Library, to help characterizing the mineralogical evolution of terrestrial bodies, starting with Mars. A total of 94 natural Earth rocks have been collected from selected locations around the world to get a selection of analogues for Martian geology. The PTAL library

  • Signatures of meteor showers and sporadics inferred from the height distribution of meteor echoes
    Planet. Space Sci. (IF 1.815) Pub Date : 2020-05-25
    Renata Lukianova; Alexander Kozlovsky; Mark Lester

    The SKYiMET meteor radar is capable of measuring the height distribution of ionized meteor trails. Observations of the Sodankyla radar (67°N, 23°E) in 2008–2019 are analyzed. A method is applied, based on the median and quartiles of meteor heights, for distinguishing meteor showers from much more intense background sporadic meteors. Since the shower meteors are commonly less dense and enter the Earth's

  • An outburst of delta pavonids and the orbit of parent comet C/1907 G1 (Grigg-Mellish)
    Planet. Space Sci. (IF 1.815) Pub Date : 2020-05-25
    P. Jenniskens; E. Lyytinen; J. Baggaley

    The CAMS New Zealand meteor shower survey detected a brief outburst of delta Pavonids (IAU shower 120, code DPA) with a compact radiant on March 31, 2019. This is the first instrumental detection of a shower long suspected to exist by visual observers monitoring the theoretical radiant of parent comet C/1907 G1 (Grigg-Mellish), despite it being listed in comet catalogs only with a parabolic orbit.

  • MARAUDERS: A mission concept to probe volatile distribution and properties at the lunar poles with miniature impactors
    Planet. Space Sci. (IF 1.815) Pub Date : 2020-05-24
    L. Riu; R.-L. Ballouz; S. Van wal; O. Çelik; N. Baresi; R. Boden; S. Crites

    We present a small-scale mission concept to characterize the permanently shadowed regions of the lunar south pole. MARAUDERS aims to measure in situ for the first time the presence, distribution, and state of volatiles in one permanently shaded crater at a greater resolution than existing orbital measurements using up to 12 deployed impactors. A total of 15 permanently shadowed regions have been characterized

  • Sticking of dust/ micrometeorite particles on to ices at high impact velocities - Implications for astrochemical ice enrichment
    Planet. Space Sci. (IF 1.815) Pub Date : 2020-05-22
    E. Shivakarthik; J.K. Meka; Harish; V.S. Surendra; K.K. Rahul; R. Thombre; H. Hill; S. Vijayan; B. Sivaraman
  • Search for V-type meteoroids
    Planet. Space Sci. (IF 1.815) Pub Date : 2020-05-19
    Štefan Gajdoš; Pavol Matlovič; Leonard Kornoš; Adrián Galád; Juraj Tóth

    We tried to find meteoroids (displayed as bolides in Earth's atmosphere) which could be linked with V-type parents. The process is based on the spectral characteristics of recorded bolides. From the set of 48 confirmed V-type NEOs we extracted potential meteoroid stream producing bodies. By evaluating their Earth's orbit crossing aspects we gained data when associated V-type meteors could appear. We

  • Emission of energetic neutral atoms measured on the lunar surface by Chang’E-4
    Planet. Space Sci. (IF 1.815) Pub Date : 2020-05-18
    Aibing Zhang; Martin Wieser; Chi Wang; Stas Barabash; Wenjing Wang; Xiaodong Wang; Yongliao Zou; Lei Li; Jinbin Cao; Leif Kalla; Lei Dai; Johan Svensson; Linggao Kong; Magnus Oja; Bin Liu; Vesa Alatalo; Yiteng Zhang; Juha Talonen; Wenlong Liu

    The Advanced Small Analyzer for Neutrals (ASAN) is an international payload onboard the Chinese Chang’E-4 rover. It performed for the first time measurements of energetic neutral atoms (ENAs) on the lunar surface. We show a typical mass separated ENA energy spectrum measured by the ASAN. After normalizing to the impinging solar wind proton energy, good agreement to previous measurements from Chandrayaan-1

  • Martian environment chamber: Dust systems injections
    Planet. Space Sci. (IF 1.815) Pub Date : 2020-05-16
    F. Cozzolino; V. Mennella; A.C. Ruggeri; G. Mongelluzzo; G. Franzese; C.I. Popa; C. Molfese; F. Esposito; C. Porto; D. Scaccabarozzi

    The aim of this work is to describe the development and implementation of an experimental setup able to reproduce the characteristics of the Martian atmosphere. The development of such setup fits into the context of MicroMED project, that foresees the development of an optical particle counter to be accommodated on the ExoMars 2020 Surface Platform, as part of the suite of sensors named Dust Complex

  • The WISDOM radar on board the ExoMars 2020 Rover: Characterization and calibration of the flight model
    Planet. Space Sci. (IF 1.815) Pub Date : 2020-05-14
    Y. Hervé; V. Ciarletti; A. Le Gall; C. Corbel; R. Hassen-Khodja; W.S. Benedix; D. Plettemeier; O. Humeau; A.J. Vieau; B. Lustrement; S. Abbaki; E. Bertran; L. Lapauw; V. Tranier; N. Oudart; F. Vivat; C. Statz; Y. Lu; A. Hérique

    The ground penetrating radar WISDOM on board the Rover of the ExoMars 2020 mission (ESA/Roscosmos) will be a pioneer in the exploration of the Martian subsurface from the surface (until now, Martian sounding radars have been operated from orbit). WISDOM will image the first meters below the surface of Oxia Planum — the ExoMars 2020 landing site — with the objectives of revealing its geological history

  • Anchoring thermal drills for icy moon stability and mobility
    Planet. Space Sci. (IF 1.815) Pub Date : 2020-05-12
    Adam H. Halperin; Raymond Sedwick

    Exploring the ice surface of Europa and other icy moons will be scientifically exciting, but very challenging for mobile autonomous robotics. This paper presents a new concept to address the challenge of moving across vacuum-exposed cryogenic ice terrains - a thermal pick that functions both as a thermal drill and an ice anchor. Earlier investigators demonstrated that cryogenic ice can be thermally

  • A comparative study of radar and optical observations of meteor showers using SAAMER-OS and CAMS
    Planet. Space Sci. (IF 1.815) Pub Date : 2020-05-12
    Juan Sebastián Bruzzone; Diego Janches; Peter Jenniskens; Robert Weryk; Jose Luis Hormaechea

    We present a comparison of radar and optical meteor shower radiant distributions with the Southern Argentina Agile Meteor Radar-Orbital System (SAAMER-OS) and the Cameras for Allsky Meteor Surveillance (CAMS). This study comprise seven years of meteor radar surveillance with SAAMER-OS and over eight years of the CAMS video meteor data. In total, over five million meteor radar and close to 500,000 video

  • Long-duration Venus lander for seismic and atmospheric science
    Planet. Space Sci. (IF 1.815) Pub Date : 2020-05-10
    Tibor Kremic; Richard Ghail; Martha Gilmore; Gary Hunter; Walter Kiefer; Sanjay Limaye; Michael Pauken; Carol Tolbert; Colin Wilson

    An exciting and novel science mission concept called Seismic and Atmospheric Exploration of Venus (SAEVe) has been developed which uses high-temperature electronics to enable a three-order magnitude increase in expected surface life (120 Earth days) over what has been achieved to date. This enables study of long-term, variable phenomena such as the seismicity of Venus and near surface weather, near

  • Full rotationally phase-resolved visible reflectance spectroscopy of 3200 Phaethon
    Planet. Space Sci. (IF 1.815) Pub Date : 2020-05-10
    Katsuhito Ohtsuka; Takashi Ito; Daisuke Kinoshita; Shinsuke Abe; Kyosuke Sawai; Kazuhiro Funabashi; Ryo Kato; Seidai Miyasaka; Sunao Hasegawa; Tomoki Nakamura; Wen-Ping Chen

    We present time-series optical spectroscopic observations of 3200 Phaethon during its 2007 return, complemented with R-band photometry. The spectral gradient centered around 0.55 μm varies between −5.0 %/0.1 μm and 0.6 %/0.1μm, indicating a B- or C-type color. Moreover, rotational modulation of the spectral slope of this asteroid suggests its surface compositional inhomogeneity, particularly the existence

  • OpenMARS: A global record of martian weather from 1999 2015
    Planet. Space Sci. (IF 1.815) Pub Date : 2020-05-10
    James A. Holmes; Stephen R. Lewis; Manish R. Patel

    The Open access to Mars Assimilated Remote Soundings (OpenMARS) dataset is a reanalysis product combining past spacecraft observations with a Mars Global Circulation Model (GCM). The OpenMARS product is a global surface/atmosphere reference database of surface and atmospheric properties for almost nine Mars years that can be used by Mars scientists and engineers interested in global surface/atmospheric

  • Advantages of first-derivative reflectance spectroscopy in the VNIR-SWIR for the quantification of olivine and hematite
    Planet. Space Sci. (IF 1.815) Pub Date : 2020-05-08
    Nadine Bou-Orm; Amna Abdulrahman AlRomaithi; Mariam Elrmeithi; Fatima Mohammad Ali; Yousef Nazzal; Fares M Howari; Fatima Al Aydaroos

    The focus of this paper is to study the application of the first order derivative method for the estimation of minerals rates in different mineral mixtures. The primary goal with this is to find robust spectral features of specific minerals that are not severely influenced by the spectral features of the other minerals in a mixture. Results were used to select appropriate spectral features to be applied

  • Determining the nature of motion around Jupiter-like exoplanets using the elliptic restricted three-body problem
    Planet. Space Sci. (IF 1.815) Pub Date : 2020-05-07
    Euaggelos E. Zotos; Yi Qi; André F. Steklain; Tareq Saeed

    The dynamics of the orbital motion in the planar elliptic restricted three-body problem are investigated, by using the method of grid classification. In this system, the secondary body is an exoplanet, while the corresponding primary body is its parent star. We numerically investigate how several dynamical quantities of the system, such as the orbital energy, the eccentricity, the true anomaly, and

  • Correlation between mars’ semidiurnal LOD amplitude variation and atmospheric dust cycle index
    Planet. Space Sci. (IF 1.815) Pub Date : 2020-05-06
    Yonghong Zhou; Xueqing Xu; Cancan Xu; Xinhao Liao

    The Mars’ rotational rate, or equivalently its length-of-day (LOD), varies slightly due to global atmospheric changes. And the atmospheric dust cycle is considered to be one key process impacting the Mars’ atmosphere. Lewis and Barker (2005) demonstrated the close link of the semidiurnal tidal amplitude with the atmospheric dust content. In consideration of tidal effects in the Mars’ variable rotation

  • Implications for the origin and evolution of Martian Recurring Slope Lineae at Hale crater from CaSSIS observations
    Planet. Space Sci. (IF 1.815) Pub Date : 2020-05-05
    G. Munaretto; M. Pajola; G. Cremonese; C. Re; A. Lucchetti; E. Simioni; A.S. McEwen; A. Pommerol; P. Becerra; S.J. Conway; N. Thomas; M. Massironi

    Recurring Slope Lineae (RSL) are narrow, dark features that typically source from rocky outcrops, incrementally lengthen down Martian steep slopes in warm seasons, fade in cold seasons and recur annually. In this study we report the first observations of RSL at Hale crater, Mars, during late southern summer by the Color and Surface Science Imaging System (CaSSIS) on board ESA's ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter

  • Measuring fluxes of meteor showers with the NASA All-Sky Fireball Network
    Planet. Space Sci. (IF 1.815) Pub Date : 2020-05-05
    Steven Ehlert; Rhiannon Blaauw Erskine

    We present an algorithm developed to measure the fluxes of major meteor showers as observed in NASA’s All-Sky Fireball Network cameras. Measurements of fluxes from the All-Sky cameras not only improve the Meteoroid Environment Office’s (MEO’s) ability to provide accurate risk assessments from major showers, but also allows the mass distribution of meteoroids within the shower to be constrained. This

  • Fireball fragmentation in the first half of the atmospheric trajectory
    Planet. Space Sci. (IF 1.815) Pub Date : 2020-05-01
    Lukáš Shrbený; Pavel Spurný; Jiří Borovička

    We present direct video observations of fragmentation in the first half of the atmospheric trajectory of several fireballs recorded with the Czech part of the European Fireball Network. The fragmentation takes place in the form of wakes. In this work we describe heights, velocities, and sizes of meteoroids, deduced from our Digital Autonomous Fireball Observatories, where these wakes form and disappear

  • SCOTI: Science Captioning of Terrain Images for data prioritization and local image search
    Planet. Space Sci. (IF 1.815) Pub Date : 2020-04-30
    Dicong Qiu; Brandon Rothrock; Tanvir Islam; Annie K. Didier; Vivian Z. Sun; Chris A. Mattmann; Masahiro Ono

    Planetary exploration is full of challenges. Data bandwidth is very limited between planetary rovers and ground-based data system. What’s worse, even though NASA has accumulated over 34 million images from various missions, it requires significant effort and is hardly possible for any scientist to go through all of them. In order to improve the degree of automation and the efficiency of these processes

  • Astrometric results PHEMU-1985 and PHEMU-1991
    Planet. Space Sci. (IF 1.815) Pub Date : 2020-04-30
    Nikolay Emelyanov; Jean-Eudes Arlot

    A valuable source of astrometric data for studying the dynamics of natural satellites of planets are photometric observations of satellites during their mutual occultations and eclipses. Worldwide photometric campaigns are organized in order to observe as many events as possible. For the events that took place in 1985 and 1990–1992, the results of photometric observations of the Galilean satellites

  • Rheology of a KREEP analog magma: Experimental results applied to dike ascent through the lunar crust
    Planet. Space Sci. (IF 1.815) Pub Date : 2020-04-30
    A. Sehlke; A.G. Whittington

    Among the Apollo returned samples were basaltic rocks belonging to the KREEP suite, which are thought to have been erupted ~4.1–3.9 ​Ga via dike propagation from the residual magmatic layer residing below the lunar crust as the last part of the solidifying lunar magma ocean. The emplacement dynamics of KREEP magma reaching the lunar surface are generally poorly understood, in part because no rheological

  • Fracture geometry and statistics of Ceres’ floor fractures
    Planet. Space Sci. (IF 1.815) Pub Date : 2020-04-29
    K. Krohn; I. von der Gathen; D.L. Buczkowski; R. Jaumann; K. Wickhusen; F. Schulzeck; K. Stephan; R. Wagner; J.E.C. Scully; C.A. Raymond; C.T. Russell

    Floor-fractured craters are one of the most distinct features on Ceres. Most of the fractures are located on the crater floors. The floor-fractures are concentric, radial or polygonal and share similarities with the floor-fractured craters (FCC) of Class 1 and 4 on the Moon (e.g., Buczkowski et al., 2018; Schultz, 1976) In total we measured 2336 fractures in thirteen craters. We analyzed their width

  • On models of meteoroid disruption into the cloud of fragments
    Planet. Space Sci. (IF 1.815) Pub Date : 2020-04-27
    I.G. Brykina; M.D. Bragin

    The meteoroid disruption into a large number of fragments when they move with a common shock wave before dispersion to a sufficient distance to move independently is considered. Disrupted meteoroid under the action of pressure forces is deformed: it is compressed in a flight direction and expands in a lateral one. Four models of the meteoroid disruption into a cloud of fragments moving as a single

  • Enabling new exploration opportunities on planetary surfaces: In situ geochemical characterization in soils by dielectric spectroscopy onboard the AXEL rover system
    Planet. Space Sci. (IF 1.815) Pub Date : 2020-04-25
    Keith B. Chin; Robert C. Anderson; Dane A. Schoelen; Laura A. Kerber; Patrick McGarey; Michael Paton; Travis L. Brown; Issa A. Nesnas

    In the work, we present dielectric spectroscopy (DS) is an analytical method capable of characterizing and quantifying electrochemically active materials (water/ice, ions, etc.) in planetary regoliths. Detection of these materials occurs when a small amount of energy is applied to an in situ sample, causing perturbation in the form of potential kinetic energy and inducing polarization and/or relaxation

  • Electron dynamics near diamagnetic regions of comet 67P/Churyumov- Gerasimenko
    Planet. Space Sci. (IF 1.815) Pub Date : 2020-04-19
    H. Madanian; J.L. Burch; A.I. Eriksson; T.E. Cravens; M. Galand; E. Vigren; R. Goldstein; Z. Nemeth; P. Mokashi; I. Richter; M. Rubin

    The Rosetta spacecraft detected transient and sporadic diamagnetic regions around comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. In this paper we present a statistical analysis of bulk and suprathermal electron dynamics, as well as a case study of suprathermal electron pitch angle distributions (PADs) near a diamagnetic region. Bulk electron densities are correlated with the local neutral density and we find a distinct

  • Passive radio sounding to correct for Europa’s ionospheric distortion of VHF signals
    Planet. Space Sci. (IF 1.815) Pub Date : 2020-04-18
    Sean T. Peters; Dustin M. Schroeder; Andrew Romero-Wolf

    The dispersive effect of Europa’s ionosphere on radio wave propagation is detrimental to the quality of radar observations for altimetry and geodesy of Europa’s surface, as it creates pulse broadening and signal delay. While using the relative delay between two active radar channels of different center frequencies is a common method to correct for this ionospheric distortion, the High Frequency (HF)

  • Frontal Aureole Deposit on Acheron Fossae ridge as evidence for landslide-generated tsunami on Mars
    Planet. Space Sci. (IF 1.815) Pub Date : 2020-04-16
    Fabio Vittorio De Blasio

    The recurrent failures of the 8 to 10-km high basal scarp of the Olympus Mons volcano on Mars has resulted in enormous landslides merging into a composite deposit known as the aureole. The largest of these landslides, the western (W) aureole, appears as a hummocky and extensive tongue reaching the distance of 700 ​km from the present Olympus Mons edge. Totalizing a volume of 106 Km3, the W aureole

  • Hypervelocity cratering and disruption of the Northwest Africa 4502 carbonaceous chondrite meteorite: Implications for crater production, catastrophic disruption, momentum transfer and dust production on asteroids
    Planet. Space Sci. (IF 1.815) Pub Date : 2020-04-16
    George J. Flynn; Daniel D. Durda; Mason J. Molesky; Brian A. May; Spenser N. Congram; Colleen L. Loftus; Jacob R. Reagan; Melissa M. Strait; Robert J. Macke

    The meteorites provide samples of their asteroidal parent bodies, allowing laboratory measurements of the response of asteroidal material to hypervelocity impacts. The meteorites span a wide range of physical properties, with porosities ranging from near zero to more than 40%, comparable to the range determined for stony asteroids. To investigate the effects of target properties on cratering, impact

  • Expected effect of atomic oxygen of Europa’s exosphere on the MAss Spectrometer for Planetary EXploration
    Planet. Space Sci. (IF 1.815) Pub Date : 2020-04-16
    Alexis Bouquet; Ryan Blase; Tim Brockwell; J. Hunter Waite

    The future Europa Clipper NASA mission to Europa will carry the MAss Spectrometer for Planetary EXploration (MASPEX), which will analyze the compounds making up Europa’s exosphere, and plumes, if present. Europa’s exosphere is likely to feature abundant atomic oxygen, a product of sputtering of Europa’s surface by energetic particles from Jupiter’s radiation belts, or photolysis of oxygen-bearing molecules

  • Ground calibration of Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometer (APXS) on-board Chandrayaan-2 Pragyaan rover: An empirical approach
    Planet. Space Sci. (IF 1.815) Pub Date : 2020-04-16
    N.P.S. Mithun; Santosh V. Vadawale; M. Shanmugam; Arpit R. Patel; Nishant Singh; Sushil Kumar; Neeraj Kumar Tiwari; Shiv Kumar Goyal; Amit Basu Sarbadhikari; Garima Arora; Yash Srivastava; Hitesh Kumar Adalja; Tinkal Ladiya; Deepak Kumar Painkra; Swaroop B. Banerjee; Vishnubhai R. Patel; Anil Bhardwaj

    Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometer (APXS) was one of the scientific experiments on-board the Pragyaan rover of the Chandrayaan-2 mission to Moon, with the objective to determine the elemental composition of the lunar surface near the landing site in the south polar region of the Moon. APXS estimates the abundances by measuring the characteristic X-ray lines of the constituent elements present in the

  • Survey of 1-Hz waves in the near-Venusian space: Venus Express observations
    Planet. Space Sci. (IF 1.815) Pub Date : 2020-04-08
    S.D. Xiao; M.Y. Wu; G.Q. Wang; Y.Q. Chen; T.L. Zhang

    With 32 ​Hz magnetic field data of Venus Express from May 2006 to August 2012, the global spatial distributions of 1-Hz waves in the near-Venusian space are presented in this paper. The occurrence rate of 1-Hz waves is maximized near the Venusian bow shock and decreases in the upstream with the distance away from the shock. Downstream of Venusian bow shock, some 1-Hz waves are swept in the magnetosheath

  • Injection of meteoric phosphorus into planetary atmospheres
    Planet. Space Sci. (IF 1.815) Pub Date : 2020-04-08
    Juan Diego Carrillo-Sánchez; David L. Bones; Kevin M. Douglas; George J. Flynn; Sue Wirick; Bruce Fegley; Tohru Araki; Burkhard Kaulich; John M.C. Plane

    This study explores the delivery of phosphorus to the upper atmospheres of Earth, Mars, and Venus via the ablation of cosmic dust particles. Micron-size meteoritic particles were flash heated to temperatures as high as 2900 ​K in a Meteor Ablation Simulator (MASI), and the ablation of PO and Ca recorded simultaneously by laser induced fluorescence. Apatite grains were also ablated as a reference. The

  • Ganymede's gravity, tides and rotational state from JUICE's 3GM experiment simulation
    Planet. Space Sci. (IF 1.815) Pub Date : 2020-03-17
    P. Cappuccio; A. Hickey; D. Durante; M. Di Benedetto; L. Iess; F. De Marchi; C. Plainaki; A. Milillo; A. Mura

    The JUpiter Icy Moons Explorer (JUICE) is a European Space Agency (ESA) mission that will launch in 2022 and arrive in the Jovian system in 2029 to investigate Jupiter's icy satellites. The mission will perform flybys of the icy moons Europa, Callisto and Ganymede before being inserted into a 280-day orbit around Ganymede: 150 days in Elliptical Orbit (GEO) followed by 130 days Circular Orbit at 500 km

  • Micrometeorites: Insights into the flux, sources and atmospheric entry of extraterrestrial dust at Earth
    Planet. Space Sci. (IF 1.815) Pub Date : 2020-03-16
    Matthew J. Genge; Matthias Van Ginneken; Martin D. Suttle

    Micrometeorites (MMs) provide constraints on the flux and sources of extraterrestrial dust falling on Earth as well as recording the processes occurring during atmospheric entry. Collections of micrometeorites have been recovered from a wide variety of environments including Antarctic moraine, rock traps, ice and snow and on roof tops in urban areas. Studies of the mineralogy and composition of MMs

  • Orbit determination of the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter: Status after Seven Years.
    Planet. Space Sci. Pub Date : 2019-03-19
    Erwan Mazarico,Gregory A Neumann,Michael K Barker,Sander Goossens,David E Smith,Maria T Zuber

    The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) has been orbiting the Moon since 2009, obtaining unique and foundational datasets important to understanding the evolution of the Moon and the Solar System. The high-resolution data acquired by LRO benefit from precise orbit determination (OD), limiting the need for geolocation and co-registration tasks. The initial position knowledge requirement (50 meters) was

  • Trilogy, a Planetary Geodesy Mission Concept for Measuring the Expansion of the Solar System.
    Planet. Space Sci. Pub Date : 2018-05-19
    David E Smith,Maria T Zuber,Erwan Mazarico,Antonio Genova,Gregory A Neumann,Xiaoli Sun,Mark H Torrence,Dan-Dan Mao

    The scale of the solar system is slowly changing, likely increasing as a result of solar mass loss, with additional change possible if there is a secular variation of the gravitational constant, G. The measurement of the change of scale could provide insight into the past and the future of the solar system, and in addition a better understanding of planetary motion and fundamental physics. Estimates

  • Improving Photometric Calibration of Meteor Video Camera Systems.
    Planet. Space Sci. Pub Date : 2017-10-24
    Steven Ehlert,Aaron Kingery,Robert Suggs

    We present the results of new calibration tests performed by the NASA Meteoroid Environment Office (MEO) designed to help quantify and minimize systematic uncertainties in meteor photometry from video camera observations. These systematic uncertainties can be categorized by two main sources: an imperfect understanding of the linearity correction for the MEO's Watec 902H2 Ultimate video cameras and

  • Isotopic constraints on the source of Pluto's nitrogen and the history of atmospheric escape.
    Planet. Space Sci. Pub Date : 2016-10-01
    Kathleen E Mandt,Olivier Mousis,Adrienn Luspay-Kuti

    The origin and evolution of nitrogen in solar system bodies is an important question for understanding processes that took place during the formation of the planets and solar system bodies. Pluto has an atmosphere that is 99% molecular nitrogen, but it is unclear if this nitrogen is primordial or derived from ammonia in the protosolar nebula. The nitrogen isotope ratio is an important tracer of the

  • Escape of the martian protoatmosphere and initial water inventory.
    Planet. Space Sci. Pub Date : 2015-04-07
    N V Erkaev,H Lammer,L T Elkins-Tanton,A Stökl,P Odert,E Marcq,E A Dorfi,K G Kislyakova,Yu N Kulikov,M Leitzinger,M Güdel

    Latest research in planet formation indicates that Mars formed within a few million years (Myr) and remained as a planetary embryo that never grew to a more massive planet. It can also be expected from dynamical models that most of Mars' building blocks consisted of material that formed in orbital locations just beyond the ice line which could have contained [Formula: see text] of H2O. By using these

  • Periodic bursts of Jovian non-Io decametric radio emission.
    Planet. Space Sci. Pub Date : 2013-04-16
    M Panchenko,H O Rucker,W M Farrell

    During the years 2000-2011 the radio instruments onboard Cassini, Wind and STEREO spacecraft have recorded a large amount of the Jovian decametric radio emission (DAM). In this paper we report on the analysis of the new type of Jovian periodic radio bursts recently revealed in the decametric frequency range. These bursts, which are non-Io component of DAM, are characterized by a strong periodic reoccurrence

  • Could CoRoT-7b and Kepler-10b be remnants of evaporated gas or ice giants?
    Planet. Space Sci. Pub Date : 2011-10-05
    M Leitzinger,P Odert,Yu N Kulikov,H Lammer,G Wuchterl,T Penz,M G Guarcello,G Micela,M L Khodachenko,J Weingrill,A Hanslmeier,H K Biernat,J Schneider

    We present thermal mass loss calculations over evolutionary time scales for the investigation if the smallest transiting rocky exoplanets CoRoT-7b (∼1.68REarth) and Kepler-10b (∼1.416REarth) could be remnants of an initially more massive hydrogen-rich gas giant or a hot Neptune-class exoplanet. We apply a thermal mass loss formula which yields results that are comparable to hydrodynamic loss models

  • In situ methods for measuring thermal properties and heat flux on planetary bodies.
    Planet. Space Sci. Pub Date : 2011-07-16
    Norbert I Kömle,Erika S Hütter,Wolfgang Macher,Erika Kaufmann,Günter Kargl,Jörg Knollenberg,Matthias Grott,Tilman Spohn,Roman Wawrzaszek,Marek Banaszkiewicz,Karoly Seweryn,Axel Hagermann

    The thermo-mechanical properties of planetary surface and subsurface layers control to a high extent in which way a body interacts with its environment, in particular how it responds to solar irradiation and how it interacts with a potentially existing atmosphere. Furthermore, if the natural temperature profile over a certain depth can be measured in situ, this gives important information about the

  • On the origin of Titan's atmosphere.
    Planet. Space Sci. Pub Date : 2001-09-07
    T C Owen

    The present atmosphere of Titan exhibits evidence of extensive evolution, in the form of rapid photochemical destruction of methane and a large fractionation of the nitrogen and oxygen isotopes. Attempts to recover the initial inventory of volatiles lead toward a model in which nitrogen was originally supplied as NH3, essentially unmodified from its relative abundance in the outer solar nebula. Titan's

  • Analytic investigation of climate stability on Titan: sensitivity to volatile inventory.
    Planet. Space Sci. Pub Date : 2001-09-07
    R D Lorenz,C P McKay,J I Lunine

    We develop a semiempirical grey radiative model to quantify Titan's surface temperature as a function of pressure and composition of a nitrogen-methane-hydrogen atmosphere, solar flux and atmospheric haze. We then use this model, together with non-ideal gas-liquid equilibrium theory to investigate the behavior of the coupled surface-atmosphere system on Titan. We find that a volatile-rich Titan is

  • On the volatile inventory of Titan from isotopic abundances in nitrogen and methane.
    Planet. Space Sci. Pub Date : 2001-09-07
    J I Lunine,Y L Yung,R D Lorenz

    We analyze recently published nitrogen and hydrogen isotopic data to constrain the initial volatile abundances on Saturn's giant moon Titan. The nitrogen data are interpreted in terms of a model of non-thermal escape processes that lead to enhancement in the heavier isotope. We show that these data do not, in fact, strongly constrain the abundance of nitrogen present in Titan's early atmosphere, and

  • A comparison of the atmospheres of Jupiter and Saturn: deep atmospheric composition, cloud structure, vertical mixing, and origin.
    Planet. Space Sci. Pub Date : 2001-09-07
    S K Atreya,M H Wong,T C Owen,P R Mahaffy,H B Niemann,I de Pater,P Drossart,T h Encrenaz

    We present our current understanding of the composition, vertical mixing, cloud structure and the origin of the atmospheres of Jupiter and Saturn. Available observations point to a much more vigorous vertical mixing in Saturn's middle-upper atmosphere than in Jupiter's. The nearly cloud-free nature of the Galileo probe entry site, a 5-micron hotspot, is consistent with the depletion of condensable

  • Seasonal variation of Titan's atmospheric structure simulated by a general circulation model.
    Planet. Space Sci. Pub Date : 2001-09-07
    T Tokano,F M Neubauer,M Laube,C P McKay

    The seasonal variation of Titan's atmospheric structure with emphasis on the stratosphere is simulated by a three-dimensional general circulation model. The model includes the transport of haze particles by the circulation. The likely pattern of meridional circulation is reconstructed by a comparison of simulated and observed haze and temperature distribution. The GCM produces a weak zonal circulation

  • Stable isotope laser spectrometer for exploration of Mars.
    Planet. Space Sci. Pub Date : 2001-09-07
    T B Sauke,J F Becker

    On Earth, measurements of the ratios of stable carbon isotopes have provided much information about geological and biological processes. For example, fractionation of carbon occurs in biotic processes and the retention of a distinctive 2-4% contrast in 13C/12C between organic carbon and carbonates in rocks as old as 3.8 billion years constitutes some of the firmest evidence for the antiquity of life

  • The Mars oxidant experiment (MOx) for Mars '96.
    Planet. Space Sci. Pub Date : 2001-09-07
    C P McKay,F J Grunthaner,A L Lane,M Herring,R K Bartman,A Ksendzov,C M Manning,J L Lamb,R M Williams,A J Ricco,M A Butler,B C Murray,R C Quinn,A P Zent,H P Klein,G V Levin

    The MOx instrument was developed to characterize the reactive nature of the martian soil. The objectives of MOx were: (1) to measure the rate of degradation of organics in the martian environment; (2) to determine if the reactions seen by the Viking biology experiments were caused by a soil oxidant and measure the reactivity of the soil and atmosphere: (3) to monitor the degradation, when exposed to

  • A sophisticated lander for scientific exploration of Mars: scientific objectives and implementation of the Mars-96 Small Station.
    Planet. Space Sci. Pub Date : 2001-09-07
    V Linkin,A M Harri,A Lipatov,K Belostotskaja,B Derbunovich,A Ekonomov,L Khloustova,R Kremnev,V Makarov,B Martinov,D Nenarokov,M Prostov,A Pustovalov,G Shustko,I Jarvinen,H Kivilinna,S Korpela,K Kumpulainen,A Lehto,R Pellinen,R Pirjola,P Riihela,A Salminen,W Schmidt,C P McKay

    A mission to Mars including two Small Stations, two Penetrators and an Orbiter was launched at Baikonur, Kazakhstan, on 16 November 1996. This was called the Mars-96 mission. The Small Stations were expected to land in September 1997 (Ls approximately 178 degrees), nominally to Amazonis-Arcadia region on locations (33 N, 169.4 W) and (37.6 N, 161.9 W). The fourth stage of the Mars-96 launcher malfunctioned

  • Homochirality as the signature of life: the SETH Cigar.
    Planet. Space Sci. Pub Date : 1996-11-01
    A J MacDermott,L D Barron,A Brack,T Buhse,A F Drake,R Emery,G Gottarelli,J M Greenberg,R Haberle,R A Hegstrom,K Hobbs,D K Kondepudi,C McKay,S Moorbath,F Raulin,M Sandford,D W Schwartzman,W H Thiemann,G E Tranter,J C Zarnecki

    A characteristic hallmark of life is its homochirality: all biomolecules are usually of one hand, e.g. on Earth life uses only L-amino acids for protein synthesis and not their D mirror images. It is therefore suggested that a search for extra-terrestrial life can be approached as a Search for Extra-Terrestrial Homochirality (SETH). A novel miniaturized space polarimeter, called the SETH Cigar, is

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