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  • Evidence for Transient Atmospheres during Eruptive Outgassing on the Moon
    Planet. Sci. J. Pub Date : 2020-11-23
    Elishevah M. M. E. van Kooten, Frédéric Moynier and James M. D. Day

    Events following the giant impact formation of the Moon are thought to have led to volatile depletion and concurrent mass-dependent fractionation of the isotopes of moderately volatile elements (MVE). The detailed processes and conditions surrounding this episode remain obscured and are not unified by a single model for all volatile elements and compounds. Using available data, including new Zn isotope

  • Lunar Exploration as a Probe of Ancient Venus
    Planet. Sci. J. Pub Date : 2020-11-20
    Samuel H. C. Cabot and Gregory Laughlin

    An ancient Venusian rock could constrain that planet’s history and reveal the past existence of oceans. Such samples may persist on the Moon, which lacks an atmosphere and significant geological activity. We demonstrate that, if Venus’ atmosphere was at any point thin and similar to Earth’s, then asteroid impacts transferred potentially detectable amounts of Venusian surface material to the lunar regolith

  • How Good is “Good Enough?” Major Element Chemical Analyses of Planetary Basalts by Spacecraft Instruments
    Planet. Sci. J. Pub Date : 2020-11-19
    Allan H. Treiman, Justin Filiberto and Edgard G. Rivera-Valentín

    Bulk chemical composition is a fundamental property of a planetary material, rock or regolith, and can be used to constrain the properties and history of a material, and by extension its parent body, including its potential for habitability. Here, we investigate how uncertainties in bulk major element analyses can affect inferences derived from those analyses, including rock classification by total-alkalis–silica

  • Global Temporal and Geographic Stability of Brines on Present-day Mars
    Planet. Sci. J. Pub Date : 2020-11-12
    Vincent F. Chevrier, Edgard G. Rivera-Valentín, Alejandro Soto and Travis S. Altheide

    We combine experimentally verified constraints on brine thermodynamics along with a global circulation model to develop a new extensive framework of brine stability on the surface and subsurface of Mars. Our work considers all major phase changes (i.e., evaporation, freezing, and boiling) and is consistent, regardless of brine composition, so it is applicable to any brine relevant to Mars. We find

  • The Effects of Waves on the Meridional Thermal Structure of Jupiter’s Stratosphere
    Planet. Sci. J. Pub Date : 2020-11-10
    Richard G. Cosentino, Thomas Greathouse, Amy Simon, Rohini Giles, Raúl Morales-Juberías, Leigh N. Fletcher and Glenn Orton

    A thermal oscillation in Jupiter’s equatorial stratosphere, thought to have ∼4 Earth year period, was first discovered in 7.8 μ m imaging observations from the 1980s and 1990s. Such imaging observations were sensitive to the 10–20 hPa pressure region in the atmosphere. More recent 7.8 μ m long-slit high-spectroscopic observations from 2012 to 2017 taken using the Texas Echelon cross-dispersed Echelle

  • Vis–NIR Reflectance Microspectroscopy of IDPs
    Planet. Sci. J. Pub Date : 2020-11-09
    Romain Maupin, Zahia Djouadi, Rosario Brunetto, Cateline Lantz, Alice Aléon-Toppani and Pierre Vernazza

    Visible near-infrared (Vis–NIR) reflectance spectroscopy is a powerful nondestructive technique allowing the parent bodies identification of cosmomaterials such as meteorites, micrometeorites, and interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) studied in the laboratory. Previous studies showed that meteorites do not represent the full diversity of the solar system small bodies. We present here an experimental

  • ALMA Observations of Io Going into and Coming out of Eclipse
    Planet. Sci. J. Pub Date : 2020-11-06
    Imke de Pater, Statia Luszcz-Cook, Patricio Rojo, Erin Redwing, Katherine de Kleer and Arielle Moullet

    We present 1 mm observations constructed from Atacama Large (sub)Millimeter Array (ALMA) data of SO 2 , SO, and KCl when Io went from sunlight into eclipse (2018 March 20) and vice versa (2018 September 2 and 11). There is clear evidence of volcanic plumes on March 20 and September 2. The plumes distort the line profiles, causing high-velocity (≳500 m s −1 ) wings and red-/blueshifted shoulders in

  • Space Weathering Affects the Remote Near-IR Identification of Phyllosilicates
    Planet. Sci. J. Pub Date : 2020-11-06
    Stefano Rubino, Cateline Lantz, Donia Baklouti, Hugues Leroux, Ferenc Borondics and Rosario Brunetto

    Near-infrared (NIR) spectrometers on board current sample return missions Hayabusa2 and the Origins-Spectral Interpretation-Resource Identification-Security-Regolith Explorer (OSIRIS-REx) from primitive bodies detected the presence of hydrated silicates on the surface of asteroids Ryugu and Bennu, respectively. These detections relied upon the study of the 2.7 μ m OH-stretching spectral feature, whose

  • A Comparative Modeling Study of the Seasonal, Temporal, and Spatial Distribution of Meteoroids in the Upper Atmospheres of Venus, Earth, and Mars
    Planet. Sci. J. Pub Date : 2020-10-29
    Diego Janches, Juan Sebastian Bruzzone, Petr Pokorný, Juan Diego Carrillo-Sanchez and Menelaos Sarantos

    The meteoroid input function (MIF) describes the seasonal, diurnal and planetographic distribution of incoming meteoroids onto an atmosphere and/or surface of a solar system body. Utilizing state-of-the-art dynamical models of the main populations of meteoroids, we present a comparative study of the MIF on the atmospheres of Venus, Earth and Mars. Our modeling results show that, although a planet's

  • Abundant Atmospheric Methane from Volcanism on Terrestrial Planets Is Unlikely and Strengthens the Case for Methane as a Biosignature
    Planet. Sci. J. Pub Date : 2020-10-29
    Nicholas Wogan, Joshua Krissansen-Totton and David C. Catling

    The disequilibrium combination of abundant methane and carbon dioxide has been proposed as a promising exoplanet biosignature that is readily detectable with upcoming telescopes such as the James Webb Space Telescope. However, few studies have explored the possibility of nonbiological CH 4 and CO 2 and related contextual clues. Here we investigate whether magmatic volcanic outgassing on terrestrial

  • Unprecedented Molecular Diversity Revealed in Meteoritic Insoluble Organic Matter: The Paris Meteorite’s Case
    Planet. Sci. J. Pub Date : 2020-10-26
    Grégoire Danger, Alexander Ruf, Julien Maillard, Jasmine Hertzog, Vassilissa Vinogradoff, Philippe Schmitt-Kopplin, Carlos Afonso, Nathalie Carrasco, Isabelle Schmitz-Afonso, Louis Le Sergeant d’Hendecourt and Laurent Remusat

    The insoluble organic matter (IOM) contained in carbonaceous chondrites has witnessed a diverse suite of processes possibly starting from the evolution of the parent molecular cloud down to the protosolar nebula and finally to asteroidal processes that occurred on the chondrites’ parent bodies. Laser desorption coupled with ultra-high-resolution mass spectrometry reveals that the IOM of the Paris meteorite

  • HST UV Observations of Asteroid (16) Psyche
    Planet. Sci. J. Pub Date : 2020-10-26
    Tracy M. Becker, Nathaniel Cunningham, Philippa Molyneux, Lorenz Roth, Lori M. Feaga, Kurt D. Retherford, Zoe A. Landsman, Emma Peavler, Linda T. Elkins-Tanton and Jan-Erik Walhund

    The Main Belt Asteroid (16) Psyche is the target object of the NASA Discovery Mission Psyche. We observed the asteroid at ultraviolet (UV) wavelengths (170–310 nm) using the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph on the Hubble Space Telescope during two separate observations. We report that the spectrum is very red in the UV, with a blue upturn shortward of ∼200 nm. We find an absorption feature at 250

  • New Illumination and Temperature Constraints of Mercury’s Volatile Polar Deposits
    Planet. Sci. J. Pub Date : 2020-10-26
    Colin D. Hamill, Nancy L. Chabot, Erwan Mazarico, Matthew A. Siegler, Michael K. Barker and Jose M. Martinez Camacho

    Images from the Mercury Dual Imaging System (MDIS) aboard the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging mission reveal low-reflectance polar deposits that are interpreted to be lag deposits of organic-rich, volatile material. Interpretation of these highest-resolution images of Mercury’s polar deposits has been limited by the available topography models, so local high-resolution

  • Mapping of Ice Storage Processes on the Moon with Time-dependent Temperatures
    Planet. Sci. J. Pub Date : 2020-10-26
    Norbert Schorghofer and Jean-Pierre Williams

    Lunar cold traps are defined by extremely low time-integrated sublimation loss, so that water ice is expected to accumulate in them. Due to the strong dependence of the sublimation rate on temperature, they have heretofore been delineated by the peak rather than the time-averaged sublimation rate. Here, time-averaged sublimation rates are calculated for the south polar region of the Moon based on 11

  • Lunar Surface and Buried Rock Abundance Retrieved from Chang’E-2 Microwave and Diviner Data
    Planet. Sci. J. Pub Date : 2020-10-26
    Guangfei Wei, Shane Byrne, Xiongyao Li and Guoping Hu

    Microwave emission of the Moon, measured by the Chang’E-2 Microwave Radiometer (MRM), provides an effective way to understand the physical properties of lunar near-surface materials. The observed microwave brightness temperature is affected by near-surface temperatures, which are controlled by the surface albedo, roughness, regolith thermophysical properties, and the high thermal inertia and permittivity

  • The Population of Kilometer-scale Retrograde Jovian Irregular Moons
    Planet. Sci. J. Pub Date : 2020-09-27
    Edward Ashton, Matthew Beaudoin and Brett J. Gladman

    We have searched a 2010 archival data set from the Canada–France–Hawaii Telescope for very small (km-scale) irregular moons of Jupiter in order to constrain the size distribution of these moons down to radii of ~400 m, discovering 52 objects that are moving with Jupiter-like on-sky rates and are nearly certainly irregular moons. The four brightest detections, and seven in total, were all then linked

  • Stellar Occultation by the Resonant Trans-Neptunian Object (523764) 2014 WC510 Reveals a Close Binary TNO
    Planet. Sci. J. Pub Date : 2020-09-27
    Rodrigo Leiva, Marc W. Buie, John M. Keller, Lawrence H. Wasserman, JJ Kavelaars, Terry Bridges, Sean L. Haley, Ryder Strauss, Elizabeth Wilde, Robert Weryk, Pierre Kervella, Robert Baker, Stephen Alan Bock, Ken Conway, Juan M. Cota Jr., James J. Estes, María L. García, Matthew Kehrli, Andrew McCandless, Keitha McCandless, Edgar Self, Cole Settlemire, Diana J. Swanson, Doug Thompson and J. A. Wise

    We report on the stellar occultation by (523764) 2014 WC 510 observed on 2018 December 1 UT. This occultation campaign was part of the Research and Education Collaborative Occultation Network (RECON), a network of small telescopes spread over 2000 km in western USA and Canada. Light curves from six stations revealed three groups of two or more consecutive flux drops correlated in time between adjacent

  • Evaporation from the Lunar Magma Ocean Was Not the Mechanism for Fractionation of the Moon's Moderately Volatile Elements
    Planet. Sci. J. Pub Date : 2020-09-27
    H. Tang and E. D. Young

    The cause of chemical depletion and isotopic fractionation of moderately volatile elements (MVEs) in the Moon is a long-standing problem. Here we examine MVE isotopic fractionation during Moon formation using potassium as a primary example. We show that the degree of isotopic fractionation due to evaporation of the lunar magma ocean (LMO) depended critically on the vapor pressure above the LMO. Based

  • Spatial Variations of Low-mass Negative Ions in Titan's Upper Atmosphere
    Planet. Sci. J. Pub Date : 2020-09-27
    Teodora Mihailescu, Ravindra T. Desai, Oleg Shebanits, Richard Haythornthwaite, Anne Wellbrock, Andrew J. Coates, Jonathan P. Eastwood and J. Hunter Waite

    Observations with Cassini's Electron Spectrometer discovered negative ions in Titan's ionosphere, at altitudes between 1400 and 950 km. Within the broad mass distribution extending up to several thousand amu, two distinct peaks were identified at 25.8–26.0 and 49.0–50.1 amu/q, corresponding to the carbon chain anions CN − and/or ##IMG## [http://ej.iop.org/images/2632-3338/1/2/50/psjabb1baieqn1.gif]

  • Haze Formation in Warm H 2 -rich Exoplanet Atmospheres
    Planet. Sci. J. Pub Date : 2020-09-27
    Chao He, Sarah M. Hörst, Nikole K. Lewis, Xinting Yu, Julianne I. Moses, Patricia McGuiggan, Mark S. Marley, Eliza M.-R. Kempton, Caroline V. Morley, Jeff A. Valenti and Véronique Vuitton

    New observing capabilities coming online over the next few years will provide opportunities for characterization of exoplanet atmospheres. However, clouds/hazes could be present in the atmospheres of many exoplanets, muting the amplitude of spectral features. We use laboratory simulations to explore photochemical haze formation in H 2 -rich exoplanet atmospheres at 800 K with metallicity either 100

  • Detection Limits for Chiral Amino Acids Using a Polarization Camera
    Planet. Sci. J. Pub Date : 2020-09-16
    Claire Cook, Shane Byrne, Christian Drouet d’Aubigny, Donna Viola, Jill Mikucki and Walther Ellis

    The detection of biosignatures on a planetary surface is of high scientific interest, and enantiomeric excesses of organic molecules are one such signature. Enantiomeric excesses can be detected by their polarizing effects on transmitted light. As part of instrument development work for a microscopic imager, the Cold Lightweight Imager for Europa (C-LIFE), we assess the potential of polarization measurements

  • Colliding in the Shadows of Giants: Planetesimal Collisions during the Growth and Migration of Gas Giants
    Planet. Sci. J. Pub Date : 2020-09-16
    Philip J. Carter and Sarah T. Stewart

    Giant planet migration is an important phenomenon in the evolution of planetary systems. Recent works have shown that giant planet growth and migration can shape the asteroid belt, but these works have not considered interactions between planetesimals. We have calculated the evolution of planetesimal disks, including planetesimal–planetesimal collisions, during gas giant growth and migration. The numbers

  • A Deep Search for Stable Venus Co-orbital Asteroids: Limits on the Population
    Planet. Sci. J. Pub Date : 2020-09-16
    Petr Pokorný, Marc J. Kuchner and Scott S. Sheppard

    A stable population of objects co-orbiting with Venus was recently hypothesized in order to explain the existence of Venus’s co-orbital dust ring. We conducted a five days twilight survey for these objects with the Cerro-Tololo Inter-American Observatory 4 m telescope covering about 35 unique square degrees to 21 mag in the r band. Our survey provides the most stringent limit so far on the number of

  • Could the Migration of Jupiter Have Accelerated the Atmospheric Evolution of Venus?
    Planet. Sci. J. Pub Date : 2020-09-03
    Stephen R. Kane, Pam Vervoort, Jonathan Horner and Francisco J. Pozuelos

    In the study of planetary habitability and terrestrial atmospheric evolution, the divergence of surface conditions for Venus and Earth remains an area of active research. Among the intrinsic and external influences on the Venusian climate history are orbital changes due to giant planet migration that have both variable incident flux and tidal heating consequences. Here, we present the results of a

  • Detection of a Satellite of the Trojan Asteroid (3548) Eurybates—A Lucy Mission Target
    Planet. Sci. J. Pub Date : 2020-09-03
    K. S. Noll, M. E. Brown, H. A. Weaver, W. M. Grundy, S. B. Porter, M. W. Buie, H. F. Levison, C. Olkin, J. R. Spencer, S. Marchi and T. S. Statler

    We describe the discovery of a satellite of the Trojan asteroid (3548) Eurybates in images obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope. The satellite was detected on three separate epochs, two in 2018 September and one in 2020 January. The satellite has a brightness in all three epochs consistent with an effective diameter of d 2 = 1.2 ± 0.4 km. The projected separation from Eurybates was s ∼ 1700–2300

  • Changes in a Dusty Ringlet in the Cassini Division after 2010
    Planet. Sci. J. Pub Date : 2020-09-03
    Mathew Hedman and Bill Bridges

    A dusty ringlet designated R/2006 S3, also known as the “Charming Ringlet,” is located around 119,940 km from the center of Saturn within the Laplace Gap in the Cassini Division. Prior to 2010, the ringlet had a simple radial profile and a predictable eccentric shape with two components, one forced by solar radiation pressure and the other freely precessing around the planet. However, observations

  • Barycentric Corrections for Precise Radial Velocity Measurements of Sunlight
    Planet. Sci. J. Pub Date : 2020-08-25
    Jason T. Wright and Shubham Kanodia

    We provide formulae for the calculation of precise Doppler velocities of sunlight, in both the case of direct observations of the Sun and in reflection from the surfaces of solar system objects such as the Moon or asteroids. We discuss the meaning of a "barycentric correction" of measurements of these Doppler velocities, which is a different procedure from the analogous correction for starlight, and

  • Benzoic Acid as the Preferred Precursor for the Chlorobenzene Detected on Mars: Insights from the Unique Cumberland Analog Investigation
    Planet. Sci. J. Pub Date : 2020-08-25
    Caroline Freissinet, Christine A. Knudson, Heather V. Graham, James M. T. Lewis, Jérémie Lasue, Amy C. McAdam, Samuel Teinturier, Cyril Szopa, Erwin Dehouck, Richard V. Morris, Charles A. Malespin and Paul R. Mahaffy

    The Cumberland drill sample from the Sheepbed mudstone in Gale Crater, Mars, revealed the first evidence of an indigenous Martian organic molecule, chlorobenzene, with the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument on Curiosity. We created in the laboratory a mineralogical analog of the Cumberland sample (CBA) to aid in the understanding of the precursor organic molecule(s) that led to the detection

  • Craters on Charon: Impactors from a Collisional Cascade Among Trans-Neptunian Objects
    Planet. Sci. J. Pub Date : 2020-08-25
    Scott J. Kenyon and Benjamin C. Bromley

    We consider whether equilibrium size distributions from collisional cascades match the frequency of impactors derived from New Horizons crater counts on Charon. Using an analytic model and a suite of numerical simulations, we demonstrate that collisional cascades generate wavy size distributions; the morphology of the waves depends on the binding energy of solids ##IMG## [http://ej.iop.org/images/

  • Oxidation of the Interiors of Carbide Exoplanets
    Planet. Sci. J. Pub Date : 2020-08-25
    H. Allen-Sutter, E. Garhart, K. Leinenweber, V. Prakapenka, E. Greenberg and S.-H. Shim

    Astrophysical measurements have shown that some stars have sufficiently high carbon-to-oxygen ratios such that the planets they host would be mainly composed of carbides instead of silicates. We studied the behavior of silicon carbide in the presence of water under the high pressure–temperature conditions relevant to planetary interiors in the laser-heated diamond-anvil cell. When reacting with water

  • A Volatile-poor Formation of LHS 3844b Based on Its Lack of Significant Atmosphere
    Planet. Sci. J. Pub Date : 2020-08-18
    Stephen R. Kane, Rachael M. Roettenbacher, Cayman T. Unterborn, Bradford J. Foley and Michelle L. Hill

    Exoplanet discoveries have reached into the realm of terrestrial planets that are becoming the subject of atmospheric studies. One such discovery is LHS 3844b, a 1.3 Earth radius planet in a 0.46 day orbit around an M4.5-5 dwarf star. Follow-up observations indicate that the planet is largely devoid of substantial atmosphere. This lack of significant atmosphere places astrophysical and geophysical

  • Distinguishing between Shock-darkening and Space-weathering Trends in Ordinary Chondrite Reflectance Spectra
    Planet. Sci. J. Pub Date : 2020-08-18
    Tomas Kohout, Antti Penttilä, Paul Mann, Ed Cloutis, Jan Čuda, Jan Filip, Ondrej Malina, Vishnu Reddy, Victor I. Grokhovsky, Grigoriy A. Yakovlev, Patricie Halodova and Jakub Haloda

    space-weathering as well as shock effects can darken meteorite and asteroid reflectance spectra. We present a detailed comparative study on shock-darkening and space-weathering using different lithologies of the Chelyabinsk LL5 chondrite. Compared to space-weathering, the shock processes do not cause significant spectral slope changes and are more efficient in attenuating the orthopyroxene 2 μ m absorption

  • 138175 (2000 EE104) and the Source of Interplanetary Field Enhancements
    Planet. Sci. J. Pub Date : 2020-08-13
    David Jewitt

    We present the first optical observations taken to characterize the near-Earth object 138175 (2000 EE104). This body is associated with interplanetary field enhancements (IFEs), thought to be caused by interactions between the solar wind magnetic field and solid material trailing in the orbit of the parent body. Based on optical photometry, the radius (in meters) and mass (in kilograms) of an equal-area

  • Tidal Currents Detected in Kraken Mare Straits from Cassini VIMS Sun Glitter Observations
    Planet. Sci. J. Pub Date : 2020-08-13
    Michael F. Heslar, Jason W. Barnes, Jason M. Soderblom, Benoît Seignovert, Rajani D. Dhingra and Christophe Sotin

    We present Cassini Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS) observations of sun glitter—wave-induced reflections from a liquid surface offset from a specular point—on Kraken Mare. sun glitter reveals rough sea surfaces around Kraken Mare, namely the coasts and narrow straits. The sun glitter observations indicate wave activity driven by the winds and tidal currents in Kraken Mare during northern

  • Citlalmitl: A Laser-based Device for Meteoritical Sample Fabrication with Arbitrary Thermal Histories
    Planet. Sci. J. Pub Date : 2020-08-13
    Patricia Hernández-Reséndiz, Héctor Cruz-Ramírez, Alfred B. U'Ren, Karina Elizabeth Cervantes-de la Cruz and Antígona Segura

    We present Citlalmitl (the word for meteorite in the Nahuatl language), a new experimental device designed and built to simulate high-temperature processes relevant for meteoritics, including chondrule formation and the atmospheric entry of micrometeorites (MMs). The main component of Citlalmitl is a 50 W CO 2 laser, used to melt samples that simulate the precursors of meteoritical materials. As examples

  • Spatio-temporal Variation of Bright Ephemeral Features on Titan's North Pole
    Planet. Sci. J. Pub Date : 2020-07-27
    Rajani D. Dhingra, Jason W. Barnes, Michael F. Heslar, Robert H. Brown, Bonnie J. Buratti, Christophe Sotin, Jason M. Soderblom, Sebastien Rodriguez, Stéphane Le Mouélic, Philip D. Nicholson, Kevin H. Baines, Roger N. Clark and Ralf Jaumann

    We identify and document the instances of bright ephemeral features (BEF)—bright areas that appear, disappear, and shift from flyby to flyby on Titan's north pole, using the Cassini Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer data set, thereby developing a sense of their spatial distribution and temporal frequency. We find that BEFs have differing geographic location and spatial extents. However, they

  • Stratification Dynamics of Titan's Lakes via Methane Evaporation.
    Planet. Sci. J. Pub Date : 2020-07-14
    Jordan K Steckloff,Jason M Soderblom,Kendra K Farnsworth,Vincent F Chevrier,Jennifer Hanley,Alejandro Soto,Jessica J Groven,William M Grundy,Logan A Pearce,Stephen C Tegler,Anna Engle

    Saturn's moon Titan is the only extraterrestrial body known to host stable lakes and a hydrological cycle. Titan's lakes predominantly contain liquid methane, ethane, and nitrogen, with methane evaporation driving its hydrological cycle. Molecular interactions between these three species lead to non-ideal behavior that causes Titan's lakes to behave differently than Earth's lakes. Here, we numerically

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