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  • Highly accurate protein structure prediction for the human proteome
    Nature (IF 49.962) Pub Date : 2021-07-22
    Kathryn Tunyasuvunakool, Jonas Adler, Zachary Wu, Tim Green, Michal Zielinski, Augustin Žídek, Alex Bridgland, Andrew Cowie, Clemens Meyer, Agata Laydon, Sameer Velankar, Gerard J. Kleywegt, Alex Bateman, Richard Evans, Alexander Pritzel, Michael Figurnov, Olaf Ronneberger, Russ Bates, Simon A. A. Kohl, Anna Potapenko, Andrew J. Ballard, Bernardino Romera-Paredes, Stanislav Nikolov, Rishub Jain, Ellen

    Protein structures can provide invaluable information, both for reasoning about biological processes and for enabling interventions such as structure-based drug development or targeted mutagenesis. After decades of effort, 17% of the total residues in human protein sequences are covered by an experimentally-determined structure1. Here we dramatically expand structural coverage by applying the state-of-the-art

  • Tonic prime-boost of STING signalling mediates Niemann–Pick disease type C
    Nature (IF 49.962) Pub Date : 2021-07-21
    Ting-Ting Chu, Xintao Tu, Kun Yang, Jianjun Wu, Joyce J. Repa, Nan Yan

    The classic mode of STING activation is through binding the cyclic dinucleotide 2′3′-cyclic GMP–AMP (cGAMP), produced by the DNA sensor cyclic GMP–AMP synthase (cGAS), which is important for the innate immune response to microbial infection and autoimmune disease. Modes of STING activation that are independent of cGAS are much less well understood. Here, through a spatiotemporally resolved proximity

  • EGFR activation limits the response of liver cancer to lenvatinib
    Nature (IF 49.962) Pub Date : 2021-07-21
    Haojie Jin, Yaoping Shi, Yuanyuan Lv, Shengxian Yuan, Christel F. A. Ramirez, Cor Lieftink, Liqin Wang, Siying Wang, Cun Wang, Matheus Henrique Dias, Fleur Jochems, Yuan Yang, Astrid Bosma, E. Marielle Hijmans, Marnix H. P. de Groot, Serena Vegna, Dan Cui, Yangyang Zhou, Jing Ling, Hui Wang, Yuchen Guo, Xingling Zheng, Nikita Isima, Haiqiu Wu, Chong Sun, Roderick L. Beijersbergen, Leila Akkari, Weiping

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)—the most common form of liver cancer—is an aggressive malignancy with few effective treatment options1. Lenvatinib is a small-molecule inhibitor of multiple receptor tyrosine kinases that is used for the treatment of patients with advanced HCC, but this drug has only limited clinical benefit2. Here, using a kinome-centred CRISPR–Cas9 genetic screen, we show that inhibition

  • Gut cytokines modulate olfaction through metabolic reprogramming of glia
    Nature (IF 49.962) Pub Date : 2021-07-21
    Xiaoyu Tracy Cai, Hongjie Li, Martin Borch Jensen, Elie Maksoud, Jovencio Borneo, Yuxin Liang, Stephen R. Quake, Liqun Luo, Pejmun Haghighi, Heinrich Jasper

    Infection-induced aversion against enteropathogens is a conserved sickness behaviour that can promote host survival1,2. The aetiology of this behaviour remains poorly understood, but studies in Drosophila have linked olfactory and gustatory perception to avoidance behaviours against toxic microorganisms3,4,5. Whether and how enteric infections directly influence sensory perception to induce or modulate

  • SAR1B senses leucine levels to regulate mTORC1 signalling
    Nature (IF 49.962) Pub Date : 2021-07-21
    Jie Chen, Yuhui Ou, Rong Luo, Jie Wang, Dong Wang, Jialiang Guan, Yi Li, Peixue Xia, Peng R. Chen, Ying Liu

    The mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) controls cell growth in response to amino acid levels1. Here we report SAR1B as a leucine sensor that regulates mTORC1 signalling in response to intracellular levels of leucine. Under conditions of leucine deficiency, SAR1B inhibits mTORC1 by physically targeting its activator GATOR2. In conditions of leucine sufficiency, SAR1B binds to leucine, undergoes a conformational

  • Phenotype, specificity and avidity of antitumour CD8+ T cells in melanoma
    Nature (IF 49.962) Pub Date : 2021-07-21
    Giacomo Oliveira, Kari Stromhaug, Susan Klaeger, Tomasz Kula, Dennie T. Frederick, Phuong M. Le, Juliet Forman, Teddy Huang, Shuqiang Li, Wandi Zhang, Qikai Xu, Nicoletta Cieri, Karl R. Clauser, Sachet A. Shukla, Donna Neuberg, Sune Justesen, Gavin MacBeath, Steven A. Carr, Edward F. Fritsch, Nir Hacohen, Moshe Sade-Feldman, Kenneth J. Livak, Genevieve M. Boland, Patrick A. Ott, Derin B. Keskin, Catherine

    Interactions between T cell receptors (TCRs) and their cognate tumour antigens are central to antitumour immune responses1,2,3; however, the relationship between phenotypic characteristics and TCR properties is not well elucidated. Here we show, by linking the antigenic specificity of TCRs and the cellular phenotype of melanoma-infiltrating lymphocytes at single-cell resolution, that tumour specificity

  • Structural basis of human separase regulation by securin and CDK1–cyclin B1
    Nature (IF 49.962) Pub Date : 2021-07-21
    Jun Yu, Pierre Raia, Chloe M. Ghent, Tobias Raisch, Yashar Sadian, Simone Cavadini, Pramod M. Sabale, David Barford, Stefan Raunser, David O. Morgan, Andreas Boland

    In early mitosis, the duplicated chromosomes are held together by the ring-shaped cohesin complex1. Separation of chromosomes during anaphase is triggered by separase—a large cysteine endopeptidase that cleaves the cohesin subunit SCC1 (also known as RAD212,3,4). Separase is activated by degradation of its inhibitors, securin5 and cyclin B6, but the molecular mechanisms of separase regulation are not

  • A natively flexible 32-bit Arm microprocessor
    Nature (IF 49.962) Pub Date : 2021-07-21
    John Biggs, James Myers, Jedrzej Kufel, Emre Ozer, Simon Craske, Antony Sou, Catherine Ramsdale, Ken Williamson, Richard Price, Scott White

    Nearly 50 years ago, Intel created the world’s first commercially produced microprocessor—the 4004 (ref. 1), a modest 4-bit CPU (central processing unit) with 2,300 transistors fabricated using 10 μm process technology in silicon and capable only of simple arithmetic calculations. Since this ground-breaking achievement, there has been continuous technological development with increasing sophistication

  • Free-electron lasing at 27 nanometres based on a laser wakefield accelerator
    Nature (IF 49.962) Pub Date : 2021-07-21
    Wentao Wang, Ke Feng, Lintong Ke, Changhai Yu, Yi Xu, Rong Qi, Yu Chen, Zhiyong Qin, Zhijun Zhang, Ming Fang, Jiaqi Liu, Kangnan Jiang, Hao Wang, Cheng Wang, Xiaojun Yang, Fenxiang Wu, Yuxin Leng, Jiansheng Liu, Ruxin Li, Zhizhan Xu

    X-ray free-electron lasers can generate intense and coherent radiation at wavelengths down to the sub-ångström region1,2,3,4,5, and have become indispensable tools for applications in structural biology and chemistry, among other disciplines6. Several X-ray free-electron laser facilities are in operation2,3,4,5; however, their requirement for large, high-cost, state-of-the-art radio-frequency accelerators

  • Pauli-limit violation and re-entrant superconductivity in moiré graphene
    Nature (IF 49.962) Pub Date : 2021-07-21
    Yuan Cao, Jeong Min Park, Kenji Watanabe, Takashi Taniguchi, Pablo Jarillo-Herrero

    Moiré quantum matter has emerged as a materials platform in which correlated and topological phases can be explored with unprecedented control. Among them, magic-angle systems constructed from two or three layers of graphene have shown robust superconducting phases with unconventional characteristics1,2,3,4,5. However, direct evidence of unconventional pairing remains to be experimentally demonstrated

  • The nightside cloud-top circulation of the atmosphere of Venus
    Nature (IF 49.962) Pub Date : 2021-07-21
    Kiichi Fukuya, Takeshi Imamura, Makoto Taguchi, Tetsuya Fukuhara, Toru Kouyama, Takeshi Horinouchi, Javier Peralta, Masahiko Futaguchi, Takeru Yamada, Takao M. Sato, Atsushi Yamazaki, Shin-ya Murakami, Takehiko Satoh, Masahiro Takagi, Masato Nakamura

    Although Venus is a terrestrial planet similar to Earth, its atmospheric circulation is much different and poorly characterized1. Winds at the cloud top have been measured predominantly on the dayside. Prominent poleward drifts have been observed with dayside cloud tracking and interpreted to be caused by thermal tides and a Hadley circulation2,3,4; however, the lack of nightside measurements over

  • Layer Hall effect in a 2D topological axion antiferromagnet
    Nature (IF 49.962) Pub Date : 2021-07-21
    Anyuan Gao, Yu-Fei Liu, Chaowei Hu, Jian-Xiang Qiu, Christian Tzschaschel, Barun Ghosh, Sheng-Chin Ho, Damien Bérubé, Rui Chen, Haipeng Sun, Zhaowei Zhang, Xin-Yue Zhang, Yu-Xuan Wang, Naizhou Wang, Zumeng Huang, Claudia Felser, Amit Agarwal, Thomas Ding, Hung-Ju Tien, Austin Akey, Jules Gardener, Bahadur Singh, Kenji Watanabe, Takashi Taniguchi, Kenneth S. Burch, David C. Bell, Brian B. Zhou, Weibo

    Whereas ferromagnets have been known and used for millennia, antiferromagnets were only discovered in the 1930s1. At large scale, because of the absence of global magnetization, antiferromagnets may seem to behave like any non-magnetic material. At the microscopic level, however, the opposite alignment of spins forms a rich internal structure. In topological antiferromagnets, this internal structure

  • Extreme flow simulations reveal skeletal adaptations of deep-sea sponges
    Nature (IF 49.962) Pub Date : 2021-07-21
    Giacomo Falcucci, Giorgio Amati, Pierluigi Fanelli, Vesselin K. Krastev, Giovanni Polverino, Maurizio Porfiri, Sauro Succi

    Since its discovery1,2, the deep-sea glass sponge Euplectella aspergillum has attracted interest in its mechanical properties and beauty. Its skeletal system is composed of amorphous hydrated silica and is arranged in a highly regular and hierarchical cylindrical lattice that begets exceptional flexibility and resilience to damage3,4,5,6. Structural analyses dominate the literature, but hydrodynamic

  • A multilayered immune system through the lens of unconventional T cells
    Nature (IF 49.962) Pub Date : 2021-07-21
    Toufic Mayassi, Luis B. Barreiro, Jamie Rossjohn, Bana Jabri

    The unconventional T cell compartment encompasses a variety of cell subsets that straddle the line between innate and adaptive immunity, often reside at mucosal surfaces and can recognize a wide range of non-polymorphic ligands. Recent advances have highlighted the role of unconventional T cells in tissue homeostasis and disease. In this Review, we recast unconventional T cell subsets according to

  • Orthogonal-array dynamic molecular sieving of propylene/propane mixtures
    Nature (IF 49.962) Pub Date : 2021-07-21
    Heng Zeng, Mo Xie, Ting Wang, Rong-Jia Wei, Xiao-Jing Xie, Yifang Zhao, Weigang Lu, Dan Li

    Rigid molecular sieving materials work well for small molecules with the complete exclusion of large ones1,2,3, and molecules with matching physiochemical properties may be separated using dynamic molecular sieving materials4,5,6. Metal–organic frameworks (MOFs)7,8,9 are known for their precise control of structures and functions on a molecular level10,11,12,13,14,15. However, the rational design of

  • Cleaving arene rings for acyclic alkenylnitrile synthesis
    Nature (IF 49.962) Pub Date : 2021-07-19
    Xu Qiu, Yueqian Sang, Hao Wu, Xiao-Song Xue, Zixi Yan, Yachong Wang, Zengrui Cheng, Xiaoyang Wang, Hui Tan, Song Song, Guisheng Zhang, Xiaohui Zhang, K. N. Houk, Ning Jiao

    Synthetic chemistry is built around the formation of carbon−carbon bonds. Conversely, selective methods for C−C bond cleavage is a largely unmet challenge1–6, the solution of which will provide promising applications in synthesis, coal liquefaction, petroleum cracking, polymer degradation and biomass conversion. For example, aromatic rings are ubiquitous skeletal features in inert chemical feed stocks

  • Broad sarbecovirus neutralization by a human monoclonal antibody
    Nature (IF 49.962) Pub Date : 2021-07-19
    M. Alejandra Tortorici, Nadine Czudnochowski, Tyler N. Starr, Roberta Marzi, Alexandra C. Walls, Fabrizia Zatta, John E. Bowen, Stefano Jaconi, Julia Di Iulio, Zhaoqian Wang, Anna De Marco, Samantha K. Zepeda, Dora Pinto, Zhuoming Liu, Martina Beltramello, Istvan Bartha, Michael P. Housley, Florian A. Lempp, Laura E. Rosen, Exequiel Dellota, Hannah Kaiser, Martin Montiel-Ruiz, Jiayi Zhou, Amin Addetia

    The recent emergence of SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOC)1–10 and the recurrent spillovers of coronaviruses11,12 in the human population highlight the need for broadly neutralizing antibodies that are not affected by the ongoing antigenic drift and that can prevent or treat future zoonotic infections. Here, we describe a human monoclonal antibody (mAb), designated S2X259, recognizing a highly conserved

  • Highly accurate protein structure prediction with AlphaFold
    Nature (IF 49.962) Pub Date : 2021-07-15
    John Jumper, Richard Evans, Alexander Pritzel, Tim Green, Michael Figurnov, Olaf Ronneberger, Kathryn Tunyasuvunakool, Russ Bates, Augustin Žídek, Anna Potapenko, Alex Bridgland, Clemens Meyer, Simon A. A. Kohl, Andrew J. Ballard, Andrew Cowie, Bernardino Romera-Paredes, Stanislav Nikolov, Rishub Jain, Jonas Adler, Trevor Back, Stig Petersen, David Reiman, Ellen Clancy, Michal Zielinski, Martin Steinegger

    Proteins are essential to life, and understanding their structure can facilitate a mechanistic understanding of their function. Through an enormous experimental effort1–4, the structures of around 100,000 unique proteins have been determined5, but this represents a small fraction of the billions of known protein sequences6,7. Structural coverage is bottlenecked by the months to years of painstaking

  • cGAS-like receptors sense RNA and control 3′2′-cGAMP signaling in Drosophila
    Nature (IF 49.962) Pub Date : 2021-07-14
    Kailey M. Slavik, Benjamin R. Morehouse, Adelyn E. Ragucci, Wen Zhou, Xianlong Ai, Yuqiang Chen, Lihua Li, Ziming Wei, Heike Bähre, Martin König, Roland Seifert, Amy S. Y. Lee, Hua Cai, Jean-Luc Imler, Philip J. Kranzusch

    Cyclic GMP–AMP synthase (cGAS) is a cytosolic DNA sensor that produces the second messenger 2′3′-cGAMP and controls activation of innate immunity in mammalian cells1–5. Animal genomes typically encode multiple proteins with predicted homology to cGAS6–10, but the function of these uncharacterized enzymes is unknown. Here we show that cGAS-like receptors (cGLRs) are innate immune sensors capable of

  • Two cGAS-like receptors induce antiviral immunity in Drosophila
    Nature (IF 49.962) Pub Date : 2021-07-14
    Andreas Holleufer, Kasper Grønbjerg Winther, Hans Henrik Gad, Xianlong Ai, Yuqiang Chen, Lihua Li, Ziming Wei, Huimin Deng, Jiyong Liu, Ninna Ahlmann Frederiksen, Bine Simonsen, Line Lykke Andersen, Karin Kleigrewe, Louise Dalskov, Andreas Pichlmair, Hua Cai, Jean-Luc Imler, Rune Hartmann

    In mammals, cyclic GMP-AMP (cGAMP) synthase (cGAS) produces the cyclic dinucleotide (CDN) 2'3'-cGAMP in response to cytosolic DNA and this triggers an antiviral immune response. cGAS belongs to a large family of cGAS/DncV-like nucleotidyltransferases, present in both prokaryotes1 and eukaryotes2–5. In bacteria, these enzymes synthesize a range of cyclic oligonucleotide and have recently emerged as

  • SARS-CoV-2 RBD antibodies that maximize breadth and resistance to escape
    Nature (IF 49.962) Pub Date : 2021-07-14
    Tyler N. Starr, Nadine Czudnochowski, Zhuoming Liu, Fabrizia Zatta, Young-Jun Park, Amin Addetia, Dora Pinto, Martina Beltramello, Patrick Hernandez, Allison J. Greaney, Roberta Marzi, William G. Glass, Ivy Zhang, Adam S. Dingens, John E. Bowen, M. Alejandra Tortorici, Alexandra C. Walls, Jason A. Wojcechowskyj, Anna De Marco, Laura E. Rosen, Jiayi Zhou, Martin Montiel-Ruiz, Hannah Kaiser, Josh Dillen

    An ideal anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody would resist viral escape1–3, have activity against diverse SARS-related coronaviruses (sarbecoviruses)4–7, and be highly protective through viral neutralization8–11 and effector functions12,13. Understanding how these properties relate to each other and vary across epitopes would aid development of antibody therapeutics and guide vaccine design. Here, we comprehensively

  • A lithium-isotope perspective on the evolution of carbon and silicon cycles
    Nature (IF 49.962) Pub Date : 2021-07-14
    Boriana Kalderon-Asael, Joachim A. R. Katchinoff, Noah J. Planavsky, Ashleigh v. S. Hood, Mathieu Dellinger, Eric J. Bellefroid, David S. Jones, Axel Hofmann, Frantz Ossa Ossa, Francis A. Macdonald, Chunjiang Wang, Terry T. Isson, Jack G. Murphy, John A. Higgins, A. Joshua West, Malcolm W. Wallace, Dan Asael, Philip A. E. Pogge von Strandmann

    The evolution of the global carbon and silicon cycles is thought to have contributed to the long-term stability of Earth’s climate1,2,3. Many questions remain, however, regarding the feedback mechanisms at play, and there are limited quantitative constraints on the sources and sinks of these elements in Earth’s surface environments4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12. Here we argue that the lithium-isotope record

  • The 13CO-rich atmosphere of a young accreting super-Jupiter
    Nature (IF 49.962) Pub Date : 2021-07-14
    Yapeng Zhang, Ignas A. G. Snellen, Alexander J. Bohn, Paul Mollière, Christian Ginski, H. Jens Hoeijmakers, Matthew A. Kenworthy, Eric E. Mamajek, Tiffany Meshkat, Maddalena Reggiani, Frans Snik

    Isotope abundance ratios have an important role in astronomy and planetary sciences, providing insights into the origin and evolution of the Solar System, interstellar chemistry and stellar nucleosynthesis1,2. In contrast to deuterium/hydrogen ratios, carbon isotope ratios are found to be roughly constant (around 89) in the Solar System1,3, but do vary on galactic scales with a 12C/13C isotopologue

  • Exponential suppression of bit or phase errors with cyclic error correction
    Nature (IF 49.962) Pub Date : 2021-07-14

    Realizing the potential of quantum computing requires sufficiently low logical error rates1. Many applications call for error rates as low as 10−15 (refs. 2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9), but state-of-the-art quantum platforms typically have physical error rates near 10−3 (refs. 10,11,12,13,14). Quantum error correction15,16,17 promises to bridge this divide by distributing quantum logical information across many

  • Adaptive immunity induces mutualism between commensal eukaryotes
    Nature (IF 49.962) Pub Date : 2021-07-14
    Kyla S. Ost, Teresa R. O’Meara, W. Zac Stephens, Tyson Chiaro, Haoyang Zhou, Jourdan Penman, Rickesha Bell, Jason R. Catanzaro, Deguang Song, Shakti Singh, Daniel H. Call, Elizabeth Hwang-Wong, Kimberly E. Hanson, John F. Valentine, Kenneth A. Christensen, Ryan M. O’Connell, Brendan Cormack, Ashraf S. Ibrahim, Noah W. Palm, Suzanne M. Noble, June L. Round

    Pathogenic fungi reside in the intestinal microbiota but rarely cause disease. Little is known about the interactions between fungi and the immune system that promote commensalism. Here we investigate the role of adaptive immunity in promoting mutual interactions between fungi and host. We find that potentially pathogenic Candida species induce and are targeted by intestinal immunoglobulin A (IgA)

  • Acetate differentially regulates IgA reactivity to commensal bacteria
    Nature (IF 49.962) Pub Date : 2021-07-14
    Tadashi Takeuchi, Eiji Miyauchi, Takashi Kanaya, Tamotsu Kato, Yumiko Nakanishi, Takashi Watanabe, Toshimori Kitami, Takashi Taida, Takaharu Sasaki, Hiroki Negishi, Shu Shimamoto, Akinobu Matsuyama, Ikuo Kimura, Ifor R. Williams, Osamu Ohara, Hiroshi Ohno

    The balance between bacterial colonization and its containment in the intestine is indispensable for the symbiotic relationship between humans and their bacteria. One component to maintain homeostasis at the mucosal surfaces is immunoglobulin A (IgA), the most abundant immunoglobulin in mammals1,2. Several studies have revealed important characteristics of poly-reactive IgA3,4, which is produced naturally

  • Real-time optimal quantum control of mechanical motion at room temperature
    Nature (IF 49.962) Pub Date : 2021-07-14
    Lorenzo Magrini, Philipp Rosenzweig, Constanze Bach, Andreas Deutschmann-Olek, Sebastian G. Hofer, Sungkun Hong, Nikolai Kiesel, Andreas Kugi, Markus Aspelmeyer

    The ability to accurately control the dynamics of physical systems by measurement and feedback is a pillar of modern engineering1. Today, the increasing demand for applied quantum technologies requires adaptation of this level of control to individual quantum systems2,3. Achieving this in an optimal way is a challenging task that relies on both quantum-limited measurements and specifically tailored

  • Astrocytic interleukin-3 programs microglia and limits Alzheimer’s disease
    Nature (IF 49.962) Pub Date : 2021-07-14
    Cameron S. McAlpine, Joseph Park, Ana Griciuc, Eunhee Kim, Se Hoon Choi, Yoshiko Iwamoto, Máté G. Kiss, Kathleen A. Christie, Claudio Vinegoni, Wolfram C. Poller, John E. Mindur, Christopher T. Chan, Shun He, Henrike Janssen, Lai Ping Wong, Jeffrey Downey, Sumnima Singh, Atsushi Anzai, Florian Kahles, Mehdi Jorfi, Paolo Fumene Feruglio, Ruslan I. Sadreyev, Ralph Weissleder, Benjamin P. Kleinstiver

    Communication within the glial cell ecosystem is essential for neuronal and brain health1,2,3. The influence of glial cells on the accumulation and clearance of β-amyloid (Aβ) and neurofibrillary tau in the brains of individuals with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is poorly understood, despite growing awareness that these are therapeutically important interactions4,5. Here we show, in humans and mice, that

  • Designing the next generation of proton-exchange membrane fuel cells
    Nature (IF 49.962) Pub Date : 2021-07-14
    Kui Jiao, Jin Xuan, Qing Du, Zhiming Bao, Biao Xie, Bowen Wang, Yan Zhao, Linhao Fan, Huizhi Wang, Zhongjun Hou, Sen Huo, Nigel P. Brandon, Yan Yin, Michael D. Guiver

    With the rapid growth and development of proton-exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) technology, there has been increasing demand for clean and sustainable global energy applications. Of the many device-level and infrastructure challenges that need to be overcome before wide commercialization can be realized, one of the most critical ones is increasing the PEMFC power density, and ambitious goals have

  • Quantum control of a nanoparticle optically levitated in cryogenic free space
    Nature (IF 49.962) Pub Date : 2021-07-14
    Felix Tebbenjohanns, M. Luisa Mattana, Massimiliano Rossi, Martin Frimmer, Lukas Novotny

    Tests of quantum mechanics on a macroscopic scale require extreme control over mechanical motion and its decoherence1,2,3. Quantum control of mechanical motion has been achieved by engineering the radiation–pressure coupling between a micromechanical oscillator and the electromagnetic field in a resonator4,5,6,7. Furthermore, measurement-based feedback control relying on cavity-enhanced detection schemes

  • Amazonia as a carbon source linked to deforestation and climate change
    Nature (IF 49.962) Pub Date : 2021-07-14
    Luciana V. Gatti, Luana S. Basso, John B. Miller, Manuel Gloor, Lucas Gatti Domingues, Henrique L. G. Cassol, Graciela Tejada, Luiz E. O. C. Aragão, Carlos Nobre, Wouter Peters, Luciano Marani, Egidio Arai, Alber H. Sanches, Sergio M. Corrêa, Liana Anderson, Celso Von Randow, Caio S. C. Correia, Stephane P. Crispim, Raiane A. L. Neves

    Amazonia hosts the Earth’s largest tropical forests and has been shown to be an important carbon sink over recent decades1,2,3. This carbon sink seems to be in decline, however, as a result of factors such as deforestation and climate change1,2,3. Here we investigate Amazonia’s carbon budget and the main drivers responsible for its change into a carbon source. We performed 590 aircraft vertical profiling

  • Structures of rhodopsin in complex with G-protein-coupled receptor kinase 1
    Nature (IF 49.962) Pub Date : 2021-07-14
    Qiuyan Chen, Manolo Plasencia, Zhuang Li, Somnath Mukherjee, Dhabaleswar Patra, Chun-Liang Chen, Thomas Klose, Xin-Qiu Yao, Anthony A. Kossiakoff, Leifu Chang, Philip C. Andrews, John J. G. Tesmer

    G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) kinases (GRKs) selectively phosphorylate activated GPCRs, thereby priming them for desensitization1. Although it is unclear how GRKs recognize these receptors2,3,4, a conserved region at the GRK N terminus is essential for this process5,6,7,8. Here we report a series of cryo-electron microscopy single-particle reconstructions of light-activated rhodopsin (Rho*) bound

  • Systems vaccinology of the BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine in humans
    Nature (IF 49.962) Pub Date : 2021-07-12
    Prabhu S. Arunachalam, Madeleine K. D. Scott, Thomas Hagan, Chunfeng Li, Yupeng Feng, Florian Wimmers, Lilit Grigoryan, Meera Trisal, Venkata Viswanadh Edara, Lilin Lai, Sarah Esther Chang, Allan Feng, Shaurya Dhingra, Mihir Shah, Allie Skye Lee, Sharon Chinthrajah, Sayantani B. Sindher, Vamsee Mallajosyula, Fei Gao, Natalia Sigal, Sangeeta Kowli, Sheena Gupta, Kathryn Pellegrini, Gregory Tharp, Sofia

    The emergency use authorization of two mRNA vaccines in less than a year since the emergence of SARS-CoV-2 represents a landmark in vaccinology1,2. Yet, how mRNA vaccines stimulate the immune system to elicit protective immune responses is unknown. Here we used a systems vaccinology approach to comprehensively profile the innate and adaptive immune responses of 56 healthy volunteers vaccinated with

  • Operationalizing the net-negative carbon economy
    Nature (IF 49.962) Pub Date : 2021-07-08
    Johannes Bednar, Michael Obersteiner, Artem Baklanov, Marcus Thomson, Fabian Wagner, Oliver Geden, Myles Allen, Jim W. Hall

    The remaining carbon budget for limiting global warming to 1.5°C will likely be exhausted within this decade1,2. Carbon debt3 generated thereafter will need to be compensated by net negative emissions4. However, economic policy instruments to guarantee potentially very costly net carbon-dioxide removal (CDR) have not yet been devised. Here, we propose intertemporal instruments to provide the basis

  • After the pandemic: perspectives on the future trajectory of COVID-19
    Nature (IF 49.962) Pub Date : 2021-07-08
    Amalio Telenti, Ann Arvin, Lawrence Corey, Davide Corti, Michael S. Diamond, Adolfo García-Sastre, Robert F. Garry, Edward C. Holmes, Phil Pang, Herbert W. Virgin

    There is a realistic expectation that the global effort in vaccination will bring the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic under control. Nonetheless, uncertainties remain about the type of long-term association the virus will establish with the human population, particularly whether the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) will become an endemic disease. Although the

  • Mapping the human genetic architecture of COVID-19
    Nature (IF 49.962) Pub Date : 2021-07-08

    The genetic makeup of an individual contributes to susceptibility and response to viral infection. While environmental, clinical and social factors play a role in exposure to SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 disease severity1,2, host genetics may also be important. Identifying host-specific genetic factors may reveal biological mechanisms of therapeutic relevance and clarify causal relationships of modifiable

  • Reduced sensitivity of SARS-CoV-2 variant Delta to antibody neutralization
    Nature (IF 49.962) Pub Date : 2021-07-08
    Delphine Planas, David Veyer, Artem Baidaliuk, Isabelle Staropoli, Florence Guivel-Benhassine, Maaran Michael Rajah, Cyril Planchais, Françoise Porrot, Nicolas Robillard, Julien Puech, Matthieu Prot, Floriane Gallais, Pierre Gantner, Aurélie Velay, Julien Le Guen, Najibi Kassis-Chikhani, Dhiaeddine Edriss, Laurent Belec, Aymeric Seve, Laura Courtellemont, Hélène Péré, Laurent Hocqueloux, Samira Fafi-Kremer

    The SARS-CoV-2 B.1.617 lineage was identified in October 2020 in India1–5. It has since then become dominant in some indian regions and UK and further spread to many countries6. The lineage includes three main subtypes (B1.617.1, B.1.617.2 and B.1.617.3), harbouring diverse Spike mutations in the N-terminal domain (NTD) and the receptor binding domain (RBD) which may increase their immune evasion potential

  • Antibody epitopes in vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia
    Nature (IF 49.962) Pub Date : 2021-07-07
    Angela Huynh, John G Kelton, Donald M Arnold, Mercy Daka, Ishac Nazy

    Vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia (VITT) is a rare adverse effect of COVID-19 adenoviral vector vaccines1–3. VITT resembles heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) as it is associated with platelet-activating antibodies against platelet factor 4 (PF4)4; however, patients with VITT develop thrombocytopenia and thrombosis without heparin exposure. The objective of this study was to determine

  • A condensate-hardening drug blocks RSV replication in vivo
    Nature (IF 49.962) Pub Date : 2021-07-07
    Jennifer Risso-Ballester, Marie Galloux, Jingjing Cao, Ronan Le Goffic, Fortune Hontonnou, Aude Jobart-Malfait, Aurore Desquesnes, Svenja M. Sake, Sibylle Haid, Miaomiao Du, Xiumei Zhang, Huanyun Zhang, Zhaoguo Wang, Vincent Rincheval, Youming Zhang, Thomas Pietschmann, Jean-François Eléouët, Marie-Anne Rameix-Welti, Ralf Altmeyer

    Biomolecular condensates have emerged as an important subcellular organizing principle1. Replication of many viruses, including human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), occurs in virus-induced compartments called inclusion bodies (IBs) or viroplasm2,3. IBs of negative-strand RNA viruses were recently shown to be biomolecular condensates that form through phase separation4,5. Here we report that the

  • Structure of human Cav2.2 channel blocked by the painkiller ziconotide
    Nature (IF 49.962) Pub Date : 2021-07-07
    Shuai Gao, Xia Yao, Nieng Yan

    The neuronal-type (N-type) voltage-gated calcium (Cav) channels, which are designated Cav2.2, have an important role in the release of neurotransmitters1,2,3. Ziconotide is a Cav2.2-specific peptide pore blocker that has been clinically used for treating intractable pain4,5,6. Here we present cryo-electron microscopy structures of human Cav2.2 (comprising the core α1 and the ancillary α2δ-1 and β3

  • Supply chain diversity buffers cities against food shocks
    Nature (IF 49.962) Pub Date : 2021-07-07
    Michael Gomez, Alfonso Mejia, Benjamin L. Ruddell, Richard R. Rushforth

    Food supply shocks are increasing worldwide1,2, particularly the type of shock wherein food production or distribution loss in one location propagates through the food supply chain to other locations3,4. Analogous to biodiversity buffering ecosystems against external shocks5,6, ecological theory suggests that food supply chain diversity is crucial for managing the risk of food shock to human populations7

  • Bifunctional nanoprecipitates strengthen and ductilize a medium-entropy alloy
    Nature (IF 49.962) Pub Date : 2021-07-07
    Ying Yang, Tianyi Chen, Lizhen Tan, Jonathan D. Poplawsky, Ke An, Yanli Wang, German D. Samolyuk, Ken Littrell, Andrew R. Lupini, Albina Borisevich, Easo P. George

    Single-phase high- and medium-entropy alloys with face-centred cubic (fcc) structure can exhibit high tensile ductility1,2 and excellent toughness2,3, but their room-temperature strengths are low1,2,3. Dislocation obstacles such as grain boundaries4, twin boundaries5, solute atoms6 and precipitates7,8,9 can increase strength. However, with few exceptions8,9,10,11, such obstacles tend to decrease ductility

  • Structural basis of early translocation events on the ribosome
    Nature (IF 49.962) Pub Date : 2021-07-07
    Emily J. Rundlet, Mikael Holm, Magdalena Schacherl, S. Kundhavai Natchiar, Roger B. Altman, Christian M. T. Spahn, Alexander G. Myasnikov, Scott C. Blanchard

    Peptide-chain elongation during protein synthesis entails sequential aminoacyl-tRNA selection and translocation reactions that proceed rapidly (2–20 per second) and with a low error rate (around 10−3 to 10−5 at each step) over thousands of cycles1. The cadence and fidelity of ribosome transit through mRNA templates in discrete codon increments is a paradigm for movement in biological systems that must

  • Fluid-rich subducting topography generates anomalous forearc porosity
    Nature (IF 49.962) Pub Date : 2021-07-07
    Christine Chesley, Samer Naif, Kerry Key, Dan Bassett

    The role of subducting topography on the mode of fault slip—particularly whether it hinders or facilitates large megathrust earthquakes—remains a controversial topic in subduction dynamics1,2,3,4,5. Models have illustrated the potential for subducting topography to severely alter the structure, stress state and mechanics of subduction zones4,6; however, direct geophysical imaging of the complex fracture

  • Metabolic control of TFH cells and humoral immunity by phosphatidylethanolamine
    Nature (IF 49.962) Pub Date : 2021-07-07
    Guotong Fu, Clifford S. Guy, Nicole M. Chapman, Gustavo Palacios, Jun Wei, Peipei Zhou, Lingyun Long, Yong-Dong Wang, Chenxi Qian, Yogesh Dhungana, Hongling Huang, Anil KC, Hao Shi, Sherri Rankin, Scott A. Brown, Amanda Johnson, Randall Wakefield, Camenzind G. Robinson, Xueyan Liu, Anthony Sheyn, Jiyang Yu, Suzanne Jackowski, Hongbo Chi

    T follicular helper (TFH) cells are crucial for B cell-mediated humoral immunity1. Although transcription factors such as BCL6 drive the differentiation of TFH cells2,3, it is unclear whether and how post-transcriptional and metabolic programs enforce TFH cell programming. Here we show that the cytidine diphosphate (CDP)–ethanolamine pathway co-ordinates the expression and localization of CXCR5 with

  • Optical manipulation of electronic dimensionality in a quantum material
    Nature (IF 49.962) Pub Date : 2021-07-07
    Shaofeng Duan, Yun Cheng, Wei Xia, Yuanyuan Yang, Chengyang Xu, Fengfeng Qi, Chaozhi Huang, Tianwei Tang, Yanfeng Guo, Weidong Luo, Dong Qian, Dao Xiang, Jie Zhang, Wentao Zhang

    Exotic phenomena can be achieved in quantum materials by confining electronic states into two dimensions. For example, relativistic fermions are realized in a single layer of carbon atoms1, the quantized Hall effect can result from two-dimensional (2D) systems2,3, and the superconducting transition temperature can be considerably increased in a one-atomic-layer material4,5. Ordinarily, a 2D electronic

  • Sexual arousal gates visual processing during Drosophila courtship
    Nature (IF 49.962) Pub Date : 2021-07-07
    Tom Hindmarsh Sten, Rufei Li, Adriane Otopalik, Vanessa Ruta

    Long-lasting internal arousal states motivate and pattern ongoing behaviour, enabling the temporary emergence of innate behavioural programs that serve the needs of an animal, such as fighting, feeding, and mating. However, how internal states shape sensory processing or behaviour remains unclear. In Drosophila, male flies perform a lengthy and elaborate courtship ritual that is triggered by the activation

  • Structure of a mammalian sperm cation channel complex
    Nature (IF 49.962) Pub Date : 2021-07-05
    Shiyi Lin, Meng Ke, Yuqi Zhang, Zhen Yan, Jianping Wu

    The cation channel of sperm (CatSper) is essential for sperm motility and fertility1,2. CatSper comprises the pore-forming CatSper1-4 and multiple auxiliary subunits, including CatSperβ, γ, δ, ε, ζ, and EFCAB91,3–9. Here, we report the cryo-EM structure of the CatSper complex isolated from mouse sperms. In the extracellular view, CatSper1-4 conform to the conventional domain-swapped voltage-gated ion

  • Age-related immune response heterogeneity to SARS-CoV-2 vaccine BNT162b2
    Nature (IF 49.962) Pub Date : 2021-06-30
    Dami A. Collier, Isabella A. T. M. Ferreira, Prasanti Kotagiri, Rawlings Datir, Eleanor Lim, Emma Touizer, Bo Meng, Adam Abdullahi, Anne Elmer, Nathalie Kingston, Barbara Graves, Emma Le Gresley, Daniela Caputo, Laura Bergamaschi, Kenneth G. C. Smith, John R. Bradley, Lourdes Ceron-Gutierrez, Paulina Cortes-Acevedo, Gabriela Barcenas-Morales, Michelle A. Linterman, Laura McCoy, Chris Davis, Emma Thomson

    Although two-dose mRNA vaccination provides excellent protection against SARS-CoV-2, data are scarce on vaccine efficacy against variants of concern (VOC) in individuals above 80 years of age1. Here we analysed immune responses following vaccination with mRNA vaccine BNT162b22 in elderly participants and younger health care workers. Serum neutralisation and binding IgG/IgA after the first vaccine dose

  • Untangling introductions and persistence in COVID-19 resurgence in Europe
    Nature (IF 49.962) Pub Date : 2021-06-30
    Philippe Lemey, Nick Ruktanonchai, Samuel L. Hong, Vittoria Colizza, Chiara Poletto, Frederik Van den Broeck, Mandev S. Gill, Xiang Ji, Anthony Levasseur, Bas B. Oude Munnink, Marion Koopmans, Adam Sadilek, Shengjie Lai, Andrew J. Tatem, Guy Baele, Marc A. Suchard, Simon Dellicour

    Following the first wave of SARS-CoV-2 infections in spring 2020, Europe experienced a resurgence of the virus starting in late summer 2020 that was deadlier and more difficult to contain1. Relaxed intervention measures and summer travel have been implicated as drivers of the second wave2. Here, we build a phylogeographic model to evaluate how newly introduced lineages, as opposed to the rekindling

  • Integrating explanation and prediction in computational social science
    Nature (IF 49.962) Pub Date : 2021-06-30
    Jake M. Hofman, Duncan J. Watts, Susan Athey, Filiz Garip, Thomas L. Griffiths, Jon Kleinberg, Helen Margetts, Sendhil Mullainathan, Matthew J. Salganik, Simine Vazire, Alessandro Vespignani, Tal Yarkoni

    Computational social science is more than just large repositories of digital data and the computational methods needed to construct and analyse them. It also represents a convergence of different fields with different ways of thinking about and doing science. The goal of this Perspective is to provide some clarity around how these approaches differ from one another and to propose how they might be

  • Demonstration of a trapped-ion atomic clock in space
    Nature (IF 49.962) Pub Date : 2021-06-30
    E. A. Burt, J. D. Prestage, R. L. Tjoelker, D. G. Enzer, D. Kuang, D. W. Murphy, D. E. Robison, J. M. Seubert, R. T. Wang, T. A. Ely

    Atomic clocks, which lock the frequency of an oscillator to the extremely stable quantized energy levels of atoms, are essential for navigation applications such as deep space exploration1 and global navigation satellite systems2, and are useful tools with which to address questions in fundamental physics3,4,5,6. Such satellite systems use precise measurement of signal propagation times determined

  • Signatures of Wigner crystal of electrons in a monolayer semiconductor
    Nature (IF 49.962) Pub Date : 2021-06-30
    Tomasz Smoleński, Pavel E. Dolgirev, Clemens Kuhlenkamp, Alexander Popert, Yuya Shimazaki, Patrick Back, Xiaobo Lu, Martin Kroner, Kenji Watanabe, Takashi Taniguchi, Ilya Esterlis, Eugene Demler, Ataç Imamoğlu

    When the Coulomb repulsion between electrons dominates over their kinetic energy, electrons in two-dimensional systems are predicted to spontaneously break continuous-translation symmetry and form a quantum crystal1. Efforts to observe2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12 this elusive state of matter, termed a Wigner crystal, in two-dimensional extended systems have primarily focused on conductivity measurements

  • Measuring algorithmically infused societies
    Nature (IF 49.962) Pub Date : 2021-06-30
    Claudia Wagner, Markus Strohmaier, Alexandra Olteanu, Emre Kıcıman, Noshir Contractor, Tina Eliassi-Rad

    It has been the historic responsibility of the social sciences to investigate human societies. Fulfilling this responsibility requires social theories, measurement models and social data. Most existing theories and measurement models in the social sciences were not developed with the deep societal reach of algorithms in mind. The emergence of ‘algorithmically infused societies’—societies whose very

  • Thinking clearly about social aspects of infectious disease transmission
    Nature (IF 49.962) Pub Date : 2021-06-30
    Caroline Buckee, Abdisalan Noor, Lisa Sattenspiel

    Social and cultural forces shape almost every aspect of infectious disease transmission in human populations, as well as our ability to measure, understand, and respond to epidemics. For directly transmitted infections, pathogen transmission relies on human-to-human contact, with kinship, household, and societal structures shaping contact patterns that in turn determine epidemic dynamics. Social, economic

  • G-protein activation by a metabotropic glutamate receptor
    Nature (IF 49.962) Pub Date : 2021-06-30
    Alpay B. Seven, Ximena Barros-Álvarez, Marine de Lapeyrière, Makaía M. Papasergi-Scott, Michael J. Robertson, Chensong Zhang, Robert M. Nwokonko, Yang Gao, Justin G. Meyerowitz, Jean-Philippe Rocher, Dominik Schelshorn, Brian K. Kobilka, Jesper M. Mathiesen, Georgios Skiniotis

    Family C G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) operate as obligate dimers with extracellular domains that recognize small ligands, leading to G-protein activation on the transmembrane (TM) domains of these receptors by an unknown mechanism1. Here we show structures of homodimers of the family C metabotropic glutamate receptor 2 (mGlu2) in distinct functional states and in complex with heterotrimeric

  • Bilayer Wigner crystals in a transition metal dichalcogenide heterostructure
    Nature (IF 49.962) Pub Date : 2021-06-30
    You Zhou, Jiho Sung, Elise Brutschea, Ilya Esterlis, Yao Wang, Giovanni Scuri, Ryan J. Gelly, Hoseok Heo, Takashi Taniguchi, Kenji Watanabe, Gergely Zaránd, Mikhail D. Lukin, Philip Kim, Eugene Demler, Hongkun Park

    One of the first theoretically predicted manifestations of strong interactions in many-electron systems was the Wigner crystal1,2,3, in which electrons crystallize into a regular lattice. The crystal can melt via either thermal or quantum fluctuations4. Quantum melting of the Wigner crystal is predicted to produce exotic intermediate phases5,6 and quantum magnetism7,8 because of the intricate interplay

  • Microbiota regulate social behaviour via stress response neurons in the brain
    Nature (IF 49.962) Pub Date : 2021-06-30
    Wei-Li Wu, Mark D. Adame, Chia-Wei Liou, Jacob T. Barlow, Tzu-Ting Lai, Gil Sharon, Catherine E. Schretter, Brittany D. Needham, Madelyn I. Wang, Weiyi Tang, James Ousey, Yuan-Yuan Lin, Tzu-Hsuan Yao, Reem Abdel-Haq, Keith Beadle, Viviana Gradinaru, Rustem F. Ismagilov, Sarkis K. Mazmanian

    Social interactions among animals mediate essential behaviours, including mating, nurturing, and defence1,2. The gut microbiota contribute to social activity in mice3,4, but the gut–brain connections that regulate this complex behaviour and its underlying neural basis are unclear5,6. Here we show that the microbiome modulates neuronal activity in specific brain regions of male mice to regulate canonical

  • Shape of promoter antisense RNAs regulates ligand-induced transcription activation
    Nature (IF 49.962) Pub Date : 2021-06-30
    Fan Yang, Bogdan Tanasa, Rudi Micheletti, Kenneth A. Ohgi, Aneel K. Aggarwal, Michael G. Rosenfeld

    The size of the transcriptional program of long non-coding RNAs in the mammalian genome has engendered discussions about their biological roles1, particularly the promoter antisense (PAS) transcripts2,3. Here we report the development of an assay—referred to as chromatin isolation by RNA–Cas13a complex—to quantitatively detect the distribution of RNA in the genome. The assay revealed that PAS RNAs

  • Cellular fluidics
    Nature (IF 49.962) Pub Date : 2021-06-30
    Nikola A. Dudukovic, Erika J. Fong, Hawi B. Gemeda, Joshua R. DeOtte, Maira R. Cerón, Bryan D. Moran, Jonathan T. Davis, Sarah E. Baker, Eric B. Duoss

    The natural world provides many examples of multiphase transport and reaction processes that have been optimized by evolution. These phenomena take place at multiple length and time scales and typically include gas–liquid–solid interfaces and capillary phenomena in porous media1,2. Many biological and living systems have evolved to optimize fluidic transport. However, living things are exceptionally

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